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SHIP'S
CORRESPONDENCE
Second Edition

- 2001

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2001., 200 .
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(1999.)
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4602020102

ISBN

81.2 73
802.0 (075.8)

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UNIT 1
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
VOCABULARY:
environment

[invai#r#nm#nt]

environmental
protection
pollution

[invai#r#nmentl]

threat to the
environment
oil spillage
overflow
negligence
antipollution
regulations
impose a fine
offender
burning issue

[Invai#r#nm#nt]

[p#lu:,#n]

[spilid(]
[#uv#fl#u]
[neglid(#ns]
[regju'lei,#n]
[imp#uz]
[#fend#]

I. Read the text.


EXT.
Environmental protection is the main problem facing humanity nowadays. The image of a sick planet has become firmly established in the public
mind. Today ecological problems have become the most important for all the
people of our planet.
The problems of environment include a wide range of burning issues:
water, land, air pollution, radioactivity, noise disturbance, destruction of wildlife, etc. Pollution causes much damage to the environment.
The oil pollution in the sea is being increasingly recognized as a serious
threat to the environment. Port spillages are generally caused by negligence.
That is why antipollution regulations are very strict in all the ports of the
world. The captains of vessels should follow the antipollution regulations
properly. Heavy fines are imposed on offenders.
The Master has authority and responsibility for the overall safety of the
vessel and crew and for environmental protection matters. Such authority
and responsibility includes, but is not limited to:

Ensuring that safety and pollution prevention requirements, as defined in the major conventions (SOLAS, MARPOL, etc.) and in the
Seabon Management System (SMS) are communicated to the ship's
officers and crew and satisfied.
Implementing a program of drills and tests to prepare for emergency
actions.
Ensuring that all safety equipment and lifesaving appliances are
available, complete and in good apparent working order.
Reporting of all accidents, dangerous occurrences and pollution incidents in accordance with Company's requirements and statutory regulations.
Ensuring that regulations regarding garbage disposal are followed.
Organizing Safety Committee meetings.
It must be understood that the importance of pollution prevention and
environmental protection cannot be overemphasized.
Environmental protection and pollution prevention shall be considered
as top priority matters by all crew. All seamen must be aware of the significance of environment protection and the importance of bunkering operations. Everyone should be aware that the consequences of a pollution incident during bunkering are becoming increasingly unpredictable Such is the
importance of pollution prevention, that any spill, no matter how small, may
result in penalties and costs far outweighing the apparent gravity of the
event, reinforcing the need for every ship owner to eliminate risks.
II. Answer the following questions to the text above:
1. Why is the environmental protection the main problem facing humanity nowadays?
2. What burning issues do the problems of environment include?
3. What is a serious threat to the environment in the sea?
4. Why are the antipollution regulations very strict?
5. How are offenders fined?
6. What is it necessary for people to do to solve the problems of environment?
7. What shall the Master and Chief Engineer ensure ?
8. How may this be achieved through?
9. What must all people understand?
10. What is the Master responsible to implement on board ship?
11. What has the Master for the overall safety of the vessel and crew
and for environmental protection matters?
12. What does such authority and responsibility include?

III. Agree or disagree with the following statements:


1. Pollution causes much damages to the environment;
2. Antipollution regulations are not very strict;
3. The Masters of vessels should not follow antipollution regulations
properly;
4. Heavy fines are imposed on offenders.
5. The Master and Chief Engineer shall ensure that MARPOL and
company (requirements for environmental management are satisfied.
6. This may not be achieved through verbal briefings and safety
committee meetings.
7. The importance of pollution prevention and environmental protection
cannot be overemphasized.
8. The carrier is responsible for the goods.
IV. Use the following word-combinations in sentences of your own:
-. -.

-.
-. -.



-.

to accuse smb. of smth.


to impose a fine
to be guilty of smth.
to find smb. guilty
to reject accusation
to be wrongly accused
of the sea pollution
to account for smth.

V. Read this following Masters claims. Express your opinion on the


subject. Translate them into Russian.
I
Dear Sirs,
In reply to your accusation of water pollution we should like to state that
our ship is in no way responsible for the above.
The pollution has been probably caused recently by the discharge of ballast into the sea by some vessels.
As you may well note the whole of the coast is at present fouled by nodules of oil which can be seen both on the north coast of the cape Verde Peninsula and the beaches south of Dakar, Yenne, Pcnenguim, as far as the
entrance to the Casa-Manu.
Yours faithfully,
Master.

II
Dear Sirs,
This is to bring to your notice that the pollution was caused by the lack of
care in refuelling operations on the part of your personnel and because of
the defective underground pipelines in the pier.
In connection with the above we flatly reject your claim made against our
ship for alleged water pollution.
Yours faithfully,
Master.
III
Dear Sirs,
th
On the 10 of July, 1999 my ship the m/v "Victory" 10,500 gross tons
under Norwegian flag was involved in a collision with a Greek vessel 20,700
gross tons, off the Island of Goree.
About 600 tons of oil escaped into the sea. The national fleet kept a constant watch on the slick. 13 tons of solvent was used for dispersal of the oil.
A port tug had to be equipped with means for dispersal of the oil.
The Port Authorities demand about 15,000 dollars to cover the clean-up
operation. As the Greek vessel is fully responsible for the collision her owners are to pay the above expenses.
Yours faithfully,
Master.
VI. Answer the following questions.
What does the Master of the ship state in his business letter 1?
What is the cause of water pollution?
Is the coast at present fouled by nodules of oil?
Is the ship responsible for water pollution?
Why does the Master reject the claim against his ship for alleged
water pollution in letter 2?
6. Where was the m/v "Victory" involed in a collision with a Greek vessel?
7. How many tons of oil escaped into the sea ?
8. Did the national fleet keep a constant watch on the slick?
9. How many tons of solvent was used for dispersal of the oil?
10. How much does the Port Aluthoities demand to cover the clean up
operation?
11. Who is to the expenses?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

VII. Say it in English:


1. 200 20 2000 .
.
2. .
3.
.
4.
2000 , .
5.
.
6. 20 ,
.
7. ,
.
8. ,
.
9. ,
.
10. ,
, .
VIII. Translate into English the following business letters.
I
.
200
. 09:00
,
. ,
,
. ,
.
,
.
II
.

,

. 2-

10

, .
-
.
,
.
IX. Translate the extract from the International Convention on
Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers,
1978, as amended by the 1955 Conference together with Documents
of Conference.
,



,
.

,
.
,

,
.

11

UNIT 2
CARGO PILFERAGE
VOCABULARY:
claim
complaint
be liable for smth.

[kleim]
[k#mpleint]
[lai#b#l]

make a claim
against smb.
reject a claim

[#geinst]

bear responsibility

[rispons#biliti]

take strict
actions
remove the
opportunities for
theft
loss of contents

[strikt]

cases of
pilferage

[pilf#rid(]


-.

-.

[ri:d(ekt]

[kontent]

I. Read the text.


EXT.
It is equally true that cargo pilferage in foreign ports has increased.
In order to protect the ship from the blame and responsibility for pilferage
the greatest attention should be paid by the ship's officers. A great deal of
cargo pilferage occurs on board during the loading and discharging. In such
cases of pilferage the responsibility rests on the ship's officials who should
organize a close-watch in holds whenever some cargo is liable to be
broached, is being stowed, discharged, or is exposed.
Incoming cargo should be scrutinized and every unsound or suspicious
package rejected until its contents have been ascertained. The Stevedoring
Company should take necessary actions to stop further pilferage and also
expedite the discharge of the cargo after the survey of the packages.
Cases of pilferage result in complaints and claims, which could be re-

12

duced if the people concerned showed greater care. It is clear that advantage will be gained if the local agent is immediately advised of any circumstances likely to give rise to a complaint or claim. For the sake of good
order the Master should write a letter of complaint or make a claim against
the Stevedoring Company, which should be signed by the agent as well. The
agent should return the attached copy of the letter of complaint or the claim
in acknowledgement of its receipt. Close cooperation between the Master
and the agent ensures that complaints and claims are given prompt attention
as they arise.
It is vital to take strict actions to provide greater cargo security and remove the opportunities for theft.
II. Answer the following questions to the text above:
1. What actions should be taken by the ship's officers to protect the
ship from the blame and responsibility for pilferage on board ship?
2. When does a great deal of cargo pilferage occur?
3. Who is responsible for pilferage on board ship?
4. What actions should be done on board ship in cases of cargo pilfering?
5. What steps should the Stevedoring Company take to stop further pilferage?
6. Who is the Master of the ship immediately to advise in cases of pilferage?
7. What kind of claims should the Master make against the Stevedoring
Company?
8. Who should sign a letter of complaint or claim?
9. What should the agent do with the attached copy of the letter of
complaint or claim?
10. For what purpose should the agent return the attached copy of the
letter of complaint or claim to the Master of the ship?
11. Why is it vital to take strict actions to provide greater cargo security?
III. Ask question using the model.
MODEL:The Master of the ship is to make a claim against the Stevedoring
Company in the port of Cardiff.
Who is to make a claim against the Stevedoring Company?
1. The Master of the ship is to inform the Stevedore Foreman on duty
about the cargo pilferage on board ship in the port of Hull.
2. The Chief Stevedore is to examine Hold 5.
3. The Master is to hold responsible the Stevedoring Company for the
loss of the cargo.

13

4. The agent is to sign the Master's letter of complaint.


5. The Stevedoring Company is to take strict actions to avoid further
pilferage.
IV. Use the following phrases in sentences of your own:

-.

-.

pilferage
make a claim against smb.
bear responsibility for
blame
total loss of cargo
survey
establish liability
be liable for smth.
make up a survey report
discuss the differences

V. Translate into English the following sentences:


1.
.
2. , ..
, .
3.
, .
4.
.
5.
.
6. ,
.
7. ,
3.
8. ,
,
.
Vl. Read the following claims on pilferage and express your opinion
on the subject.
Masters Claim
Antwerp, 15th June, 2000.
To Stevedoring Company,
the Port of Antwerp,

14

Belgium.
Dear sirs,
Please note that yesterday afternoon while inspecting hatches three
cases containing tools, stowed in Hold .4, tween-deck, were found tampered with. On further examination one of the cases was found broken to
pieces with the entire contents missing and the other case damaged with
part of contents missing.
Though cargo was worked at hatch 4 on the 14th of June from 14.15 hrs.
to 17.30 hrs.on the 15th of June no visible traces of tampering with the said cargo were noticed at the time of covering up hatches on the 15th of June.
However, a passage to Hold No.4 tween-deck had been possible by
shifting a few chests of coffee to Hold 3 tween-deck.
The Stevedore foreman on duty was immediately informed about the
case of pilferage on board my ship during discharging and Hold 4 was
inspected in his presence. The hold was also examined by a senior Customs
officer and a representative from your office was also verbally informed.
Please note that I hold your Stevedores entirely responsible for this
damage and loss of cargo.
Please take necessary action to stop further pilferage and also expedite
the discharge of the cargo at your earliest convenience after survey of the
said pkgs. A strict watch in Hold 4 is being maintained.
Yours faithfully,
Master of the m/v Larak
VI. Answer the following questions:
1. To whom did the Master of the m/v Larak send his business letter?
2. What did the Master of the m/v Larak inform the Stevedoring
Company about?
3. What happened to the cargo yesterday afternoon?
4. Who was immediately informed about the case of pilferage on board
ship during discharging?
5. Was Hold 4 inspected in his presence?
6. Who else examined Hold 4?
7. Who did the Master of the m/v Larak hold responsible for this case
of pilferage, damage and loss of cargo?
VII. Additional text.
SECURITY AND STOWAWAYS
General Awareness
All seafarers should be warned in advance to be on the lookout for stowaways and generally unauthorized persons entering the vessel with the in-

15

tention of conducting unlawful acts.


The Master should ensure all additional security precautions are incorporated into his Standing Orders. Before arrival at the port, notices should be
posted on all accommodation notice boards reminding seafarers to comply
with Standing Orders and reiterating the measures that are to be taken, recording this action in the deck log book. Once berthed, the duty officer
should make an entry in the deck logbook at the end of each watch, confirming that all precautions were carried out. The pre-sailing stowaway search
and its outcome should be specifically referred to.
It is vital the extra security precautions are well documented in order to
mitigate any penalties should a stowaway subsequently be found on board
despite the additional measures.
Access to the Vessel
The means of boarding the vessel should be restricted to one access only. If the vessel is idle during the hours of darkness, the accommodation ladder should, if possible, raised well above the quay.
Locking of Spaces
All accommodation doors should be kept locked, apart from one. Internally, accommodation door keys should be left in place to ensure all doors
can still be used as emergency exits. All lockers, storerooms and spaces
accessible from the deck should be locked or padlocked when not in use,
and accesses to holds and hatches similarly secured at the end of the
working day when the duty officer has satisfied himself that these spaces are
clear.
Keys to all locked compartments should be left in the custody of the duty
officer.
On board Security
It is recommended that two men monitor the decks and the gangway at
all times, possibly the duty watchman and the duty officer. If such arrangement places are impossible burden on the ship's crew, serious consideration
should be given to employ local watchmen for the duration of the call, particularly if the vessel is in a high risk / dangerous port.
One man should be permanently stationed by the gangway, the other
periodically patrolling the decks. Both should carry walkie-talkies to communicate with each other.
Stowaways have often climbed up mooring lines. In ports with a high
quay or a large tidal range, it may sometimes be possible for stowaways to
simply step aboard the vessel from the shore almost anywhere along the

16

ship's side. Watchmen should be fully alert at all times.


Stowaways have occasionally posed as stevedores. The. gangway
watchman should therefore endeavour to verify the authorization of each
stevedore or visitor to the vessel. In ports where stevedores carry no such
authorization, a simple head count both boarding and leaving the ship will be
sufficient.
At night the decks should be well lit, and overside lights placed to illuminate the adjacent quay.
Stowaway Search
Shortly before departure, a comprehensive stowaway search should be
carried out, and as many men as can be spared should participate. Checks
should routinely include holds, lifeboats, funnel casing, hawse pipes, the
inspection of padlocks, and thorough examination of all spaces where free
access may have been possible. Torches should be carried to inspect dark
or shadowed areas. It must be remembered that some stowaways are prepared to go to extraordinary lengths to reach their destination.
PIRACY
Preventive Measures
Vessels berthed in high risk ports should endeavour to illuminate both
the decks and the quay with all available lighting, and gangways, accommodation ladders and ramps should be raised or closed at nights. Access
doors, holds and storerooms should naturally be kept locked when not in
use, and decks should be regularly patrolled to demonstrate to observers
that the vessel is alert and vigilant.

17

UNIT 3
THE CARRIER'S RESPONSIBILITY
VOCABULARY:
carrier
carry
carriage
cargo
consinee
shipowner
damage
delay
loss
guilty
force majeure
responsibility
bear responsibility

[k!ri#]
[k!ri]
[k!rid(]
[ka:gou]
[,k*nsaini:]
[,ipoun#]
[d!mid(]
[dilei]
[l*s]
[gilti]
[,f*:sm!(#:]
[ris,p*nsebiliti]
[be#]

discharge
responsibility
means
evident
fault
occur
happen
cause
property
freight
accident

[dist,a:d(]

humidity

[,hju:miditi]

[mi:nz]
[evid#nt]
[f*:lt]
[#k#:]
[h!p#n]
[k*:z]
[p*#ti]
[freit]
[!ksident]

, .

I. Read the text.


EXT.
The carrier is responsible for the goods until they are delivered to the
consignee.
If some damage occurs to goods during this time the carrier is to pay
money for this damage. Delay in delivery is also a loss to the consignee's
interests. This loss is to be paid by the carrier too.

18

But there may be cases when the ship owners are not guilty of such
damage or loss.
For example, the damage or loss may result from force majeure, accidents at sea or fire aboard. They may also arise from the arrest of the ship,
from quarantine, from war.
Sometimes, the damage or loss may be caused by actual fault of shippers or consignees.
Take, for instance, such a case when packing is not sufficient, or when
the goods by their nature are not fit for a long transportation by sea.
The goods may also be damaged when they are being loaded or discharged by shippers' or consignees' means.
It is evident that the carrier is not to bear responsibility in such cases,
that if he is not to pay money. There is an international tradition. When the
damage to goods was caused while the ship was saving life or property of
another vessel, the carrier is also discharged from responsibility for such a
damage.
II. Answer the following questions to the text above:
1. Who is responsible for the goods aboard the ship until they are delivered to the consignee?
2. Who is to pay money for the damage to goods in such a case?
3. By whom is money to be paid for delay in delivery of goods?
4. In what cases are the ship owners not guilty of the damage to goods?
5. Who is responsible for the damage if the packing was insufficient?
6. What party is to bear responsibility for the damage when the goods
were loaded by shipper's means?
7. In what case is the carrier discharged from responsibility for the damage to goods?
III. Ask questions using the model.
MODEL: The carrier is responsible for the goods.
Who is responsible for the goods?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The carrier is to pay money for delay in delivery.


The ship owners are guilty of the damage.
The shipper is to pay freight.
The charterers are to bear responsibility.
The shipper is responsible for that delay.

19

IV. Ask questions using the model.


MODEL: The damage to the cargo may result from force majeure.
From what cause may the damage result?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The loss of goods may result from the accident at sea.


The damage to the cargo may arise from the fire aboard.
The loss of cargo may arise from the arrest of a ship.
The shortage may result from the nature of goods.
The damage to the cargo may result from humidity.

V. Ask questions using the model.


MODEL: The goods were damaged when they were being loaded.
When were the goods damaged?
1.
2.
3.
4.

The freight was paid before the cargo had been discharged.
The damage to goods was caused during the voyage.
The loss of goods was found after they had been delivered.
The carrier was discharged from responsibility when the ship was arrested.
5. The cargo was damaged when it was being discharged.
VI. Additional text.
The carrier is responsible for the goods during their carriage.
The carrier is to pay money for any damage to goods which may occur
aboard the vessel.
There may be some cases when tlie ship owners are not guilty of damage or loss.
Damage or loss may result from force majeure, accidents or fire aboard
the ship.
Sometimes the damage may be caused through shippers' or consignees'
fault. The goods may also be damaged while being loaded or discharged by
shippers' or consignees' means.
In such a case the carrier is not to bear responsibility. The carrier is also
discharged from liability when the damage was caused while saving life or
property at sea. It is evident that the party which is guilty of the damage is to
pay money.

20

VII. Letter protesting against negligent work of stevedores.


Port of Durban
November 14th, 1999.
To Stevedoring Co.,
Tin Can Island,
Nigeria
Dear sirs,
I have to draw your attention to the fact that owing negligent and careless handling of cargo by stevedores much damage has been caused to the
bags with sugar.
Due to improper slinging several bags dropped from the slings over
board and were totally lost. Due to dragging slings from under the ship's
holds and on the trucks a number of bags were badly torn. With regret inform
you that notwithstanding to presence of local wathcmen and your formen the
pilferage of cargo is noted.
In the circumstances I have to make an official statement to the effect
that my MV MAGNUS SINCERITY has brought the cargo in good order and
condition and that I shall bear no responsibility for any claims in connection
with above-mentioned damage which was caused to the cargo in the course
of such inefficient discharging.
At the same time I hold the Walawa Stevedoring Company, responsible
for the damage caused and for the all the consequences which may arise
there from, of which I kindly request you to advise the said stevedoring company and all concerned in according with list of addressees enclosed.
Yours faithfully.
Captain.
Master of the M/V
MAGNUS SINCERITY
VIII. Translate into English the following business letter.
!
,
.
,
,
.
, . ,
.
.
,
.

21

IX. Say it in English:


.
,
. ,
.
. .
.

.
.
,
.
, .

UNIT 4
CHARTER PARTY
VOCABULARY:
charter party
charter
charterer
agreement
goods
conditions of
reception, carriage
and delivery of
goods
state
contradicting parties
legal
description
quantity
port of

['pa:ti]
['t,a:t#]
['t,a:t#r#]
[!griment]
['gudz]
[k#n'di,#n]
[ri'sep,#n]

[steit]
[,k*ntr#'dikt]
['li:g#l]
[dis'krip,#n]
['kw*ntiti]
[p*:t]

22

,

//
.

destination
call
arrival
departure
registry
on loading

[,desti'nei,#n]
[k*:l]
[#'raiv#l]
[di'pa:t,#]
['red(istri]
[l*ud]

rate
amount
refer to
carry out
sustein
Insufficient
packing
negligent
stowage
conclude
clause
seaworthy
supply
dunnage
extinguish
fire
come to the
conclution
include
bill of Lading
define
court
prove

['reit]
[#'maunt]
[ri'f#:]
['k!ri]
[s#stein]
[,ins#fi,#nt]
[p!ki)]
[neglid(#nt]
[stouid(]
[k#nklu:d]
[kl*:z]
[si:,w#:&I]
[s#plai]
[d+nid(]
[ikstingwi,]
[fai#]
[k+m]
[k#nklu:(in]
[inklu:d]
[leid]
[difain]
[k*:t]
[pru:v]

,
,
,
,
.
,
. .

//


,
np

I. Read the text.


EXT.
Charter Party is an official document. It is an agreement between Shipowners and Charterers on the carriage of goods. All the conditions of reception, carriage and delivery of goods are included in this document. It begins
with the names of the two contracting parties and their legal addresses.
Then it states which ship and when is to arrive at an agreed port to take the
cargo. The description of the cargo and its quantity as well as the port of
destination and the consignees name are also stated on the front page of
the Charter. Then the rate and amount of freight are stated and the conditions on which the cargo is to be carried and delivered to the consignee.
These conditions usually also refer to the fact which of the parties is to carry

23

out-loading or discharging the cargo and who is to pay money for this operation. Then follow the conditions defining the responsibility of all the parties, of
the charterers, carrier and consignees. The main principle of this responsibility is that the guilty party is to pay for damage or loss sustained by the ship
or cargo. For example the carrier is responsible for the damage, caused during the voyage through his fault. But if the damage resulted from insufficient
packing or negligent stowage the shipper is to pay for it.
II. Answer the following questions on the text above:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What kind of agreement is a Charter Party?


Between what parties is a Charter Party concluded?
What conditions are included in this document?
With what information does a Charter Party begin?
What is usually stated about the port and time of the ship's arrival for
loading?
6. What is stated in Charter Party, besides the description of the goods?
7. What does the term "rate of freight" mean?
8. When is freight usually paid by the shipper, before or after loading?
9. Where are the conditions of carriage and delivery of goods stated?
10. To what fact do these conditions also refer?
11. Who is to pay money for loading and discharging?
12. What party is to pay money for the damage to or loss of cargo?
III. Ask questions using the model.
MODEL: These conditions are stated in the document.
What is stated in this document?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

This fact is stated in the agreement.


This amount is included in the bill.
Their responsibility was defined by that clause.
Their fault was proved by the court.
Some damage was sustained by the ship.

IV. Ask questions using the model.


MODEL: The carrier was responsible for the damage.
Who was responsible for the damage?

1.
2.
3.
4.

The shipper was responsible for insufficient packing.


The Stevedoring company was responsible for that delay.
The second mate is responsible for proper reception of the cargo.
They were responsible for that loss.

24

5. The consignees were responsible for discharging.


V. Answer the following questions using the model.
MODEL: Who was to pay freight?
The shipper(s) was (were).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Who was to receive the goods on shore?


Who was to make the ship seaworthy?
Who was to check packing?
Who was to supply dunnage?
Who was to carry out loading?

VI. Answer the following questions using the model.


MODEL: What do we mean when we say: "on paying freight"?
We mean: "after the freight has been paid."
1. What do we mean when we say:"on signing the document"?
2. What do we mean when we say: "on loading the cargo"?
3. What do we mean when we say: "on extinguishing fire"?
VII. Memorize the following words of the same root:
1. to chart, charterer, chartering;
2. to agree, agreement, agreed;
3. to ship, shipper, shipment, shipped;
4. to receive, receiver, receipt;
5. to deliver, delivery, redelivery (on delivery);
6. to carry, carrier, carriage;
7. to fit, fitness, fitted;
8. to sign, signature, signed;
9. ready, readiness;
10. seaworthy, seaworthiness.
VIII. Additional text.
A Charter Party is an agreement between the shipowners and charterers. Under this agreement the shipowners undertake to provide a vessel for
the carriage of goods. The charterers, on the other hand, undertake to supply the cargo and to pay freight. All the details about port of loading, time of
loading, the description and quantity of the cargo, as well as the rate and
amount of freight, are stipulated in this Charter Party. All other conditions as
to reception, carriage and delivery of the cargo are also stated in this docu-

25

ment. As a rule, the cargo is taken aboard on shippers paying full or partial
freight.
IX. Say this in English:
-
. .
,
.
- ,
. , ,
,
. ,

. -
.
X. Translate into Russian.
A vessel may be chartered for carrying goods at a single voyage, between two or more ports, or for several voyages between such ports. These
forms of Charter Parties are called Voyage Charters to distinguish them from
Time Charters.
Time Charter
The Time Charter Party shows the terms and conditions under which a
shipowner lets his vessel for hire.
Voyage Charter
Under the Voyage Charter Party the shipowner is paid freight for carrying cargo from one port to another.
All Charter Parties have clauses which are more or less common, and
these are as follows:
1. Name of steamer.
2. Size and position.
3. Loading and discharging ports.
4. Quantity and kind of cargo.
5. Rate of freight and method of payment.
6. Lay days for loading and discharging.
7. Demurrage.
8. Cancelling date.
9. General average clause.

