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BuiM. Sci. Vol. 8, pp. 11-22. Pergamon Press 1973.

Printed in Great Britain

I
I

1(21)1

i (K)

The Structural Analysis of Tall Buildings Having Irregularly Positioned Shear Walls
1.. G. J A E G E R * A. A. M U F T I i J. C. M A M E T

An anah'tical theory fi)r the analysis o f tall three-~fimensional multiple shear wall buildings is developed. The basis o[" the theorl' is the continuum approach hi which the flom's o f the building are replaced b l' an equivalent continuous medium. The re.~ults are compared with data obtained by the finite eh,ment method and experiments comtucted on a seven storey multiph, shear wall model A good correlation is achieved.

NOMENCLATURE vertical co-ordinate horizontal co-ordinate clear span between shear walls h distance between neutral axes of shear walls I vertical shear force per unit depth in floor system q cumulative vertical shear force in floor system T axial force in shear walls and columns F horizontal shear force in a shear wall l" Young's Modulus E cross-sectional area A moment of inertia I sum of bending moments in shear walls M externally applied overturning moment at level x Mx flexural rigidity per unit depth of floor system B height of the building H 2~ a parameter having dimensions (length)- z relating floor stiffness to shear wall stiffness another parameter having dimensions (length)- t /~= ~H a non-dimensional parameter governing deflection panerns fraction of total shear wall El at the rth station II displacements in x direction
V

INTRODUCTION IN R E C E N T Y E A R S the p r o b l e m o f the interaction between shear walls and floor systems in tall buildings has attracted much attention. Frequently the basis o f a t t a c k on the analytical p r o b l e m has been to replace the many floors o f the building by a c o n t i n u o u s " m e d i u m " , i.e. by an infinity o f " f l o o r s " having the same total EI as the actual system. This concept, o f retaining discrete m e m b e r s in one direction o f an elastic structure whilst utilizing a conceptual c o n t i n u u m in a n o t h e r direction has been used in grillage analysis by Hetenyi[l], by * Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada. I Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. ,* Research Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. II

Hendry and Jaeger[2] and by many others, in its application to shear walls it appears to have been first used by Chitty[3], subsequently being used as the basis for modifications and extensions to the theory by a number o f researchers, for e x a m p l e Coull[4]. O f the theoretical treatments which use this concept there are two main types, which one might categorize as inextensional and extensional respectively, depending upon whether axial changes in length of the shear walls are ignored or taken into account. In the latter category the work o f Rosman[5] may be noted. On the basis of published work such as that cited above it may be said that a sufficiently accurate analysis can be made o f an elastic system comprising two or three shear walls connected by a large n u m b e r o f horizontal beams and subjected to transverse (horizontal) loading in a vertical plane which passes through the shear walls (figure I). Essentially this is a two dimensional treatment. Recent progress in the analysis of building structures by the finite element method has provided a completely different a p p r o a c h to the problem. These developments are d o c u m e n t e d in (7) and are used in this p a p e r for a c o m p a r i s o n o f the results.
"- I

0 ..:: m

."
t~'

,-.'] ..' ,' ,.. ~..

m '. -- .

./2.

.!.'.IL
.,-..

~/

:///////////I//Z Fig. I. Coupled shear wails.

12

L. G, Jaeger, A. ,4, Mufti and J. C. Mamet

The object of the present paper is to develop a sufficiently accurate three dimensional treatment o f multiple shear wall buildings. Such a study gives as one of its end products a stiffness matrix which it is essential to have, for example, in finding the natural frequencies of vibration of the building. As a preliminary to the three dimensional approach, a generalization of the two dimensional problem is presented. Symbols are defined in the text as they occur and are listed in the appendix along with the more important formulae.

and the axial forces in the shear walls at the level .v are F~ = T~
F,
=

Tz-T I

Fo_., - - L , - , - L
/:',, = T._ i

2
(2)

The increase in length u,, of the nth shear wall from base to the level x is 'n F. d.v
lln ~x

A NUMBER OF SHEAR WALLS IN S E Q U E N C E


Figure 2 shows a number of shear walls interconnected by horizontal beams.

EA,.

where E = modulus of elasticity and A, = cross sectional area o f nth shear wall.

)
?

,i

Ii

12

F, T

F2: ( '1"2-T, )

F~=(T3-T 2)

Fr , = ( T - T

_)

Fr=-T r

Ft~'. 2. Multiple span shear ,'all system

--Too

of buildinq

:X

Fldx EAj
_ _

I
, ,

7- IF, o,
Fig. 3. Typical geometry of horizontal medium.

I (Unloaded structure) initial level

Let a vertical co-ordinate x be measured from the top downwards. For n shear walls there are n - 1 " g a p s " between them. Let the vertical shears, per unit depth, in the gaps be q~, q2 . . . . . q,-1. Then the shear forces at the level x are TI = i q l dx
O

T2 = i q2 dx
0

7-. , = .fq,_, dx
O

(1)

Let the flexurat rigidity per unit depth of the horizontal medium in the first gap be Bj, and similarly for the other gaps. If changes o f length o f the floor beams are neglected, the horizontal deflection (y) of all shear walls may be taken to be the same at any floor level. If also the flexural rigidity of each wall is large compared to that of a horizontal beam, it follows that, sufficiently closely, the deformation o f the horizontal medium may be taken to be skew symmetric in each gap, i.e. with a point of contraflexure halfway across the gap. The situation in a typical " g a p " is then as shown in figure 3 and application of the

The Structural Analysis of Tall Buildings Having Irregularly Positioned Shear Walls
slope deflection equations gives
- -

