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Cooling Tower CHE523

ABSTRACT We have conducted an experiment of cooling tower apparatus on 28th October 2011 at pilot plan. The objectives of this experiment is to analyze and identify the water cooling tower system. We run this experiment three times for which the first experiment is conducted with fully opened blower. We varied the heating load with the value of o.5 kW, 1.0 kW and 1.5 kW. The second experiment is to compare the system in the difference of the opening of the blower. In the third experiment, we varied the water flow rate in value of 1.0 LPM, 1.2 LPM and 1.4 LPM. The data of this experiment is jotted down in the result sheet.

Cooling Tower CHE523


INTRODUCTION Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, chemical plants, power stations and building cooling. The towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 metres tall and 100 metres in diameter, or rectangular structures that can be over 40 metres tall and 80 metres long. Smaller towers are normally factory-built, while larger ones are constructed on site. They are often associated with nuclear power plants in popular culture, although cooling towers are constructed on many types of buildings. With respect to the heat transfer mechanism employed, the main types are:

Wet cooling towers or simply open circuit cooling towers operate on the principle of evaporation. The working fluid and the evaporated fluid (usually water) are one and the same.

Dry cooling towers operate by heat transfer through a surface that separates the working fluid from ambient air, such as in a tube to air heat exchanger, utilizing convective heat transfer. They do not use evaporation.

Fluid coolers or closed circuit cooling towers are hybrids that pass the working fluid through a tube bundle, upon which clean water is sprayed and a fan-induced draft applied. The resulting heat transfer performance is much closer to that of a wet cooling tower, with the advantage provided by a dry cooler of protecting the working fluid from environmental exposure and contamination.

Cooling Tower CHE523

In a wet cooling tower (or open circuit cooling tower), the warm water can be cooled to a temperature lower than the ambient air dry-bulb temperature, if the air is relatively dry (see dew point and psychrometrics). As ambient air is drawn past a flow of water, a small portion of the water evaporate, the energy required by that portion of the water to evaporate is taken from the remaining mass of water reducing his temperature (approximately by 970 BTU for each pound of evaporated water). Evaporation results in saturated air conditions, lowering the temperature of the water process by the tower to a value close to wet bulb air temperature, which is lower than the ambient dry bulb air temperature, the difference determined by the humidity of the ambient air. To achieve better performance (more cooling), a medium called fill is used to increase the surface area and the time of contact between the air and water flows. Splash fillconsists of material placed to interrupt the water flow causing splashing. Film fill is composed of thin sheets of material (usually PVC) upon which the water flows. Both methods create increased surface area and time of contact between the fluid (water) and the gas (air).

Cooling Tower CHE523

With respect to drawing air through the tower, there are three types of cooling towers:

Natural draft, which utilizes buoyancy via a tall chimney. Warm, moist air naturally rises due to the density differential to the dry, cooler outside air. Warm moist air is less dense than drier air at the same pressure. This moist air buoyancy produces a current of air through the tower.

Mechanical draft, which uses power driven fan motors to force or draw air through the tower.

Induced draft: A mechanical draft tower with a fan at the discharge which pulls air through tower. The fan induces hot moist air out the discharge. This produces low entering and high exiting air velocities, reducing the possibility of recirculation in which discharged air flows back into the air intake. This fan/fin arrangement is also known as draw-through. (see Image 3)

Forced draft: A mechanical draft tower with a blower type fan at the intake. The fan forces air into the tower, creating high entering and low exiting air velocities. The low exiting velocity is much more susceptible to recirculation. With the fan on the air intake, the fan is more susceptible to complications due to freezing conditions. Another disadvantage is that a forced draft design typically requires more motor horsepower than an equivalent induced draft design. The forced draft benefit is its ability to work with high static pressure. They can be installed in more confined spaces and even in some indoor situations. This fan/fill geometry is also known asblow-through. (see Image 4)

Fan assisted natural draft. A hybrid type that appears like a natural draft though airflow is assisted by a fan.

Cooling Tower CHE523

Hyperboloid (sometimes incorrectly known as hyperbolic) cooling towers (Image 1) have become the design standard for all natural-draft cooling towers because of their structural strength and minimum usage of material. The hyperboloid shape also aids in accelerating the upward convective air flow, improving cooling efficiency. They are popularly associated with nuclear power plants. However, this association is misleading, as the same kind of cooling towers are often used at large coal-fired power plants as well. Similarly, not all nuclear power plants have cooling towers, instead cooling their heat exchangers with lake, river or ocean water.

Cooling Tower CHE523

Crossflow Crossflow is a design in which the air flow is directed perpendicular to the water flow (see diagram below). Air flow enters one or more vertical faces of the cooling tower to meet the fill material. Water flows (perpendicular to the air) through the fill by gravity. The air continues through the fill and thus past the water flow into an open plenum area. A distribution or hot water basin consisting of a deep pan with holes or nozzles in the bottom is utilized in a crossflow tower. Gravity distributes the water through the nozzles uniformly across the fill material.