26

The Clause relating to the Steamer usually slates that the ship is fight,
staunch and in every way filled for the voyage, i. e. it warrants the seaworthiness of the ship and her fitness for the voyage and for the cargo to be
carried.
The destination of the steamer is given in the Charter Parly either by
naming a direct port to which the steamer must proceed to discharge her
cargo, or the destination of the steamer remains open, i. e. not given at the
time when the vessel is chartered, but will be stated at a later date usually
when loading is completed.
In the Cargo Clause the name of the goods to be transported is indicated. Sometimes the goods are enumerated in details, but usually, the common name of goods is given as grain for instance, which includes a large
variety of goods.
In the Freight Clause the method of payment of freight is stated clearly.
Freight is usually paid per ton delivered, it means that the freight is paid concurrently with the discharge of the cargo. A common stipulation is that the
freight is to be paid on right and true delivery of the cargo, but the custom is
to pay sums during discharge.
The term Lay Days means the time allowed by the Charter Party for
loading and/or discharging of the cargo. There are many methods of stipulation the lay days of the vessel. The most frequently used method is to indicate a definite number of working days or weather-working days.
Charter Parties always stipulate for the notice of the readiness of the
vessel to load or to discharge. The notice must be given during business
hours in the port. When the vessel is delayed beyond the time stipulated in
the Charter Party, the charterers must pay the owners demurrage. On the
other hand, if loading or discharging operations are completed before the
time, the Charter Party provides for the payment of dispatch money. Dispatch money and demurrage are calculated in accordance with the terms
agreed upon in the Charter Party, and may differ according to the nature of
the cargo shipped, the size of the vessel, and the form of the Charter Party
used.
Cancelling Clause means that the owners and charterers have the option of cancelling the Charter Party in the event of war.
In the General Average Clause it is usually stated that General Average
shall be settled according to York-Antwerp Rules, 1924.
When the terms and conditions of a Charter Party are agreed, the Charter Party is signed by both parties the shipowner and charterers.

27

UNIT 5
ROUTINE SHIP'S CORRESPONDENCE
STATEMENT OF TIME/CHARTER BASIS.
I. Letter asking the Owners to restrict their attendances and expenses.
TIME/CHARTER BASIS.
TO:

PORT:

MESSRS
RE: M/V.

DATE:

SUB: (INSERT T/CHRS NAME AND C/P DATE)

Dear Sirs,
I, the Master of M/V was informed by Owners that at this
port you are nominated by this vessels timecharterers, under the charterparty, to act as Agents.
Purpose of this letter is to request you to restrict your attendances and
expenses within the limits of your capacity as above.
If during the stay of this vessel in your port develop circumstances which
necessitate for expenses to incur for the account of this vessels owners, I
hereby request you to obtain my written consent prior of yourselves becoming committed in such expenses and also my written approval for payment
on the respective vouchers which must be duly compiled.
Kindly keep in mind that Owners will not accept and not settle vouchers in
their debit which shall not be supported by my specific written instructions
and which shall not be signed by myself for the approval of the payment.
Yours faithfully,
Captain
Master of M/V
Please sign copy of this letter
in acknowledgement.
II. Letter advising that under the Charter Party the vessel is presently performing, stowage is to be under Masters direction and responsibility.
(VESSEL'S LETTERHEAD PAPER)
PORT:
DATE

28

MESSRS
(COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS OF SHIPPERS)
Dear Sirs,
Loading cargo.
May this letter serve to bring to your attention that in accordance with
Clause of the charter-party under which my vessel is presently performing,
stowage of the cargo is to be under Master's direction and responsibility
I hereby give you my directions to cover the subject as follows:
1. You are requested to load the cargo in strict accordance with all the
rules and regulations applicable at your port covering the proper and
safe stowage of this cargo
2. You are requested to give relevant instructions to your stevedores to
accomplish all requirements under (1), and also to work in strict compliance with all rules and regulations applicable for the safe handling
and stowage of this cargo on board.
3. Regarding the quantity of the cargo to be loaded in each hold and
compartment, also holds' working programme, same to be discussed
daily with my Chief Officer, and stevedores to comply accordingly. In
this connection if any problems arise during the time of loading I
would request you to inform me in writing
Kindly acknowledge receipt of this letter by signing and returning copy of same
Yours faithfully,
Master
Receipt of this letter hereby acknowledged by Shippers:
Comptete name.
Title in company . ............
Name of company .
Date ..........................
CC: Agents/Charterers/Stevedores
CC: Owners
III. Letter asking the Stevedoring Company to take due notice of
Masters requirements and appoint authorized personnel to discuss
the discharging arrangements, the distribution of the cargo and
working schedule.
(VESSEL'S LETTERHEAD PAPER)
PORT:
DATE:
MESSRS

29

(COMPLETE NAME AND


ADDRESS OF STEVEDORES)
Dear Sirs,
I hereby wish to draw your attention to the fact that as per charter-party
Cl.......the Stevedores are considered as the Owners' servants.
Accordingly, please take due notice of my requirements, as follows:
1. Please appoint your authorized personnel to discuss the discharging
arrangements, the distribution of the cargo, and the working schedule with me.
2. Please arrange that I regularly receive the daily working reports and
the Mate's Receipts.
3. Please ascertain that any requirements in connection to rearrangements of the cargo gear are reported timely to the respective officer
so that any accidents or damage may be prevented.
4. Please give me advance notice of your requirements regarding the
opening or closing of the hatches, shifting of gangs, use of barges,
etc
5. I hereby request you to notify your employees to restrict their presence on board the vessel at the working areas and not to wonder
around in the accommodation and crew quarters.
6. No dog hooks to be used during discharge.
7. No bags to be broken by your employees.
8. Any cargo damage to be reported before cargo is handled by the
stevedores.
9. Please name your responsible foremen who will be empowered to
sign cargo damage
10. Reports for damage incurred by the stevedores.
11. Please advise in writing what are your contracted responsibilities regarding damage to cargo effected by your employees.
I am at your disposal to discuss with you and to assist you in the coordination of any matter relevant to the present loading and I look forward to
a smooth-running and speedy completion.
Kindly acknowledge receipt of this letter by signing and returning copy attached.
Yours faithfully,
Master

30

IV. Letter asking the Consignees to draw their attention to Masters


requirements as per carge delivery and take part in joint inspection
of the cargo in the vessels holds before discharging the cargo
(VESSELS LETTERHEAD PAPER)
DATE:
PORT:
MESSRS
(COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS)
Dear Sirs,
Cargo Delivery
Referring to the delivery of cargo in your port, I wish to draw your attention to the following:
1. In connection with clause......of the charter-party dated .............. the
condition of the cargo must be determined prior to the cargo being
handled by the stevedores. For this purpose please appoint and
name your supervisors who can inspect jointly and constantly the
condition of the cargo in the vessel's holds prior to same being handled by the stevedores. The vessel does not accept liability for any
damaged cargo whatsoever, except when such cargo is found damaged by your inspectors and my officers during joint inspection prior
to handling by the stevedores and acceptance of this fact is given by
my officers in writing and confirmed by my signature and vessel's
seal,
2. The tally of the cargo must be effected in the vessel's holds where
remarks for the condition of the cargo must be inserted and admitted
in writing by the vessel's officers in the holds, prior to stevedores
handling and confirmed by my signature and vessel's officers in the
holds, prior to stevedores handling and confirmed by my signature
and vessel's seal. Stevedores damage to be tallied separately and
such reports must carry the clear distinction DAMAGE BY STEVEDORES. Any tally reports issued on the pier or in the shed presented to the vessel for signature must carry the insertion THIS
REPORT FOR TALLY EFFECTED ASHORE AFTER CARGO WAS
HANDLED BY STEVEDORES Such tally reports if carrying these
remarks will be signed by the vessel without prejudice to Owners'
rights Owners are not responsible for handling of cargo by stevedores
3. If the tally of a cargo parcel, being effected as per item (2), results in
shortage this fact is to be immediately brought to the notice of the
Chief Officer and the possibility of a retally to be promptly investigat-

31

ed and re-tally to be carried out immediately. Moreover, a search in


the vessels compartments to be carried out jointly and if missing
cargo is not found a certificate verifying the search and the results to
be issued. Furthermore, a corresponding shed tally to be investigated to cross examine the tally shortage on board and results of same
to be stated in the report.
4. Stevedores are not allowed to remove from the vessel without proper tally, empty bags/cases etc., found in the holds. In case of incidents where pilfering is comprehended as done by employees of the
Stevedores. I shall call the Police immediately and hereby notify all
parts concerned that I will apply to the Timecharterers declare in
writing that they relieve the vessel of any responsibility on account of
pilferage done by the Stevedores employees.
5. In the event of rain, discharging is to be immediately stopped, allowing reasonable time for the crew to close the hatches and thus protect the cargo from damage, and the stevedores are requested to
cooperate in this connection.
6. The vessel will not accept and will not sign tally or other relevant reports, unless same are presented on the same date and time the
operation took place and provided same were issued in compliance
with the proceeding.
7. The stevedores' work on board must comply with the written instructions of the Chief Officer in connection with safe working on board.
The vessel is hereby relieved of any responsibility for any Stevedores employee failing to comply with same.
8. On completion of discharge, a joint careful search is to be effected in
the holds of the vessel and a certificate to be issued by you that no
cargo destined to be delivered in your port was found remaining on
board.
9. The vessel is bound only by my signature accompanied by the vessel's seal. Any other signature is not authorised and is not binding
the vessel or Owners whatsoever.
10. Your failure to comply strictly with my aforementioned requirements
which are derived from the provisions of the charter party dated.will constitute a breach of the terms and conditions of the
charter-party by the employees of the Charters and in every such instance I will have to hold you responsible on behalf of the Owners
for any consequences and loss or damage incurred to Owners.
Please acknowledge receipt by signing and returning three copies of this
letter.
Yours faithfully,
Master

32

Received:
Port.
On
Signed.
Name/Capacity.
Company
V. Letter with the information about loading of injurious, inflammable or dangerous goods.
(VESSEL'S LETTERHEAD PAPER)
PORT:
DATE:
MESSRS
(COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS OF CHARTERERS' AGENTS)
Dear Sirs,
Loading of Injurious. Inflammable or Dangerous Goods
Kindly note that the charter-party excludes from loading ammunitions
and explosives.
Other injurious, inflammable or dangerous goods can be loaded, but limited to a total quantity of 5% of the total cargo and provided that same will be
packed, loaded and stowed in accordance with the regulations of the local
authorities, plus the regulations of the Board of Trade (IMO Regulations)
Therefore, I hereby request you with this letter to:
A) Notify me in writing regarding all and any cargo which will be loaded
on the vessel in your port of the above captioned nature, giving complete particulars, reference to IMO Regulation applicable and rendering clear evidence of its weight.
B) Notify your stevedores to load cargo per above (A) strictly in accordance with local and Board of Trade regulations.
C) Provide me with a certificate from the appropriate authority in your
port to the effect that cargo per above (A) was in fact loaded and
stowed and secured strictly in accordance with mentioned regulations.
Please acknowledge receipt by signing and returning copy of this letter.
Thanking you.
Yours faithfully,
Master

33

VI. Letter with the information about discharge of the vessel.


M/V..
PORT:
DATE:
MESSRS
(COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS OF RECEIVERS)
Dear Sirs
.....(vessel)...........................Discharging ............Cargo
I hereby draw your attention to C/P ........Clause ........ where it is provided that the discharge of the vessel must be performed at the average rate
of......... metric tons per weather working day. I hereby draw your../
../. attention to the fact that the daily rate of discharge of the days
.............../................/................../was respectively
............./......................./..................... which is substantially less than the
average rate mentioned in the charter-party. This obviously is due to the fact
that although there are ......... hatches available for discharge you have provided only .............
Stevedore gangs per day and also the cargo is not cleared through the
chutes with the consequences of such delay in the discharge.
I therefore hereby invite you to do the needful to rectify this situation and
expedite the discharge of the vessel, failing which, I am obliged to reserve all
owners' rights with this letter.
Yours faithfully,
Master
Receipt of this letter hereby acknowledged.

34

UNIT 6
BILL OF LADING
VOCABULARY:
Bill of Lading
receipt
acknowledge
shipper
holder
undertake
print
definite
right

pa,

[leid]
[risi:t ]
[#kn*lid(]
[,ip#]
[hould#]
[+nd#,teik]
[print]
[definit]
[rait]

I. Read the text.


EXT.
When goods are shipped, the Master of the ship signs a Bill of Lading,
which is a receipt acknowledging the shipment of goods.
The Bill of Lading is not only a receipt for the goods shipped, but also a
document of title which means that the holder of the Bill of Lading has the
right to the property of goods. When goods are shipped in a ship sailing between definite ports no Charter Party is concluded, and the carriage of goods
is undertaken according to the terms and conditions usually printed either on
the face, or the back of the Bill of Lading. Most of our imports are carried
according to terms expressed in the Bill of Lading.
BILL OF LADING 2.
Shipped in apparent good order and condition by /Received for shipment
from/ State Steamship Line, Odessa, Ukraine on board the motorvessel
Slavsk whereof Master .. trading under Ukrainian flag, Owners:
State Steamship Line, Odessa, Ukraine. Carrier: the said Steamship Line,
and now lying in Odessa, Ukraine the following goods:
Marks &
Numbers

Description of
goods

Number of
packages or
pieces

Gross
weight

Sp. 83
Nar. 1920
Raw skins
Bales Nos.
128 190,
95 115

PERSIAN
LAMB
SKINS
RAW

164
bales

12624
kgs

35

Measurement Remarks

Being marked and numbered as above, but not guaranteed hereby for
the adequacy of marks, and to be carried and delivered, subject to all conditions, terms, and clauses inserted into this Bill of Lading in the like apparent
good order and condition from the ship's deck (either into lighters or on the
quay at Master's option) where the responsibility of the carrier for the carriage of the aforesaid goods shall cease.
The goods to be delivered at the port of London or as near there as the
ship may safely get to, always afloat to the consignee Messrs. Anning
Chadwick & Co., London or to his or their assigns, on payment of freight as
per margin of this Bill of Lading and all other charges due under this contract
of carriage.
Nothing in this Bill of Lading, whether printed or written or stamped, shall
limit or affect the above mentioned conditions. If the freight and all charges in
connection with the contract of carriage payable on or before delivery of
goods have not been paid, the carrier, on delivery of the goods to warehouse (warehouseman), or into lighters (lighterman), or other custodian entrusted to hold the goods for their owner, shall be entitled to stipulate that the
said custodian shall not part with the possession thereof until payment has
been made of full freight and any other charges due under this contract of
carriage.
Neither the weight nor the measure of goods carried in bulk as well as
the conformity of all kinds of goods with their description in this Bill of Lading
are checked by the carrier on loading.
The shipper, the receiver of goods and the holder of the Bill of Lading as
well as any other person interested hereby expressly accept and agree to all
printed, written, or stamped provisions, terms, and reserves of this Bill of
Lading, including those on the back hereof.
In witness whereof the Master, carrier or his agent has affirmed to five
Bills of Lading, all of this tenor and date, one of which being accomplished
the others to stand void. One Bill of Lading, duly endorsed, is to be given up
in exchange for the goods, or for a delivery order of same.
Dated in Odessa, Ukraine this 10th day of May, 2000...
Master of the m/v "Slavsk"
(ship's stamp)
BILL OF LADING (BACK)
(Continued)
THE FOLLOWING ARE THE CONDITIONS AND EXCEPTIONS HEREINBEFORE REFERRED TO:
1. Each package or piece must be well packed before loading and provided with distinct signs, marks and numbers with the name of the
place of destination, in letters not less than five cm. long. Packages
unfit for the placing of such marks and numbers must be provided
with securely fastened labels. In default of these conditions the carrier

36

2.

3.
4.

5.

1.

2.

3.

6.

is not liable for loss or damage or delay in delivery of the goods resulting therefrom.
The shipper is responsible for the proper packing of the goods. The
sufficiency of the packing as well as the conditions of the goods uncovered shall be determined by the master, the carrier or his agent,
who, should he find the covering unsatisfactory, is to make note
thereof in the Bill of Lading. The owner of the goods shall be responsible for any loss arising from shipper's failing to indicate or concealing the defects of packing or unsatisfactory state of the goods unpacked.
With shipper's consent in writing the goods may be carried on deck at
the risk of the owner of the goods.
The owner of the goods is responsible to the carrier for the accuracy
and exactitude of the shipper's declaration regarding the inner and
outer condition of the goods, their packing and distinctive signs, and
the owner of the goods shall indemnify the carrier against all losses,
damages and expenses, arising or resulting from inaccuracy, inexactitude and insufficiency in such particulars, as furnished by the shipper.
The carrier shall be at liberty at the place of loading or discharging as
well as during the voyage to ascertain whether the contents of the
goods correspond with their description. If the description of the
goods, whether packed or unpacked, as shown on this Bill of Lading
proves to be incorrectly stated, the owner of the goods is bound to
pay the carrier double difference between the full freight on the correct description of the goods for the whole voyage with additional
charges, and the amount calculated under the incorrect statements of
the shipper.
If the number of animals loaded on board by shipper's means proves
to be incorrectly stated, the owner of the goods shall pay the carrier
triple freight on the quantity exceeding as well as all additional charges and fees.
The carrier shall be entitled to check in the port of destination the
weight as declared by the shipper and if a surplus is found, double
freight shall be paid for it.
The shipper is liable to the carrier for any loss or damage to the ship
or cargo and/or all other expenses, caused by the wrong description
or denomination of goods, and all costs and expenses of weighing
and checking the goods shall be payable by the owner of goods, if
the weight and/or description on the Bill of Lading be wrongly stated.
Not later than 24 hours before the beginning of loading the goods as
denominated in the Bill of Lading the shipper must hand over to the

37

4.

7.

8.

9.

carrier at the place of shipment all documents required by the harbour, custom, sanitary, excise and any other rules.
The carrier is not under duty to verify the accuracy and the sufficiency
of these documents and shall be discharged from all liability for any
loss of or damage to such goods resulting from inaccuracy, or insufficiency, or delay of delivery of these documents.
Freight and other charges due under the contract of carriage shall be
payable to the carrier at the place of shipment. Freight and all additional charges fully or partly unpaid at the time of shipment to be collected from the receivers of goods.
Freight and other charges in connection with carriage of goods
must be fully paid up to the carrier ship or goods lost or not lost. If
possible damage to carrier's interests at the place of destination be
apprehended, freight and any other charges to be altogether fully
paid at the place of shipment, particularly:
a) if the goods delivered for shipment are subject to rapid deterioration;
b) if, owing to the small value of goods, they cannot cover the
freight and all charges in connection with carriage of same;
c) if, owing, to the insufficiency of packing ascertained in accordance with Paragraph 2 of these rules, there may occur loss,
evaporation, scattering, breakage or leakage of goods or part
thereof, or depreciation of same;
d) for carriage of animals;
e) for goods carried on deck;
f) for goods consigned to ports where there are no agencies of
the carrier.
Carrier's liability for delivery of goods carried cash on delivery (. .
d.) without previously collecting the amount forwarded cannot exceed
the same.
On the issue by the carrier, his agent, or master of the ship of the bill
of lading the right of disposing of goods (readdressing) belongs to the
shipper or to the receiver of goods, or to any holder in due course of
the bill of lading, provided he produces all issued copies of the bill of
lading or sufficient bail.
The person entitled to dispose of the goods may demand the redelivery of same at the place of shipment before ship's departure, or
the delivery of goods at some intermediate port or the delivery of
goods to a person other than the one stated in the bill of lading. The
said demand shall be expressed in writing to the carrier's agency at
the port of loading. If, however, such orders cannot be executed, the
carrier is exempt from responsibility but reserves the right to collect
the full amount of freight as originally agreed. The owner of goods

38

must also pay the difference of freight if the same exceeds the freight
stipulated for shipment to original port of destination and reimburse to
the carrier all expenses resulting from readdressing of goods.
10. If, in the event of blockade, restraint of authorities, acts of war, ice
and any other causes beyond carrier's control, the goods cannot be
discharged at the port of destination without risk to ship and cargo,
the carrier is entitled to land the goods at one of the nearest ports of
call, where possible, at shipper's risk and expense, and to inform the
shipper thereof.
If the shipper desires to land the carried goods at original port of
destination he has to apply thereof in writing to the carrier's agency at
the port of loading. Should the carrier be able to comply with this request, the goods shall be forwarded to original port of destination under a new bill of lading on a ship belonging either to the carrier or to
another owner. All payments and freight unpaid under the old bill of
lading, as well as all expenses incurred by the carrier, to be inserted
in the new bill of lading beyond the freight and charges due on account of such new carriage.
If, in a port of forced discharging, goods are stored at the carrier's
warehouses, no charge is to be made for the first three storage days.
In case of forwarding the goods under a new bill of lading to original
port of destination, no charges shall be collected for the first five days
of storage at the carrier's warehouses. The storage for the period of
over five days is to be included in the new bill of lading.
If, in the port of forced discharging, there are no carrier's warehouses, or if these warehouses cannot be used for the said purpose,
the goods shall be delivered by the carrier for storage to local warehouses or to any other places in accordance with the customs of the
port and at the current rates.
11. Any deviation of the ship from the contract voyage for the purpose
of saving or attempting to save life or property at sea, or any other
reasonable deviation, as well as calling at ports in any order shall not
be deemed to be an infringement or breach of the contract of carriage, and the carrier shall not be liable for any loss or damage resulting therefrom.
12. The goods shall be loaded and discharged as fast as the ship can
take or deliver them, on or from the ship's tackles or any auxiliary
craft, without interruption by day and night, Sundays and holidays not
excepted, and the owner of goods shall be liable to the carrier for all
loss or damage incurred in default thereof.
Should the goods not be received by their owner in accordance
with this clause or if he fails to appear to take delivery of the goods
immediately on the ship's arrival, the master or carrier's agent shall

39

be at liberty to put the goods into craft and/or land the same on the
quay at the expense and risk of the owner of goods, as the master or
carrier's agent may think fit.
13. The carrier shall have a lien upon the goods for and until the payment of freight and all other charges and expenses due under the
contract of carriage and in relation to the handling of the goods during
the voyage as well as, if the case may be, customs duties and taxes
of any kind whatsoever.
14. If within two months after the ship's arrival at the port of destination
the goods have not been claimed and/or their owner has not covered
all amounts as aforesaid in Paragraph 13, the carrier shall be at liberty to sell the goods by public auction whereof the shipper shall be notified in writing.
Unclaimed goods subject to deterioration may be sold before the
expiration of two months. The proceeds shall be used for covering the
total charges, costs and expenses due to the carrier on custody, storage and sale of unclaimed goods, and if the proceeds fail to cover all
sums due to the carrier in respect of said goods, the carrier shall be
entitled to recover the difference from the owner of goods.
15. Unless notice of loss or damage or delay in delivery of goods be
given the carrier before or at the time of the removal of the goods,
such removal shall be prima facie evidence of the delivery by the carrier of the goods in accordance with all terms and conditions of the bill
of lading.
If partial loss or damage be not apparent by customary delivery of
goods the notice may be given to the carrier by the receiver of goods
within three days after their receipt.
In the aforesaid cases the notice must be given in writing.
16. If wrong tariffs or rates of freight are applied or in the event of errors
in calculating freight or other charges, the arrears must be paid to the
carrier and overcharges must be returned by the carrier. The carrier
is entitled to recover the arrears from the overcharges and any other
amount due by him to the owner of goods.
17. The carrier shall be bound, before and at the beginning of the voyage, to make the ship seaworthy, properly man, equip, and supply the
ship and the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers fit and safe for
reception, preservation and carriage of cargo.
Subject to the provisions of this paragraph the carrier shall be discharged from liability for latent defects not discoverable by due diligence.
18. The carrier shall be responsible for the loss of or damage to the
goods as well as for delay in delivery of the same, unless loss or

40

damage or delay has arisen or resulted from causes which could not
have been avoided by carrier's due diligence, particularly from:
a) force majeure;
b) perils, dangers and accidents at the sea or other navigable
waters;
c) fire, effects of temperature, air, humidity;
d) acts and orders of authorities (arrest or restraint, quarantine,
etc.);
e) acts of war and people's commotions;
f) act or omission of the shipper or receiver of the goods, in
particular when the goods have been loaded by shipper's
means and/or discharged by receiver's means
g) nature of goods (inherent vice or normal wastage) and latent
defects of same
h) defects of packing not discoverable from outside or when the
goods have been delivered for shipment without any packing
or in packing insufficient, although under the nature of goods
proper packing was necessary, and in so far as the damage
has actually resulted from absence or insufficiency of packing, or if, in the case of sound packages, a shortage and/or
non-correspondence of contents with their description as in
the bill of lading has been found;
i) insufficiency or indistinctness of marks;
j) disease or death of carried animals;
k) act or omission of the master, crew and pilot in the navigation or in the management of the ship, except, however, act
or omission in relation to the reception, loading, stowage,
custody, care, discharge and delivery of goods;
l) saving or attempting to save life, ship or goods.
m) Any clause or agreement in regard to the liability for the time
from the moment of loading of goods and until the goods are
discharged, contradictory to the rules of this article, shall be
null and void and of no effect.
19. The remuneration of the owner of the goods per each lost or damaged package or unit shall be estimated in accordance with their value at the port of ship's destination on the day when the latter has arrived or must have arrived, but cannot exceed ... rubles, unless the
value of such goods has been declared by the shipper and inserted in
the bill of lading.
20. Goods shipped without the master's knowledge shall be discharged
in any port at the option of the master, and double freight due from
the place of shipment up to the place of discharging as well as all

41

damage arising out of or resulting from such shipment must be paid


by the shipper.
21. If goods inflammable, explosive or dangerous by their nature become a danger to the ship or other cargo, they may during the voyage be landed at any time and at any place, or destroyed, or rendered innocuous by the carrier without any compensation to the owner of such goods, the latter being obliged to pay the carrier the
agreed freight in full.
22. The shipper is obliged to declare the exact weight of any single
package over one and a half tons. These packages are to be loaded
and discharged at the risk and expense of their owners and by their
means.
23. The carrier is at liberty, if necessary, to tranship the goods from one
ship to another directly or by means of preliminary discharging of the
said goods on quay or into lighters and/or convey the goods while
loading and discharging on auxiliary craft.
The carrier is also at liberty to transfer the goods to ships belonging to other owners or to forward them by other means of transport,
the provisions and clauses of this bill of lading remaining valid for the
whole voyage.
24. Refrigerated goods are not received for shipment and carriage unless the ship holds the classification of the Register of Ukraine. The
existence of such class at the time of shipment shall be deemed to be
final and complete evidence as against the shipper and receiver of
goods and any holder of the bill of lading that the ship, her engines
and machinery, refrigerating machinery, spare gear and equipment,
insulation fitting and stores, both at the time of loading and during
every stage of the voyage, were in every respect in a fit and seaworthy condition. The existence of such class shall also be deemed to
satisfy and discharge any obligation or warranty expressed or implied
under this bill of lading as to provision of a seaworthy and fit ship for
the whole voyage.
25. General average shall be adjusted according to York-Antwerp
Rules, 1950, and the average adjustment shall be prepared in
Ukraine.
26. All claims and disputes arising under and in connection whith this
bill of lading shall be judged in Ukraine.
27. All questions and disputes not mentioned in this bill of lading shall
be determined according to the Merchant Shipping Code of Ukraine.
II. Answer the following questions on the above text:
1. What document does the Master of the ship sign when goods are
shipped?

