Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 89

Class Notes: Digital Communications

Prof. J.C. Olivier Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering University of Pretoria Pretoria

Revision 3

September 8, 2008

2

Contents

0.1

Preface

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

9

1 Introduction

 

11

1.1 Overview of Wireless Communications

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11

1.2 The transmitter data burst structure

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

12

1.3 The dispersive radio channel

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

13

1.4 The model of the entire communication system

 

14

2 Introduction to Probability theory and Detection

 

17

2.1 Introduction

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

17

2.2 Probability theory, Detection and some odd experiments

 

17

 

2.2.1 Background .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

17

2.2.2 Applications of Bayes’s theorem

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

19

2.3 Conclusion

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

22

3 The modulator and demodulator

 

23

3.1 Modulation continued

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

24

 

3.1.1 The concept of base band signal processing and detection

 

24

3.1.2 Types of modulation

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

24

3.1.3 Binary phase shift keying (BPSK)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

24

3.1.4 Four level pulse amplitude modulation (4PAM)

 

25

3.1.5 Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)

 

26

3.1.6 Eight phase shift keying (8 PSK)

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

26

3.2 De-modulation

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

26

 

3.2.1

What if there is multipath?

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

29

4 Detection

 

31

4.1 Introduction

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

31

4.2 The static Gaussian channel

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

31

 

4.2.1

Computing more than just the most likely symbol: proba bilities of all constel- lation points, and the corresponding coded bit probabilities computed by the

 
 

receiver

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

33

4.3 MLSE - the most likely sequence estimate

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

35

 

4.3.1 Finding the sequence x via the MLSE

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

36

4.3.2 3 tap detector .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

37

4.3.3 Discussion .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

38

 

3

4

 

4.4 Probabilistic Detection via Bayesian Inference for Multipath channels

 

39

 

4.4.1 Sub optimal detected bit probability calculation

 

39

4.4.2 Optimal symbol probability calculation using Bayesian Detection

 

40

 

4.5 Forward-Backward MAP detection

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

41

 

4.5.1

An example .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

43

 

4.6 Assignments

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

44

5

Frequency Domain Modulation and Detection: OFDM

 

47

5.1 Introduction

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

47

5.2 Circulant matrix theory

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

48

5.3 The Transmitter for OFDM systems

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

48

 

5.3.1

Cyclic time domain multipath propagation

 

48

 

5.4 OFDM receiver, i.e. MAP detection

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

49

 

5.4.1 MAP detection with trivial complexity

 

50

5.4.2 Matlab demo

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

50

 

5.5 Assignment

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

51

6

Channel Estimation

 

53

6.1 Introduction

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

53

6.2 Optimum receiver filter and sufficient statistics

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

54

6.3 The linear model

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

55

6.4 Least Squares Estimation

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

56

6.5 A representative example

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

57

6.6 Generalized Least Squares Estimation

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

58

 

6.6.1

The generalized least squares procedure

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

58

 

6.7 Conclusion

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

59

6.8 Assignment

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

61

7

Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) Estimation, Prefilter and Prediction

 

63

7.1 Introduction

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

63

7.2 Minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimation

 

63

 

7.2.1 The principle of orthogonality

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

64

7.2.2 Geometrical interpretation of the principle of ortho gonality

 

65

 

7.3 Applying minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimation: Let us design a linear prefilter 66

 

7.3.1 Matched filter, minimum phase filter and spectral Facto rization

 

66

7.3.2 MMSE prefilter design .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

67

7.3.3 Evaluating matrix E { yy } and vector E { s [n ] y }

 

69

 

7.4 A representative example

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

71

7.5 Stochastic processes and MMSE estimation

 

72

 

7.5.1

Prediction .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

73

 

7.6 Assignments

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

76

8

Information Theory and Error Correction Coding

 

79

8.1

Linear block codes

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

80

 

8.1.1 Repetition codes

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

80

8.1.2 General linear block codes

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

81

 

5

8.1.3

Decoding linear block codes using the Parity Check matrix H

 

82

8.2 Convolutional codes and Min-Sum (Viterbi) decoding

 

83

8.2.1

Decoding the convolutional codes

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

84

8.3 Assignments

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

87

6

List of Figures

1.1

The data burst using pilot or training

 

12

1.2

The normalized autocorrelation function for a training

 

13

1.3

The multi-path channel and time domain representation a t the

 

14

1.4

The transmitter and receiver flow in a wireless communica tion

15

3.1

The modulation of 1 bit in amplitude

 

23

3.2

The modulation of 4 coded bits x via BPSK

 

25

3.3

The modulation of 8 coded bits from x via 4 PAM

 

25

3.4

The modulation of 8 coded bits from x via QPSK modulation.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

26

3.5

The modulation of 3 coded bits from x via 8 PSK modulation.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

27

3.6

The first stages of the receiver hardware, indicating where the detector (an AI device)

 

come into play.

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

28

3.7

The de-modulation using a matched filter and optimum

 

29

4.1

MAP detection on a static Gaussian channel is selecting the modulation constellation

 

point closest to the noice corrupted received samples. Two c ases are shown, one where the channel quality is good (high SNR) and one where the channel quality is poor (low

SNR).

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

33