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Uses various symbols to show how the system transforms input data into useful in formation.

data flow diagram(DFD) A set of DFDs provides a logical model that shows ___ the system does, not how what 4 basic symbols represent ____, ____, ____, and ___. ata stores, and entities. 2 common types of DFDs are: processes, data flows, d

Gane and Sarson. Yourdon. capital

Symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name.

receives input data and produces output that has a different content, form, or b oth. Processes Processes contain the _____, also called the ___ that transform that data and pr oduce the required results. business logic, business rules. A process is represented by a _______ rectangle with rounded corners.

A process symbol can be referred to as a ____ because inputs, outputs, etc are k nown but underlying details and logic are hidden black box A path for data to move from one part of the information system to another. data flow with spontaneous generation there is no ___ with a black hole there is ____ input

input, no output

with a gray hole there is ___ at least one input and one output but the input is not sufficient to generate the output. a ___ represents data that the system stores because one or more processes need to use data at a later time. data store A data store is represnted by a _____ which is open on the right side and closed on the left. flat rectangle Data store names are plural and either a ___ or ___. In some instances, a data store has no ___ data An entity is represented by a shaded ___ noun, adjective input rectangle

DFD entities are also called ____ because they are data origins or final destina tions terminators Entities that supply data to the system a ___. source An entity that receives data from the system is a ____ sink Each entity must be connected to a process by a ___. data flow

A ___ is a top-level view of an information system that shows the system's bound aries and scope. context diagram A ____ data flow is a data flow in which the same data travels to two or more di fferent locations diverging

A ___ ___ is a process that consists of a single function that is not explode fu rther. functional primitive ___ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed diagrams until a ll functional primitives are identified leveling ___ maintains consistency among a set of DFDs by ensuring that input and output data flows align properly. balancing Leveling is also called exploding, partioning, decomposing

A data dictionary or data ____ is a central storehouse of information about the systems data. repository A data element or ___ or ___ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning with in an information system. item, field Data elemnts are combined into records, also called _____ ___. A record is a mea ningful combination of related data elements that is included in a data flow or retained in a data store. data structures An ___ is any name other than the standard data element name. alias ___ design is based on combinations of 3 logical structures sometimes called con trol structure which serve as building blocks for the process. modular A _____ documents the details of a functional primitive and represents a specifi c set of processing steps and business logic. process description 3 logical structure are ___ sequence, selection, iteration

___ is the completetion of 1 of 2 or more process steps based on the results of a test/condition selection ___ is the completetion of a process step that is repeated until a specific cond ition changes (looping) iteration. A ___ shows a logical structure, with all possible conbinations of conditions an d resulting actions. decision table. A _____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules foun d in a decision table. decision tree In a ___ approach they develop a physical model of the current sustem, a logical model of the current system, and a logical model of the new system. four-mod el ____ anaylsis describes an information system by identifying things called objec ts. object-oriented The end product of object oriented analysis is object model ___ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting an information system . Unified Modeling Language (UML) An object has certain ___, which are characteristics that describe the object. attributes An object also has ___, which was tasks or functions that the object performs wh en it receives a ___, or command to do so. methods, message

A __ is a group of similiar objects. An ___ is a specific member of a class.

class instance state method

Objects can have a specific attribute called a ___. A __ defines specific tasks that an object can perform.

The concept that a message gives different meanings to different objects is call ed ___. polymorphism The black box concept is an example of ____, which means that all data and metho ds are self-contained. encapsulation Objects within a class can be grouped into ____. subgroups superclass

A class can belong to a more general category called a ____.

____ enable objects to communicate and interact as they perform business functio ns and transactions required Relationships ___ enables an object, called a ___ to derive one or more of its attributes Inheritance, child A ___ represents the steps in a specific business function or process. use case An external entity, called an ____, initiates a use case by requesting the syste m to perform a function or process. actor For each use case, you also develop a _____ in the form of a table. description use case

A __ ___ is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system or sub system. use case diagram The ___ shows what is included in the system and what is not included in the sys tem. system boundary A ___ diagram represents a detailed view of a single use case, shows the classes that participate in the use case and documents the relationship among the class es. class __ describes how instances of one class relate to instances of another class. cardinality A ___ diagram is a dynamic model of a use case, showing the interaction among cl asses during a specified time period. sequence The ___ represents the time during which the object above it is able to interact with the other objects in the use case. lifeline The ___ indicates when an object send or receives a message focus

A ___ diagram shows how an object changes from one state to another, depending o n events that affect the object. state transition An ___ digram resembles a horizontal flowchart that shows the actions and events as they occur. activity

A ___ diagram represents a detailed view of a single use case, shows the classes that participate in the use case and documents the relationship among the class es. class __ describes how instances of one class relate to instances of another class. cardinality A ___ diagram is a dynamic model of a use case, showing the interaction among cl asses during a specified time period. sequence The ___ represents the time during which the object above it is able to interact with the other objects in the use case. lifeline The ___ indicates when an object send or receives a message focus

A ___ diagram shows how an object changes from one state to another, depending o n events that affect the object. state transition An ___ digram resembles a horizontal flowchart that shows the actions and events as they occur. activity