Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences.

Year 2005.

by J. Ravi Shanker.
for Development Support Center. Ahmedabad.

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 1

Integrated Watershed Development. Case Study of MotaKakadiamba. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. Contents:
1. Introduction 2. Study Objectives 3. Context 4. Integrated watershed development 5. MotaKakadiamba Watershed 6. Steps in IWD 7. Activities Undertaken 8. Benefits of IWD 9. Further Potential 10. Lessons for development agencies

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 2

Integrated development Convergence approach AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. Introduction: The watershed approach conventionally aimed at treating degraded lands with the help of low cost and locally accessed technologies such as in-situ soil and moisture conservation, afforestation and through close involvement of communities. Watershed Guidelines (1994) of Ministry of Rural Development in India emphasized on increasing production and enhancing productivity in cultivated areas-largely private. Attempts were made to enhance rural livelihood support systems for poor and needy. Though the guidelines were revised in 2001, the focus has been retained. Revised Guidelines re-emphasised on participation of women, carrying out exit protocol, role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI), establishing credit facility in 2001. However some of the projects in first batch (1996) have already incorporated some of these elements in their stride leading to successful and sustainable models of watersheds. At the same time some of the concepts like convergence, Twin Track Approach, Transparency were introduced at later stage to enhance the effectiveness of the program. These ideas emerged out of some of the best practices witnessed in the field. This document attempts to study some of such approaches. Study Objectives To study best practices in integrated watershed development To document the approach of AKRSP-I to IWD Lessons for replication

Context: Aga Khan Rural Support Program India-AKRSP (I) is a non-profit organization and is part of Aga Khan Development Network. Established in 1983 in Gujarat by Mr.Anil Shah as the first Chief Executive Officer to empower rural communities manage their environment and control their lives. Since then AKRSPI focused more on empowerment based models of community development around land and water resources. AKRSP-I played active role in execution of watershed program under Ministry of Rural Development and this report studies one of the project villages MotaKakadiamba in Narmada District of Gujarat.

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 3

Though initial focus was on natural resources such as water, land, forest and livestock AKRSP-I geared up to concentrate on livelihood based approaches through programmatic intervention Sustainable Community Based Livelihood Enhancement Program(SCALE) funded by European Commission. The process of community empowerment is corner stone for sustainable development of natural resources. And livelihood enhancement is possible through integrated resource development. This complex relationship is studied by Development Support Center in MotaKakadiamba watershed project as SCALE program. Integrated Watershed development. Ideally the micro watershed concept aims to establish an enabling environment for the integrated use, regulation and treatment of water and land resources of a watershed based ecosystem to accomplish resource conservation and biomass production objectives (Jensen et al, 1996). However when we refer to available literature and observe couple of watersheds we find that a typical watershed largely demonstrates soil conservation works, couple of water harvesting structures and few user and self-help groups. Though it appears to be a complete watershed it lacks integration and hence impact on resources is limited. Integrated watershed development approach carefully appraises every resource available in the watershed village and works out suitable mechanism for its optimization. Here the approach of Project Implementing Agency largely determines the impact. Convergence with other programs is key to integration. Unfortunately, the integrated approach to watershed is given up either for lack of resources or Program Implementing Agencies (PIA) are more project focused. A study conducted by Ninan and others found that integration of activities under watershed resulted in enhanced crop yields, income and employment. Followed by reduction in variability of dry crop yields, and better resilience of crop output to drought and other environmental stresses. Though a typical watershed program is project oriented guidelines emphasis on convergence that is beyond project framework. The emphasis on cross cutting issues like gender, equity and sustainability are thoroughly addressed. However in practice, gender and equity considerations are used as lubricants to short term project execution. But integrated watershed development looks beyond project cycle and engages long- term & sustainable objectives. Hence IWD does not end at the project time frame. The exit protocol merits post project plans and set of institutional frame works that sustain the resource output and distribution.

