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Making of lan wire

Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors are twisted together for the purpose of canceling out electromagnetic interference from the external sources. For instance, electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted cables and crosstalk between neighbouring pair .

Tools required

Crimping tool CAT-5 cable RJ 45 connectors Cable tester

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

Unshielded twisted pair

UTP cables are found in many Ethernet networks and telephone systems. For indoor telephone applications, UTP is often grouped into sets of 25 pairs according to a standard 25-pair color

code originally developed by AT&T. A typical subset of these colors (white/blue, blue/white, white/orange, orange/white) shows up in most UTP cables. For urban outdoor telephone cables containing hundreds or thousands of pairs, the cable is divided into smaller but identical bundles. Each bundle consists of twisted pairs that have different twist rates. The bundles are in turn twisted together to make up the cable. Pairs having the same twist rate within the cable can still experience some degree of crosstalk. Wire pairs are selected carefully to minimize crosstalk within a large cable. UTP cable is also the most common cable used in computer networking. Modern Ethernet, the most common data networking standard, utilizes UTP cables. Twisted pair cabling is often used in data networks for short and medium length connections because of its relatively lower costs compared to optical fiber and coaxial cable.

Unshielded twisted pair cable with different twist rates UTP is also finding increasing use in video applications, primarily in security cameras. Many middle to high-end cameras include a UTP output with setscrew terminals. This is made possible by the fact that UTP cable bandwidth has improved to match the baseband of television signals. While the video recorder most likely still has unbalanced BNC connectors for standard coaxial cable, a balun is used to convert from 100-ohm balanced UTP to 75-ohm unbalanced. A balun can also be used at the camera end for ones without a UTP output. Only one pair is necessary for each video signal.

Patch Cable or Patch Cord


A patch cable or patch cord is an electrical or optical cable used to connect ("patch-in") one electronic or optical device to another for signal routing. Devices of different types (i.e., a switch connected to a computer, or a switch to a router) are connected with patch cords. Patch cords are usually produced in many different colors so as to be easily distinguishable, and are relatively short, perhaps no longer than two metres. Types of patch cords include microphone cables, headphone extension cables, XLR connector, Tiny Telephone (TT) connector, RCA connector and " TRS connector cables (as well as modular Ethernet cables), and thicker, hose-like cords (snake cable) used to carry video or amplified signals. However, patch cords typically refer only to short cords used with patch panels.

Patch cords can be as short as 3 inches (ca. 8 cm), to connect stacked components or route signals through a patch bay, or as long as twenty feet (ca. 6 m) or more in length for snake cables. As length increases, the cables are usually thicker and/or made with more shielding, to prevent signal loss (attenuation) and the introduction of unwanted radio frequencies and hum (electromagnetic interference). Patch cords are often made of coaxial cables, with a positive or "hot" signal carried through a shielded core, and a negative electrical ground or earthed return connection carried through a wire mesh surrounding the core. Each end of the cable is attached to a connector so that the cord may be plugged in. Connector types may vary widely, particularly with adapting cables. Patch cords may be:

single-conductor wires using, for example, banana connectors coaxial cables using, for example, BNC connectors Twisted pair Cat5, Cat5e, or Cat6 cables using 8P8C (RJ-45) modular connectors with T568A or T568B wiring Optical fiber cables

A very short patch cable may be called a pigtail. These may be used, for example, to connect a wall-mounted telephone to the wallplate. The name may also be synonymous with a dongle if it is also an adapter.

Foiled or Screened Twisted Pair


Screened twisted pair (ScTP or F/TP) ScTP cabling offers an overall sheath shield across all of the pairs within the 100 Ohm twisted pair cable. F/TP uses foil shielding instead of a braided screen. This type of shielding protects EMI from entering or exiting the cable. Screened shielded twisted pair (S/STP or S/FTP) S/STP (Screened Shielded Twisted Pair) or S/FTP (Screened Foiled Twisted Pair) cabling offer shielding between the pair sets and an overall sheath shield within the 100 Ohm twisted pair cable. This type of shielding protects EMI from entering or exiting the cable and also protects neighboring pairs from crosstalk. S/STP cable is both individually shielded (like STP cabling) and also has an outer metal shielding covering the entire group of shielded copper pairs (like S/UTP). This type of cabling offers the best protection from interference from external sources, and also eliminates alien crosstalk.