42

2. Is the Bill of Lading only a receipt for the goods shipped?


3. What right has the holder of the Bill of Lading?
4. How is the carriage of goods undertaken?
5. Where are the terms and conditions usually printed ?
6. What goods are shipped under this Bill of Lading?
7. Who is the consignee of the cargo?
8. Who is responsible for proper packing of the goods?
9. At whose risk may the goods be carried on deck?
10. When must the shipper hand over to the carrier all documents required by harbour?
11. At what place is freight paid?
12. Who has the right to demand the redelivery of goods?
13. Can the ship deviate from the contract voyage?
14. What freight must be paid if the goods are shipped without the captains knowledge?
15. At what risk and expense must packages weighing over one and a
half tons be loaded and discharged?
16. Where must all claims for ships be judged?
III. Memorize the following words of the same root:
1. to hold, holder;
2. to apply, application;
3. to leak, leakage;
4. to sell, seller, sale, sold (on sale);
5. to buy, buyer, bought;
6. to break, breakage, broken;
7. to know, knowledge, known;
8. to store, storage;
9. accurate, accuracy, inaccuracy;
10.correct, correctness, correctly, incorrectly.
IV. Translate the following sentences into English:
1. .
2. ?
3.
?
4.
.
5. ,
.
6. ,
.

43

UNIT 7
ROUTINE SHIPS CORRESPONDENCE
I. A form of Bill of Lading about conditions of carriage.
BILL OF LADING
To be used with CHARTER-PARTIES
CODE NAME: "CONGENBILL"
EDITION 1978
ADOPTED BY
THE DFLTIC AND INTERNATIONAL
MARITIME CONFERENCE (BIMCO)
CONDITIONS OF CARRIAGE.
(1) All terms and conditions,
Liberties and exceptions of the Charter Party, dated as overleaf, are
herewith incorporated. The Carrier shall in no case be responsible for loss of
or damage to cargo arisen prior to loading and after discharging.
(2) General Paramount Clause.
The Hague Rules contained in the International Convention for the Unifith
cation of certain rules relating to Bills of Lading, dated Brussels the 25 , August 1924 as enacted In the country of shipment shall apply to this contract.
When no such enactment is In force in the country of shipment, the corresponding legislation of the country of destination shall apply, but in respect of
shipments to which no such enactments are compulsories applicable, the
terms of the said Convention shall apply.
Trades where Hague-Visby Rules apply.
In trades where the International Brussels Convention 1924 as amended
by the Protocol signed at Brussels on February 23rd 1968 the HagueVisby Rules apply compulsorily. the provisions of the respective legislation shall bo considered incorporated in this Bill of Lading. The Carrier takes
all reservations possible under such applicable legislation, relating to the
period before loading and after discharging and while the goods are in the
charge of another Carrier, and to deck cargo and live animals.
(3) General Average:
General Average shall be adjusted, stated and settled according to YorkAntwerp Rules 1974, in London unless another place is agreed in the Charter.

44

Cargo's contribution to General Average shall be paid to the Carrier


even when such average Is the result of a fault, neglect or error of the Master, Pilot or Crew. The Charterers, Shippers and Consignees expressly renounce the Netherlands Commercial Code, Art. 700, and the Belgian Commercial Code, Part II, Art. 148.
(4) New Jason Clause.
In the event of accident, danger, damage or disaster before or after the
commencement of the voyage, resulting from any cause whatsoever, whether due to negligence or not, for which, or for the consequence of which, the
Carrier is not responsible, by statute, contract or otherwise, the goods, Shippers, Consignees or owners of the goods shall contribute with the Carrier in
general average to the payment of any sacrifices, losses or expenses of a
general average nature that may be made or incurred and shall pay salvage
and special charges incurred In respect of the goods.
If a salving ship is owned or operated by the Carrier, salvage shall be
paid for as fully as'If the said salving ship or ships belonged to strangers.
Such deposit as the Carrier or his agents may deem sufficient to cover the
estimated contribution of the goods and any salvage and special charges
thereon shall, if required, be made by the goods, Shippers, Consignees or
owners of the'goods to the Carrier before delivery.
(5) Both-to-Blame Collision Clause.
If the Vessel comes into collision with another ship as a result of the negligence of the other ship and any act, neglect or default of the Master, Mariner, Pilot or the servants of the Carrier in the navigation or in the management of the Vessel, the owners of the cargo carried hereunder will indemnify
the Carrier against all loss or liability to the other or non-carrying shin or her
Owners in so. far as such loss or liability represents loss of, or damage to, or
any claim whatsoever of the owners of said cargo, paid or payaule by the
other or non-carrying ship or her Owners to the owner of said cargo and setoff, recouped or recovered by the other or non-carrying ship or her Owners
as part of their claim against the carrying Vessel Carrier. The foregoina provisions shall also apply where the Owners, operators or those in charge of
any ship or ships or objects other than, or In addition to. the colliding ships or
objects are at fault In respect of a collision or contact .
For particulars of cargo, freight
destination, etc., see overleaf

45

CODE NAME: "CONGENBILL". EDITION 1978


Shipper

B/L No.

BILL OF LADING
TO BE USED WITH CHARTER-PARTIES

Reference No.
Consignce
Notify address
Vessel

Port of loading

Port of discharge
Shipper' s description of goods

Gross

II. A DOCUMENT ABOUT AUTHORITY TO SIGN BILLS OF LADING


ON MASTER'S BEHALF
IMPORTANT NOTICE
THIS DOCUMENT is be issued/submitted only after obtaining
ANY UNAUTHORISED USE OF THIS
DOCUMENT IS "STRICTLY PROHIBITED".
TO:
..
M/V...........................
Agents of:...........
Port:........................
Date.........
Dear Sirs,
C/P ...........................
M/V...........................
TIMECHARTES...................................

AUTHORITY TO SIGN BILLS OF LADING ON MASTER'S EHALF


I hereby authorise you to sign on my behalf, Bills of Lading for cargo actually loaded on board this vessel at this port only and during her present call
only.
This authority is issued subject to the following conditions:
1. The Form of /L to be used is"........................."
2. All Bills of Lading signed by you must conform strictly with the respective Mate's Receipts signed by my Chief Officer including date,
quantity, description, name of load port.
3. All remarks endorsed on the Mate's receipts must be endorsed in full
on the Bills of Lading.

46

4. /L to be endorsed in the front page with foll:"All other


terms/conditions/exceptions including arbitration clause as per C/P
dated ................are deemed to be incorporated in this Bill of Lading.
5. No "LINER TERMS" or "THROUGH BILLS OF LADING" to be issued.
6. This letter is intended to compliment the, Charter Party between
Owners and time chatterers dated ........................ and must be applied in conjunction with the relevant provisions contained therein.
Bills of Lading signed by you without the above conditions being fulfilled
will be considered to have been signed without my authority.
You are requested to sign for receipt of this letter and acceptance of its
contents in the space provided below:
ACKNOWLEDGED AND ACCEPTED:

.................................... SIGNATURE
................................... NAME (IN CAPITALS)
..................................... TITLE
......................................

DATE
MASER M/V................
AND STAMP

I. Letter advising authority to sign bills of lading on Master's behalf.


M.V. DYNAMIC
PANAMA
PORT OF DURBAN
SOUTH AFRICA

PORT OF DURBAN
1st AUGUST 1999

Dear Sirs,
M/V Dynamic, Charter Party dated 10/July/1999
Authority to sign Bills of Lading on Master's behalf
I hereby authorise you to sign on my behalf, Bills of Lading for cargo actually loaded on board this vessel at this port only, and during her present
call only. This Authority is issued subject to the following conditions:
1. All Bills of Lading signed by you must conform strictly with the Mate
Receipts signed by my Chief Officer, including Dates, Quantity; Description and name oi Load Port, also per relevant clause 34 of relevant Charter Party.

47

2. /L form to be Congenial 1978


3. No through Bills of Lading to be issued without Owner's approval per
C/P clause 67.
4. All remarks endorsed oh the Mate's Receipts must be endorsed in full
on the Bills of Lading.
5. Also to contain P and I club bunker, voy-war 1993 clause and all following per C/P clause 35: New Jason clause. Both to Blame Collision
Clause, General clause Paramount and elsewhere the following Paramount Clause:
"All terms, provisions and conditions of the rules contained in the International Convention for the Unification of certain rules relating to Bills of Lading dated Brussels the 25th August, 1924 (commonly known as the Hague
rules) shall apply to the contract in this Bill of Lading, but if in the country of
shipment or delivery of the cargo any special law has been enacted in order
to incorporate the rules of the said convention then all the terms, provisions
and conditions of the said convention with the subject to such modifications
and additions. if any, as are imposed by such special law shall be deemed to
be a surrender by the carrier of any of his rights or immunities or any increase of any of his responsibilities under the said rules or enactments.
The carrier is to be entitled to be benefit of aJI such priviledges,rights
and immunities as if the same were herein specifically set out, and if anything herein contained be inconsistent with the said rules or enactments it
shall to the extent of such inconsistency and no further be null and void."
Acknowledged and Accepted
Yours faithfully,
Master.

II. Letter advising and acknowledging authority to sign


Bills of Lading on Master's behalf
M.V. DYNAMIC
Panama
Messrs
J.T.Rennie E Sons
Port of Richards Bay
South Africa
Dear Sirs,
M/V Dynamic, Charter Party dated

Port of Richard's Bay


7 August 1999

10/July/1999

Authority to sign Bills of Lading on Master's behalf


I hereby authorise you to sign on my behalf, Bills of Lading for cargo ac-

48

tually loaded on board this vessel at this port only, and during her present
call only. This Authority is issued subject to the following conditions:
1. All Bills of Lading signed by you must conform strictly with the Mate
Receipts signed by my Chief Officer, including Date; Quantity, Description and name of Load Port, also per relevant clause 34 of relevant Charter Party.
2. /L form to be Congenial 1978
3. No through Bills of Lading to be issued without Owner's approval per
C/P clause 67.
4. All remarks endorsed on the Mate's Receipts must be endorsed in full
on the Bills of Lading.
5. Also to contain P and I club bunker, voy-war 1993 clause and all following per C/P clause 35: New Jason clause, Both to Blame Collision Clause, General clause Paramount and elsewhere the following
Paramount Clause:
"All terms, provisions and conditions of the rules contained in the International Convention for the Unification of certain rules relating to Bills of Lading dated Brussels the 25th August, 1924 (commonly known as the Hague
rules) shall apply to the contract in this Bill of Lading, but if in the country of
shipment or delivery of the cargo any special law has been enacted in order
to incorporate the rules of the said convention then all the terms, provisions
and conditions of the said convention with the subject to such modifications
and additions, if any, as are imposed by such special law shall be deemed to
be a surrender by the carrier of any of his rights or immunities or any increase of any of his responsibilities under the said rules or enactments.
The carrier is to be entitled to be benefit of all such privileges, rights and
immunities as if the same were herein specifically set out, and if anything
herein contained be inconsistent with the said rules or enactments it shall to
the extent of such inconsistency and no further be null and void."
Acknowledged and Accepted
Yours faithfully,
Master.
III. Letter acknowledging authority to sign Bills of Lading
on Master's behalf
Messrs. CONSIGNATARIA DEL COLFO S.A. DE C.V.
TAMPIOCO,
MEXICO.
M/V "Vienna SKY"
rd
23 November, 1999

49

Dear Sirs,
I, the undersigned Master of the above named vessels hereby authorize
you to sign on my behalf the Bill of Lading/s covering cargo loaded on board
my vessel on her present voyage at this port, provided Bill of Lading/s will be
issued in conform mity with Mate's receipts, and claused " ALL TERMS,
CONDITIONS, EXCEPTIONS, AND LIBERTIES INCLUDING THE ARBITRATION CLAUSE AS PER RELEVANT CHARTER PARTY AND ANY ADDENDUM THERETO TO BE CONSIDERED AS INCORPORATED HEREIN,
AS IF FULLY WRITTEN ANYTHING TO BE CONTRARY CONTAINED IN
THIS BILL OF LADING NOTWITHSTANDING".
Bill of lading/s which do not cover in full above authorization must be
considered as null and void.
Furthermore, I hearty request you to hold said Bill of lading/s until the
time that you will be instructed from my owners to release them place them
at Chatterers/ Shippers and/or their Agents disposal.
Unless such instructions are received from my Owners no release of Bill
of Lading/s shall be effected.
Yours faithfully,
Master
of the m/v " VlENNA SKY"

50

UNIT 8
MANIFEST OF CARGO
VOCABULARY:
Manifest of Cargo
specification
draw up
content
weight
per unit
Mates Receipt
Cargo-plan
datum / data pl./

//

-
,

['m!nifest]
[,spesifikei,#n]
[dr*: +p]
[k*ntent]
[weit]
[p#ju:nit]
[risi:t]
[ka:g#u]
[deit#, da:t#]

I. Read the text.


EXT.
Manifest of Cargo is a document which contains complete specifications
of the goods loaded by a ship.
Manifest of Cargo is usually drawn up by the agents in the ports of loading, based upon the Bills of Lading.
Manifest of Cargo contains the following data: the name of the ship, port
of loading and date of departure, port of destination, number of Bills of Lading, marks of packages and contents names of shippers and consignees,
weight of packages, rate of freight per unit, total freight.

For particulars of cargo, freight,


destination, etc., see overleaf

51

MANIFEST OF CARGO

V/0
Anning
PERSIAN
Sp. 125 140
1800
LAMB
12 Sojuzpush Chadwik &

Nar. 40 bales
kgs
nina"
Kiver
SKINS

Remarks

Rate
Prepaid by the shipper
To be paid by the
consignee

Weight

Desctription of cargo

Quantity of packages
and packing

Marks and numbers

Consignee

No B/L

Shipper

Sailing from Odessa M/V Slavsk Captain...


To London 1998

II. Answer the following questions on the above text:


1.
2.
3.
4.

What kind of document is Manifest of Cargo?


By whom is Manifest of Cargo drawn up?
What official document is Manifest of Cargo based upon?
What information does Manifest of Cargo contain?

III. Ask questions using the model.


MODEL: Complete specifications are contained in this document.
What are contained in this document?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Manifest of Cargo is drawn up by the agents.


This Manifest of Cargo is based upon Bill of Lading No 25.
The nm of the ship is stated in this document.
The names of shippers and consignees are included in this agreement.
Bill of Lading No 24 is signed by shipowners and chaterers.

IV. Agree or disagree with the following statements


using the following expressions:
I agree with you. I am of the same opinion. You are quite right.
I am terribly sorry. I cant agree with you. You are mistaken.
1. The Charter Party includes all terms concerning the rate of freight, the time of
loading, the ports or ports of destination, the loading conditions and so on.
2. Chatering a ship is done through a stevedore.
3. Manifest of Cargo is not a document.
4. Manifest of Cargo is drawn up by the stevedores in the ports of loading.

52

V. Additional text.
MATES RECEIPT.
Mates Receipt is an official document signed by the Chief Officer which
acknowledges the receipt of cargo on board ship. It is exchanged for Bills of
Lading when loading is finished.
Bill of Lading is usually issued on collecting all mate's receipts.
Cargo-plan or Stowage plan is a document which shows the clear disposition of each cargo piece on board ship. It shows marks and destination of
cargo.
VI. Ask it in English:
1. ;
2. ;
3.
;
4. ;
5.
.
VII. Translate the following business letters into Russian.
I
M/V..
PORT:
DATE:
TO
MESSRS..
(INSERT CARGO SHIPPERS/CHARTERERS NAME)
RE: CHRS/ C/P / DATE
Dear Sirs,
I wish to refer to governing charter party dated ............per which "clean
on board" Bills of Lading are to be signed by Master.
In this connection, I wish to tender you an official notification that in order
to comply with this charter party term, all the cargo must be in good order
and condition and without any damage or defect whatsoever.
Consequently, any cargo, which is not in good order and condition, must
be withdrawn by your good selves and must be replaced by cargo, which
shall be in good order and condition.
I fully expect that you will have no problem complying with this performance so that I will have the opportunity to release to you clean Bills of Lading.
Kindly acknowledge receipt by signing and returning copy of this letter.
Yours faithfully,

53

Master.

II
TO
MESSRS
STEVEDORES/SHIPPERS/AGENTS
Dear Sirs,
I beg to inform you that damage on cargo loaded is ascertained as per
attached cargo damage reports.
I hereby invite you to remove from the vessel the affected cargo and replace same by cargo which is not damaged.
I regret to state that in case the mentioned damaged cargo is not promptly withdrawn we have no alternative than to clause the Bills of Lading with
the cargo damage as listed at the attached Cargo Damage Reports.
Kindly acknowledge by signing and returning copy of this letter.
Yours faithfully,
Master.

III

MESSRS..........
SHIPPERS/STEVEDORES/AGENTS
RE: M/V..............................
SUB: (INSERT CHRRS AND C/PDD...............)
Dear Sirs,
May this letter serve to inform you that a survey on the cargo before
loading commencement has established that the cargo intended for loading
is in such condition that it shall require Bills of Lading to be endorsed with
the following remarks
(Remarks to be inserted as same will be specified by the surveyor)
If you require to avoid the above remarks kindly arrange to substitute the
intended cargo with cargo which is not subject to such remarks.
Please acknowledge receipt of this letter by signing and returning copy
of same.
Yours faithfully,
Master.
(Complete name and capacity of one who signs must be inserted)

54

IV
(VESSEL'S LETTERHEAD PAPER)
PORT:
DATE:
MESSRS
(COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS OF STEVEDORES)
Dear Sirs,
"........................"-C/P Dated.............
Kindly note that in accordance with the charterparty, the Bills of Lading
will be issued in accordance with the Mate's receipts, to this effect I hereby
request you to submit the Mate's receipts daily, together with the tally reports, for the Chief officer's perusal and approval.
I also wish to inform you that only the Chief Officer is authorised to sign
Mate's receipts, and such Mate's receipts should carry the Chief Officer's
signature and the vessel's Official stamp to be considered as valid for the
purpose of issuance of the Bills of Lading by the agents of the Charterers.
You are kindly requested to strictly comply with this requirement so that
any inconvenience is avoided.
Kindly acknowledge receipt of this letter by signing and returning copy of
same.
Yours faithfully,
Master.
Receipt of this letter hereby acknowledged by Stevedores: Complete name
.............................................
Title in company ............................................
Name of company ...............................
Date .....................................
CC: Agents
CC: Charterers
CC: Owners

55

UNIT 9
ROUTINE SHIPS CORRESPONDENCE
I. Letter asking Shippers to endorse Bills of Lading with all remarks
on the cargo as established by the Mate's Receipts.

(VESSEL'S LETTERHEAD PAPER)


PORT:
DATE:
TO MESSRS.............
(COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS OF SHIPPERS)
Dear Sirs,
"....................................... "-Loading................Cargo ................
May this letter serve to inform you that I hold strict Owners' instructions
to endorse Bills of Lading with all remarks on the cargo as established by the
Mate's Receipts.
If the cargo due for shipment has any damage please take due note of
the above and be guided accordingly.
My intention is to be kept fully advised of any damage incurred to the
cargo due to stevedores' handling. It must be clear such damage will be endorsed in the Bills of Lading and if you wish to avoid same, I suggest that
you may arrange with the stevedores so that such eventually damaged cargo is withdrawn and replaced by other in good condition.
Kindly acknowledge receipt of this letter by signing and returning copy of
same.
Yours faithfully,
Master
Receipt of this letter hereby acknowledged by Shippers:
Complete name ..................................................
Title in company .................................................
Name of company ...............................................
Date ......................................
CC: Cargo Shippers Stevedores
CC: Local Agents
CC: Charterers
CC. Owners

56

II. Letter asking to effect proper stowage of the cargo.

(BAGGED CARGOES)
(VESSEL'S LETTERHEAD PAPER)
PORT
DATE:
MESSRS
(COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS OF STEVEDORES)
Dear Sirs,
May this letter serve to request you to effect proper stowage of the cargo
which the vessel is to load at the port of ..................................under
charterparty dated ................................. and devote your best endeavours
for stowage to be effected without negligence from the part of your employees.
All the bags of the cargo after handling by the stevedores must be
stowed in place in the holds in an undamaged condition, and therefore, bags
damaged in any way, or with loss of contents or without marks must be taken ashore and be replaced by other bags.
For your guidance, herein mentioned charterparty provides in
clause..that: hereby invite you to comply with the provisions of this clause
and cooperate closely with me for the purpose of succeeding with a proper
stowage of the cargo.
Yours faithfully,
Master
III. Letter asking the Stevedoring Company to strictly comply
with Master's intructions regarding the discharge of the cargo.

(BAGGED CARGOES)
(VESSEL'S LETTERHEAD PAPER)
PORT:
DATE:
MESSRS
(COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS OF STEVEDORES)
Dear Sirs,
I hereby kindly wish to draw your attention to charterparty Cl..... which
provides that the Stevedores will be considered as Owners' servants and

57

that Receivers are not responsible for any negligence, default or error in
judgement of the Stevedores employed.
I would therefore request you to strictly comply with my instructions regarding the discharge of the cargo, which are as follows:
1. No dog hooks to be used during discharge.
2. No cargo gear to be rearranged without the duty officer having been
previously notified.
3. No bags to be broken by your employees.
4. Any cargo damage to be reported before cargo is handled by the stevedores.
5. Please name your responsible foremen who will be empowered to
sign cargo damage reports for damage incurred by the stevedores.
6. Please advise in writing what are your contracted responsibilities regarding damage to cargo effected by your employees.
7. Kindly acknowledge receipt of this letter by signing and returning
copy attached.
Thanking you, I am,
Yours faithfully,
Master
IV.Letter protesting against the damage of the cargo and bad
condition of the bags after negligent handling by the Stevedores.

(BAGGED CARGOES).
(VESSEL'S LETTERHEAD PAPER)
PORT:
DATE:
MESSRS
(COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS OF SHIPPERS)
Dear Sirs,
I wish to refer to governing charter party, per which clean on board Bills
of Lading are to be signed by Master.
In this connection, I wish to tender you an official notification, that in order to comply with this charter party term, all the cargo must be in good order and condition and without any damage or defect whatsoever.
Consequently, any bags which are damaged, torn, missing contents or
defective in any way whatsoever, must be withdrawn by your goodselves
and must be replaced by other bags, which shall be in good order and condition.

58

As you know the vessel is loading on the basis of FREE IN term, consequently, the condition of the bags must be good after handling by the Stevedores and at the moment that the bags become stowed in the holds.
I fully expect that you will consider carefully my present notice and that
you will do all the necessary, so that no damaged bags will be stowed on
board whatsoever and I will be accordingly enabled to sign the clean on
board /L required by charter party, to all parties satisfaction.
Kindly acknowledge receipt, by signing and returning copy of this letter.
Yours faithfully
Master
V. Letter advising that there has been found a difference in the
number of bags locaded between the shore tally and the ship's tally.
(BAGGED CARGOES)
(VESSEL'S LETTERHEAD PAPER)
PORT:
DATE:
MESSRS (COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS OF SHIPPERS)
Dear Sirs,
This is to place into notice that there has been found a difference in the
number of bags loaded between the shore tally and the ship's tally.
Such difference is mentioned as ship's remarks at the daily tally reports
and up to this date is as follows:
(Date...........................)
(No. of Bags per Ship's Tally....................)
(No. of Bags per Short Shipped................)
(Date..................... etc, etc.)
I hereby request you to provide promptly the number of bags short shipped,
failing which I hereby notify you that I will be obliged to insert in the Bill of
Lading the number of bags short shipped.
Yours faithfully,
Master
Received by Shippers...............................
(Complete name and title in the Company)

59

VI. Letter advising the Agents about failure to compaly terms and
conditions of the Charter Party.
(VESSEL'S LETTERHEAD PAPER)
PORT:
DATE:
MESSRS
(COMPLETE NAME AND ADDRESS OF AGENTS)
Dear Sirs,
Further to my letter of...................... .receipt of which was acknowledged by your Mr............................ I am very much concerned to realise that
you are failing to comply with requirement contained therein, namely:
Your failure to comply as above constitutes a breach of the terms and
conditions of the charter party dated ......................and most regretfully I am
obliged to hold you and your principals, the Charterers, responsible for all
loss and/or damage incurred to Owners, reserving at the same time all Owners rights for recourse.
Yours faithfully,
Master.
Received:
Date: ...................................
Name:..................................
Capacity:..............................
CC: Timecharterers Agents

60

UNIT 10
FULL FREIGHT
VOCABULARY:
lay days
demurrage
dispatch

[lei,deiz]
[dim+rid(]
[disp!t,]

stipulate
dispute
refer
arbitration
lien

[stipjuleit]
[dispju:t]
[rif#:]
[,a:bitrei,#n]
[li#n]

,

.