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 4

It is inevitable for PIA to ensure that WCs learn to take decisions in Gram Sabha and prioritizes needs of poor and vulnerable. However integrated approaches look beyond activity specific equities and ensure optimal resource enhancement and distribution. This helps in addressing the needs of entire community whether they are Maldharis, fisherfolk, small farmers or rural artisans. Adoption of innovative yet cost effective technologies and mobilising resources beyond project framework is key to integration. Watershed v/s Integrated Watershed.
Approach Area coverage Emphasis on activities Community involvement Planning Funding Technology focus End results Livelihoods Typical Watershed Partial Either equitable or differential Individual & Group Sectoral & project based Project based Site specific Project based Project centered Integrated Watershed Full Equitable Group & Federation Integrated & beyond project phase Project & Convergence Site specific & user friendly Beyond project phase Family centered

In a typical watershed water harvesting intervention get concluded by constructing a check dam. Extending small-scale irrigation technologies and measure would ensure higher crop productivity. This would further lead to improvisation in cropping practices, cost effectiveness and market access. Watershed Associations could continue credit, input supply and other activities in post project scenario. However PIA should sustain its relationship with WAs albeit with a different set of norms. MotaKakadiamba Watershed: Salient Features of MotaKakadiamba: Physical characteristics Twenty Five percent area of MotaKakadiamba village is degraded forestland. About 6% cropland was under irrigation when watershed activities were initiated. Rest of the area was under rainfed cultivation. Typically the productivity was very low and large number of families were out-migrating as daily wage labors. Undulating land topography resulted in high runoff and soil erosion further degrading the land productivity. A seasonal river flowing adjoining the village

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 5

contributes to partial irrigation on riverbank. Forestland located on ridge is however degraded. Most of the nallas from here terminates into river. Severe soil erosion is reported in these nallas. It is a typical watershed otherwise found in any corner of the country. In MotaKakadiamba ground water availability is certain but lack of resources to tap this source limited its scope for development. Here the PIA & Watershed Committee (WC) took interest in mobilizing additional resources from local programs and ensured the asset creation.

Property regimes

Farmers occupied village common lands for cultivation. Through there is free access collection of firewood, Tendu Patta and right to access forest resources is controlled by Forest Department. Watershed Association is actively involved in forest protection in post treatment scenario. Fallow land on riverbank is accessed by landless and were entitled to cultivate and harvest crops. The composition of livestock witnessed changes during watershed where number of draught animals got reduced. People started owning new farm equipments, tools and assets that could be easily liquidated.

Socioeconomic conditions

The village is stratified with small and marginal farmers, artisans, landless and scheduled caste and scheduled tribe communities. Higher number of small farmers and landless dominate village demography. Seasonal out migration is common practice. Wealth ranking conducted during micro plan preparation also reinforces this fact. However in post watershed there is increase in number of small farmers, people with increased asset holdings and assured livelihood opportunities.

The village is however known for its unity when it boycotted legislative assembly elections demanding for an over bridge on the river to improve trade access. An old bridge was damaged long ago and disconnected the village from rest of the world. Protesting against administrative apathy community boycotted local elections indicating strong social network despite varying social strata. Steps in integration: Participatory appraisal & planning

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 6

The PIA should first conduct participatory appraisal (PRA) of the village resources, communities, economic and social relations and political equations. Based on the outcomes it has to draw a detailed plan to optimize resources.

When the AKRSP-I team first visited the village only 60 members represented in the first Gram Sabha organsied to chalk out village development plan. The number increased in successive meetings. Village resources were identified through mapping, transect and poorest of the poor were identified by employing wealth ranking. Drinking water, soil erosion, water scarcity, low productivity, poor markets were reported as major issues during this exercise. Various issues related to livelihoods, resource rehabilitation and community participation in managing the program were considered while planning.

Formation of village institutions

The process should begin with formation of self-help and user groups identified during watershed planning process. PRIs should be taken into confidence while constituting WAs and WCs. The process should be through Gram Sbha and based on micro plan document.

In MotaKakadiamba communities elected WC through Gram Sabha where 3 members were from local Panchayat and 3 were women representatives. Most of the self-help groups (10) formed around thrift and user groups confined to irrigation wells, Nalla buding, check dams and agriculture credit.

Decide on community contribution and other norms

Community contribution norms should be laid in consultation with all groups. The contribution should be differential by activities and members to ensure equitable burden on every member.

In MotaKakadiamba WC withheld program execution for six months to convincing members on importance of contribution. All programs came to standstill. Only after continuous exposure and training communities understood the need for contribution. PIA did not adopt short-cuts to raise contribution when people refused. It took the long path of making people understand the need of community contribution.