Straight Cable
You usually use straight cable to connect different type of devices. This type of cable will be used most of the time and can be used to: 1) Connect a computer to a switch/hub's normal port. 2) Connect a computer to a cable/DSL modem's LAN port.

3) Connect a router's WAN port to a cable/DSL modem's LAN port. 4) Connect a router's LAN port to a switch/hub's uplink port. (normally used for expanding network) 5) Connect 2 switches/hubs with one of the switch/hub using an uplink port and the other one using normal port. If you need to check how straight cable looks like, it's easy. Both side (side A and side B) of cable have wire arrangement with same color. Check out different types of straight cable that are available in the market here.

Crossover Cable
Sometimes you will use crossover cable, it's usually used to connect same type of devices. A crossover cable can be used to: 1) Connect 2 computers directly. 2) Connect a router's LAN port to a switch/hub's normal port. (normally used for expanding network) 3) Connect 2 switches/hubs by using normal port in both switches/hubs.

In you need to check how crossover cable looks like, both side (side A and side B) of cable have wire arrangement with following different color . Have a look on these crossover cables if you plan to buy one. You can also find more network cable choices and information from Comtrad Cables. In case you need to make a crossover cable yourself! You can use this crimper to do it. Lastly, if you still not sure which type of cable to be used sometimes, try both cables and see which works.

Note: If there is auto MDI/MDI-X feature support on the switch, hub, network card or other network devices, you don't have to use crossover cable in the situation which I mentioned above. This is because crossover function would be enabled automatically when it's needed.

Difference Between Cat5,Cat5e,Cat6,Cat7 Cables


Cat5 and Cat5e and Cat6 and Cat7 are different standards for cables. If you are wondering if these are names of some species of cats, youre wrong. These are the types of cables made of copper which are used to transmit data over the network and also used in applications in home theaters. Category 5 (Cat5), the Category 5e and Category 6 are names specified for these cables according to their level of performance. The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and Electronic Industries Association (EIA), set guiding principles for the manufacturing of these cables and these guidelines help manufacturers to classify these cables. Cat5 Cat5 has almost become a standard for connecting Ethernet devices all over the world. Its cheap and very effective. It is also available without any trouble and this is why they are the most widely used cables for linking Ethernet devices. It is available in two variants, the Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Screened Twisted Pair (SCTP). UTP is used in the U.S. on a huge base. SCTP has a protective cover as a means of protection against interference. Cat5 cables are either solid or stranded. To transmit data over long distances, solid Cat5 is perfect because it is rigid, whereas stranded Cat5 is good for patching the cables. Cat5 has the ability to sustain 10-100 Mbps and 100 MHz. Yet over the last few years, there has been a gradual change of the standard 10/100 networks to Gigabit networks that sounded the death knell for Cat5 as it can not support such high speeds. This caused a new type of cables that are version of Cat5, called as Cat5e. Cat5e These cables were introduced for making Cat5 attuned to gigabit networks. They also help additional protection from obstruction from other cables. However, 5e is not able to completely remove the interference resulting in slow performance. Still, 5e really makes the system safer and faster than Cat5.

Cat6 Cat6 is much more advanced than that as Cat5 & Cat5e and also gives a much better performance. Although it is composed of four squirmed pairs of copper colored cables just like Cat5 and Cat5e and it is much better because of a fundamental difference in design. This difference comes from a longitudinal separator. This keeps all 4 twisted wires away from each other which helps in reducing interference. It also allows for a faster transfer of data. Cat6 has double bandwidth in comparison to Cat5. It is able to support 10 gigabit Ethernet and can operate at 250 MHz. If you think about future technological advances then it is best to go with Cat6. What is more, Cat6 is backward compatible meaning it can be used in any network that used Cat5 and Cat5e. However, because of its size thicker, you may have trouble using your regular RJ45 connectors and you may need to employ special connectors. Cat7 This is the next generation device for the wiring Ethernet connections. This is an improvement on both Cat5 & Cat6 from the point of view of internal signaling and outer security. These cables are able to support 10-Gigabit connections and re adaptable with standard Ethernet connectors.