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Water and Solution 1) Physical properties of water: Colourless, odourless and tasteless liquid Water exist in 3 states, which

ch are solids (ice), liquids (water), and gases (steam) 2) Changes in state of water

Melting point

Freezing point

Boiling point

The temperature at which ice (solid) becomes water (liquid) The temperature at which water (liquid) becomes ice (solid) the temperature at which water (liquid) becomes steam (gas)

Melting point of ice ( 0C)

Freezing point of water ( 0C) Boiling point of water (100C)

Melting point of a substance is the same as its freezing point. Relationship between the freezing point and boiling points of water and the Kinetic Theory. Freezing process When water is cooled, the particles lose kinetic energy (heat is released). The particles move more slowly. At freezing point, liquid particles do not move freely. This is because liquid particles are pulled together by strong forces of attraction between particles.

Melting process When heat energy is supplied to a liquid, liquid particles obtain a lot of kinetic energy and they move faster. At boiling point, the energy obtained enables the liquid particles to overcome and break the forces of attraction between the particles.
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The effect of impurities on the physical properties of water Impurities (dissolved substances) can influence the freezing, melting and boiling points of water.

Observation: The boiling point of distilled water is 100 C. The boiling point of the distilled water and common salt is 102 C. Conclusion: Impurities increase the boiling point of water and decrease the freezing point or melting point of water. Water test Water test Anhydrous cobalt chloride paper Anhydrous copper (II) sulphate Composition of Water Electrolysis of water Water is a chemical compound that consists of two hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom. Observation/result Changes from blue to pink Changes from white to blue

The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in one molecule of water is 2:1. Water can be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen through the process of electrolysis.

Prepared By : Thennarasu a/ Panir Chelvam (017-2257145) B.Edu(Hons) CHEMystery

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Measuring cylinder X Y

Volume of gas (cm3) 10 20

Test for gas Lights up the glowing wooden splinter. Produces apop sound with lighted wooden splinter

Notes: Oxygen is collected at the positive electrode (anode) in measuring cylinder X whereas hydrogen is collected at the negative electrode (cathode) in measuring cylinder Y. Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen collected is 2:1. Water is a weak conductor of electricity. Therefore, a few drops of sulphuric acid are added to increase the conductivity of electricity.

Prepared By : Thennarasu a/ Panir Chelvam (017-2257145) B.Edu(Hons) CHEMystery

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Water Evaporation 1) Evaporation is a process in which liquid gradually disappears in the form of water vapour at any temperature or time. Evaporation process only takes place on the surface of water. 2) Factor that influence the rate of water evaporation: i) Air humidity When air humidity is high (a lot of water vapour), the rate of water evaporation is low.

ii) Surrounding temperature High temperature will give more energy to water molecules to escape into the air.

iii) Surface area When surface area is large, the rate of evaporation of water is high.

iv) Air movement Wind (moving air) will increase the rate of evaporation.

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Evaporation and boiling Similarities between boiling and evaporation -Heat is absorbed -Liquid become gases Boiling Only takes place at boiling point Differences Condition for it to happen Evaporation Takes place at any temperature or time

How it happens

Takes place throughout the water. Fast No

The rate of the process Influenced by the surface area of the liquid, surrounding temperature, air movement, and humidity.

Takes place only on the surface of the water Slow Yes

Applying the principle of water evaporation in everyday life. Drying clothes Drying air Drying fish and prawns Cooling the body Producing common salt

Solution and Solubility of Substances 1) Solvent Solute Solution Liquid that is used to dissolve a substance. Substance that dissolves in a solvent. Mixture that is formed from a solvent and a solute.

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2) Dilute solution Concentrated solution Saturated solution Solution that has very little solute. Solution that has a lot of solute. Solution that has the maximum amount of solute. Saturated solution does not dissolve any additional solute that is added to it

Suspension Liquid that has small particles in it. Small particles are known as suspended substances. Suspended substances do not dissolve in water.

The solubility of solutes 1) Solubility of a solute is the quantity of dissolved solute (in grams) in 100 cm3 of water at a specific temperature, to form a saturated solution. 2) Factors that influence the solubility rate of substance: Size of solutes - The smaller the particles of size of the solute, the faster it dissolves in a solvent.

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Stirring - Solutes dissolve more easily if stirred.

Temperature of solvent - Solubility of solute in a solvent increases if the solvent is heated.

Volume of solvent - Solutes dissolve more easily in a bigger volume of solvent.

Water as a solvent 1) Water is a universal solvent because water can dissolve many types of substance. 2) Importance of water as a solvent: i) Dissolve oxygen and carbon dioxide for aquatic organism ii) Most chemical reactions in our body need water as a solvent iii) Dissolve oxygen and food so that these can be transported to body cells. Organic solvents and their uses. 1. Water does not dissolve organic substances such as oil and grease. Organic solvent Alcohol Substance that are dissolved

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Ether Kerosene and turpentine


Fresh paint Grease Oil Tar Wax Latex Grease Fresh paint Grease Oil Tar Iodine Oil Plastic

Uses or organic solvents in everyday life Alcohol - to prepare a shellac solution to polish wooden furniture - to prepare medicine - to make cosmetics such as nail polish and perfumes -to stick plastic substances like number plates on cars. -to dilute paint - to remove paint stains from clothes

Petrol Chloroform Turpentine

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Acids and alkalis Acids 1) Acid and alkali show their properties in the presence of water

Essential page 66

Material Citric acid crystal Sodium hydroxide crystal Citric acid solution Sodium hydroxide solution