I. Read the text.


EXT.
Full freight is usually paid on delivery of cargo. However, in many cases
part of the freight is paid in the port of loading.
Charter-Party provides for the rate of loading the ship, that is, it stipulates how many tons of cargo should be loaded during a working day.
Knowing the rate of loading one can easily calculate how many days will
be required for loading. This period of time is called lay days. If loading is
not completed during lay days the ship is considered to be on demurrage.
The charterers in this case are to pay to shipowners money for delay in
loading. If loading is completed earlier than it was planned by lay time, the
shipowners will pay dispatch money to the Charterers. This dispatch is paid
at half demurrage rate.
The same considerations apply to discharging the cargo. If the cargo
was discharged ahead of the laytime, the carrier will pay to charterers dispatch money. If later, than planned by laytime, the charterers are to pay to
the carrier for demurrage.
There may be cases, when damage to or loss of goods or delay in delivery results from causes beyond the carrier's or charterers' control, for example, owing to strike, war or ice conditions. In such case the loss is compensated by the Insurance Company.
The shipowners have a lien upon the cargo. This means that they
may detain the cargo until the freight and other charges are paid by
Charterers.
Any dispute arising under Charter Party shall be referred to arbitration.
II. Answer the following questions on the above text:

61

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

When full freight is usually paid?


May freight be paid sometimes in the port of loading?
What is meant by the term rate of loading or discharging?
What can this rate help to calculate?
What do we call lay days or laytime?
In what case is the ship considered to be on demurrage?
Who shall pay money for delay in loading?
To whom is this money paid?
In what case should dispatch money be paid and to whom?
At what rate is dispatch money usually paid?
Is demurrage or dispatch paid for discharging the cargo?
If the cargo was discharged ahead of lay time who should pay dispatch money and to whom?
If the cargo was discharged after planned laytime who should pay
demurrage and to whom?
Who is to compensate for losses sustained by ship or cargo owing to
war, strike or ice conditions?
In what case may the carrier detain the cargo?
To whom are the disputes under charter party referred to?

III. Ask questions using the model.


MODEL: We shall start loading as soon as the cargo has been brought
alongside.
When will you start loading?
1. We shall deliver you the cargo as soon as you have paid the freight.
2. The captain will sign Bills of Lading as soon as the cargo has been
taken aboard.
3. We shall resume loading as soon as the strike has been over.
4. The ship will proceed to another port as soon as loading has been
completed.
IV. Ask questions using the model:
MODEL: The captain asked for cash money to pay expenses.
What did the captain ask money for?
1. We used a shore crane to discharge extra-weights.
2. They commenced work at 6 a. m. to complete loading earlier.
3. The dockers brought the barge alongside to start discharging.
4. The ship shifted to another berth to get fresh water.
5. He sent a radiogram to inform about that delay.
V. Ask questions using the model.

62

MODEL: They loaded the cargo at the rate of 2000 tons a day.
At what rate did they load the cargo?
1.
2.
3.
4.

The ship discharged her cargo at the rate of 2500 tons a day.
Tidal streams run there at the rate of 3 knots.
The freight was paid at the current rate of exchange.
They calculated freight at the rate of 25 pence per ton.

VI. Additional text.


Charter Party provides for the time of loading and discharging. This time
is called laydays or layhours (for tankers) or, in general, laytime. The laytime
is calculated on the basis of average rate of loading and discharging. This
rate means how many tons of cargo can be loaded or discharged by the ship
every working day.
If actual loading is completed later than it was planned by the laytime,
the ship is said to be on demurrage.
In this case the charterers shall pay to shipowners for delay in loading.
If, on the contrary, actual loading takes less time than it was planned, the
carrier shall pay to Charters dispatch money.
Usually dispatch money is paid at half demurrage rate.
VII. Say it in English:
, .
, , . .
,
.
.
,
.
,
.

. , -,
.

63

UNIT 11
NOTICE OF READINESS
VOCABULARY:
notice of readiness
secure
in accordance with
term
expire
accept
surveyor
sign
signature

[redinis]
[sikju#]
[#k*:d#ns]
[t#:m]
[ikspai#]
[#ksept]
[s#:vei#]
[sain]
[signit,#]

...
,
/ /

I. Read the text.


EXT.
In foreign ports the ship's administration has to contact many official organizations and persons in order to secure normal work of the ship.
Apart from numerous business talks, the ship's officers often have to exchange official letters with shore organizations, especially with the ship's
agent.
First of all, in accordance with Charter Party terms, the ship is to send
notices of readiness to load or discharge the cargo. This should be done
immediately on arrival at the port. Usually a notice of readiness contains the
following information: the name of the ship, time of arrival, the number of
berth at which the ship is moored, description and quantity of cargo, time of
the beginning and expiring of laydays.
As a rule, notices of readiness are sent to shippers or consignees
through the ships agents. Notices of readiness are important formal documents, because the laytime begins to count some hours later from the moment when the notice has been accepted. As stated in Charter Party, lay
days shall commence at 1 p. m. if notice is accepted before noon. Lay days
will commence at 8 a. m. next working day, if notice is accepted during office
hours after noon.
Official invitation of a surveyor, or of a representative of some repair
shop to come aboard the ship is also written as a formal letter.
Receipts for money or other valuable things received aboard should be
also written in a formal way.
It should be noted, that all the letters which are sent by a ship shall be
signed by the master of that ship.
II. Answer the following questions on the text above:

64

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Whom does the ship's administration have to contact in a foreign


port?
What is the aim of these contacts?
Do the officers have only to speak with foreign officials?
With whom do they have to exchange official letters most of all?
According to what document is the ship to send notices of readiness?
When should notices of readiness be sent?
What information does a notice of readiness contain?
To whom are the notices addressed?
Through whom are they usually sent?
When will the laytime commence if the notice is accepted before
noon?
And when will the laytime commence if the notice is accepted after
noon?
In what way should official invitations be sent?
To whom may such invitations be sent?
In what way should receipts be written?
Who shall sign all the official letters sent by a ship?

III. Ask questions using the model.


MODEL: The vessel is (was) to arrive here on Monday.
When is (was) the vessel to arrive here?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The notice is to be sent tomorrow.


He was to work there last Friday.
They were to discharge the cargo yesterday.
The cargo was to be received here last week.
The notices were to be accepted at 10.00 a. m.

IV. Ask questions using the model.


MODEL: We have (had) to make repairs in Naples.
Where do (did) you have to make repairs?
1. We have to anchor in that bay.
2. She had to stay in the hospital.
3. The vessel had to discharge part of the cargo.
4. He has to stay at home.
5. They had to pay freight in France.
V. Ask questions using the model.
MODEL: We are ready to discharge the cargo of Cotton.
What kind of cargo are you going to discharge?

65

1.
2.
3.
4.

The ship is ready to discharge Fuel Oil.


We are ready to discharge Sugar.
They were ready to load Rails.
The barge was ready to load Rubber.

VI. Additional text.


In foreign ports we shall have to contact different people. Besides ordinary business talk we shall have to write official letters. Such letters are required in order to secure normal work of the ship. First of all, when the ship
arrives in the port, the second mate is to prepare notices of readiness. These
notices must be signed by the Master. When the ship's agent comes aboard,
these notices will be handed over to him. His duty is to accept them on behalf of the consignees or shippers. Later on he is to deliver them to addressees.
VII. Say it in English:

. ,
. ,

.
.
. ,
, ,
.
.
.

66

UNIT 12
ROUTINE SHIPS CORRESPONDENCE
NOTICES OF READINESS
I. Notice of Readiness of the ship to commence Loading cargo.
PORT
DATE 6 th.SEPTEMBER, 2000
MESSRS. INFLOT
Dear Sirs,
S.S. m/v "INCHMULL"
In conformity with Charter Party, Dated, ... I, the master of the above
named Vessel, herewith beg to inform you that the said Vessel arrived at the
port of ................................................................ at 09.20 a.m. on the 6th
September 2000, and is ready to commence loading cargo.
You are, therefore, kindly requested to commence loading immediately.
Commending the above to your prompt attention.
Yours faithfully,
Master.
Received for delivery to the Shippers at 10.00 6th Sept. 2000
Acknowledged
dated 6th Sept. 2000
Charterers.
This statement to be signed in duplicate by charterers (shippers' consignees or their authorized agent) and owners (Captain, Chief Officer or authorized owners' agent) and one to be held by each party Copy to be forwarded to owners' office (Williamson & Co., Ltd,, Hong Kong) by first opportunity.
II. Notice of Readiness of the ship to load/discharge her cargo.
N.O.R.
TLX / (CABLE NOTICE OF READINESS)
TO CHARTERERS AGENTS
HEREBY TENDER NOTICE READINESS ARRIVED .......................... .(Port)
TODAY...................................(Date and hour) READY ALL RESPECTS TO
(LOAD/DISCHARGE CARGO) ACCORDANCE CHARTER PARTY ...

67

..(Date)
ACCT (CHRRS)
STOP PLEASE CONFIRM ACCEPTANCE
MASTER...........................(Name of Vessel)

C.C. CHARTERERSC.C. OWNERSC.C. OWNERS' PROTECTIVE AGENTSIII. Notice of Readiness of the ship to comence
Loading/discharg her cargo.
N.O.R.
(WRITTEN NOTICE OF READINESS)
MV"............................................"
Messrs.
Shippers/Shippers agents
(Complete name and address of
Receivers/Receivers agents
NOTICE OF READINESS
I.....................Master of m/v ....................................", herewith notify ou that
my ship has duly arrived at.......... ....... ...... . .on the...............
......................... 2000..... at..............hours, and is in every respect ready to
commence loading/discharging a cargo of.................................................
according to charterparty dated .........................................................
Your acknowledgement is requested below.
Master
(STAMP)
NOTICE TENDERED ON..............................Hours. .........
NOTICE ACCEPTED ON . ...........................Hours.. ........
Name of Company and signing party in full...............................................
IV. Notice of Readiness of the ship's arrival at part and that the ship
is ready to commence loading/discharging
N.O.R.
TELEX OR WRITTEN N.O.R.
Messrs. - Shippers/Shippers agents
(Complete name and address of)
Receivers/Receivers agents

68

NOTICE
OF
READINESS
OF
M/V
.................................
I,..................................., MASTER OF THE GOOD (FLAG) MOTORSHIP M/V ..........................HEREBY NOTIFY YOU THAT MY SHIP
HAS DULY ARRIVED AT THE PORT OF...................... AND HAS ANCHORED AT THE DESIGNATED BY (PORT) AUTHORITY ANCHORAGE
ON THE ................. AT ..........HRS LOCAL TIME AND IS IN EVERY RESPECT READY TO COMMENCE (LOADING/DISCHARGING) A CARGO
OF (INSERT CGO WEIGHT AND CGO DESCRIPTION) ACCORDING TO
(INSERT NAME OF CHRRSJ CHARTERPARTY DATED ................
PER ABOVE I HEREBY TENDER MY NOTICE OF READINESS FOR
TODAY (INSERT DATE) AT.................HRS LOCALTIME.
PSE ENDORSE YR ACCEPTANCE FOR THIS DATE AND TIME THE
MASTER (INSERT NAME OF CHRRS AGENTS) ARE HEREBY REQUESTED TO ACKNOWLEDGE RECEIPT AND CONFIRM THAT THIS
N.O.R. IS DULY AND PROMPTLY SUBMITTED TO THE CARGO (SHIPPERS/RECEIVERS) INCLUDING DATE AND TIME THIS WAS EFFECTED.
KIND REGARDS

TO: CHRRS AGENTS


CC: CHRRS
CC: OWNERS
CC: OWNERS PROTECTIVE AGENTS
V.Notice of Readiness of the ship to load the cargo.
BASS
30.09.1999
TO THE ___________________
____________________
____________________
_____________________
NOTICE

OF

READINESS

DEAR SIRS.
I AM MASTER OF THE M/V "RYSHKANY" HEREWITH
G TO..INFORM YOU. THAT THE UESSEL UNDER MY COMMAND HAS
ARRIVED AT THE PORT OF ON THE 29 of September 1999 AT
23.45 HRS LT FREE PRATIQUE RECEIVED AND SHIP IN ALL RESPECTS READY TO LOAD CARGO OF STEEL IN ACCORDANCE WITH
TERMS OF CHARTER PARTY
YOURS FAITHFULLY,
MASTER OF THE M/V "RYSHKANY"
____________

69

NOTICE OF READINESS TENDERED ____________


NOTICE OF READINESS ACCEPTED ___30.09.99___
VI.Translate the following Notices of Readiness into English.
1. ,
,
Be- " ,
,

14.0 2 10.00.12

5 1995,
-.
,
K
2. , .
/
, ,
.. 1517 .

, : - 5,55 ; - 6,02
; 2.5 .
,

.
,
K
3. , .
, 3
1999 08.00 15.30 9 .

. .
,
K
4. c, .
26
, ,

70

19 2000, ,
,
, .
,
K
5. ,
, ,
, 3 , 12 ,
.

, 5.01.2000;
,
.
, 2 , 08.00 14
2000., 5 , , ,
. ,
(
, ) ,
.
,
K

71

UNIT 13
OFFICIAL LETTERS
VOCABULARY:
official letters
bunker
fresh water
technical supplies
provision
conversation
order
avoid
misunderstanding
price
pay attention to ...
exact
dimention
expenses
arrangement
exchange
safe handling
detain
in case
victuals
spare parts
winch
crane

[*'fI,#l]
['b+)k#]
[fre,]
[s#'plai]
[pr#'vi(#n]
[,k*nv#'sei,#n]
['*:d#]
[#'v*id]
[,mis+nd#'sf!nd]
[prais]
[#'ten,#n]
[ig'z!kt]
[dai'men,#n]
[ik'spens]
[#'reind(m#nt]
[iks't,eind(]
[seIf]
[di'tein]
[keis]
['vitl]
[,spe#pa:t]
[wint,]
[krein]

I. Read the text.


EXT.
Ships may need bunker, fresh water, technical supplies and provisions
when in foreign port. In a conversation with the agent all the details of buying
these things can be cleared and agreed upon. But when ordering these
goods official letters should be written to avoid any misunderstanding in future. In such letters the following details should be stated: correct description
of the goods, exact quantity of them, the time when the goods should be
delivered to the ship. Very often reference is made as to the price at which
the captain wants to buy the goods. In ordering technical supplies due attention should be paid to exact characteristic and dimensions of the things you
want to buy. For example, when ordering even such ordinary things as

72

brushes you should state whether you require round or flat brushes of 2" or
4" in size.
Official letters should also be sent when you want some person or organization to do something for your ship. This may be the case, for instance,
when you want your agent to pay some expenses or to do some work for
your ship.
Extra-weights, as a rule, are loaded and discharged by shore or floating
cranes. Due arrangements should be made in this case with shippers or
receivers of the cargo. Formal exchange of letters in this case is important
not only because the work is connected with expenses and safe handling of
the cargo. It is also important because it is connected with effective use of
laytime.
If freight is not paid in time the ship has to detain some cargo, or, as it is
juridically called, "to exercise a lien upon the goods". The Master's actions in
such a case should be accompanied by exchange of official letters.
II. Answer the following questions on the text above:
1. What may ships need in foreign ports?
2. In what way can the details of buying supplies be cleared and
agreed upon.
3. Why should official letters be written when ordering supplies?
4. Who is entitled to sign such letters?
5. What particulars should be stated in these letters?
6. To what particulars should attention be paid when ordering technical
supplies?
7. What should you state when ordering ordinary brushes?
8. In what other cases should you send official letters?
9. Should you write a letter or you can simply tell your agent to pay expenses for your account?
10. By what means are extra-weights usually loaded and discharged?
11. Why is the exchange of official letters important in this case?
12. What else is that exchange of letters connected with?
13. What does the captain have to do if the freight is not paid?
14. By what should his actions be accompanied in such a case?
III. Ask questions using the model.
MODEL: The captain had to stop loading.
Why did he have to stop loading?
1. That ship had to anchor in a small bay.
2. They had to re-pack the goods twice.
3. The consignees had to pay freight.

73

4. We had to continue discharging under demurrage.


5. They had to send that letter again.
IV. Answer the following questions using the model.
MODEL: Did they have to buy provisions in that port?
Yes, they had to. They had no other way out.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Did the captain have to agree to that price?


Did you have to stay there for a week's time?
Did he have to deliver spare parts earlier?
Did you have to order victuals, in that port?
Did the shippers have to use shore crane?

V. Ask questions using the model.


MODEL: Lay days were to expire on Monday last.
When were the lay days to expire?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The shipchandler was to deliver vegetables at 5.00 p. m.


The agent was to instruct shipchandlers on Tuesday.
He was to arrange discharging extraweights yesterday.
The consignees were to receive the cargo at noon.
These goods were to be shipped two days ago.

VI. Additional text.


Sometimes ships have to buy technical supplies and provisions in foreign ports. They are to arrange this business through ship agents. After preliminary conversation with the agent they have to write official letters. To
order provisions they are to state what kind of victuals and what quantity
they require. As ships stay in foreign ports only for a short time the master
should also state the date when these provisions should be delivered
aboard. When ordering technical supplies exact characteristic of the goods
should be stated. Official letters should also be sent when the master wants
his agent to do something for his ship.
VII. Say it in English:

.
.

. , - ,
.

74

,
. ,
,
. ,
, .

UNIT 14
SEA PROTESTS
VOCABULARY:
sea protest
to lodge a sea protest
to state /to note/ a sea
protest
to go to law
to settle a dispute /a
claim/

['pr#utest]
[l*d(]
[steit]

notary office
notary public
to notify
local authorities
to take precautions

['n#ut#ri]
['p+blik]
['n#utifai]

to sustain damage or
loss
to fear
to suspect
to hold smb. responsible for
to hold a survey on
to appoint
to give evidence
witness
sworn testimony
to substantiate

['d!mid(]

[l*:]

[fi]
[ri'sp*ns#b#l]
['s#:vei]
[#'p*int]
['evid#ns]
['witnis]
['testim#ni]
[s#b'st!n,ieit]

I. Read the text.

75

ece

EXT.
In every case of an evident or suspected damage to cargo during the
voyage, the captain of the ship is to note a Sea Protest within 24 hours of
arrival and before breaking bulk. The Sea Protest is made before a notary
public or the consul, or before other local authorities. On noting the Sea Protest the Master of the ship is to call in a surveyor to hold a survey on hatches. The Master of the ship is also acquaint the receivers of the cargo with
this fact in writing. In this case the receivers may appoint a surveyor if they
wish.
The hatches should be opened and checked in the presence of the surveyor to prove that they had been properly battened down and covered before the voyage. If the surveyors report states that the hatches were properly covered and secured and the cargo was properly dunnaged and stowed,
the ship is discharged from responsibility for the damage.
At court the sworn testimony of the Master and other witnesses should
be substantiated by the entries in the logbook. For this purpose extracts from
the logbook should be taken and produced. The Harbour Master should
make an official announcement for the information of all concerned about the
Sea Protest declared.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. Under what circumstances is the Master of the ship to lodge a sea
protest?
2. What are the main points that should be taken into consideration
while drawing up a sea protest?
3. Within how many hours is the Master of the ship to note a sea protest?
4. Who signs the sea protest?
5. What data are usually mentioned in the sea protest?
6. Why is the true copy of the logbook required?
7. Why is the Master to call in a surveyor on board ship?
8. For what purpose should the hatches be opened and checked?
9. What official document is the surveyor to issue?
10. Why is a copy of the surveyor's report be retained by the Master on
the ship?
Ill. Ask questions using the model.
MODEL: The master of the tanker is to note a sea protest in the port of
Odessa.
- Who is to note a sea protest?
1. A surveyor is to hold a survey on hatches Nos 2 and 3 of the vessel.

76

2. The Harbour Master is to make an official announcement for the information of all concerned parties about the sea protest declared.
3. The Chief Mate is to give evidence at the court today.
4. The Master of the vessel is to retain a copy of the surveyor's report
on the ship for further reference.
IV. Use the following phrases in sentences of your own:
to belong
to be bound for
to suffer
to take precautions
to encounter
incident /occurence/
accident
to declare
by virtue of
a true account
to lodge se protest
to bear in mind
to acquaint smb. with smth.
rolling and pitching
heavy seas
to ship water fore and aft
spraying
overall
able seaman

...

,
,

-,
-,


,
- -

1-

V. Read the following sea protests and express your opinion on the
subject.

I
The Notary Office
Odessa, Ukraine

S/S
at Odessa, Ukraine
February 28th, 2000
STATEMENT OF SEA PROTEST

I, ... Master of the m/v ... under the flag of the United States of America
belonging to the American Trading & Production Corporation, New York,
Gross Tonnage 10,575, Net Tonnage 6,433, sailed from New Orleans, USA,

77

on February 7, 2000 to Odessa, Ukraine Freeport, Bahamas, and Augusta,


Italy with a full load of bulk wheat of 16,275 Long Tons.
During the voyage the vessel met with stormy weather and heavy seas,
the ship suffered rolling and pitching heavily shipping water fore and aft and
spraying overall.
All precautions were taken to save the cargo and the ship but, nevertheless, fearing damage to the cargo during the bad weather, I state the present
sea protest.
Master
Witnesses:
1. Lawrence Fox Second Officer
2. Karl Peterson Chief Engineer
3. Tom WhiteAble Seaman

II
MARINE PROTEST
BE IT KNOWN AND MADE MANIFEST TO ALL WHOM IT DOES OR
SHALL OR MAY CONCERN THAT on the 20th day of March in the year of
one thousand nine hundred and ninety nine BEFORE ME ... PERSONALLY
APPEARED:
Captain ,
Master of the m/v ..., of a burthen of 3,726 gross tons and 1,819 net
tons, registered in the port of ..., Official No. 764, International Call Letters
USLE, who did duly and solemnly declare and state as follows, that is to say:
THAT this Appearer and the rest of the crew of the said vessel set sail in
her from ... on the 9th day of March 1999 bound for ... with 1165 metric tons
of general cargo, the vessel being then tight, staunch and strong, well
manned, victualled and sound, and in every respect fit to perform the said
intended voyage.
THAT at 20.00 hours on March 9, 1999 the vessel sailed from ... An air
temperature of +10C was recorded during that day.
THAT on March 13, 1999, at noon the vessel was at 4500'N and
3400'W. During the day, she encountered port winds of force 7 which
caused her to pitch and roll heavily up to 30 on either side in a rough sea of
force 6 and a heavy 18 foot swell and to take water over her deck and
hatches.
THAT on March 14, 1999, at noon the vessel was at 4600'N and
4000'W. During the day, she encountered port winds of force 8 which
caused her to pitch and roll heavily up to 30 on either side in a rough sea of
force 6 and a heavy 10 foot swell and to take water over her deck and
hatches.