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 7

Emphasize on capacity building

Exposures, trainings, group discussions, informal brainstorming sessions should be a regular phenomenon to ensure active and informed participation of communities. With out genuine inputs communities might not mature to adopt good management practices. In case of community contribution in MotaKakadiamba exposures, trainings and group discussion helped to convince people to contribute, adoption of technologies like treadle pumps, constructing group wells for irrigation.

Address most crucial problem first

It is important to address most critical issue first as entry point activity. Ignoring critical yet short term problems does not elicit needed community response. At the same time one should not take up complicated issues at the beginning, as one could not get immediate output in such cases. As in a typical watershed drinking water problem was addressed in entry point activity. Three hand pumps and a water tank with motor was constructed. Watershed Committee took up maintenance responsibility.

Prioritize and Sequence activities

Various activities under IWD should be prioritized and sequenced. This would help in streamlining activities. There is no thumb rule for prioritizing interventions. Community needs and insights should be considered while designing.

Livestock was given lesser priority in MotaKakadiamba. Community did not find it economically beneficial. They felt that infrastructure and markets should be developed before taking up livestock related activities. On the other hand mechanization replaced draught animals use in agriculture activities. For example tillage by tractors is much viable option to manual ploughing in small farms. Similarly in absence of road, diary could not be promoted.

Design programs around existing resources that could be executed beyond project period.

Wisely exploited available ground water resources; surface water, forests, livestock and control soil erosion. Community should have long term plans around these resources to rehabilitate and benefit from its yield.

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 8

When authorities rejected their plea for community wells as part of watershed project, they took the pain to demonstrate its viability to district authorities and succeeded to get it approved under the project fund. Communities included degraded forestland as part of watershed plan. Department denied their request and treated it under Forest Working Schemes during the same period. Wisely WA took permission from DRDA to divert the allocated sum to construct irrigation wells. As second step WC accessed the forestland under JFM with the approval of successive Divisional Forest Officer in post watershed scenario.

Understand the need for Convergence & be prepared

While designing and executing watershed, one has to constantly refer to need and importance of convergence. Communities should take lead in actively advocating their problems and alternatives. In the study village Dy. Director-Watershed at District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) rejected the community well component from micro plan stating that it caters to few individuals and not entire community. But WC took officials to visit the site and explained how it could benefit the entire community if incorporated. Though officials convinced about its benefits they were worried about equitable distribution of resources (project funds) among all stakeholders. WC suggested for 40-50% cost sharing norm for community wells. As a result more than 30% of watershed area is under irrigation.

Approach different resource agencies at local level for additional resources and support.

As integrated watershed development is beyond treatment of resources one should ensure maintenance of resources, sustained productivity and equitable benefit distribution.

Technical measures such as Kotar buding and contour bunding were prioritiesed. As a result cultivable area in the village has increased. As reported by user groups, increased moisture availability influenced crop yields. Most of the farmers shifted to sowing better seed varieties. Some Kotars were not fully treated, as the budget was not matching requirement. Additional funds were mobilized from Tribal Area Sub Plan-Narmada district and the WC is preparing new set of action plan to cover entire village land.

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 9

Use simple and user friendly technologies/alternatives so that communities can adopt and maintain easily.

As discussed above use of simple and cost effective technologies and approaches could only sustain the impact of integrated watershed development. Such measures could yield good results on long term.
Advantages of Treadle Pump: Minimal operating costs, as no fuel or electricity is required for operation. Effectively irrigates land holdings which are one hectare or less in size. Suitable for lifting water from bore wells and surface water bodies-rivers, ponds, lakes, canals, wells, tanks, etc. The pump is one of the cheapest irrigation systems currently available in the world. The treadle pump can also be used for draining waterlogged areas

With in the available resources artisans were provided with Tool Kits related to their occupation. Some of the poor farmers who own very little patch of land were supported with treadle pumps. These are the farmers who could not afford expensive diesel pumps to lift water from river. Treadle pump is most economical and efficient option that was executed.

While designing and executing ensure equitable cost sharing mechanism.

For sustained impact of IWD cost sharing should be variable (equitable). Communities do not contribute if the cost sharing norms are disproportional neither such norms sustain.