Cooling Tower CHE523

Counterflow In a counterflow design the air flow is directly opposite to the water flow (see diagram below). Air flow first enters an open area beneath the fill media and is then drawn up vertically. The water is sprayed through pressurized nozzles and flows downward through the fill, opposite to the air flow.

Common to both designs:

The interaction of the air and water flow allow a partial equalization and evaporation of water.

The air, now saturated with water vapor, is discharged from the cooling tower. A collection or cold water basin is used to contain the water after its interaction with the air flow.

Cooling Tower CHE523

Both crossflow and counterflow designs can be used in natural draft and mechanical draft cooling towers.

Cooling Tower CHE523


OBJECTIVES 1. Determine the correlation of the water to air mass flow ratio with increasing water flow rate. 2. Determine the cooling load effect, effect of different air flow rates and also the effect of different flow rates on the wet bulb approach.

Cooling Tower CHE523


THEORY The driving force for moisture transfer at a given water temperature T is the difference between the saturated boundary layer enthalpy H and the enthalpy h of the bulk air Figure 5.2 shows the equilibrium curve and the operating line relationship for a typical cooling tower. At the water outlet of a cooling tower 1 = H1 - h1 The water inlet-air outlet at T2 2 = H2 = h2 And at the numerical average water temperature T3 = (T1 + T2)/2 m = H3 - h3 =H-h

DRIVING FORCE DIAGRAM SPECIFIC ENTHALPY (kJ/kG DRY AIR)

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Cooling Tower CHE523

It may be shown that, for the finite element dz of the tower in Figure 3, energy balances of the water and air streams in the tower are related to the mass transfer by the equation Cpw mw dTw = Ka(H-h)dV where H is the specific enthalpy of the saturated boundary layer per unit mass of dry air, assumed to be at the local water temperature within dz, and h is the specific enthalpy of the bulk air per unit mass of dry air. K is the mass transfer coefficient per unit plane area, a is the area of contact between the air and water per unit volume of packing, and V is the volume occupied by the packing, Cpw is the specific heat, mw is the mass flow-rate, and Tw is the water temperature. The small change in the mass of the water is neglected. Equation below is integrated down the column to give an average mass transfer coefficient

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Cooling Tower CHE523

SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE AIR AND WATER STREAMS ENTERING AND LEAVING A BLOCK OF PACKING. One numerical solution of this equation can be written in terms of a corrected arithmetic mean driving force (H - h)m Ka/Vmw= Cpw (T2 - T1)(H - h)m Using the driving forces 1, 2 and m obtained in the previous calculation the correction factor f to estimate the corrected mean driving force (H - h)m can be obtained Thus, (H - h)m = f m = f(H3 - h3)

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Cooling Tower CHE523

The range of cooling water is given by: Twater in Twater out The approach of cooling tower is given by: Twater out Twb air The effectiveness of cooling tower is given by:

The total cooling load is given by: Pump input + heating load The air mass flowrate per unit area is given by:

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Cooling Tower CHE523


APPARATUS

Laboratory cooling water unit

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Cooling Tower CHE523


PROCEDURE General start up procedure 1. Valve V1 to V6 are ensured to be closed. While valve V& is partially closed. 2. The load tank is filled with distilled water or deionised water. 3. The make-up tank is filled with distilled water or deionised water up to zero mark on the scale. 4. Distilled water or deionised water is added to the wet bulb sensor reservoir to the fullest. 5. The appropriate cooling tower is installed for the experiment. 6. All appropriate tubing to the differential pressure sensor are connected.
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7. The temperature set point of temperature controller is set to 45 C. the 1.0 kW water heaters is switched on and the water is heated up until approximately 40 C. 8. The pump is switched on and the control valve V1 is slowly opened. the water flow rate is set to 2.0 LPM. a steady operation where the water is distributed and flowing uniformly through the packing is obtained. 9. The fan damper is opened fully, and the fan is switched on. Check that the differential pressure sensor is giving reading: i. To measure the differential pressure across the orifice, open valve V4 and V5: close valve V3 and V6. ii. To measure the differential pressure across the column, open valve V3 and valve V6: close valve V4 and V5. 10. The unit is let run for about 20 minutes, for the float valve to correctly adjust the level in the load tank. Refill the make-up tank as required. 11. Now, the unit is ready for use.
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Cooling Tower CHE523

General Shut-Down Procedure:


1. Heaters are switched off and the water is let to circulate through the cooling tower

system for 3-5 minutes until the water cooled down.