78

THAT on March 15, 1999, at noon the vessel was at 4600'N and
4300'W. During the day, she encountered port winds of force 10 which
caused her to pitch and roll heavily up to 35 on either side in a rough sea of
force 8 and a heavy 20 foot swell and to take water over her deck and
hatches.
THAT the vessel arrived at Section 19 in the Harbour of ... at 21.00
hours on March 19, 1999.
AND NOW fearing damage to the hull and machinery of the vessel and
to her cargo from any or all of the above incidents, this Appearer does protest and I, the said ... do also protest against the aforesaid bad weather,
gales, storms, accidents, incidents and occurences, and against all and every matter and thing had and met with as aforesaid, and all loss or damage
occasioned thereby reserving the right to extend this protest at a time and
place convenient.
I, ..., Master, do solemnly and sincerely declare that the foregoing statement is correct and contains a true account of the facts and circumstances.
AND I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing it to be true
and knowing that it is of the same force and effect as if made under oath and
by virtue of "The Canada Evidence Act".
THUS DECLARED AND PROTESTED, in due form of Law, before me,
the said ... , the day and year first above written.
DECLARED to before me
at ..................................
this 20th day of March, 1999
Master

III
EXTRACT FROM A SEA PROTEST
On November 26, 1999, at noon the vessel was at 4939.5' and
0040.5'. During the day the vessel encountered starboard bow winds of
forces 9/10 that caused her to pitch and roll heavily up to 20 on either side
in rough seas of force 7 and heavy 20 foot swells and to take water overall.
During the aforementioned heavy weather the vessel was obliged to reduce
the engine speed.
On November 30, 1999, at noon the vessel was at 4343.6'N and
0501.2'W. During the day the vessel encountered starboard quarter winds
of forces 7/8 that caused her to pitch and roll heavily up to 22 on either side
in rough seas of force 6 and heavy 20 foot swells and to take water overall.
During the aforementioned heavy weather the vessel was obliged to reduce
the engine speed. An air temperature of +08C was recorded during the day.
On December 6, 1999, at noon the vessel was at 3904.8'N and
4736.5'W. During the day the vessel encountered SE'ly fob lowing winds of

79

forces 8/9 that caused her to pitch and roll very heavily up to 35 on either
side in rough seas of force 7 and heavy 20 foot port swells and to take water
overall. During the aforementioned heavy weather the vessel was obliged to
reduce the engine speed.
On December 7, 1999, at noon the vessel was at 4101.1'N and
5008.5'. During the day the vessel encountered rolling up to 25 on either
side as well as rough 21 port swells that caused her to take water overall.
During the aforementioned heavy weather the vessel was obliged to reduce
the engine speed.
During the voyage the air and water temperatures varied from 00 (November 26, 1999) to +22C (December 6, 1999).
The Notary Office
Odessa,
Ukraine

M/V
at Odessa, Ukraine
February 28th,1999

IV
TRUE COPY OF THE LOGBOOK
February 15, 1999 en route from Freeport, Bahamas to Augusta, Italy.
15.00 wind W, force 11, sea conf. vis. reduced to 0, heavy rain, wind
veering to N force 1011. Bow lockout posted, commenced sounding fog
signals.
20.00 wind W, force 10, vessel rolling and pitching and shipping seas
across main deck.
24.00 clear sky, vis. good, winds WNW with mountainous sea and swell.
Main deck awash with heavy seas.
February 16, 1999.
04.00 wind W, force 8, rough sea, cloudy, good visibility, WNW gale with
high W'ly sea & swell causing vessel to roll and yaw. Main deck awash fore
and aft.
Master
V
NOTE OF PROTEST
M/V
On this Thirty-first day of August One Thousand Nine Hundred and Ninety nine appeared before me John Edward Leslie Bryson, Notary Public, duly
authorized, admitted and sworn and practising in Mombasa in the Republic
of Kenya, Master of the vessel ..., a motoship owned and operated by
Messrs. ..., registered at ..., the registered number being 1212, gross regis-

80

tered tonnage of 10,380 tons and nett registered tonnage of 5,670 tons
which sailed on a voyage from ODESSA on the Third day of August, One
Thousand Nine Hundred and Ninety nine bound for HODEIDAH by way of
MOMBASA, ADEN and PORT SUDAN, and arrived at MOMBASA on the
Twenty-ninth day of August, One Thousand Nine Hundred and Ninety nine
at 06.30 hours laden with General Cargo. During the said voyage on the
12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, and 23rd days of
August, One Thousand Nine Hundred and Ninety nine the vessel encountered strong winds of gale force with rough and heavy seas which caused
the vessel to pitch and roll heavily and ship water overall with consequent
considerable changes of water and air temperatures. On the said Twentysecond day of August a fire started in Tweendeck No. I hold owing to spontaneous combustion of a cargo of matches which necessitated the use of
fire-hoses before the fire was extinguished. The Master by reason of the
foregoing, fearing damage to the ship and cargo by the fire and water, hereby gives notice of his intention to protest and causes this Note to be entered
in this Register, reserving the right to extend this protest as need or occasion
may arise.
Master of the m/v ...
Notary Public
VI
SEA PROTEST
ON THIS SEVENTEENTH DAY of the month of November, in the year
one thousand nine hundred and ninety nine.
BEFORE ME, STENLY WRIGHT, the undersigned Notary for the Province of Quebec, in Canada, practising in the city of Quebec, in the said Province, personally came and appeared;
G ... Master Mariner, and Master of the motor vessel called the " " registered at the port of ... under the official number M-27498, of the burthen of
10,657 tons (gross register) or thereabouts, now lying in the Port of Quebec.
The Master declared to have sailed with and in command of the said
ship the m/v "" from the port of Quebec on the sixteenth day of November,
(1999) t about 00.30 hours, the said ship being loaded with a cargo of grain
in bulk, 12,839 metric tons, bound for the port of Havana, Cuba.
That at 09.51 the same day, November sixteenth, while the ship was in
position: Latitude 48 degrees, 28.16 minutes North, Longitude 69 degrees,
04.2 minutes West the Spanish ship "M ..." struck the starboard side of the
m/v "" in way of hold No. 2, slid along the side of the vessel to the accommodation in way of the bridge where she made a deep indentation. The vessels then parted. The m/v " ..." stood by for about one hour and then re-

81

turned to Quebec where she arrived at about 03.00 hours the next morning,
November seventeenth.
The said Master, declaring damage to his ship and fearing damage to
cargo, gives notice of his intention of protesting and causes this minute of all
and singular premises to be recorded in the office of the undersigned Notary,
and enters his Note of Protest accordingly, reserving to himself the right to
extend the same at time and place convenient.
THUS DONE AND EXECUTED at the said city of Quebec, on the day,
month and year first above written, these presents recorded in the office of
the undersigned Notary under the Number three thousand and fourteen.
IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF the said Appearer has signed these presents with me, the said Notary, after due reading hereof.
(SIGNED) G ..., MASTER
STENLY RIGHT, NOTARY
A true copy of the original remaining on record in my office.

82

UNIT 15
ROUTINE SHIPS CORRESPONDENCE
I. Notice of Protest about damage to the cargo under discharge.
M/V ..
PORT:
DATE:
TO
MESSRS..........
(CARGO RECEIVERS)
C/0
URGENT
NOTICE OF PROTEST
This is to express my strong protest that your labours have caused damage to the ............................................under discharge, as it is described at
the cargo damage reports attached hereto, which are folly witnessed and
submitted to parties concerned.
I hereby invite you to attend promptly, so that no more damage is
caused to the cargo by your labours and no more pilferage.
I hereby reserve all the rights of the Owners for the recovery of all loss
and damage that may be caused to them, due to the mentioned cargo damage.
Yours faithfully,
Master.
CC: CARGO RECEIVERS AGENTS
CC: OWNERS AGENTS
CC: OWNERS P&I CLUB REPRES.
CC: OWNERS

83

II. Note of Sea Protest about damages to cargo and/or the vessel.
PORT
DATE
M/V
NOTE OF SEA PROTEST
I, the undersigned, Captain ............................ Master of the good
M/V.............registered in .............. under official No.................. of gross tonnage ............ and net tonnage ......... tons, solemnly declare that:
The said vessel under my command, being tight, staunch and substantially seaworthy for such a vessel and intended voyage, sufficiently manned
and equipped with engine and machinery in good order sailed from the port
of........... on ............................... at ........ hrs local time, having on board a
cargo of ............... m/t of ................properly stowed and trimmed in all holds,
destination port of...............
During the sea passage vessel encountered bad weather force ..........
beaufort with heavy seas causing vessel heavy pitching and rolling, shipping
seas on deck and over hatchcoamings as per deck log extract attached, on
the dates .........................
In consideration of above fearing damages to cargo and/or vessel, I
hereby note my protest against all or any damages, losses and consequences arising there from and reserve my right to extent same at time and place
convenient.
Vessel arrived at............... on .......................... at................ LT.
THE MASTER.
..
III. Sea protest about contact the ship.
STATEMENT OF SEA PROTEST
I,.................... the Master of the m/v under the flag of..
Gross Tonnage 15893, Net Tonnage 8092, registered in the port of .,
International Call Letters UUSW, sailed from the port of New York on July
12th, 1999, bound for Philadelphia with 6750 metric tons of general cargo,
the vessel being then tight, staunch and strong, well manned, victualled and
sound, and in all respects fit for the said intended voyage.
On July 14, 1999 approaching Philadelphia, with the pilot, Mr, J. Car, on
board, approximately at 00.15 I received through the pilot instruction from

84

the Port Authorities to proceed for berthing to Pier 18 of Camden Marine


Terminal and to berth starboard side alongside to berth. astern of the m/v
"Grand Canyon".
Approaching the assigned berth, I noticed that the ship moored to Berth
18 astern of which I was supposed to berth my ship was not properly lighted
from the sea side and her stern was completely dark. I called the attention of
the pilot Mr. Car to the fact, and had this fact duly recorded in the ship's deck
Log Book.
The above condition, together with the thick night fog, made it ex~
tremely difficult for us to determine the distance to the other ship's stern with
sufficient accuracy, and at 02.25 GMT, when 2 tugs were putting me into
position at my berth, I lightly contacted the "Grand Canyon's" port quarter
with my starboard bow.
At 02.30 on 14.07 1999 the vessel was safely moored at Pier 18 of
Camden Marine Terminal in the port of Philadelphia.
Though the crew has taken all precautions to safeguard the vessel and
the cargo, fearing losses connected with the incident, I declare this Sea Protest against claims and losses, reserving the right to extend this protest at a
time and place convenient.
THE MASTER.
IV. Sea protest about fire.
STATEMENT OF SEA PROTEST
I............. the Master of the m/v.under the flag of
..Gross Tonnage 15893, Net Tonnage 8092, registered at the port
of; ..International Call Letters UUSW, sailed on.1999 from Philadelphia bound for Jacksonville with 1352 metric tons of general cargo, the
vessel being then tight, staunch and strong, well manned, victualled and
sound, and in all respects fit for the said intended voyage.
At 09.15 GMT on ..........1999 abeam of Charleston in position 32 54.24
North and 078 16.8 West fire started in Hold 3 due to spontaneous ignition
of the cargo of mineral oil. One hour later the fire was extinguished by the
ship's crew by means of forcing carbon dioxide into the hold. As a result of
the fire the ship and the cargo sustained some damage.
The crew of the vessel have applied all means to safeguard the ship and
her cargo, but nevertheless, fearing damage to the cargo and the ship, and
losses in connection with the above accident, I declare this Sea Protest,
reserving the right to extend it at a time and place convenient.
THE MASTER.

85

V. Sea protest about a storm.


STATEMENT OF SEA PROTEST
I,..................., the Master of the m/v

under the flag


off. Gross Tonnage 15893, Net Tonnage 8092, registered at the port
of International Call Letters UUSW, sailed from the port of Mobile, Ala. USA on August 15,1999, bound for with 6750 metric tons of general cargo, the vessel being then tight, staunch and strong, well manned,
victualled and sound, and in all respects fit for the said intended voyage.
At 18,00 GMT on .............1999 in position Latitude 45 -20 North and
Longitude 015-10 West the ship encountered a heavy storm with stern
wind of Force 9-10 from WSW and a heavy swell up to 8 metres. As a
result of this, the vessel suffered heavy pitching and rolling up to 28 to
either side. At 20.00 GMT the vessel had to reduce her speed to 10
knots to reduce the rolling. At 23.00 GMT due to shifting of the cargo of
pipes in Holds 2 and 3 the vessel sustained a permanent list of 10 degrees to starboard and had to deviate to the port of refuge Breast. At
09.00 on August 26, 1999 the vessel was moored at Pier 18 in the port
of..
Though the crew has taken all precautions to save the vessel and the
cargo, fearing damage to the ship and the cargo from the above heavy
weather, and also losses connected with calling in at the port of refuge and
delay of the vessel, I declare this Sea Protest, reserving the right to extend
this protest at a time and place convenient.
THE MASTER.
VI. Letter of Protest against negligent work of stevedores.
TO STEVEDORING COMPANY
TIN CAN ISLAND PORT,
NIGERIA

NOVEMBER, 5th, 1999

LETTER OF PROTEST
Diar sirs,
Please be advised that due to negligence of your winch man who tried to
drag nets with cargo from under Hold NR. 4 corner by cargo runner a damage was caused to the cargo block of the crane.
As result the discharging provided with crane was suspended from November, 05, 1999 13:15 LT TILL NOVEMBER, 05, 1999 in order to crane
repairing by crew.

86

I have to hold the Stevedoring Company responsible for the damage


caused and time lost.
I require your winchman follow vessels instructions and not to try drag
the nets from under the holds corners.
Yours faithfully,
Captain.
Master of the
MV MAGNUS SINCERITY
VII. A form of a Report of Cargo Damage caused by Stevedores to
the ship.
M/V .
PORT:
DATE:
TIME:
TO
MESSRS
(STEVEDORING COMPANY
PERFORMING DISCHARGE ON BOARD)
M/V.
C/O...........
REPORT OF CARGO DAMAGE CAUSED BY STEVEDORES
Cargo:

Loaded:

C/PDD:

Hold No...........................
Name of Foreman .................................
Description of Damage:
..Bags torn by the Stevedores contents partly missing
Bags torn by the Stevedores and reconditioned contents
partly missing
..Bags emptied by Stevedores
.Kilos cargo missing due Stevedores Pilferage
.Kilos cargo spilled and lost during Stevedores handling
Ship's Witness....................................... Duty Officer
On same date submitted copy to:
1. Cargo Receivers
2. Cargo Receivers Agents
3. Stevedores' Port Office
4. Owner's P&I Club Local Repres.
5. Owner's P&I Club appointed Surveyor
6. Owners
THE MASTER.

87

UNIT 16
CLAIMS ON COLLISIONS
Vocabulary:
accident collision

International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972


1972
()

on behalf of
statutes for the merchant ships
irrespective of
to sue

-

-

to be obliged
to bring the suit to court

I. Read the text.


TEXT
The majority of accidents including collisions which occur to ships at sea
result from the fact that inexperienced deck officers sometimes violate, disregard or neglect the official statutes for the merchant ships.
The deck officers should always follow the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972. To minimize the risk of collisions at sea,
the deck officers should thoroughly study, perfectly understand and obey the
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972. These
Regulations are universally adopted and must be obeyed by all ships irrespective of flag, ownership, size, etc.
When a ship has sustained or caused some material damage or loss of
the cargo as a result of an accident, it is natural for the Master to seek a
guilty party to protect the ship's interests and make this party bear responsibility for the damage. According to laws of many countries a ship or her
owners may be sued for damages due to fault in collision. The responsibility
for the accident at sea or at the port rests with the guilty party. In cases when
the damage is not great and it is quite evident which of the ships is guilty, the
Masters of both vessels usually settle the dispute amicably. But if the dam-

88

age is rather considerable and the circumstances of the collision are not
quite clear, the captains of both vessels should settle the dispute either referred to arbitration or brought before the court. The court hears the case,
calls in the witnesses, examines and cross-examines them, inquires into the
ship's log books, collects evidence and passes a decision. The Maritime
Arbitration Commission settles disputes with regard to charter parties, contracts of carriage and marine insurance, arbitration agreements for cases of
collisions and salvage contracts.
The knowledge of these Regulations will certainly help the Master to
prove at any court that his actions were quite correct and reasonable. It will
also help the Master to show and prove fault of the guilty party in the collision. In most cases the action against the opposing party is brought by the
shipowners or by their representatives on behalf of the owners. The Master
is to report at once to his owners of the accident. The captain of a ship is
obliged to bring the suit to court himself.
II. Answer the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.
13.

What do the majority of accidents including collisions at sea result


from?
Why do accidents sometimes occur to ships at sea?
What Regulations should the deck officers know and obey?
What should they perfectly understand and obey?
What ships should obey the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972?
What responsibility does the Master of a ship make the guilty party
bear?
How do the Masters of both vessels usually settle the dispute when
the damage is insignificant?
What should they do when the damage to the ship is rather considerable and one of the ships sustained some material damage?
What Commission settles disputes of the Masters of ships?
What is the usual court procedure?
What may the knowledge of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 help the Master of a ship to prove at
any court?
Who is the captain of a ship to report to of the accident at once?
Who is obliged to bring the suit to court?

III. Change the following sentences from Direct into Idirect Speech
using the model:
Model: The Master of the Greek dry-cargo vessel "Sea Star" said to
us, "Will you pay for the damage of the cargo?"
The Master of the Greek dry-cargo vessel "Sea Star" asked

89

us if we would pay for the damage of the cargo.


1. The Chief-engineer said to the Superintendand, Will you repair the
main engine in dock?"
2. The agent said to us, "Will you call in the Customs officer and a surveyor to examine Hold No.1?"
3. The surveyor said to us, "Will you discharge your ship at berth No21
or No.25?
4. The Harbour Master said to the captain of a ship, Will you bring the
suit to court?
5. The agent said to the Masters of bulkers, "Will you settle the dispute
amicably or at court?
6. The arbitrator said to us, Will you prove that your actions are quite
correct and reasonable?"
7. The judge said to the captain of a passenger ship. "Will you invite
your witnesses at court next week?"
IV. Use the following word-combinations in the sentences of your
own:


to bring the suit to court


to sustain damage or loss
to sue
to settle a dispute amicably
to be obliged
to collect evidence
to seek a guilty party
to bear responsibility for the
damage
to bring the action against
to protect the ship's interests
at court

V. Read the following Master's claims on collisions and express


your opinion on the subject.
I
MARINE CASUELTY
TOKYO. 17TH MAY. 2000
TO THE MASTER OF THE TANKER "SEA WAYS"
PORT OF TOKYO,

90

JAPAN

Dear sirs,
Re: Collision of the m/v "Sea Ways" and the m/v "Sea Bird".
We hereby advise you that your tanker "Sea Ways" collided with our m/v
"Sea Bird" at 16.15 hrs. 17th May. 2000, in the passage of Uraga in the bay
of Tokyo.
In consequence thereof, our ship sustained considerable damage, details
of which are not ascertained at this stage.
The above collision took place solely due to neglect and fault on the part
of your ship. We therefore hold you responsible for the damage to our ship
and all the consequences arising from the above collision.
Yours faithfully,
Captain.
Master of the m/v Sea Bird.

II
Tokyo, 1st July, 2000
To the Master and/ or Owners
of the m/v "Victory",
Port of Tokyo,
Japan
Dear Sirs,
This is to advise you that the English vessel "Victory" under your agency,
collided with my ship, French tanker "Polar Star", in dense fog in the Uraga
Channel on 1st July, at 16.10 local time.
Exact position by bearing and radar distance, taken immediately after the
collision is: Kannansaki light buoy Number two, bearing 195 degrees, 0.7
miles off.
The m/t "Polar Star" was on passage from Kharg Island, to Yokohama
{Kawasaki}, Japan, with a full cargo of crude oil. Maximum draft about 59
fee.
I have to draw your attention to the fact that the collision should not
have occurred if the English vessel "Victory" had kept her course alongside
the recommended route in the fairway. The collision took place on the East
Side of the Middle Line of the Uraga Marking Buoys.
On the account of the foregoing, great damages have been sustained
to the m/t "Polar Star".
Kindly contact and advise the Master of the m/v "Victory" and their

91

Owners, that I on behalf of the Owners of this ship, the m/t "Polar Star", hold
you responsible for all damage to the ship and for all costs involved for surveys, repairs, time loss, and any other expenses arising from this incident.
Yours faithfully,
Captain.
Master of the m/v Polar Star
III
Hamburg, 11th July, 2000
To the Master and/or
Owners of the m/v "Panagiotis"
Port of Hamburg.
Dear Sir(s),
I wish to inform you, that on the 10th inst, while proceeding to Hamburg
under Pilot's direction we entered the area of dense fog and dropped anchor
in position 63 61'N, 10 00 at 10.00 hours GMT, waiting for the visibility to
improve. Immediately on anchoring we started giving prescribed fog signals
and setting proper lookout.
At 11.25 GMT we heard fog signals of a vessel under way. To attract attention of the oncoming vessel we started giving signals prescribed by the
International Regulations and showed flare-up light.
The approaching vessel which proved to be your ship "Panagiotis", as it
was found later, collided my ship. Your ship struck the starboard side of my
ship in way of Hold No5, causing a big hole and great damage described in
detail in the enclosed Surveyor Report.
Under the circumstances I have to hold you and your Owners responsible for the damage caused and the consequences which may arise therefrom, of which please take due note.
Yours faithfully,
Captain.
Master of the m/v Fantasy

92

IV
Rotterdam, 15th August, 2000
Messrs. H.Hush & Co., Ship Agents
26 Rue Victoria,
Rotterdam,
Holland.
Dear Sirs,
I would ask you kindly to inform the Harbour Master and all concerned
that by the present, I am in a position to protest against detention of my ship
in connection with the collision with the French m/v "Princess". As you know,
my vessel is a state-owned ship and has a priviledge of immunity, being exempt from liens.
I would ask you kindly to take all necessary measures to release my ship
from detainment.
Yours faithfully,
Master of the m/v Eleana.
VI. Translate the Masters statement into English.
:

, , 10.08.2000 15,45

3 30
30
, .
:
15.00 , , ,
-- 6 , 2
30 , 3000 .
.
15.41 30,
,
. 2-3 .
15.44, 30 ,
,
,
.
16.47, 6 ,
, ,
15.48 ,
.

93

15.50 30.

, 30 .
500 .
.
,
.
VII. Translate rejecting a claim about contact.


,

2 " "
02.30 14.07.00, :
,
, , , ,

.
-
. , .
,
, ,
-.
, .
.
,
.

94


1

( )

Appendix1
Shipping Documents
(in the original )

INDIA
INDIAN REGULATIONS FOR FREE PRATIQUE BY CABLE PROCEDURE AND CABLE FORMAT REQUIRED FOR OBTAINING FREE
PRATIQUE
MASTER MUST SEND A RADIO MESSAGE TO HEALTH OFFICER AT
DISCHARGING PORT FOR OBTAINING FREE PRATIQUE NOT LESS
THAN 12 HOURS AND NOT MORE THAN 24 HRS PRIOR ARRIVAL DISCHARGING PORT IN THE FLWG FORMAT
QUOTE
VSLS NAME, FLAG, CALL SIGN, ETA (INSERT NAME DISCHARGING
PORT AND ARRIVAL DATE/TIME) STOP TIME AND DAT DEP LAST
PORT AND ALL PORTS CALLED IN THE LAST 30 DAYS WITH DATES OF
DEPARTURE STOP MY MARITIME DECLARATION AF HEASTH ALL ANSWERS NEGATIVE STOP MEMBER OF CREW AND NATIONALITY STOP
ALL HEALTHY SHIP NOT CALLED ANY EAST AFRICAN PORTS OR ANY
OTHER YELLOW FEVER INFECTED AREA WITHIN 30 DAYS STOP NO
RAT NO MONKEYS ON BOARD STOP NO PERSON EMBARKED AT
ADEN DJIBOUTI STOP REQUEST FREE PRATIQUE STOP
MASTER
UNQUOTE
NOTE
CHARTERERS WILL NOT ACCEPT NOR INLESS FREE PRATIQUE IS
GRANTED HENCE MASTER MUST SEND THE ABOVE MESSAGE DURING THE TIME STIPULATED AND IN THE EXACT FORMAT INDICATED
ABOVE. MASTER FOR GOOD ORDERS SAKE TO SEND 2 CABLES FOR
FREE PRATIQUE VIA 2 DIFFERENT COAST STATIONS TO ENSURE
PORT HEALTH OFFICE RECEIVERS AT LEAST ONE OF THEM DEFINITELY
NOTE
SUBJECT TO REVISION IN ACCORDANCE WITH INDIAN
RULES/REGULATIONS

95

INDIA
QUARANTINE..........................................
CODE ZS ZT AND IN PLAIN LANGUAGE HAVE NEGATIVE ANSWERS FOR ALL HEALTH QUESTIONS AND NO ABNORMAL MORTALITY RATS MICE NO MONKEYS ABOARD NEITHER TOUCHED NOR EMBARKED ANY PERSON AT ADEN OR DJIBOUTI OR WEST COAST AFRICA OR EAST COAST AFRICA OR BRAZIL OR BOLIVIA OR PERU OR
NORTH CENTRAL AMERICA WITHIN LAST THIRTY DAYS STOP PORTS
CALL WITHIN LAST THIRTY DAYS AND SAILING DATES
ARE.........................................................................
........... STOP HEREBY REQUEST RADIO PRATIQUE MASTER
Note
WHEN DESTINED TO INDIAN PORT
MASTER'S CABLE REQUEST FOR GRANTING
OF FREE PRATIQUE BY THE INDIAN QUARANTINE AUTHORITIES.

QUARANTINE.......................................
ETA..MY MARITIME DECLARATION TO
HEALTH HAS NEGATIVE ANSWERS TO ALL QUESTIONS. NO MONKEYS. LAST PORT LEFT ON....................REQUEST RADIO PRATIQUE.
MASTER
NOTE
WHEN DESTINED TO INDIAN PORT
MASTER'S CABLE REQUEST FOR GRANTING OF FREE PRATIQUE BY
THE INDIAN QUARANTINE AUTHORITIES.
NOTE
SUBJECT TO REVISION IN ACCORDANCE WITH INDIAN
RULES/REGULATIONS

96

BRAZIL
CODIFIED FORM OF MESSAGE TO BE TRANSMITTED PRIOR ENTERING BRAZILIAN TERRITORIAL WATER
QUOTE
TO: CONCONTRAMAR RIO DE JANEIRO
CODIFIED MESSAGE
A) CALL SIGN
B) ABBREVIATION COUNTRY OF REGISTER
C) VESSEL'S NAME
D) VESSEL'S TYPE (BLK)
E) TYPE OF MESSAGE (F)
F) DEPARTURE PORT
G) PORT OF DESTINATION
H) ETA
I) SPEED
J) DOCTOR STATUS =N
K) STARTING POINT OF THE ROUTE
L) ALTERATION OF ROUTE
M) POSITION MESSAGE, ON EXTRAORDINARY OCCURRENCES DE
VIATION MORE THAN 25 MILES
UNQUOTE___________________________________________
NOTE:
SUBJECT TO REVISION IN ACCORDANCE WITH BRAZILIAN RULES
AND REGULATION.

