Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

AVI File Format

What is AVI? AVI stands for Audio Video Interleave. It is a special case of the RIFF (Resource Interchange File Format). AVI is defined by Microsoft. AVI is the most common format for audio/video data on the PC. AVI is an example of a de facto (by fact) standard. Identification and description Full name Description AVI (Audio Video Interleaved) File format for moving image content that wraps a video bitstream with other data chunks, e.g., audio. Often a middle-state format, e.g., the video source when producing lower-resolution streaming versions; sometimes a final state format for enduser delivery.

Production phase

Relationship to other formats Subtype of RIFF (Microsoft Resource Interchange File Format) AVI_Cinepak, AVI, Cinepak Codec AVI_DivX, AVI, DivX codec

Has subtype Has subtype

Has subtype Has subtype Has subtype Has subtype Has subtype

AVI_DV, AVI, DV Digital Video AVI_Indeo, AVI, Indeo Codec AVI_MJPEG, AVI, MJPEG Codec AVI_J2K, AVI, JPEG 2000 Codec AVI files containing streams produced by other video codecs, including uncompressed and lossless video, not documented at this time. AVI_OpenDML (format extensions). Not documented at this time. WAVE, WAVE Audio File Format MP3_CBR, MP3 Audio Encoding, Constant Bit Rate

Has subtype

May contain May contain

Local use LC experience or existing holdings American Memory produced AVI_Indeo files in 1992 and 1993, using version 3.1 or 3.2 of the Indeo codec, at 15 fps and 320x240 pixels, and yielding a data rate of about 188 Kb/s. These AVI files were retired and replaced by MPEG-1 and QuickTime files in 1994 and 1995.

LC preference

No preference has been established for video wrappers. Discussion in the Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Division during 2004-06 has suggested that losslessly compressed JPEG 2000 frame images would be a good encoding option for reformatted video. Wrapper alternatives for these images and accompanying audio include MXF, AAF_1_1, and MJP2_FF. Encoding preferences for file-based lossy compressed video are less clear, but there is interest in bitstreams that conform to or approximate MPEG-2-422 (4:2:2 Profile) at Main Level (aka MPEG-2 422@ML) or MPEG-2-MP (Main Profile) at Main Level (akaMPEG-2 MP@ML). These may also be wrapped in MXF, AAF_1_1. The investigation of options continues.

Sustainability factors Disclosure Fully documented. Proprietary file format developed by Microsoft and IBM as part of RIFF, the Resource Interchange File Format for Windows 3.1. For information about the disclosure of information about the bitstreams wrapped by AVI, see the descriptions of individual

codecs listed under Relationships, above. Documentation Specifications available from third parties; for example, the Multimedia Programming Interface and Data Specifications 1.0 (Issued as a joint design by IBM Corporation and Microsoft Corporation, August 1991). Widely adopted for video production and filemaking. Adoption may not extend to all permitted codecs and other features. One commentator wrote in 2000 that the introduction of Microsoft's Advanced System Format or ASF had "pushed to one side" the OpenDML effort, which dates from 1996-97. Licensing and patent claims [Unknown, probably none] Transparency See information on the codecs incorporated in AVI files: MJPEG, Indeo_3, Indeo_5, Cinepak, and DivX_5. Technical information in header chunks (e.g., hdrl, movi, and others); descriptive metadata may appear in a RIFF INFO chunk.

Adoption

Self-documentation

External dependencies Technical protection considerations

None None

Quality and functionality factors (video) Normal rendering Good support. Clarity (support for high image resolution) Moderate to good, given that this is a format typically used for compression and that most implementations do not support interlaced video. Outcome will depend on the type and level of compression, and the encoder used. Extent of use of uncompressed video bitstream unknown. High resolution work is limited in the Windows environment due to file size limits (2 GB with FAT 16 technology; theoretical 8 GB with later technologies). The OpenDML extensions were intended to increase quality in professional applications by supporting the representation of interlaced video (60 fields per second), 24 fps for content from motion picture film, and other features. Fidelity (support for high audio Good to excellent, given that the options for audio are those available in

resolution) Support for multiple sound channels Functionality beyond normal video rendering

the MP3_CBR and WAVE formats.

[Limited to mono and stereo sound?]

[Support for text streams?]

File type signifiers Tag type Filename Extension Internet Media Type Internet Media Type Value avi Note

video/vnd.avi

video/avi video/msvideo video/x-msvideo image/avi application/xtroff-msvideo audio/avi Hex: 52 49 46 46

Magic

numbers

xx xx xx xx 41 56 49 20 4C 49 53 54 ASCII: RIFF....AVILIST Varies according to the video codec selected; Varies according to the audio codec selected;

Microsoft FOURCC Microsoft WAVE format registry