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Song by Rosetti

This poem was written by Christina Georgina Rossetti, sister of Pre Raphaelite Brotherhood founder Dante Rossetti. She was born in 1830 and dies in 1894, aged 64. In the first stanza the poet is telling her loved one what she does not want them to do after her death, asking them not to mark her death in the usual way that the dead are mourned. During the second stanza, the poet is addressing what she thinks death will be like for her. She does not want sad songs or flowers at her grave. She does not want a tree planted in her memory and she does not even mind if her loved one forgets her. She is saying that she will not be able to see, feel or hear the gestures, so nothing her loved one will do will matter to her. It is her 'dearest' that the gestures and memories will matter to.

'darkness' or the nothingness of death. These two lines also have enjambment, which the poet uses several times in the poem, which gives the lines a feel significant importance and urgency.

The parallelism in the end lines "Haply I may remember, And haply may forget" Is used to show the indifference that the poet has for remembering or forgetting. The archaic word 'haply' means perhaps but could also be twisted to mean happily has it looks like a shortened version. Sibilance occurs a lot throughout the poem as the soft soothing 'S' and 'SH' sounds make the poem feel whispered and calm.

The poem is written in the present tense and is presented in the first person which both give the poem a personal feel and I believe it is the poets' personal feelings that are being portrayed. The poem creates a mood that is sombre but calming. The poet talks of death in a way that is caring of their loved one. It could be seen as cold and final but I think it is thoughtful of the poet not to concentrate on all the things she will miss and hope that she will be missed, she is setting her lover free.

I enjoyed this poem. I t was straight forward to read and interpret. I found the poets preparations for death to be quite calming and also caring. She does not want to be a burden on those she leaves behind, she would like them to get on with their lives. She only wants to be remembered if it makes things easier for her loved ones. Many people wish to leave a legacy so that their memory will carry on but this poet is basically saying that when she is gone, she is gone. There is no talk of 'heaven' or any afterlife, this could by why the poem is called Song and not Hymn. It seems like quite a modern, scientific or even atheist way to look at death and also quite an unfeminine viewpoint for women of the time. ************************************************************

"And if thou wilt remember, And if thou wilt, forget," This quote is a good example the parallelism present in Rossetti's poem. The two lines are exactly the same except for their last words, which are opposites of each other. This creates a rhythmic flow but also gets the poets message across that she does not care about being remembered.

Invictus
Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be For my unconquerable soul. The first stanza represents a prayer that takes place in

The first stanza of this poem contains words that have the connotation of life such as 'roses', 'cypress tree', 'green grass', 'showers' and 'dew drops' which can be linked to spring, life or seen as things of beauty. In the second stanza there are connotations of darkness with the words 'shadows' 'twilight' and 'nightingale', showing that the poet is discussing what death will be like for herself. The line "I shall not hear the nightingale Sing on as if in pain" Could be a metaphor her lovers' grief. Male nightingales are thought to sing during the night to attract a mate. The nightingale symbolises her lovers pain, the connotations of 'night' symbolise that she will not be able to hear or recognise that pain in the

the dark by the speaker of the poem. In this prayer, he is thanking "whatever gods may be" for his unconquerable soul, which infers the possible darkness of despair. The speaker, however, is not praying for strength but giving thanks to the strength he already has. On the other hand, he seems rather dismissive about who he is praying to and portraysagnosticism.

In the fell clutch of circumstance I have not winced nor cried aloud. Under the bludgeonings of chance My head is bloody, but unbowed. The agnosticism continues into the second stanza due to not mentioning anything about God's will for him, or his

fate. Instead, he uses "In the fell clutch of circumstance" to mean he is being cruelly caught as prey in the claws of life at its most unpredictable moments. Bludgeoning has the definition of being beaten or forced down, and Henley uses this to depict a very powerful message of inner strength. This certain strength that is presented includes the ability to conquer the troubles of life even if someone is beaten down.

Heaven by accepting whatever judgment, or doom, death may bring. He is, in fact, his own god, guide and judge. He is the Captain. [15] NEW ENTRY --- Although arguable, the previous entry would nullify Henley's lines in his first stanza "I thank whatever gods may be." He clearly does not ascribe to a religion so his referring to a Biblically inspired literature would be inconsistent. The analysis of this poem depicts Henley's life, and

Beyond this place of wrath and tears Looms but the Horror of the shade, And yet the menace of the years Finds and shall find me unafraid. In the third stanza, the speaker introduces his feelings of the afterlife, and that he believes it does not exist. In fact, in this part of the poem he explains that death is merely an escape from this life, and an end to the suffering. He is not concerned about what happens after death, and he represents that by not being worried about the end.

represents the moments of pain and struggle that created many obstacles for him. Although he did indeed face many challenges, in time, he realized he was the sole controller of his fate. By writing this poem, he conveyed a message with bravery and perseverance, which he applied to his own life as well. Through Invictus, Henley demonstrated the message of determination, courage and the will to survive.

It matters not how strait the gate, How charged with punishments the scroll, I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul. This last stanza is a major contributor to the fame of this poem, given that these last few lines hold the greatest meaning and the main message. NEW ENTRY---By mentioning, "It matters not how strait the gate" the writer is referring to his struggles with, literally, walking (due to his tubercular arthritis and amputation of his left leg below the knee and mutated foot). Do not be confused by the current understanding of the definition of "gate," being a wall or fence. The author is referring to what we currently understand as the definition of "gait". The Etymology of the word "gait" comes from the Middle English word "gate," deriving from the Old English word "geat," all meaning a manner in which to walk, or a path.Gate This spelling was still commonly used in the 18th and 19th century especially in British literature though today we can understand the definition to be what we know as "gait". Considering Henley's medical conditions, it is clear the he intended this line to mean its literal translation, "it matters not how [difficult] the [manner of walking on foot]" PREVIOUS ENTRY---By mentioning "It matters not how strait the gate," the speaker makes a reference to John Bunyan's The Strait Gate or Great Difficulty of going to