97

Standard form of undertaking to be given by cargo owners in return


for delivering cargo without production of the bills of lading.
To
The Owners of the S.S/M.V.-------------------------------------Goods ------------------------------No
------------------------------Description------------------------------Marks-------------------------------------

Dear Sirs,
The above goods were shipped on che above vessel by Messrs (and consigned to us) but the relevant bills of lading have not yet arrived.
We hereby request you to deliver such goods without production of the
bills of lading.
In consideration of your complying with our above request we hereby
agree as follows:
1. To indemnify you, your servants and agents and to hold all of you
harmless in respect of any liability loss or damage of whatsoever nature which
you may sustain by reason of delivering the goods to in accordance with our
request.
2. In the event of any proceedings being commenced against you or any
of your servants or agents in connection with the delivery of the goods as
aforesaid provide you or them from time to time with sufficient funds to defend the same.
3. If the vessel or any other vessel or properly belonging to you should be
arrested or detained or if the arrest or detention thereof should be threatened,
to provide such bail or other security as may be required to prevent such arrest or detention or to secure the release of such vessel or property and to
indemnify you in respect of any loss, damage or expenses caused by such
arrest or detention whether or not the same may be Justified.
4. As soon as all original bills of lading for the above goods shall have arrived and/or come into your possession, to produce and deliver the same to
you whereupon our liability hereunder shall cease.
5. The liability of each and every person under this indemnity shall be ioint
and several and shall not be conditional upon your proceeding first against any
person, whether or not such person is party to or liable under this indemnity.
6 This indemnity shall be construed in accordance with English Law and
each and every person liable under this indemnity shall at your request submit
to the jurisdiction of the High Court of Justice of England. (This clause may be
amended to show another jurisdiction where appropriate).
Yours faithfully
For and on behalf of----------------------------------------We join in this undertaking
(Bankers)

98

ORIGINAL
CODE WORD FOR THIS
CHARTER PARTY
ASBATANKVOY
TANKER VOYAGE CHARTER PARTY
PREAMBLE
KERCH 27TH JANUARY, 1995
Place
Date
IT IS THIS DAY AGREED between MESSRS. "MARINE FISHING PORT
OF KERCH " chartered owner/owner (hereinafter called the "Owner") of the
BUILT 1988, UKRAINIAN FLAG
SS/MS "BURAN" ereinafter called the "Vessel")
and MESSRS. "KAYMAK ISTANBUL" (hereinafter called the "Charterer")
that the transportation herein provided for will be performed subject to
the terms and conditions of this Charter Party, which includes this Preamble
and Part I and Part II. In the event of a conflict, the provisions of Part I will
prevail over those contained in Part II.
PART I

A. Description and Position of Vessel:


Deadweight: 3.389

m.tons

Loaded draft of Vessel on assigned


summer freeboard
5.40 M
Capacity for cargo: 3.223
tons
Coated: NO
Coiled: YES
Now: PORT OF KERCH
B. Laydays:
Commencing: 3RD FEBRUARY,99
C. Loading Port(s): 1 S ANCHORAGE/BOUY SAMSUN

Classed:
in salt water.
%more or less, Vessel's option.
Last 3 cargoes: CPP UNLDD
Expected Ready: ETA 10-TH
FEB, 1999
cancelling: 10-TH FEBRUARY, 99

Charterer's Option
D. Discharging Port(s): 1 SB RAVENNA
Charterer's Option
E. Cargo: 2,000 MTS ONE GRADE FISH OIL; 5 PCT MORE OR LESS
CHARTERER'S OPTION

99

F: Freight Rate: USD 26.50 (TWENTY SIX DOLLARS FIFTY CENTS)


PER MT
G: Freight payable to: THE OWNER'S ACCOUNT BEFORE BREAKING
BULK
H. Total Laytime in Running Hours: 60 HRS TOTAL SHINC LOAD SHEX
DISCH +6 +6
I. Demurrage per day: USD 3,000 PD/PR
J. Commission of 5.00 PCT is payable by Owners to POLYPROMSERVICE KIEV including address PLUS 2.50 PCT TO ISTANBUL SHIPPING LTD. on the actual amount of freight, deadfreight and demurrage when
and as freight is paid, deductable at source.
English Law.
K. The place of General Average and arbitration to be London/ New York
(strike out one).
L. Tovalop: OWNERS WARRANTS VESSEL TO BE A MEMBER OF TOVALOP SCHEME AND WILL BE SO MAINTAINED THROUGHOUT DURATION OF THE CHARTER
M. Special Provisions:
- VESSEL TO HEAT PRODUCT AT +30 DEG C.
N. N.O.R. TO BE TENDERED DURING LOCAL OFFICE HOURS AND
TIME TO START COUNTING AFTER 6 HRS
O. YORK/ANTWERP RULES 1974 AS AMENDED 1990
P. CHARTERER'S AGENTS AT LOADPORT/OWNER'S AGENTS AT
DISPORT
Q. OWNERS TO CLEAN TANKS AT CHR'S INSPECTOR SATISFACTION
R. ALL TAXES ON FREIGHT/CARGO FOR CHARTERER'S ACCOUNT
S. CONOCO WEATHER CLAUSE TO APPLY
T. BILLS OF LADING TO BE SIGNED/RELEASED TO CHARTERER'S
REPRESENTATIVES AND INSERT AT THE END PROVIDED REPRESENTATIVES WILL HAVE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
U. NEGOTIATIONS AND FIXTURE TO REMAIN STRICTLY PRIVATE
AND CONFIDENTIAL
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have caused this Charter, consisting of Preamble, Parts I and II, to be executed in duplicate as of the day and
year first above written.
Witness the signature of:
----------------------------------------------------By-------------------------------------------------Witness the signature of:
----------------------------------------------------By--------------------------------------------------

100

DRAUGHT SURVEY REPORT OF CARGO IN BULK LOADED UNLOADED


CORPORATE IDENTIFICATION : SGS DE MEXICO
VESSEL M/V : ______________ SURVEY NO: _________

CARGO STATEMENT
METRIC TONNES
STARTING DISPLACEMENT CORRECTED ______________________
FINISHING DISPLACEMENT CORRECTED _______________________
DIFFERENCE IN DISPLACEMENT = TOTAL CARGO IN BULK IS: _________
OBSERVATIONS: SHORE SCALE QUANTITY (if available) M.
NOTE ON ANY UNUSUAL SITUATIONS, EXCEPTIONS FROM REQUIRED
UNIFORM CODE STANDARD, SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION (SOURCE,
DRAWING , DATE, TITLE, CERTIFYING AUTHORITY) OF EACH SHIP'S
DOCUMENT USED IN TRASLATING RECORDED MEASUREMENTS INTO
WEIGHTS AND, WHEN APPLICABLE, REASONS FOR SURVEYOR'S REFUSAL
OR
IMPOSSIBILITY
TO
PERFORM
THE
SURVEY:__________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
IN MY JUDGEMENT THE WEATHER CONDITIONS, THE SEA CONDITIONS, AND THE CONDITIONS OF THE SHIP AT THE TIMES THE
DRAUGHT SURVEYS WERE CONDUCTED, WERE WITHIN ACCEPTABLE LIMITS AND DID NOT ADVERSELY AFFECT THE ACCURACY OF
THIS SURVEY. THIS BONA FIDE REPORT CONSISTING OF 6 PAGES,
INCLUDING THIS PAGE, ALL DULY INITIALLED OR SIGNED IS ISSUED
WITHOUT PREJUDICE AND IS FOR THE BENEFIT OF WHOM IT MAY
CONCERN.
CORPORATE IDENTIFICATION: SGG DE MEXICO
SURVEYOR NAME:_____________________________
SURVEYOR SIGN:______________________________
CHIEF MATE SIGN:_____________________________
STAMP:_______________________________________

101

INTERIM
Carriage of Solid Bulk Cargoes
Certificate of Compliance
with the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes ( Code).
Issued
Particulars of ship
Name of ship

PANAGIOTIS

Distinctive numbers or letters

9HVTS

Port of Registry
Ship type

VALETTA
BULK: CARRIER

Gross Tonnage

16580

IMO number

7578555

Date on which keel laid

15 December 1975

Date of initial survey

25 September 1999

This is to certify:
That the ship is suitable for the carriage in bulk of all cargoes listed in
Appendixes A and C of the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes
as amended, in all cargo holds, and the Appendix B cargoes listed below in
the cargo holds stated, subject to:
I) the cargo being loaded and carried in accordance with the "Approved
Conditions" in the "Loading Manual" approved and stamped on 12 August 1998;
II) the cargo being loaded and carried in accordance with the "Approved
Condition" "Trim, and Stability Manual" approved and stamped on 12 August
1998;
III) the Master ensuring that die remaining requirements of the Code of
Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes are complied with as applicable.
This document is valid for one voyage from Yuzhny to Ho Shi Min directly with the vessels tanks NOS 5P, 5STBD empty .
Issued at ____________
on______________

102

THROUGH LLOYDS REGISTER PIRAEUS


Katopagi Management S.A.
81, Iroon Politechniou Avenue 185 36
Piraeus
Greece

Our Ref:
FSD/ADMIN/2821/NLL em
Your Ref:
th
Date: 24 May 1996

Dear Sir
"PANAGIOTIS" LR, 7378535
MARPOL 73/78 - ANNEX I
I enclose herewith the new International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate for placing on board the vessel.
Please arrange for the short term I.0. P. P. Certificate (PPOST) and
Record of Construction and Equipment, at present on board the vessel, to
be withdrawn and destroyed.
Please note that the next Survey will be an Intermediate Survey due on
31st January 1997, and is to be held after 1st November 1996 but before
31st January 1997.
It should be ensured that Type Approval Certificates, issued by a National Authority, are placed on board for the:
BUTTERWORTH
BUTTERWORTH

"SFC 5"
"OIL-A-LYZER
(TYPE A)

Oily Water Filter


15ppm Bilge Alarm (Oil Content Meter)

For compliance with Regulation 20, it should be ensured that an Oil Record Book,
in the form specified in Appendix III of Marpol 73/78 Annex I, is on board the vessel.
Your attention is drawn to the following amendments to the Regulation
that come into force for this vessel as indicated.
1. Regulation 16
Requirement to fit 15ppm Equipment; Viz:
V/L of 10,000 G.R.T. are to be fitted with 15ppm Oil Filtering equipment
a 15 ppm Alarm and Automatic Stopping Device.
6th July 1998
Yours faithfully
Master
N.L. Leclercq (Mrs)
Fleet Services Department
cc: LR. Piraeus

103

Enc.

104

THROUGH LLOYD'S REGISTER PIRAEUS

Katopagi Management S.A.

Our ref:

5-7, Agiou Nicolaou Street

FSD/ADMIN/2821/NLL/em

185 37 Piraeus

Your ref:

Greece

Date: 2 December 1998

Dear Sirs

"PANAGIOTIS" LR. 7378535


Further to the Survey held on the above named vessel, I enclose full-term
Load Line. Safety Construction and relevant Classification Certificates for
placing on 3 board.
Please arrange for any previous Load Line and Safety Construction Certificates, at present on board, to be withdrawn and destroyed.
For your guidance the original Classification Certificate should be
placed on board the ship since Port Authorities may wish to check the Certificate as evidence of the vessel being in class.

Yours faithfully
N.t. Leclercq (Mrs)
Fleet Services Department
cc:

LR. Piraeus

Encs.

105

Appendix 2

STANDARD PHRAZES USED IN SHIP'S CORRESPONDENCE.


Opening phrases:

, ...
...

This is to inform you that...


We should like to inform you...

...
...

Please note/notice ... Please take


note/notice...
We are pleased to inform you

...

We have to inform you...

...

I regretto inform you...


, ...

We should like to draw your attention to the fact that...

, ...
, ...

,

, ...

This is to certify that...


Please be advised that...
I give you a formal notice hereby
that...
I give you a formal warning hereby that...

...

As you are well aware...


...

We wish to approach you on (the


subject of)...

...

You may be interested to know...


...

...
,

.

With reference to your inquiry


concerning/about...
We acknowledge the receipt of
your...
Please acknowledge receipt of
this letter by signing and returning one copy of same.
Enclosures:

106


...

We enclose with the letter our order for;..


...
...
...

We enclose herewith our order

,
...

In accordance with your request I


am sending you here with...

Enclosed is a copy of the damage survey report

Please find herewith enclosed...


We attach hereto copies of...

Gratitude, appreciation:

,

.

We shall be grateful, if you will


provide us with the required information.


.

. ...
...
,
...

We thank you in advance for your


kind cooperation.
Thanking your in advance for
your cooperation, yours truly...
Thank you for your letter of...
We thank you for prompt action
regarding...

,

...

...

Regret, apology:
We apologize for the delay in
sending you...
Please accept our apologies for...


, ...
,
...

We regret to have to inform you


that...
Please excuse us/We apologize/for the error/mistake/ in the
bill for...

, (
) ,
...

We apologize for the trouble


caused, but would like to point
out that...

107

-
/

the delay happened/took


place/occured/due to reasons
beyond our control
the delay happened/took place/
occured due to unforseen complications
We learned with regret
We regret to hear

Request, inquiry:

,
/...

Kindly send us as soon as possible...


Kindly send us as early as possible...
Kindly send us at your earliest...
Kindly send us urgently...


...

We would kindly ask you to inform us...

/ /
.

Please ship/deliver/despatch for


our account

Please reconsider the decision of


your representative/Officer and

cancel the fine as unjustified

cancel the detention order

Please give this matter your


prompt/ immediate/ attention

Please have the above damage


repaired before the ship's departure

Please arrange an independent


survey of the damage and drawing up an appropriate report

108


3- .

Please speed up the cargo operations and hire an extra gang for
simultaneous discharge from all 3
holds.

Please take urgent/proper action


to prevent further pilferage.

Please keep us informed of all


further developments

Please replace the damaged barrels with new ones substitute new
barrels for the damaged ones

Please lash the cargo strictly in


accordance with the instructions
of my Cargo Mate

Claims, complaints:


...
- ,

Please ensure full compliance


with safety rules by your dockers
when they work on board

Please take urgent action to prevent further damage to the cargo.

to make/put in/ lodge/ produce a


claim to. for...
- the damage caused to the ship
- careless handling of the cargo

to make/put in/lodge /produce a


counter claim

I hold you fully responsible for:

109

- the collision


,
$ 18000

- the accident

- the incident
- the detention of the vessel
and claim damages estimated at
$ 18000
I hold you fully responsible for all
damage and losses, and all consequences arising therefrom.
In support of our claim we en
close herewith the following documents
Please give our claim your further
attention

To dispute the claim

To reject the claim

To waive the claim


Please give our claim your immediate attention

If you do not admit our claim, we


shall have to refer the case to arbitration/start legal proceedings
against you
Closing phrases:

We hope to get your prompt reply

Please acknowledge receipt of


this letter by signing and returning one copy of same

Please let us know in due time of


the arrangements made

Please give your prompt attention


to the matter

110

For and on behalf of

Confirming
ments:

...

We confirm our telegram of...

previous

arrange-

,
25

In confirmation of our telex exchange of 25 st.

I kindly ask you to take necessary


action.

In which regard you can always


satisfy yourself

( ).

I ask you to take (appropriate)


measures/action to prevent further pilferage of the cargo.


.


.

The exact scope of damage is


now being ascertained.
The exact scope of damage will
be ascertained by the survey


,
.

We shall bring counter action


(laya counter claim) against you,
if you do not drop your claim.

Following your instructions


Miscellaneous:

111

3
Appendix 3
-
ENGLISH-RUSSIAN

DICTIONARY.
.
a adjective
adv adverb

pron pronun
prp preposition

cj conjunction

sing singular

n noun

v verb

pl plural

above-mentioned
above-quoted
as stated above
the above vessel
absolve v.
accelerate v.
accept v.

acceptable a.
acceptance n.
accident n.
by accident
accident insurance
in case of accident to
the goods
to meet with an accident
accidental loss
accommodate v.
accommodation n.
accordingly adv.

;
;
;
;
.

(
),

1) ;
2) (


) ;
;
;
1) , ;
2) ; ;
;
;
-. ;
.
., .
;
1) ; 2) ;
3) .
;

112

according to prp.
account I n.
account current
as per account rendered
balance of account
balance of payments on
current account
for account of somebody
for our (your, their, etc.)
account in account with
Messrs . . .
on account
on account of somebody
statement or account
to balance the account
to charge ( to debit) an
account
to credit an account
to have an account with
( in) a bank
to settle an account
accounts pl.
on account of
to take into account
on no account
account II v.
to account for
to account for an
amount
accountable a.
acknowledge v.
to acknowledge the legality of a claim
to acknowledge (the)
receipt
acknowledgement n.
acquaint v.
to acquaint oneself
act

, .
1) ; ;
; ;
;
;

;
-.;
(, . .) ;
. .
;
-. ;
() ;
; ;
;
;
;
;

2) ;
, -; ;
; ;
;
; ;
; ;
.
; .
1) , ;

2) ();
.
().
1) ;
;
2) , .
1) , , ;

113

act of God
act
acting a.
acting manager
action n.
to take immediate action

action for damages


action for non-delivery
action in rem
to bring (to enter, to lay, to
put) an action against
someone
to lose (to win) an action
actual a.
actual total loss
actual value
admissible a.
admission n.
admit v.
to admit a claim
to admit goods free of duty
admittance n.
advantage n.
to take advantage of an
offer
advice n.
letter of advice
shipping advice

. ;
, -,
2) , .
;

;

1)
,
;
;
;
2) . , ;
() () ;
;
,
;

.
-.,
-.;

()
,
.
, .
,
( );
.
, .
1) , ;
2) ; .
, .

;

.
, ; ;
.
, , ;
.
, ; ;
, ;
.

114

advise v.
legal adviser
affirm v.

affirmative a., n.
to answer ( lo reply) in the affirmative
affirmative
affreight v.
afloat adv.
always afloat
to get ( to set, to
bring) a ship afloat
afore-mentioned
afore-said
aft adv.
agent n.
agree v.
to agree to something
to agree with someone
(with someone's opinion, point of view)
to agree on the price
argeed price
as agreed upon in the
contract
it is agreed as follows
the figures have been
agreed
agreeable a.
if this is agreeable to you
agreement n.
by mutual agreement
to be in agreement
arbitration agreement
as per agreement

1) , ;
2) , ;
.
1) ; ;
2) (
).
; ;
.
().
, ;
( );
.

,
;
, .
. , , d
.
, ;
1) ;
-.; -.;
-. ( -.
, -. );
2) , (
on);
;
;
;

;
.
.
,
;
;
;
;
;

115

by agreement
to cme to an agreement
aground adv.
to be aground
to go (to run) aground
air mail
allege v.

allot v.
allow v.

to allow a claim
to allow a discount

allowance n.

;
.
. , , ,
;
;

1)

(.

); , ,
2) ( -.);
3) .
(, );
; .

1)
,
;
;
2) ;

; ;
( ) ;
3) ( for)
, , -.
1) , ;
2) ;

all concerned

().

alongside adv., prp.

, , ,
, ;
;

to deliver goods alongside


alongside date
alter v.
alteration n.
amend v.
amendment n.
amicable a.

,
.

(),
;

, , .
();
;
1) ;
2) ,
, ;

116

(),

amicable settlement
amicably adv.
amidships adv.
amount I n.
to the amount of
amount II v.
announce v.
announcement n.
annual a.
annul v.
answer v.
to answer (to) the purpose
to answer (to) the description
to answer for the consequences
anxious a.
we are anxious about
the cargo
we are anxious to have
your opinion
apologize v.
we apologize for the
delay
apology n.
we offer an apology
please
accept
our
apologies
apparent a.
apparently adv.
appear v.
applicable a.
application n.
application form
application for
ment
on application
apply y.

pay-

(), .
, .
. .
.
; ; ;
.
(, ).
, ; ;
; .
, , .
, .
;
;
;

.
, ;
. ;

.
.
( for; . to);
. .
;
. ;
. .
.
, , -.
, ;
, .
; ; ;
;
;
() ;
.

1)
,

117

to apply for payment

appoint v.
at the appointed time
a well-appointed ship
appointment n.
to make an appointment
appraise v.
appraised value
appreciate v.

we appreciate your difficulties


appreciation n.

approach I n.

approach II v.
appropriate I a.
approval I n.
approval of an account
to meet with approval
to submit for approval
approve v.
approximate a.
arbitrary a.
arise v.
arrange v.
to arrange a matter

;
;
2) ();
3) , .
, ;
;
.
1) , ;
2) , ;
.
;
;
.

1)

;
2) , ;
3) ()
;
;
1) , ;
2) ;
) (
).
1) , ;
2)
,

.
1) ; :
2) ; .
; .

;
;
;
;
() ;
.

;
,
( . of).
.
.
; .
1) , ,
;

118

to arrange a difference

as arranged between
us
arrangement n.

to come to an arrangement
to make an arrangement
arrangements pl.
to make arrangements
arrival n.
on arrival
arrive v.
to arrive at a decision
(at a conclusion, at an
understanding)
article n.
articles of consumption
articles of agreement
as far as
as from
as is sale
as of = as from; as on
as per
as per copy enclosed
as regards
as to = as regards; as
such
ascertain v.
to ascertain the extent
ot the damage
ashore adv.

2) ;
;
3), ;
;
.
1) ;
;
2) , ;
;

; .
; ; ;
; ;

.
;
.
; ;
(,
).
1) ;
;
2) (); ; ;
( ) ;
.
;
;
.
( );
; ;
;
;
; ;
; ,
;
; ;
.
; ;

119

assert v.

to assert one's rights


assess v.
to assess damages
assign v.

to assign a limit
to assign a sum
assist v.
assistance n.
to lend ( to render)
assistance
associate n.
association n.
assume v.
to
assume
(risk)

liability

assumption n.
assumption of obligation (risk)
assurance n.

assurer v.
attachment n.
attachment
ance
attempt n.
attend v.

attendance n.

of

insur-

1) ; ;
2) ; (,
),
.
, ;

.
1) . ,
(, );
2) , ;
( ); 3)
; ;
.
1) , ;
2) .
, ;
, .
; ; ;
.
; ;
; ; .
1) ;

();
2) , .
1) ;

().
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
, ; .
1) ;
2) ;
.
.
1) ; -.;
-.;
2) ; .
1) ; ; ;
; ;

120

attendance to customhouse formalities


attention n.
to call ( to draw)
someone's attention to
something
to pay attention
attest v.
attested copy
attitude n.
attribute v.
authority n.
authorities pl.
port authorities
authorization n.
authorize v.
authorized agent
avail I n.
of little avail
of no avail
to avail oneself of an
offer
available a.
to have
available

something

average I n.
above (below) the average
on the average
average as customary
average bond
average clause

;
2) ; .
;
-. ;
;
; ;
;
.
; .
(-., -. to);
( -., -. to).
1) ; ; ;
2) ; ;
;
.
1) ;
2) .
1) ;
;
2) .
, ;
;
;

.
1) ;
; ; ;
-.; -.
;
2) ;
, .
;
() ;
.
, ;
,
;
;

121

average payment
average statement
average stater . = average a adjuster
general average
particular average
petty average
with (particular) average
to adjust ( to make up)
the average
average III a
average price
average IV v.
avoid v.

to avoid a contract
await v.
award I n.

award II v.

;
(

);
;
:
;

, ,
,
.
-
.
1) ;
2) .
1) , ;
2)
.
;

,
;
;
,
.
, -;
1) ( )
;
2) , .
1) ;
2) -.

122

blance
of an account
ban n.
bank n
bank draft

to deposit money
( in) a bank
to keep an account
bank
to open an account
( in) a bank
bare boat charter (
pole charter)
bargain I n.

with


.
;
,
;
;

at a

with

bare


.
, ;
;
. ;
() ;

bargain and sale


a good (bad) bargain
to withdraw from a bargain
bargain II v.

base v.
baseless a.
basic a.
basic data
basis n.
basis price
bear v. (bore, borne)
to bear in mind
to bear expenses
to bear interest
bearer n.
bearer cheque ( .
check)
the bearer of this letter
on or before
beforehand adv.

;
;

.
, .
;
;
.
; ; ;
; .
; :
,
;
;
.
; ;
;

.

1) , ;

123

beg v.
we beg to acknowledge
(to in form, to state etc.)
in behalf of somebody
on behalf of somebody
for and on behalf of
as (stated) below
as specified below
benefit I n.
for the benefit of somebody
to the benefit of all concerned
benefit II v.

berth n.
berth charge
berth terms
loading on the berth
bill I n.
bill at thirty (sixty, ninety)
days' sight
bill at sight
bill drawn against cotton
(wheat, wool)

bills for collection


bill of exchange
bills outstanding
bills payable

2) .
;
. (.)
(, . .)
, ,
-.;
-.,
-.; -.;
.
;
( )
.
, ; ;
-. ;

.
1) ,
(by)
2) , .
. ; ;
;
;
(
);

1) ;
2) (), :

(, )
;
,
;
,
(,
),
,

(, );
;
, ;
;
, ,
;

124

bill stamp
addressed bill

demand bill
drawer of a bill
inland bill
short ( short-dated) bill
sight bill
time bill
way bill ( waybill)
to discount a bill
to dishonour a bill
to draw a bill on a person
to honour a bill
to meet a bill
to note a bill
to protect a bill
bill of entry
bill of health
bill of lading
original bill of lading
straight bill of lading
through ( transhipment) bill of ladings
bill II v.

(,
);
,

;
, ;
;
;
,

:


;

;
;
;
) ;
) ;

(
) -.;
) ;
) ;
:
;

;
()
;
( )
;

;
;
.
( )
, , ;
.

125

billing n.

, ;
;
.

blame I n.

1) ;
2) , ;
;
;

-.
.
; ;
;
.

;
,
;
1) ;

( 1/12 . .);
2) ();
;
3) ; ; ;
;
;
;
;
.

;
.

;
;
.
.
, ;
;
.
(. ),
;
;
;
.
. .
; .

to bear the blame


to lay the blame on a person
blame II v.
blank cheque ( check)
blanket a.
board n.
board foot

free on board

bond note
average bond
bonded goods

bonus n.
book v.
bottom n.
to touch bottom
bound a.
bound for
inward bound
outward bound
bow n.
branch n.

126

brand n.
breach n.
breach of contract
break v. (broke, broken)
to break the contract

breakage n.
breakdown n.
brief I n.
brief II a.
in brief
briefly adv.
bring v. (brought)
to bring an action (at law)
to bring about
build v.
bulk n.
bulk cargo
freight)
bulk carrier

bulk

the bulk of the cargo


business n. ( sing.)
on business
business
ence
busy a

correspond-

1); ;
2) , , .
1) ;
;
1) , ();
;
2)
,

();
1) ; ; ; ;
2) , .
; .

.
; ; ;
.
, .

;
;
; ; ;
;
; ;
.
, ;
2) ;
; ;
,
;

, ;
.

;
;
;
; ;
;

;
;

(
at, in, with)

127


call n.
port of call
to receive a call
to call at
to call for
to be called for
to call on
to call up
to call attention
canal dues ( canal toll).
cancel v.
cancelling date

capacity n.
carrying capacity of a
ship
in the capacity of
captain's entry
captioned claim
carbon copy
care n.
care of
to take care
handle with care!
careful a.
careless a.
carelessness n.
cago n.
cargo capacity
cargo-plan
cargo space
carriage n.
carriage by sea

; ; ;
();
().
(-.);
) -.;
) ; :
;
-.; .;
;
, .
;
; .

(

.
1) ; 2) ;
;
.
.
,
,

).
; ;
, (
, . / /);
( of);
!

,
,
.
.
;

;
, -;
.
1) ;
2) , ; ;
;

128

carriage forward

carriage free
carrier n.
carrier's statement

carry v.
to carry out
case I n.
case II n.
as the case may be
as the case stands
in any case
in case
in case of
in no case
cash n.
casual a.
cause n.
certificate n.
certificate of origin
certificate of registry
certify v.
charge I n.
to be in charge of
charges pl.
free of charge
port charges
to the charge of
charge II v.
to charge off
to charge to account

;
.
;
(,

,
).
, ;
.
, .
1) , ; .
;
;
;
) :
) ;
;
;
2) , .
,
;
, .
; ;
, ,
;

;
.
; .
1) , ; ;
-.;
-.;
, ;
;
;
-.;
2) .