Effect on litmus paper No change No change Blue litmus paper changes to red Red litmus paper changes to blue

2) An acid is a chemical substance that has a hydrogen atom. Properties of acid taste sour corrosive change blue litmus paper to red have pH value less than 7 react with carbonates to release carbon dioxide and form salt and water Example: i) Hydrochloric acid + zinc carbonate zinc chloride + water + carbon dioxide ii) Sulphuric acid + magnesium carbonate magnesium sulphate + water + carbon dioxide. React with reactive metals (magnesium/aluminium/zinc/iron) to release hydrogen and form salts Example: i) Hydrochloric acid + zinc zinc chloride + hydrogen React with alkalis to form salt and water. (neutralisation process) i) Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide sodium chloride + water Alkalis 1. Al alkali is a hydroxide or metal oxide that dissolves in water. Ex : potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide.

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Properties of alkalis Taste bitter Slippery to touch Corrosive Change red litmus paper to red Have pH value of more than 7 React with acids to form salt and water. (neutralisation process) Example: i) Sodium hydroxide + sulphuric acid sodium sulphate + water ii) Sodium hydroxide + Hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + water pH values

Acidic conditions (pH less than 7) Neutral (pH 7) Alkaline conditions (pH greater than 7) Indicator Acidic Phenolphthalein Colourless Universal indicator Red/orange/yellow Methyl orange/red Pink Acidic and alkaline substances Acidic substances

Colour of solution Neutral Light pink Green Orange

Alkaline Pink Purple Yellow



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Prepared By : Thennarasu a/ Panir Chelvam (017-2257145) B.Edu(Hons) CHEMystery

Alkali substances




Uses of acids and alkalis i) Uses of acids Acid Acetic acid Nitric acid Citric juices ii) Uses of alkalis Sodium hydroxide/ potassium hydroxide Slaked lime, camphor (calcium hydroxide) Ammonium solution Neutralisation 1) Neutralisation is the reaction that occurs between and acid and alkali to form salt and water. Acid + Alkali Salt + Water - To make soap - To make cement -To neutralises acidic soil - To make fertilisers Use - Preserves food like pickles - used in food - To make fertiliser, plastic and explosives - Used in fruit juices

2) The salt formed from neutralisation is neutral and has pH value of 7. Salt formed depends on the type of acid and alkali used. Hydrochloric acid + Sodium hydroxide Sulphuric acid + Potassium hydroxide Nitric acid + Calcium hydroxide Sodium chloride + water Potassium sulphate + water Calcium nitrate + water Ammonium chloride + water
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Hydrochloric acid + Ammonium hydroxide

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3) Titration method is used in mixing an acid with an alkali (neutralisation process)

Hydrochloric acid

Sodium hydroxide + phenolpthalein

1. Hydrochloric acid will be filled into burette instead of the sodium hydroxide. 2. Hydrochloric acid + Sodium hydroxide Conclusion: The neutralisation reaction between an acid and an alkali forms salt and water Application of the neutralisation process in everyday life. Applying alkaline medicine on insect bites that are acidic. Gastric patients drink milk of magnesia or take pills such as magnesium hydroxide that is alkaline to reduce the stomach acidity A wasp sting is alkaline. A mild acid such as vinegar can be used to neutralise it.

Exercise: 1) The diagram shows the pH of substances P, Q, R and S. 1 14 pH P Q R S

Which of the following represents substance P, Q, R and S? P Toothpaste Lemon juice Washing soda Vinegar Q Washing soda Vinegar Distilled water Distilled water R Distilled water Distilled water Vinegar Toothpaste S Vinegar Toothpaste Lemon juice Washing soda


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Methods of Purifying Water 1. Natural sources of water: Rain (Have dust and dissolved substances) River (Dirt and has microorganism) Well/spring ( Has microorganism) Pond ( much dirtier because water does not flow) Sea ( mineral salts and dirt) 2. Water from natural resources must be purified so that its safe to drink and use. 3. The methods of water purification include: Purification method Advantage - water is clear and free from suspended particles Disadvantage - Still has microorganism and dissolved substance

- Free from all suspended substance, microorganism and dissolved substance.

- Not good drinking water because it does not contain dissolved minerals.

- water is free from dangerous microorganism

- Still has suspended substances

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Water Supply System


Coagulation tank

Mixing tank Sedimentation tank Filtration tank Chlorination tank Storage tank

Water from rivers and rain is collected. Silt, mud and other large suspended substances are allow to settle to the bottom of reservoir Alum and slaked lime are added to coagulate suspended particles. Small particles will become big lumps. Slaked lime also reduces the acidity of water. Mixed chemicals with water so that fine impurities form bigger dirt particles. Big particles settle at the bottom and are removed from time to time Water is filtered to remove algae and fine suspended particles. Chlorine is added to kill microorganism Water is stored before being supplied to homes.

Water pollution Occurs when water is dirtied by waste thrown into it. Water pollutants (i) Domestic waste such as rubbish, animal carcasses and faeces.

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(ii) Industrial waste such as chemical residues and radioactive substance.

(iii) Chemical substance in agriculture such as pesticides, fertilisers and agricultural waste (iv) Mud and silt caused by construction and logging (v) Oil spills

Effect of water pollution on living things Causes skin disease Aquatic life such as fish, cockles and prawns will die. Destroy the beauty of beaches Steps to control water pollution Control of waste disposal Avoid use of chemical pesticides, poisons, and fertilisers Recycle waste products Heavy penalties for parties who break the laws regarding environmental pollution Control logging, mining, and construction

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