2. The fan is switched off and the fan damper is closed fully. 3. The pump and power supply are switched off. 4. The water in the reservoir tank is retained for the following experiment. 5. The water is drained completely from the unit if it is not in used.

EXPERIMENT 1:EFFECT OF HEATING LOAD 1. The blower is opened fully. 2. The 0.5 kW of water is switched on. 3. The water flow rate is set to 1.0 LPM. 4. The fan and pump are switched on. 5. The unit is let to run for 10 minutes. 6. After the steady operation is obtained, all the readings are taken. 7. The operation is run three times to take the average. 8. The above steps are repeated twice for varied heating load of 1.0 and 1.5 kW.

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Cooling Tower CHE523

EXPERIMENT 2:BLOWER OPENED. 1. The blower is opened partially. 2. The 0.5 kW of water is switched on. 3. The water flow rate is set to 1.0 LPM. 4. The fan and pump are switched on. 5. The unit is let to run for 10 minutes. 6. After the steady operation is obtained, all the readings are taken. 7. The operation is run three times to take the average. Note:for fully opened blower, no need to run the experiment because all the varied properties are just the same with experiment 1 for 0.5 kW of heating load. EXPERIMENT 3:WATER FLOWRATE 1. The blower is opened fully. 2. The 0.5 kW of water is switched on. 3. The water flow rate is set to 1.2 LPM. 4. The fan and pump are switched on. 5. The unit is let to run for 10 minutes. 6. After the steady operation is obtained, all the readings are taken. 7. The operation is run three times to take the average. 8. The above steps are repeated one more time for 1.4 LPM of water flowrate. Note:no need to run the operation for 1.0 LPM of water flowrate because all the varied properties are just the same with experiment 1 for 1.0 LPM of water flowrate and 0.5 kW of heating load.

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Cooling Tower CHE523


RESULT Cross sectional area: High: Pack column: EXPERIMENT 1:EFFECT OF HEATING LOAD Fixed variable: a) Fully opened blower b) 1.0 LPM
0.5 kW 2 3 27.4 27.6 24.4 24.3 24.3 24.3 129 128 430 441 1.0 kW 2 3 27.5 27.4 24.0 24.0 25.0 24.9 117 119 831 821 1.5 kW 1 2 3 Average 27.5 27.7 27.7 27.6 24.1 24.1 24.2 24.1 25.5 25.7 26.0 25.7 123 117 120 120 1230 1237 1252 1242

T1 T2 T6 D.P Q

1 27.3 24.5 24.6 131 434

Average 27.4 24.4 24.4 130 435

1 27.4 24.1 25.0 121 818

Average 27.4 24.0 24.9 119 823

EXPERIMENT 2:BLOWER OPENED Fixed variable: a) 0.5 kW b) 1.0 LPM


Fully opened 2 3 Average 27.4 27.5 27.4 24.4 24.3 24.4 24.3 24.3 24.4 129 128 130 430 441 435 Half opened 2 3 Average 28.2 28.3 28.3 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.6 24.4 24.8 106 112 110 437 430 432

T1 T2 T6 D.P Q

1 27.3 24.5 24.6 133 434

1 28.3 24.3 25.3 112 428

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Cooling Tower CHE523

EXPERIMENT 3:WATER FLOWRATE Fixed variable: a) 0.5 kW b) 1.0 LPM


1.0 LPM 2 3 Average 27.4 27.5 27.4 24.4 24.3 24.4 24.3 24.3 24.4 129 128 130 430 441 435 1.2 LPM 2 3 Average 28.5 28.3 28.5 24.2 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.1 24.3 111 105 111 430 430 432 1.4 LPM 2 3 Average 28.3 28.4 28.3 24.0 24.1 24.0 23.9 24.0 24.0 115 116 116 43.8 43.0 43.5

T1 T2 T6 D.P Q

1 27.3 24.5 24.6 131 434

1 28.6 24.3 24.6 116 435

1 28.2 24.0 24.1 117 43.7

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Cooling Tower CHE523


CALCULATION EXPERIMENT 1 Heating load:0.5 kW Water flowrate:1 LPM Blower:fully opened 1) Range of cooling tower

2) Approach of cooling tower

3) Effectiveness of cooling tower

4) Total cooling load ( )

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Cooling Tower CHE523

5) Air mass flowrate per unit area From psychometric chart,

Hence, the air mass flowrate per unit area =

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Cooling Tower CHE523

EXPERIMENT 2 Heating load:0.5 kW Water flowrate:1 LPM Blower:half opened 1) Range of cooling tower

2) Approach of cooling tower

3) Effectiveness of cooling tower

4) Total cooling load ( )

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Cooling Tower CHE523

5) Air mass flowrate per unit area From psychometric chart,

Hence, the air mass flowrate per unit area =

Note:calculation for experiment 3 is just the same with experiment 1 since the variables are the same.

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