;
,
();
;
;

129

charter I n.
charter - party
time charter
trip charter ( voyage
charter)
charter II v.
charterer n.
check I n.

check II v.

choice n.
choose v. (chose, chosen)
circumstance n
in ( under) no circumstances
claim I n.
claim for damages
claim in return (
counter claim)
claim release

to abandon ( to give
up, to relinquish) a
claim
to acknowledge ( to
admit) a claim
to allow a claim
to contest ( to dispute) a claim

1) ; ;
2) ;
, - (
);

-
(

);
.
.
.

1)
;
;
;
2) , (. check up);
1) ; ;
2) , ;
;
1) ;
2) .
; .
, ;
;

;
;
; ; ;
( ) ;
;


;
;
, ;

;
;
, ;

130

to make a claim against


( on) somebody for
something
to meet a ciaim
to put in a claim for
something, ( to lay a
claim to something)
to reject a claim
to satisfy a claim
claim II v.
to claim damages
to claim default
to
claim
on
(
against) a person
claimant n.
clarity v.
clause n.
under clause 6 of the
contract
claused a.
claused bill of lading
clean bill of lading
clear v .
to clear a ship at the
custom house
to see one's way clear
clearance n.
customs
formaHties
clearance
clearing n.
clerical error
close I a.
close connections
close examination
close price

-. -.

; ;
-.:
;
;

,
;

, ;
:

;
-.;
. .
.
; ; ; ;
6 .
;

,
;
.
;
;

;
.
1) ;
2) ;

.
1) ;
.
; ; ;
;
;
.

131

close II v.
closing date
coincide v.
collect v.

collection n.

bills for collection


collect freight
collide v.
collision n.
commercial a.
commission I n.
comnission II v.

commit v.
to commit oneself
connutment n.
to meet commitments
commodity n.
compare v.
compete v.
competition n.
competitive a.
complain v.
complainant n.
complaint n.
complete a.
completion n.
compliance n.

(); ; ;
.
.

;
,
.
1) ;
2) ;
3) (
).
1) ;
2) (
);
;
,
.
.
.
, .
1) ;
2) ();
1) ; ;
2) ,
.
; ;
;
.
;
.
.
; .
; .

.
, (
-. of; -. to).
. ,
, .
; ; ;
.
, ().
; ;

132

in compliance with your


request (wish, instruction)
complicate a.
complicated a.
comply v. (
with)
comprise v.
compulsory a.
compute v.
concede v.

concern I n.
to have a concern in a
business
concern II v.
as concerns
as tar as someone
(something) is concerned
the parties concerned

concerning prp.
concession n.
conclude v.
conclusion n.
to draw a conclusion
condition I n.

on condition (that)
under such conditions
condition II v.
conditional a.


(
,

).
; .
; .
-.; ,
-.; ;
; ;
.
; .
; ; ;
1) ;
2)
;
;
.
1) ; ;
2) ; ;
-.
;
3) ; .
1) ; ;
;
-.
(-.); -. (.);
;
2) ,
( about).
; ;
.
1) ;
2) .
,
;
;
; . c
(

).
; ;
;
c ;
;

133

conference n.

confidence n.
in confidence
in strict confidence
confident a.
confidential a.
private and confidential
strictly confidential
confirm v.
to confirm the price
confirmation n.
conform v.
conformity n.
in conformity with your
instruc tions
connection n.
in this connection
consecutive a.
consent I n.
by mutual consent
consent II v.
consequence n.
in consequence
in
consequence
of
which
of little ( of no) consequence
consequently adv.
consider v.

considerable a.
consideration n.

1) ;
2) (
cy);
;
, ;

.
1) , ;
;

( );
1) .
2) .
1) ;
1) ;
2) ;
1) ;
2) ;
1) ;
2) ().
.
.
.
; ;
;
.
( to);
;
( to);
1) ;
;
;
2) ; ;
; .
;
1) ;
2) ; ;
3)

,
.
; o;
1) ; ;

134

after ( upon) consideration


to be under consideration
in consideration of
on ( under) no consideration
consign v.
consignee n.
consignment n.
consignment note
consignor n.
consular fees
consult v.

to consult somebody's
interests
consumption n.
contain v.
container n.
contaminate v.
contend v.
content I n.
contents pl
content II v.
contest I n.
contest II v.
continue v.
continued a
contrary n.
on the contrary
in the contrary case
contribute v.
contribution n.
to be In control of, to have
( to exercise) control
ovner
controversy n.
convene v

;
;
;
;
3) . ; ;
.
(, ).
; ().
; ;
.
.
.
1) ; ;
2)
;

;
-. .
; .
1) ; ;
2) .
.
; .
1) ; 2) .
; ;
; .
.
.
.
(), .
, .
; ;
;
.
; .

(
) , .
, ;
, .
.

135

convenience n.
at your earliest convenience
convenient
conventional a.
conventional rate
convertible a
convey v.
convince v.
cooperage n.
coopering n.
co-operate n.
co-operation n.
correspond v.

correspondence n.
corresponding a.
cost n.
free of cost
at cost
cost II v.
count I n.
count II v.
to count in
to count (up) on
counterclaim (. counterclaim)
course n.
course of exchange
in due course
in the course of the year
court n.
cover I n.

cover II v.

;
. .
.

;
;
, ;
, .
; .
1) , ;
2) . ().
, .

.
.

.
-1) (-. with,
to , (with);
2) ( with);
1) (-. with );
2) ; :
;
, ;
;

.
; .
1) ; ;
2) ; ;
;
-.,-.;
; ;
;
;
;
.
c;
1) ; ; ;
2) ( , );
3) . .
1) ;

136

to cover losses
covering letter
crate I n.
credible a.
credibly adv.
cross v.
um prp.
custom n.
customs pl,
the Customs
custom(s) entry
custom-house
to cut down expenses

;
2)
,
; ;

; ;
;
1) , ;
2) .
. ; ;
;
;
;
;
.
.

D
damage I n.

damage by sea water


damage certificate
damage survey
damage to ship (to the
goods)
liable to damage
damages pl.

action for damages


by way of damages
recovery of damages
damage II v.
damaged by sea water
danger n.
dangerous goods

1) ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
; ;

;
,
;
;
(),
();
;
. , ;
( :
), .
,
;
;
.
2) ; ; ;
( )
.
;

(
..);

137

date n. (pl. datum)


date n.
at an early date
at the earliest possible
date
effective date

.
; ;
;
;

;
;

within a few days

60 ;

;

;
-
( ).
;
;
, ;
. (
,

,
);

dead freight

. .

deadweight n.
(. dead weight)
deal I n.
a good ( a great)
deal of
to make ( to close) a
deal
deal II v, (dealt)

(),
;
1) ;
1) ;
2) ; ;
.

sixty days after date


on this date
dated the 10th instant
days after sight
day n.
every other day
the other day
weather working days

to deal with a problem


deballasting time
debit I n.
debit note
to place an amount to
the debit of a person's
account
debit II v.
debt n.

1) (-. in);
2) ( with)
;
.
.
;
-, ;

-.
, .
;

138

to run into debt


debtor n.
decide v.
decided a.
decision n.
to arrive at ( to come
to) a decision
deck cargo ( deck load)
declaration n.
declare v.
decline I n.
decline II v.
to decline an offer
decrease v.
deduct v
deduction n.
deem v.
we deem it advisable
default I n.

in default of acceptance
in default of payment
in default of
judg(e)ment by default
the defendant was ordered in default to
pay
default II v.
defective a.

defence n.
to defend the case

.
; .
().
1) ;
2) .
; ;
.
.
; .
; .
, , .

,
,
;
.
().
; .
; ; .
; ;

.
1)
,
, .

();
;
2) ; ;
; ;

;
,
,
1) ;
2) .
1)
;
;
2)
;
;
.
1) ;
2) . .
.

139

defendant n.
deficiency n.
a deficiency in weight of
10 tons
definitive a.
dety v.
delay n.

to ask for a delay


without delay
delay II v.
deliver v.

delivery n.
short delivery
delivery f. o. b. Odessa
delivery on call

delivery order

demand I n.
demand II v.
demurrage n.
on demurrage
deny v.

depart v.

departure n.

. .
; ; ,
;
10 ,
10 .
.
; .

;
;
;
;
.
;
.
; .
1) ;
2) , ;
3) (,
. .).
1) ;
;
2) , ;
( ) ;
(
);
3) ;
- (

).
; .

.
1) (,
), ;
2) , ;
.
1); ;
2) -.;
.
1) , ;
.
2) ; .
; ; ,
.

140

depend v.

dependable a.
deposit I n.
deposit II v.
deprive v.
design v.
designed a.
destine v.
in detail .
detailed a
detain v.
determine v.

devalue v.
develop v.

diminish v.
disabled a.
disadvantage n.
disadvantageous a.
disagree v.
disagreement n.
disbursement n.
(. disbursements);
disbursement account
discharge I n.
discharge II v,
discontinue v.
discount I n.
trade discount
discount II v.
discrepancy n.
discretion n.
at our (your, their) discretion

1) ;
( on);
2) , ( (up) on).
; .
; ; , .
;
.
.
.
; .
, .
.
; .
1) , ;
2) ();
) . ; (); .
.
1) ();
2) ;
3) (, ).
().
. ( ).
, .
;
;
.

;
;
.
, ; .

), .
; ,
(); ;
().
; , ;
.
, ().

;
;
,
; ;
(, ) .

141

disembark v.
dishono(u)r I n.
dishono(u)r II v.
the bill has been dishonoured
dispatch I n.
dispatch money
dispatch II v.
grant dispensation
displacement n.
display I n.
display II v.
disposal n.
at our (your, their) disposal
dispose v.
disputable a.
dispute I n.
the matter in dispute
dispute II v.
distress I n.
a ship in distress
distress II v.
distribute v.
divide v.
duty free

(); ().
();
( );
();
( );

.
1) ;
2) ; ;
,
.
1) , ;
2) .
.
. .
; .
; .
;
(, ) .
.
;
;
,
, .
;
,
. .

;
;
.
(); ().
.

142

E
early
at the earliest opportunity
ebb n.
effect n.
of ( to) no effect
to take effect
to the effect that...
to the following effect
effects pl.
to effect payment
effort n.
to make effort
to spare no effort
embark v.
emergency n.
empower v.
empties pl.
enable v.
enclose v.
please find enclosed
enclosure n.
encourage v.
endeavo(u)r v.
endorse (. indorse)

endorsement ( indorsement) n.


.
.
, ;
; ;
;
, ;
;
; ;
.
; ;
;
.
(); .
;
; .
1) ;
2) , .
.
;
( -.);
. , (with);
(
);
, .
; .
; ; .
1)
();
2) (
, , ,
. .),
, .
1) ();
2) ,
( , ,
..), ;
3) ;
4) . (
).

143

entorce v.

enforcement n.
engage v.

engaged a.
engagement n.

without engagement
to meet one's engagements
ensure v.
enter v.
to enter the dock (the
harbour)
to enter (the) port

to enter a ship at the


custom house
entitle v.
to be entitled
entrance n.
entiance duty
entrance visa
equal I a.
equal in quality
on equal terms
equal II v.
equip v.
error
rrors (and omissions) excepted ( E.E.
E. & O.F.)
clerical error
essential a;

1) . ; ;
;
2) ;
. ; ;
1) ();
2) , (. to
be engaged); (, ).
.
1) ; ;
2) ; ; ;
3) ;
;
.
; .
1) ; ;
()
;
2) ; ;
3) ;
4) ;

.
, (to);
.
; ; ;
;
.
; ;
;
.
.
; ,
;
( )
,

);
, .
, ;
, .

144

establish v.

estimate I n.
estimates pl.
estimate II v.
even a.
a letter of even date
an even number
event n.
at all events
in the event of
eventually adv.
evidence n.
ex prp.
ex works
exact a.
exacting a.
examination n.
(upon )on examinator
amine.V.
exceed v.
except I v.
except for
exception n.
excess n.
excessive a.
excess-landed cargo
exchange I n.
rate of exchange
exchange II v.
exclude v.
exclusive a.
excuse v.

1) ; ;
2) . ;
3) ().
1) , , ;
2) ; ;

.
1) , , ;
2) ; .
. ; ;
;
.
; ; ;
;
;
,
;
;
.
1) ; ;
- ;
, ;
;
oc;
,

;
;
.
, ;
;
1) , ;
2) ;
;
, , .
;
.
,
.
;
.
1)
2) , .

145

execute v.

execution n.
executive a.
exempt a.
exercise v,
expect v.
expectation n.
expedite v.
expense n.
expenses pl.
expensive a.
experience I n.
experience II v.
experienced a.
expert
expiration n.
expire v.
explosive I n.
explosive II n.
expose v.
extend v.
extent n.
extra I n.
extra II a.
extra charges
extra allowance ( discount)
extra charge
extraneous a.
extraordinary a.

1) , .
2)
.
,

( .)
; ;
;
, , ;
,
; , ,

, .
; .
; ,
; .
, ;
;
;
.
;
, ()
, ( ).
.
.
( )
1) , npo;
2) :
, .
, ; .
1) , ;

;
2) ; ,
;
.
, .
, .

146

F
fase v.
facilitate
facilities a pl. ( sing.
facility)

fail v.

failure n.
failure to appear
failure to deliver
faillure to pay
fair a.

fairway n.
famifull a.
famifully adv.
yours faithfully
in a fashion
fast I a.

fast II adv.
fathom n.
fault n.
faultless a.

, ;
.
.

;
;
;

,
;

;
;
.
1) ; ;
; ;
;
2)
: , ,
, -.;
1) ; , ,
; ;
;
;
;
2) . ; .
1) ;
2)
,
;
.
.
1) ;
2) ; .
; ; ;
;
,
.
1) ; ; ;
2) ;
3) , .
1) , ;
2) , .
(=6 .).
1) ; ; ;
2) ; .
.

147

faulty a.

favo(u)r 1 n.

in our (your, their) favour


we thank you for your favour

favour II v.

favourable a.
feature n.
fee n.
feel v.
we feel it our duty
file I n.
file II v.

fill v.
final a.
final port
finalize v.
find v.
finding n,
pl. findings
fine I n.
fine II a.

fine III v.
finish v.
fire n.

;
;

,
;
; .
1) ; ; ;
; ;
2) ; .
. (, ) ,
(, ) ;
3) ;
. ;
1) ;
;
2) ; ,
;

; .
.
; .
; ; ; .
; ;
. .
; ; ;
1) ;
2)
;
,
();
3) ()
1) ();
2) ().
1) ;
2) ;
.
.
1) , ;
2) . ;
1) . ();
();
2) ().
, .
1) , ,
;
2) ; ; .
; , .
; .
, ; .

148

firm I a.
firm II adv.
fit I a.

fit II v.
fix v.

fixed a.
fixture n.
flatly adv.
floating a.
follow v.
following a., pres. p., n.
force I n.
force II v.
forecast n.
foreign a.
foreign currency
forgo v. (forwent, iorgone)
forward I. v.

forward II adv.
forwarder n.
forwarding agent

free I a.

1) , ;
2) ; .
; .

,
,
;
;
.
; ; .
1) ; ;
;
2) .

;
;
; .
1) ; ;
2) ; .
1) ;
2) , .
, .
1) , ;
2) .

,
;
; ; .
1) ; ; ;
2) .
, ;
; .
, ; ;
.
. , .

,
;
;
;
.
; .
, , .

.
1) , ;
2) , ;
3) ;

( ), ;

149

free alongside ship (. f.


a. s.)
free delivered
free in and out (. f. i. o.)

free in and stowed


free into barge
free on board (. f. b.)

,
(
);

(
);

,
;

;
;
) , ,
(
);

free on board and stowed

(yce
,
,
).

free II adv.

1) :
2) ec.
, .
, .
,

freeze v. (froze, frozen)


freight I n.
freight outwards
outward freight)
freight traific
freight ton
freight prepaid
freight revenue
freight II v.
freigihter n.
fulfill
fulfilment n.
tull I n.
in full
to the full
full II a.
fully adv.
furnish v

further I a.
further information (news)
further II v.
further III adv.

;
3
(=1,12 )

.
;

,
,
; :
; c:
;
,
, , coep
1) , ,
2) ;
1) ;
2) , ;

, ;
1) ;

150

further to out letter


furthernicre

2) , , .
.
,

G
gang n.
general a.
grade n.

gradual v.
grant v.
to grant an allowance
( discount)
to take for grantea

grateful
gross a.
gross register ton
ground (. to be grounded)
grounded
grounding
groundless a.
guidance .
for your guidance
guide .


; ; ,
;
1) ;
2) ;
3) ,
.
, ,
;


,
,
-
;
;
,
, ;
;
. ;
.
; .

H
handle v.

hard and fast rule


hasten v.
hatch n.
hazardous a.
hear v.

1) -.;
2) ; ( - );
3)
().
.
.
; .
; .
1) ; ;
, ;

151

we hear from our representative


hoping to hear ircin you
hearing n.
heavy a.
heavy goods
height n.
henceforth adv.
hereby adv.
herein adv.
hereinafter adv.
hereof adv.
hereon adv.
hereto adv.
heretofore adv.
herewith adv.
high a.
high light n.
hire I n.
hire II v.
hitch n.
hitherto adv.
hold I n.
hold II v. (held)
to hold responsible
long ( gross) hundredweight
short ( net) hundredweight
hurry v.

.
;
. ;
2) . , ( ).
. , ( ).
;

, .

1) , ;
2) .
, ().
;
.
, .
om ().
, , , .
- , , .
1) ;
2) ; .
; .
, .
; .
.
; ; .
, .
. .
1) ;
2) , ;
;
(112 );
(100 ).
(), , .

152

I
identical a.
identification n.

identity v.
identoty card
it any
ignore v.
illegal a.
illegible a.
immediate a.

immediately adv.
imminent a.
immunity n.
diplomatic immunity

impact n.
impede v.
imperative a.
imply v.
importance n.
impose v.
impress v.
impression n.
improve v.
improvement n.
inability n.

,
,
.
, ;
,

.
.
.
,
, ..
1) ;
2) . ; .
;
(
, );

1)
,
,
,

2) , .
1) ;
2) .

,
;
, ; .

;
;
; ;

.
1) , , ;
2) .
, .
; ;
.
; ;
, ;
, ;
;
.

;
;
; .
.
; .

153

inaccessible a.
inaccuracy n.
inadmissable a.
inadvisable a.
inapplicable a.
inaugurate v.
incidental a.
incidental expenses
include v.
including prp.
income n.
incoming a.
incomparable a.
incompatible a.
incomplete a.
inconvenient a.
incorporate
increase I n.
increase II v.
increasingly adv.
incur v.
to incur expenses
to incure a liability
to incur losses
indemnity v.

indemnity n.
indemnity bond
indemnity for clean Bills
of Lading
indicate v.

.
, .
.
.
, .
1) ;
2) .
, ;
( )
.
1) ;
2) ( in).
, .
, ; . .
, .
1) ;
2) .
.
1) , ,
.
.
(); ();
.
; ; ; .
; ; .
.
, ,
; -.;
;
,
.
;
; ;
( for); ,
( against, from).
1) , ;
2) , ;
;

.
; .

154

inferior a.

inferiority n.
inflammable a.
highly inflammable!
inform v.
infringe v.
infringement n.
ingredient n.
inherent a.
inherent vice ( inherent
defect) in the goods
initial a.
injure v.
injurious a.
injury n.
inquire (. enquire) v.

insert v.
insist v.
inspect v.
install v.
instal(l)ment n.
instance n.
instant a.

insufficient a.
insurance n.
insurance and
department
insurance policy
insure v.
insured I n.

claim

. . ;
( -., -. to);
, .
.
;
!
, , .
(, , ..).
(, ,
..).
;

;
;
; ;
. .
, ;
, .
, ;
, .

;
;
;

.
, . .
( on).

,
,
.

,
;
.
, .
1) , , ;
2) ( ) .
1) , ,
2) (
. inst) .
.
( against);
;
.
1) , ;
2) .
(
. );

155

insured II p.p.
intact a.
integrity n.
interest I .

interest II v.
interested a.
interested party
interfere v.

internal a.
interview I n.
interview II v.
intervene v.
introduce v.

introduction n.
letter of introduction
invariable a.
investigate v.
investigation n.
invitation n.
invite v.
invoice I n.
invoice II v.
inward a.
inward cargo; inward
freight
irrecoverable a.
irregular a.
irrevocable a.
issuance n.

;
, , .
; .
1) ( sing) , ,
;
2) , (
n; at);
, ;
, ;

,
.
1) , ,
(-. with);
2) ( -. in)
.
, , , .
, .
(in).
1) , , (
into).
2) , .
1) ; ;
2) ;
.
; .
; .
; .
.
; .
-, , ( for, of).
, ;
;
. .
; .
; .
; .
; .

156

issue I .

in the issue
issue II v.
itinerary n.

1) ; ; ;
();
2) ; ;
3) ; ;
;
4) ; ;
; ; .
; ;
; ().
; .

J
Jettison n.

join v.
joint a.
jointly adv.
judg(e)ment n.
judicial a.
jurisdiction n.
justice n.
justification n.
justify v.

1)
( );
2) , .
(); ();
-.; .
; ;
; ; .
; .
1) ; ;
2) ; ,
; .
.
.
1) ; ;
2) .
; .

keep v.

to keep to
kind n.
kindly adv.
knot n.
knowledge n.
to the best of our
knowledge
without our knowledge

1) ; ;
2) ; ;
3) ( -.);
-.
cop, .
.
. .
.
. ;
. .

157

L
label n.
labour n.
lack I n.
lack II v.
land v.
landed terms

lapse I n.

lapse II v.
last I .
confirming our last
last II a.
last III v.
lasting a.
late I a.
late II adv.
of late
launch v.
law n.
lawful a.
lay v.
to lay up a vessel
lay days

leave v.
to leave harbour
legal a.
from a legal standpoint

; .
; ; .
; .
1) ;
2) ; .
(), ();

( , ,

).
1) ; ;
, ;
2) ; .
( ), ,
.
( last letter);

.
1) ;
2) .
1) ; ,
2) .
; .
;
- ;
, .
( ).
.
.
; ;
.
,

(
,

).
1) ;
2) ; , ;
; .
; ; ;
:
.

158

legalize v.
legislation n.
legitimate a.
length n.
at length
less a., adv., ., prp.

letter of attorney
letter of credit n. (. credit)
irrevocable letter of
credit
liability n.
limited liability company
to admit liability
liable a.

liberty n.
to take the liberty
licence n.
lie v. (lay; lain; pres. p. lying)
to lie at anchor
lien n.
maritime lien
to exercise a lien
litt v.

likewise adv.
limit I n.

limit II v.
limitation n.
limited a.
line n.

;
; .
.
; .
;
) : ) .

;
;
;
; ;

; ; ; .
.
;
.
; ;

;
.
1) ( for); ;
2) (-. to):
3) (-. to),
( to).
; .
, .
; .
; ; ( );
.
. ();
;
.
1) ();
2) ; ;
3) ().
, .
; ;
;

;
; .
.
, .
.
1) ; ;
2) ();

159

to bring into line


line shipping
Liner n.
liner terms

liquid capital
list I n.
list II v.
list III n.
load I n.
load capacity
load displacement
local a.
local custom
lodge v.

to lodge a claim with a


person for 100
log n:. (. logbook)
longshoreman n.
loose I a.
loose Il n.
loose collected

lose v. (lost)
to lose faith in
loss n.
loss by fire
to bear a loss
to cover a loss
to entail a loss
to incur losses
to suffer (. sustain)
losses

;
2) ( . .);
.
;
(

).
.
; .
; .
. .
1) ; 2) ;
;
;
.
;
;
1) ; ;
(, in, with);
2) ();
();
-.
100 .
. ,
.
- ; .
; ;
; .
;
(,

).
; , ;
()
; ; ; ; ;
;
,
;
; ;
, ;
;
;

160

to be at a loss
lot n
low a.
lubricant n.
luggage n.
lump n.
in a lump.
lumpsum (. lump sum)

lump freight

.
(, ).

;
;
; .
; .
.
; .
; .
( a

);
. (

y
).

161

M
mail n.
main a.
maintain v.
maintenance n.

make I n.
make II v. (made)
to make fast
manifest (ship's manifest)
marginal a.

marginal cost(s)

mark I n.
mark II v.
mate n.
mate's receipt

materialize v.
as a matter of fact
mature v.

maturity n.
mean a.

; .
, .
1) , ;
2) .
1) . ; ;
;
2) ; ;
3) ;
4) .
1) ; ; ;
2) , , .
1) , , ,
; 2) ( );
. , ;
().
. ,
.
1) ;
2) ,
; .

).
1) , , , ;
2) .
, .
;
,
(
).

(),
().
; .
; (
,
);

;
.
; (, ).
.

162

means n.
b all mens
by means of
by no means
measure I n.
to take measures
measure II v.
measurement n.
measurement certificate
medium a.
meet v.
to meet with approval
to meet a demand
merchandfse n.
message n.
mid a.
middle n.
miscalculate v.
miss v.

missing a.
mix v.
mixed a.
moderate a.
modern a.
bill ( draft) at three months
bill at three months date
bill at three months sigth
by the month
early next month
moor
moreover adv.

, ; , ;
1) ;
2) ; ;
;
.
;
.
, .
, ; ;
. .
.
1) :
2) ;
;
.
().
, , .
c;
.
.
1) , , ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) .
, .

,
(),
.
, .

,
,
.

,
,
.
;

;

.
, ;
;
, ().
, .

163

motion n.

movable a.
move v.
movement n.
mutural a.
by mutual consent

1) ;
2)
3) (a ),
,
(), ();
- , , ,
; ; ;
;
.