Equity aspects were given high priority in cost sharing. Even in post watershed activities user contribution in community wells varied from group to group. On 5 wells excavation works were part of user contribution, in another 4 wells user contribution collected in construction of distribution network, motor & pump. No uniformity is maintained. Generally official projects insist on uniformity but in practice it has to be equitable to sustain impact.

Ensure sustained relationship with Village Institutions in post project period.

As local communities gain awareness of their new rights and responsibilities in resource management, demands for legal, financial, technical and logistical support from the public sector increase.

Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 10

The sustained relationship between community and AKRSP-I even after withdrawal from project is a necessary condition here. Watershed Association is supported in legal, technical and financial planning for better convergence of development activities. Implementation of IWD The integrated watershed development approach did not segregate interventions in rigid sectoral blocks like soil and water conservation, forestry or livestock. It targets overall productivity of the village and sustainable management of new regimes. A better return on sustainable basis is possible by adoption of right technology, crop and land use pattern, and economic diversification. The village planned integrated activities with in available resources. The emphasis was more on soil conservation and water harvesting activities. Total village was planed under treatment where 72% land is cultivable. 25% land is forestland. Though the treatment was planned, forest department executed it. Successively WC formulated a JFMC and communities manage the land. As the resources were limited emphasis on forestry and horticulture were covered in post watershed scenario under watershed plus activities. Similarly check dams were also added in post watershed period where the funds were mobilized by WC under 60:40 scheme of State government. Treading on the same path, WC added few more group well with the assistance from Tribal Area Sub-Plan office of the district. This way the Watershed Committee so far mobilized additional resources to the tune of 10 lakhs. Though the entire watershed area was covered with soil conservation works the resources were not sufficient to treat intensively to yield higher benefits. The WC members shared the view that they are in the process of mobilizing additional funds from district administration to intensify the treatment under a fresh action plan. AKRSPI is supporting the WC in preparing the action plan. Year wise activities:
Land classification Cultivable land: Area (hec.) 334 (72%) Proposed Treatments Soil and Water Conservation Contour buding Nursery/Horti. Demonstration plots Nalla buding Planned Coverage 231 Hec. 186 Hec. 2 4 045 Hec. Actual Coverage 332 Hec. 279 Hec. 2 4 53 Hec. Integration of activities (Y.wise) 1996 1996 1996-97 1997 1998 Resource Agencies DRDA DRDA DRDA DRDA & Hort.Dept DRDA


Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 11

Group wells Treadle pumps Check dams Wasteland Forestland Others Credit to productive activities Hire Purchase of Generator Renting Audio system for public events Vermi composting Total coverage: 0 (0%) 114 (25%) 015 (3%) JFM-community protection EPA-Hand pumps with motor

1 2 1 114 Hec. 3


1998-2003 2000

1+2 114 Hec.

1998-2004 2003 1995 1996-2004

DRDA & TSP AKRSPI & DRDA DRDA Forest Dept. DRDA Internal Resources Internal Resources Internal Resources TSP

2002 2002

2002 463 (100%) 446 (93%)

Farmers switching to better seed variants in traditional crops, cultivating cotton & sunflower reflects the impact of treatment so far carried. In a typical watershed also we may find similar changes in cropping pattern and shift to commercial variants. But the changes hardly sustain with out backstopping. The Watershed Committee here in this case took up the responsibility of input supply and line up technical services (though with the support of PIA). Now it is also looking for market support services. Benefits of IWD Livelihood of artisans and poor was separately considered: Out of the total project cost, Rs.50, 000 earmarked as revolving fund for income generation activities. Of this 50% again reserved for the poorest of the poor and asset less. Loans were extended to families surviving on occupations like sewing, carpentry etc. 4 landless families were provided with hand pump repairing equipments along with training. 6 families were provided with treadle pumps where they cultivate 1/2acre (each) fallow land. Access to fallow lands by landless: Fallow lands on river slops/banks are generally ignored as unproductive lands. However asset less entrepreneurs like Devabhai and Bhamatiben turned these lands to productive entities.


Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 12

Similar is the case with other farmers who installed Treadle pumps as part of watershed intervention. They changed the so-called degraded fallow lands to productive entities. Now there are 110 dug wells (against 40 in pre watershed scenario) in village where water levels are at 15-20ft. However 50% families irrigate from river Dodhan. Productive loans & agriculture credit to members: Watershed Committee held meetings every month deliberating on loan applications, proposals, skills of applicant, return on investment etc. WC members ensure proper utilization of loan amount and timely payments. Group and individual loans were offered for carpentry, tailoring, fishing, dairying, selling vegetables etc. Maximum disbursal is in non-farm sectors. More than Rs.80,000 was disbursed and recovered among 45 members in 3 years time. Sectors Agriculture Animal Husbandry Fishery Non-farm Amount 19500 6500 4000 50900 % 24 8 5 63 Category of families Landless Marginal farmers Small farmers Medium farmers No.of families 31 5 7 2 Amount 40900 16000 18000 6000

Higher cash flows ensured to boost productivity: Cash flow is an important aspect in rural economy. The activities boosted needed cash flows to the families. By providing much needed capital through micro finance route-revolving fund, capital loans, and operational loans poor, landless families are integrated into watershed program. Multi-sectoral integration achieved to sustain the impact of watershed. Some of the enterprises like flourmill generated round the year income. Migration reduced: Migration during off-seasons reduced to 6-10 families. Earlier only 4 families used to stay back at village and entire village used to migrate. Landless found new occupations to survive and younger generations are provided training in livelihood related activities.
The equity aspect is best illustrated by a small case of Raju Vasava a landless agriculture labor who used to migrate 5-6 months in a year to Surat Town as wage labor. In 1999, Raju availed Rs.1500 from revolving fund and purchased a bicycle and ice cream storage box. He started selling ice-creams during summers covering 2 villages in a day. Earning up Rs.80 with as little working capital of Rs.50 was indeed good business. He paid back his loan in daily installments instead of monthly. Now he sells ice cream through out the year.


Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 13

Cultivable land increased: Four group wells came up as result of watershed interventions. Though the first one constructed under watershed plan, remaining 3 were built at a later stage. The water level earlier available at 30ft to 40 ft is now available at 15 to 20ft. and in sufficient quantity to irrigate 4-6 acres on each well benefiting more than 60 families. This has changed the cropping pattern, practices and productivity leading to introduction of improved and new variety seeds, increased pump sets and farm mechanization. Watershed Committee reported that 15 to 20 acres cultivated land added as a result of watershed works. Thirty percent productivity improvement reported in Paddy, Juvar (Sorghum), Tuver (Lentil) and Kapas (Cotton) crops in post watershed scenario. For example plantation method replacing aerial sowing in Paddy due to increased land availability for Paddy cultivation. Cropping pattern changed: Cropping pattern changed due to easy access to irrigation water, timely and cost effective input services by WC and guidance from PIA. Farmers adopted new seed (6201,1160) varieties in Paddy and Sorghum and Lentil sowing area reduced by 25%. Cotton, Black Gram and Guvar replaced these varieties in Rabi (second sowing) season. Sunflower and red Chilies are new commercial crops being introduced as a result of increased land productivity and availability of water. Mechanization increased in agriculture: Number of small pump sets increased from 7 to 35 in post watershed period. About 60 acres is regularly covered under group wells. Increase in well-off families: Wealth ranking exercise if carried again at the end of the project would suggest increase in well off families (to around 40) and

Devabhai and Bhamatiben purchased a small calf and tried to cultivate riverside fallow land. The thin stream tempted them to cultivate some Pigeon pea that could be bartered for bowl of rice. Both used to lift water from riverbed through buckets and irrigate small patches of scattered land. The turning point was however a Treadle Pump. After its installation they collectively graded the slope, leveled the land and reinforced with stone bunds. Fair portion of fallow turned into rich cultivable land. They could harvest vegetables, develop small orchard and even paddy. As a result they were elevated to purchased buffalo and sold milk and earned up to Rs.80 per day. They also sent their child to schooling. When Devabhai paid Rs.500 contribution to buy Treadle Pump, he was not very sure how it could benefit him. They earn from selling vegetables & milk in the village. Now roughly 2 acres is under irrigation. Treadle pump changed the concept of cultivable land and irrigation. It sustained the livelihood of poor farmers like Devabhai and Bhamatiben.


Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 14

reduction in poor (to 6-10 families). Substantiating this argument a Watershed Committee member said that post watershed there are 8 motorcycles in the village. Farmers are increasingly adopting tractor for agriculture operations. The approach to integrated watershed in MotaKakadiamba reveals that the communities are graduating from handling large chunk of external resources at the beginning of the project with the support of PIA. However by end of 4 years they learnt to manage their own credit, assets, produce and benefits. Systematically convergence was introduced where external agencies, government departments, networks increasingly involved with WC. This helped the Watershed Committee to independently plan and approach for resources. Role of institutions like AKRSP-I here step up to address second-generation activities like agriculture diversity, value addition, enterprise promotion, infusing better management practices. Potential for IWD The success of watershed depends not only on classification of watershed problems, and integrating various activities into it but also on understanding processes from which communities and support staff can evolve workable solutions. The ultimate indicator of success is the ability of communities to take advantage of new opportunities and to what extent these benefits are sustained in the post project phase. In each and every watershed there is similar potential for integration of various activities and optimizing the resources. This would change the economic and social scenario of the village. However the WC should be well trained and should express needed commitment beyond political preferences. For example in case of MotaKakadiamba in post treatment scenario, agricultural input needs to be sustained and reoriented as per demand to maximise the benefits from physical investment. As benefits of integrated watershed activities are now visible the demand for new seed varieties, soil and crop management practices, off-farm livelihood alternatives would increase. This perhaps stimulates communities long-term engagement with external agencies. Unlike typical watershed where the PIA withdraws in post project scenario here AKRSP-I sustained its interaction albeit with a different approach.


Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 15

There is huge potential for optimizing resources and creating bigger impact by converging various activities into watershed. Integrated watershed is an approach that looks beyond project cycle where in various resources, institutions and funds are mobilized around best practices. This potential need to be exploited by way of integrating various activities into watershed villages. Leaving these villages after project period would amount to waste of resources. The social capital so generated should be channelised by way of pumping additional resources and optimizing resource productivity. PIAs as active link between communities and government should be engaged to facilitate this process. Lessons in IWD While planning integrated watershed approach all possible resources should be considered. Convergence is the most preferred approach to optimize resource productivity. Local department like agriculture, livestock etc., could support programs additional activities. Do not ignore PRIs while forming WCs or other bodies at village level. Take them into confidence. Many infrastructure needs could be met by funds from PRI accounts-roads, electricity etc. Promotions of low cost local technologies like Treadle Pumps are best alternative for small farm irrigation on riverside fallows. Landless families could be effectively rehabilitated under this alternative who otherwise receive inequitable share of development resources. Small-scale community irrigation should be part of integrated watershed development to optimize resource productivity in post project period. Group wells are highly successful alternative under watershed to enhance crop productivity and ensure sustained group interaction around manageable assets. Small groups (user) around decentralized assets/resources sustain longer and individual share of inputs are minimal and manageable. Resulting into vibrant and self-sustaining groups in post project scenario. The success of group wells could be attributed to this condition. Do not overemphasis on SHGs in village. They remain more as liability than self-driven groups. Constructive group activity with assured income would only sustain in long run. Thrift groups in isolation would collapse sooner. While prioritizing gender concerns in integrated watershed, communities should be conscious about gender needs and integrate activities to benefit women. Decisions like


Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 16

stall feeding animals to protect forest land should be considered against weighing the burden on women and working out alternatives. Having couple of educated (preferably graduates) members on Watershed Committee would help in maintaining records (Bhaidas bhai is a graduate and Secretary of WC in MotaKakadiamba). Do not impose stereotype programs on communities. For example the community may not prefer livestock interventions especially when common property regimes are uncertain and other support structures are not properly placed. In fact cattle population reduced in post watershed period in MotaKakadiamba. It is important for WC to conduct saving and credit activities to reduce dependency on moneylenders and improve easy access to funds. Moneylenders adopt differential rates for consumptive loans to cover repayment risk. WC could take a leaf from here. Similarly Watershed Development Fund should be allowed to credit productive activities where by the maintenance fund could increase by earned interest. This will help the WC to maintain the assets regularly with out much constraint. MotaKakadiamba watershed is one that integrated various approaches to optimize resource use. Technologies like setting up Treadle Pumps, convergence in Community Irrigation Wells and sustained agriculture credit and inputs in post project period perhaps suggest planned approach to convergence beyond the project. PIA has to conduct an exit protocol to ensure that the responsibilities are transferred and Watershed Committee remains accountable for all works in post project period. This has been successfully conducted in MotaKakadiamba and both PIA and WC are clear about their roles and norms of association.


Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 17

An Assessment of European - aided Watershed Development Projects in India from the Perspective of Poverty Reduction and the poor, CDR Working Paper 98.3, January 1998 K.N.Ninan Dharmedra Chandurkar, Jairam Rabari and Kishore Kamani. Revolving Fund; Evolving Livelihoods. The case of MotaKakadiamba watershed development project, AKRSP-I Sagbara, Narmada. 2002 Government of India. 1994. Guidelines for Watershed Development. Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment, New Delhi. GOI, 2003; Hariyali Guidelines Ministry of Rural Development, New Delhi. GOI, 2001; Revised Watershed Guidelines, Ministry of Rural Development, New Delhi, GOI, 1994; Watershed Guidelines, Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment, New Delhi. GOK (1997) Panchayati Raj in Karnataka: Contours of Decentralised Governance, Department of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj. Government of Karnataka: Bangalore. Groundwater Markets and Small Farmer Development: An Argument and Evidence from India, in United Nations book Groundwater Economics, edited by Dr.A.Gurgui, published by Elsevier, London.1987. Integrated Rural Development (Rapporteur's Report) in proceedings of the International Seminar on IRD: Lessons from Experience in Asia, Sponsored by Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok and the Institute for Social Studies, The Hague, held at ISEC, Bangalore, July 7-9, 1988. (KNN) John Farrington and P.Baumann 2000; Panchayati Raj and natural resource management-how to decentralize management over natural resources ODI London. John Kerr 2000; Evaluation of a portfolio of Indian Watershed Projects; Michigan State University. Kerr, J., Pangare G., Pangare, L.V., and George, P.J. 1998. The Role of Watershed Projects in Developing Rainfed Agriculture in Semi-Arid Tropics. Draft. ICAR/World Bank Research Project on Rainfed Agricultural Development, New Delhi. Koppen, van B. 1999. Sharing the last drop: water scarcity, irrigation and gendered poverty eradication. IIED Gatekeeper Series 85 IIED, London. Malhotra, K.C. and Poffenberger, M. (eds). (1989) Forest Regeneration through Community Protection: The West Bengal Experience. West Bengal Forest Department: Calcutta. Mukherjee, K. (1998) Peoples Participation in Watershed Development Schemes in Karnataka: Changing Perspectives. National Workshop on Watershed Approaches to Wastelands Development. Korten, D. (1980) Community Organisation and Rural Development: A Learning Process Approach. Public Administration Review. Vol.40, No.5. Ostrom, E. (1990) Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Pari Baumann 1998; Panchayati Raj and Watershed in India; constraints and opportunities ODI London "Water Users' Associations in India: Lessons for Watershed Management" and Integrated Watershed Management: Scaling Up with Sustainability", papers presented in the Workshop to Produce a Resource Book on Strategies, Appraoches and Institutional Issues in Integrated Micro-Watershed Management in India, February 28 to March 12, 2000, held at New Delhi.


Integrated development approach for - water, land, forest and cattle. AKRSP(I)-Netrang, Gujarat experiences. J. Ravi Shanker.

Page 18

Rural development: Learning from experience in Indias watersheds; south Asia brief; Rebeca Robboy & Geetanjali Chopra World Bank 2004. Rhoades, RE. 1998. Participatory watershed research and management: where the shadow falls. IIED Gatekeeper Series 81. IIED, London. Sustainable Development - The Case of Watershed Development in India, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on `Models of Sustainable Development - Exclusive or Complementary Approaches of Sustainability?, Universite Paris I Pantheon Sorbonne and AFCET, Paris, held at Paris, France from March 16-18, 1994, Vol.I, pp.468-473, (With S Lakshmikanthamma). (KNN) Shah,T, Alam, M., Kumar, M.D., and Singh, M. (1999). Pedal Pump and the Poor: Social Impact of a annual Irrigation Technology in South Asia: International Development Enterprises, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Turton, C., Coulter, J., Farrington, J and Shah, A. 1998. Participatory Watershed Development in India: Impact of the new guidelines. Overseas Development Institute, London.