N
name I n.
in the name of
name II v
natural a.
natural loss
nature n,
nature of the damage
nautical a.
navigable a.
necessarily adv.
need n.
to be in need of
neglect I n,
neglect II v.
negligence n.
negligible a.
negotiable a.
non-negotiable ( not
negotiable)

; ; ;
) -.;
6) -.
; ; .

;
;
;
(,
. .).

;
;
; ; ; ;
.
; .
.
, ;
.
; ; ;
.
.
; ;
.
.

.
,
, ;
,
; .

164

negotiate v.

negotiation n. ( pl. negotiations)


next I a.
next II n.
our next
nominate v.
non-contract rate
note I n.
to take note

credit note
debit note
notes payable
notes receivable
short-term note

note II v.

notice I .

notice of protest

notice of (loading) readi-

1) ( )
( for);
2)
(

)
, (
);
3)
(

)
, ,
(, . .)
1) ; ;
2) , ,
(, . .).
; .
;
;
. ;
.
.

.
1) ; ; ;
;
2) ; ;
3) ; ;
. ;
. ;
4) ; ;
;
;
;
5)
;

;
; .
1) , ;
2) , ;
; ;
;
3) ().

;
;
;
;
;
(

);

165

ness
to give notice
until further notice
without further notice
to bring to one's notice
notice II v.
notify v.
notwithstanding prp.
null a.

.
; ;
;
;
.
; ;
.
, .
, .
; .

0
object I n.
object II v.
objection n.
to make ( to raise)
an objection
objective n.
obligation n.
to be under an obligation to somebody
obligatory a.
oblige v.
observe v.
to observe a formality
we observe from your
letter
obstruction n.
obtain v.

occasion n.
on
occasion
(
when occasion offers)
on several occasions
on some future occasion

1) ; ;
2) , .
, ( - to);
( to);
, .
; ;
;

( )
-.; -.
.

.
1) (, . .);
;
2) ; ;
.
.
.
1) , , ;
2) , ;
3)
;

; .
1) ; ;

;
;
-.
;

166

should the occasion


anse

to have occasion for


complaint
occur v.
off adv., prp.,
5 miles off

offer I n.
firm offer
offer II v.
omission n.
omit v.
open I a.
open ice
first open water
open II v.
operating a.
operating costs (
operating expenses)
operation n.
opinion n.
opportunity n.
at the first opportunity
to take the opportunity
option n.

at ( in) charterer's
option
ship's option

optional a.

.
;
2) ;
3) ;
.
; .
1) ;
5 ;
2) . , ;
3) . ; ,
; ( of, for);
.
.
; .
; .
; ;
;
.
().
; ;
; ;

;
.
; ; .
; ; .
; :
; ;

.

:
;
;

;
(
:

o
.

,
;
.

167

order I n.

by order
by order and for account of
cash order
to call at a port for orders
to the order of
out of order
shipped in good order
and condition
order II v
ordinary a.
origin n.
certificate of origin
original I n.
original II a.
original Bill of Lading
originally adv.
otherwise adv.

free in and out


outbound a.
outcome n.
outdated a.
outline v.
outsider n.

outstanding a.
as this matter is outsanding.

;
;
; ; ;
;
;
-
, :
( ..

)
() (-.)
;

.
; ;
; .

;
;
; .
; ; ;
,
; .
;
.
1) ;
2) .
1) ; ,
;
2) ; .

.

( )
, ;
.
, .
; ., -.;
. ,
);
; ;
;
.

168

outturn ( . out-turn)
outward a
outport surcharges

outward voyage
outward freight (cargo)
over and above
overall a. (. over-all)

; ;
.

;
;
;

(,
);
;
.
; , .
1) , , ;
2) , , .

overcarry v.
overdue a.
overhaul v.

over landed a.

overload v.
overside adv,.a
overside dectivery
oversight n.
overtime adv.
owner n.


.
, ;
1) ;
, ;
2) .

e.
.
; ;

.
; .
.
; .

pack I n.
pack II n.
package n.

packet n.
packing
pallet n.
parcel .

; ; ; ; ;
.
; .
1) ; ; (,
); ;
2) .
; ; .
;
.
1) ; ; ; ;
;
2) .

169

part n.
part and parcel
partial a.
particular I n.
full particulars
in particular
particular II a.
particular average

particularly adv.
passage n.
pattern n.
pay v.
payable a.
payment n.
payment on account
non-payment
to apply for payment
to make payment
penalty n.
pending prp.
pending further instructions
per prp.
per steamer
10 per ton
per cent ( percent)
perform v.
peril n.
permit I n.
exchange permit
permit II v.

; ;
.
; .
; ;
;
; ,
.
1) ; ; ;
, ;
2) ; ;
.
1) ; ; ,
2) , .
1) ; ;
2) ; .
; ; ; ,
, , ,
, .
.
; ; ;

;
;
;
;
; ;
; .
, , ,
;

.
1) . , , , ;
;
2) , ;
10 1 ;
3) ( as per);
, .
, , .
, .
;

.
, .

170

personal a.
personnel n.
pertinent
petties n.
petty a.
pick v.
to pick up
piece n.
pier n.
pile n.
pilferage .
place I .
place II v
to place an order wild
firm
to place an amount to a
person's credit (debit)
plaintiff n.
in plaintiff's favour
please v.

to be pleased to...
pleasure n.
we have ( we take)
pleasure in informing you
point I n.
point of view
on points of fact
to the point
point IIv.
to point out
poor a.

.
; .
. ,
( , . .).
.
; .

;
,
; ;
.
1) ; ,
2) ; .
. , ; .
1) . ; ;
2) ; ; .
.
; ; .
.
; ;
;
a -.
().
;
.

;
;
:

-.
;
.
( )
.
1) ; ; ;
2) , ;
;
. ,
, ;
, .
( at, to);
, ,
1) ;
2) , .

171

popular a.

port n.
port facilities
port of arrival
port of call
port of departure
pnrt of destination
port of discharge
port of loading
safe port
to enter port
to leave port
possess v.
possible a.
postpone v.
postscript n.
power n.
it is not our power

pratique n.
precaution n.
to tart (
precuations
something
precede v,
precedence n.

to ase)
against

prefer v.
preferable a.
prejudice n
to the nrejudice of
without prejudice to
preliminary a.
prepay v. (prepaid)

;
;
.
1) ; ;
;
; ;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
nopa:
2) .
, , .
, .
, .
, .
1) ; ;
;

2) ; ; ;
3)
;
;
;
.
.
; .

;
-.

1)
2) ;
;
;
;
-., -.;
-., -.
.
;

172

freight prepaid
present I n.
at present
present II a.
present lIl v.
press v.
presume v.
prevail v.
prevent v.

preventive a.
previous a.
previous to
price n.
price lighter (exuquary
eceship, exewarehouse)
primarily adv.

principal n.
prior a.
prior to prp.
private a.
proceed v

to proceed with an instruction.


proceeding n.
proceedings pl.

proceed n pI.
profit n.
profitable pl.

(
).
;
;
;
1) ; ;
.
, .
.
, ,
.

1),
; ;
2) ; ;
.
;
;
, .
;
( ,
).

;
;

.
1) ; ;
2) .

;
;
; .
o, .
, .
1) ;
2) ;
3) ; ;

.
;
. ,
; ;

c ; .
, .

,
,
, .

173

proforma invoice

prohibit v.
prolong v.
promise v.
prompt I n.
prompt note
prompt II a.

proof I n.
proof II a.
fireproof
wateproof

proper a.

property n.
pro rata adv.
prospective a.
protect v.
protective a.

protest n.
to enter ( to lodge,
to make, to raise) a protest
prove v.
provide v.

;
.
.

,
,
, .
; .
, ;

.
1) , ,
, ;
2)
( ).

.
,
, .

,
, , .
;

,
,
.

,
,
,
,
.
, .

.
,

, .
, .
, , ;
( from, against).

,
,
,
;
.
;
.
1) , ,
2)

with);
,
,
, .

174

provided (that) conj.


provisional a.
proximo adv. (. prox)
prudent
publicity n.
purchase v.
purpose n.
put v.

,
, .
; .
. .

,
.
1) ; ;
2) .
, ; .
1) ; ;
2) , .
, , .

175

Q
quality n.
quantity n.
quarter n.
quarters pl.
quay n.
query n.
question n.
in question
out of the question
the question is...
questionable a.
quiet n.
quota n. (pl. quotas)
quotation n.
quote v.

quote . . . unquote

, .
; ; .
;
, .
; ; .
.
, , ;
;
;
;
. . .
,
.
, .
.
, , , ,
.
1) (, ,
..); ,

,
,
;
2) .


;

R
raise v.
random n.: at random
range n.

rate n.
re prp. (. in re)

reach v.

1) ;
2) , .
; .
1) ;
2) ; ;
3) ; .
1) ; ;
2) ; .
1) . ;
2)
(

)
, .
1) ; ;
2) .

176

readiness n.
ready a.
realize v.
reason n.
by reason of something
for the (following) reason
reasonable a.
recapitulation n.
receipt n.
receipts pI.
receive v.
receiver n
reconsider v.
record I n.

record II v

recourse n.
to have recourse to
recover v.

recovery n.
reduce v.

, .
1) , ;
2) ; .
1) ;
2) .
, , ,
, ;
-.;
() .

,
,
.

.
1) ;
2) , ;
, ,
, .
, .
1) ;
2) .

.
1) , ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) ;
1) , ,
;
2) ,
.
;
;
-. (-.).
1) , ,
, ;
2) , ,
.
, .

1)
,
,
, .

177

reduction n.

refer v.

reference n.

refloat v.
refund v.
refusal n.
refuse v.
regard v.
as regards
registry n.
certificate of registry
regret I n.
regret II v.
regular a.

regulation n.
reimburse

reject v.

relate v.
relation n.
relative a.

1) , ,
, ;
2) .
1) , (
to);
2) , ;
3) .
1) , ( to);
2) ;
3)
,
,
; ,
.

( ).
, ().
; .

();
,
.
1) , .
2) , ;
.
:
. ,
.
.
.

;
;
;
,
.
; .
(), ,
,
,
.

,
,

;
,
.
; ;
.
, , .
; ;
.

178

release I n.

1) ; , ;
;

release for shipment

;
2) ( );
3)
.

;

.

;
;
; .
; .
; .
, .

release II v.
relevant a.
reliability n
reliable a.
rely v.
remain v.
remainder n.
remedy n.

remit v.

remittance n.
removal n.

remove v.

remunerate v.

, (
on, upon); .
.
.
1) , ( -.);
2) . ;
.
1) ;
();
2) ;
) ;
4) ; .
;
5)

;
6) .
, ().
1) , ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ; .
1) ; , ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
; ;
.

179

remuneration n.
render v.
renew v.
repack v.
repair I n.
repair II v.

repay v.
repeat v.
replace
reply I n.
reply lI v.
report I n.
report II v.

represent v.
representation n.
Trade Representation
of the USSR
representative n.
request I n.

request II v.
require v .
requirement n.
reservation n.
reservations pI.
reserve I n.

;
;
.
1) , ;
2) .
; .
.
( pl. repairs) ,
.

1)
,
,
;
2) .
();
; .
.
1) ;
2) , .
( to);
1) ( to);
2) . .
; ; ;
; .
;
;
;
.

.
;

.
.
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
.
1) , ;
2) -.

,
,
.
, ;
;
. .
1) , ;
;

180

reserve II v.

we reserve the right


reship v.
reshipment n.
respect n.
in all (many) respects
in respect of (. respect to with respect
to)
respectfully; yours respectfully
respecting prp.
respective a.

respectively adv.
respond v.
response n.
responsibility n.
responsible a.
to hold ( to consider) some one responsible
rest I n.
rest II v.
restrain v.
restrict v.
restriction n.
result I n.
result II v.

2) , .

1)
,
,
, ;
2) ,
();
.
.
( ),
;
, .
;
() ;
, ;
(
).
,

,
(

,
).
(
).
1) ;
2) .
1) ;
2) ; .
( for).
( for).
-. .
; ;
, .
.

,
;
(from).
.
.
, .

,
,
;

181

to result from

to result in

resume v.
retain v.
return I n.
in return
return II v.
reversible a.
reversible days

revert v.
review I n.

review II n.

revise v.
rig v.
rigging n.
rise v. (rose, risen)
risk n.
risk and perils of the sea
rival n.
road n.
inner road
outer road
safe road
roadstead n.
rock n.
rough a.

,
;
-.;
-.,
-., .
.
, .
;
, .
1) ;
2) ();
,
.

(
).
( ).
1) ;
2) , ; ,
.
1) ;
2) ; ;

; .
. ().
., .

,
,
( ); .
.

.
, .
1) , ;
2) . . (. pl. roads);
;
;
.
.

;
;
.

;
,
;
;

182

roughly adv.
route n.
rule n.
run v. (ran, run)
to run into a port
running a.

running days

.
, .
, , ;
.

,
;
; ; .
; ; ;
;
.
1) ; ;
2)
,
;
.
. (
).

S
sack n
safe a.
safeguard I n.
safeguard II v.
safety n. .,
sail v.
sale n.
salvage I n.

salvage II v.
salvor n.
sample n.
satisfaction n.
satisfy v.
save v.
saving n.
savings account
savings bank
scale n.

, .
, , ;
.
; ;
, ;

,
,
.
, ;
.
, ; ,
( for);
.
( );
(
).
(, ).
.
; ; .
.
.

1) ;
2) pl. ;
;

;
.
; ; .

183

schedule I n.
schedule II v.
seal n.
season v.
seaworthiness n.
secure v.
security n.

select v.
sell v. (sold)
senior a.

separate I a.
separate II v.

serve v.

service n.

always at your service


to be of service
set I n.

set II v.

; .
; .
; ; .
; .
,
.
; .
1) ;
2) ; ;
3)
(. l. securities).
, , .
()

;
;

,
.

,
,
;

();
;
;
;
.
1) ;
2) ;
3) . , ;
.
1) ;
2) ;
3) , , ;
; ;
4) ;
5) ;
. ;
;
.
1) ; ; ;
;
;
;
;
2) , ; .
1) , ;
2) , .

184

settle v.

settlement n.

shelter v.
shift v.

to shift berth
shifting n.

ship I n.
motorship
on board ship
ship II v.
to ship a heavy sea
shipment n.

shipowner n.
shipper n.
shipping n.

shipping company
shipping conference
short delivery
short-landed
short-shipment

1)
,
;

;
; .
2) , ,
,
,
.
1) , ;
().
2) , , ,
, .

();
;
.
(); ();
,
,
, ;
, ,
.

,
:
: .
, ;
;
.

();
,
;
.
1) , , ;
2) , (
).
.
.
1) , , ,
;
2) ;
;

.
;
;
;
;

185

short-shipment
cate

certifi-

short-shipped
short-loaded
short weight
to be short of something
shortage n.
shortage in weight
sick mariner's dues

side wharfage
sight n.
at first sight
in sight
sight biil (of exchange)
at sight
after sight
(at) 30 days' sight
to draw a bill at sight
sign v.
signature n.
similar a.
simple a.
sincerely; yours sincerely

single a.
sink v. (sank, sunk)
sister ship n.
size n.

, ,

;
;
(
);
; ;
-.,
-.
, ;
.
,


.
;
1) ; ;
,
;
;
2) .

;
;
;

30

;
,
.
.
.

,
;
.
; .

()
(

x.

,
;
; .
. ; .
.
, ; ;

186

skilled a.
slack a.

slack bag
slight a.
sling n.
solicit v.
solicitor n.
solve v.
sorry a.
to be sorry
we are sorry to learn
sort v.
sound a.
space n.
to charter space
spare I a.
spare parts
spare time
spare II v.
to spare no effort
special delivery
specification n.
specify v.

specimen n.
spoil v, (spoilt spoiled)
standing a.

standing rule

.
; .
, , ,
,
;
;
.

,
;
, .
. , (
).
, .
. , ,
.
, .
;
;
. ,
.
; ,

;
;
; ;
; ;
;
.

;
,
;
;
.
; , ;
.
.

;
;
.
;
; ;
; .
, ; .
().
1) ; ;
2)
;

; ;
.

187

start v.

state I n.
state II v.

statement n.
statement of claim
statement of facts
stay v.
steadily adv.

steady a.

step n.
to take steps
to take legal steps
against a person
stevedore n.
stevedoring n.
stipulate v
stipulation n.
stock n
storage n.
storage charges
store n.
storekeeper n.
stow v.

1)
,
,
, ;
2) ;
.
, .
, , ,
;
;
.
1) ; ;
;
;
2) ; ;
.
, ;
, .
1) , ;
2)
,
,
.
1) , ;
2)
,
,
, .
, ;
;
-. ;
-.
.
; .

.

;
,
; .
; ;
.
; ;
,
.
.

;
.

;
; ; .

188

stowage n.
stowing n.
straight a.
straight Bill of Lading
strain n.
strand v.

stranded a.
stranded ship
standing n.
strength n.
strike v. (struck)
strong a.
subject I n.
subject II a., adv.
subject to ( to be

)
straight a.
straight Bill of Lading
strain n.
strand v.

stranded a.
stranded ship
subject I n.
subject II a., adv.

1) , ;
2) .
, .
;
.
.
1) ;
2) ;
.

;
;
,
.
.

;
;
.
1) ;
2) .
1) , ;
2) , ().
; ; .
, ,
;

, -.;
,

-.;
;
.
.
1) ;
2) ;
.

;
;
,
.
; ; .
, ,
;

189

subject to ( to be

).

to be subject to a condition
to be subject to a discount
to be subJect to Soviet
law
prices are subject to alteration
the offer is subject to
confirmation
submerged a.
submission n.

submission (of a dispute) to arbitration

submit v.

to sumbit to terms
subrogation n.

subrogation clause
subsequent a.

, -.;
,

-.;

.;

-.;
-.;
;
;
,
;

.
, .

();

;

.
1) ,
();
,
;
,
2) , ;
3) ;
.
. (

, . .);

);
.
.
, ;
, .

190

subsequently adv.
substitute n.
substitute v.
succeed v.

succession n.
in succession
successive a.
suffer v.
sufficient a.
suggest v.

suit I n.
suit II v.

suitable a.
summon v.
summons n.
superior a.

supplement n.
supplier n.
supply I n.

, , .

,
,
.

,
,
.
1) -., -.;
, ;
2) , ,
( in).
;
.

,
.
, ,
.
.
1) , ;
2) , ;
3) ,
-.
;

;
,
,
,
;
,
.
1) (. );
2) .
(. );
(. writ of summons).
1) , , ; (-., to);
(-. to):
;
2) , .

,
,
.
.

1)
,
,
, ;
2) .

191

supply II v.

support I .
support II v.
surcharge I n.

surcharge II v

surpass v.
surplus n.
surrender I n.

surrender of a right
surrender of documents
surrender II v.

to surrender
ments
survey v.

docu-

to sustain loss
sweepings n. pI.

1) , ; ;

2)
;
;
.

;
;
; .

.
1) ;
;
2) ;
; ;
3)

;
.
1)
2) ,

,
;
3)

, .
1) ; ;
2) .
, , ,
;
1) ( -.);
2) , , ;
; .
;

;
1) ( - );
2), , ,
;
.
;
;
.
; .

T
to take (up) the matter with
tackle n.

( -.).
. , ,

192

tally v.

the account does not tally


temporary a
tend v.

to tend mooring lines


tender i n.

tender II v.

tentative a.
term n.

terminal n.
teniuna charhes

testify v.
theft n.
thereabouts adv.
thereafter adv.

,
1) , , , ()
);
2)
,

( );
3) , ,
, (
with);
.

;
;
( ,
);
;
.

1)
(

for)
();
2) .
( for) ,
;

; .
; ; (.
..) ,
.
.
,
,
,

, , ,
,

.

.
.
.
, ,
.

193

thereby adv.
therefore adv.
thereof adv.
thereto adv.
through a.
tie v.
tight a.

top n.
tolal a.
total II n.
total III v.

touch I n.
touch II v.
tow v.
towage n.
tracer n.
traffic n.
tramp n.
transfer I v.

transfer II v.

tranship v.

transhipment n.

, ; .

.
; ; , .
, ; , .
; .
( to tie up);
; .
1) ; ;
;
2) , .
, , .
, , , .
, ,
, .
e,
, (,
); ;
, , ,
.
, .
.
.
.

,
,
, , .
.
1) ,
;
2) ;
3) (
).
1) (,
);
2)

();
();
3) (
).
, ,
(
).

,
,
(

194

treat v.

treatment n.
treaty n.
trial n.

trial trip
speed trial
trim I n.

trim by the bow


trim by the stern
trim II v.
trip n.
trip charter
true a.
true copy
truly adv.: yours truly
trust I n.
trust II v.

turn v.

turnover n.

).
1) , ,
, ;
2)

,
( with, for);

;
3)
,

.
1) , ;
2) , .

(.

); .
1) ; ; ;
2)

,
;
();
.
1)
( );
2) ;
;
.

( ).
; ; ;
.
; ; ;
.
.

,
( ).
1) , ;
2) .
1) ();
2) ;
3) .
1) ();
2) , ,
.
.

195

U
ultimate a.
ultimo adv.
unacceptable a.
under
under the terms of the
agreement
understanding n.

on the understanding
to come to an understanding
undertake v.
undertaken)

(undertook,

uneven a.
unfavourable a.
unfit a.
unforeseen a.
uniform a.
uniform cargo
unit n.
universal a.
unload v.
unpack v.
unsafe a.
unsatisfactory a.
unskilled a.
unsuitable a.
unwarranted
urgency n.

, ,
.
. .
.
,
;
.
1) :
2)
,
; ;
, ;
, ;

.
1) , ;
2) ,
, .
1) ;
2) .
.

,
,
.
.
; ;
; ;
.
1) ; ;
2) ().
1) ; ;
2) .
(); .
.
; .

; .
, .
.

,
, ;
.

196

urgent a.
use I n.

use II v.
utilize v.
utmost I a.
utmost II n.
we shall do our utmost

,
,

1) , ,
;
2) .

,
,
;
, .
, .
; ;
. .

V
valid a.

valuable a.
value n.
variable a.
varied a.
vary v.
verity v.

via prp.
victuals n. pI.
in view of
violate v.
virtue n.
by ( in) virtue of

visible a.
visualize v.
vital a.
void I a.
void contract
to consider null and void
void II v.

.
,
,

.
.
; .
, ,
.

;
;
.
1) , ;
1) ; ;
2)
;
; .
(.) , ; .
, , .
, .
(, ).
, ;

;
,
,
.
.
.
.
, ,

;
.
(.) ,
, .

197

1) ; ;
; ;
2) , .

volume n.

W
want n.
for want of
warehouse n.
warrant I n.

warrant II v.
wear and tear n.
weigh v.
weight n.
wharf n (pi.
wharfs)
wharfage n.

wharves,

whatever
whereas cI.
whereby adv.
whole a.
wholly adv.
wide a.
width n.
wire n.
by wire
withdraw
v.
(withdrew,
withdrawn)
withhold v. (withheld)

within prp.
witness n.

,
,
( of), ;
, .
.
1) , ;
2) , ;
3) .

,
,
.
, . (. tear
and wear)
1) ;
2) ().
, , .
, .
,
.
, .
.
, .
, ; .
, .
, : ,
.
.
;
.
; ; ;
; .
1) -.;
2) ;
3) ; .
1) , , ;
2) .
1) ; ;
2) , ;

198

in witness whereof
wording n.
worth a.
to be worth
writ n.
writ of summons
to serve a person with a
writ upon a person)
wrong a.
wreck

.
() , ,
.
;

,
,
.
. ,
;
,
;
-.

,
;
.

Y
yard

,
;
( , 9,15 )

Z
zone time

199

1. International Convertion on Standards of Training, Certification and


Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as Amended by the 1995
Conference Together with Documents of Conference.

2. R.Murphy, English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University Press,


1990

3. Routine Ship's Correspondence of Shipping Companies,


1998-2000.

4. Business Letters, Radiograms, Notices of Readiness, Sea Protests of


Captains
of
Shipping
Companies,
Shipping
Documents,
1998-2000.

All rights reserved.

200

.
4
Unit 1. Text. Safety and Enviromental Protection6
.
Vocabulary. Exercises. Business Letters...11
Unit 2. Text. Cargo Pilferage..12
.
Vocabulary. Exercises.
Additional Text17
Unit 3. Text. The Carrier's Responsibility.18
.
Vocabulary. Exercises. Business Letters...22
Unit 4. Text. Charter Party..22
-.
Vocabulary. Exercises.
Additional Text27
Unit 5. Text. Routine Ship's Correspondence.28
.
Business Letters. ...34
Unit 6. Text. Bill of Lading..35

Vocabulary. Exercises..43
Unit 7. Text. Routine Ship's Correspondence.44
.
Business Letters. ...50
Unit 8. Text. Manifest of Cargo..51

Vocabulary. Exercises. Business Letters...55

201

Unit 9. Text. Routine Ship's Correspondence..56


.
Business Letters. 60
Unit 10. Text. Full Freight....61
.
Vocabulary. Exercises.
Additional Text63
Unit 11. Text. Notice of Readiness64
.
Vocabulary. Exercises.
Additional Text66
Unit 12. Text.Routine Ship's Correspondence67
.
Business Letters. 71
Unit 13. Text.Official Letters72
.
Vocabulary. Exercises.
Additional Text75
Unit 14. Text.Sea Protests..75
.
Vocabulary. Exercises...82
Unit 15. Text.Routine Ship's Correspondence.83
.
Business Letters. 87
Unit 16. Text.Clames on Collisions...88
.
Vocabulary. Exercises
Business Letters. 94

202

Appendixes.

1

( )

Appendix 1.95
Shipping Documents
(in the original)

Appendix 2105

Standard Phrazes used in


Ship's Correspondence.

Appendix 3111

-
.

English-Russian
Dictionary.

203

For Notes

204