13

where

q,b 3
12B~

-I~-~x-

d"v f ~ F ,

d x j ' " F , dx
~ EA2
+ EA+

M=E(~.I,)
/:1

~ +
-+W+ +

~ X2

d2y

let

= -/+

and / = ~ I i

(5)

':l" ' ' h+"- ' I'_a,,_,

I.

dy

IAr F. _ t dx

~U F. dx
+ EA, (3)

- ' a-V.,--O~ 0 . ~ ] - - 7

Pt d" T , ~

E1

I, M" + T' ~,"k'7+ "E'A'7+ -E"~ ,


I,I

Differentiating each of equations (3) with respect to x and using relationships (I) and (2) gives

b 3 d2Tt
,2e, -- - / ,

d2y

//

1)
T,

+r~ \ ~

E-A, +r~ ~.---i


Illn- 1

I )

Ill 3

+ ... +r._,
1
- - - -

E1

EA 2

T 2

d2T2
P2 dx 2 -

B~ d2T2 12B~ dA2 =

dZv I ]z d.~2 EA----~2 T1


1 I

l 2 Mx+ T 1 (Ill 2 I ) El \ -fig EA 2 [I 2

I )

1213 I ~+ 1214 +T3\-~ EA3/ T4 E1

h~_

12B,,_,

d2T._
dx'

t =

_1._ 1

d2y
dx"

1
EA._ l

7.._2

+...

+T,_t~

/2In - I

E1

(6)

T._,

(4)

The variable y is readily eliminated from equations (4) by using moment/curvature relationships. Let M, = the statically determinate (externally
applied) overturning moment at level x. Then, referring to figure 4, the sum of the bending moments in the shear walls at this height is

Equations (6) are seen to be a bank of ( n - I ) simultaneous ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. For any given function M~, these can be solved for the unknown functions T1, 7"2 . . . T,_ 1. Once these functions are known, the bending moments and shears throughout the system are readily written down. For simplicity, in this paper, solutions of equations (6) are demonstrated for only the following cases: (i) a pair of shear walls with one "gap" between;

M = M.-

i= l

~. Tili

l[;"

;)"

EId d2y
d ~2

EI z aZ2
dx 2

El 3 d l y Z~
dxz

EI._~

d=y__
dx 2

EI.

amy
dx 2

TI

T2

T2

T3

Tn - z "In_,

Tn-i

Fig. 4. Forces under consideration at a horizontal section.

14

L. G. Jaeger, A. A. Mufti and J. C. Mamet


(ii) three shear walls, with symmetry about the centre wall;

Case 2 Three s/war walls with ,rymmetrv about the


enlre

(Jill a single shear wall, flanked by much weaker columns, with symmetry. The three cases are shown diagrammatically in figure 5 and the third case requires a slight modification of treatment, which is given below.
r

i-

-I

'

Referring to figure 5(b), there are two "'gaps" and there are two equations (6). Because of symmetry, however, these two equations are identical, so that a single differential equation characterizes the behaviour. This single equation may be expressed in terms of the sum of the bending moments in the shear walls, M, and is in fact the same as equation (8) but with different definitions of %, ),~. d2M d.v2 where in this case

Ae

A-,

A,

'
(a)

L
(b)

:~M-

d2M~ dx 2

yZ,.M,

{8)

,
. . . . . . As 12 < Iz

1 [212

I )

~7 = P ~ -ffI + -ff~l ~,2


and
(cl

Fig. 5. Three shear ,'all configurations.

/ = 211+/2

Case I A pair of shear walls


Referring to figure 5(a), there is only one " g a p " and the equation of type (6) is
,,

Case 3 A single shear wall flanked by much weaker columns


Referring to figure 5(c), the outer columns being very weak in bending, the assumption is made that the points of inflexion in the floors move to the outer limits of the gaps instead of being in the center. Equations (6) become modified in consequence; there are two such equations but they are identical because of symmetry. The single equation may again be expressed in terms of the sum of bending moments in the shear walls M and is again the same equation (8) with suitably defined % and 7,.

d2T dx 2

IM~ E1

1/12 .

I \

17)

It is convenient to use the sum of the bending moments in the shear walls, M, as the unknown instead o f 7". Equation (7) may then be recast, using equation 5(a) as

d2 M__gt2 M
d.v 2

d2Mx
=

- 3:~ M.~

(8)

d 2 M _ : x ~ M _ d2M:, .,2 M dx 2 dx 2 - ) ~ .~
where in this case

(8t

wherein

2 2 1112 1 1 )

1 [212

I \

1
= p +

and

and

I = I I +1 z I = I I +12 Deflections of two dimensional coupled shear wall systems


Equation (8) may be readily solved and thence the deflections may be obtained. The deflection (y) then becomes expressed in terms of hyperbolic

Equation (8) is readily solved for any given externally applied bending moment function Mx, so as to give the sum of the bending moments in the shear walls, M. The two shear walls then share M in proportion to their respective E1 values.

The Structural Analysis of Tall Buildings Having Irregularly Positioned Shear Walls
functions as well as functions of x which depend upon the particular loading pattern. The general nature of the deflection depends mainly on the value of ~t,, which has dimensions (length)-1, or more particularly on the value of (~t,H) where H is the height of the building. Let fir = ~t,H, so that fl, is a dimensionless ratio which can be thought of as a measure of how stiff the floor system is in relation to the shear walls. For fl, = 0 one gets pure cantilever deflection of the shear walls, whilst for increasing values of ft, the deflections become (a) smaller; (b) with increasing amount of"backbend". This is shown qualitatively in figure 6. The literature contains several papers which give expressions for transverse deflection corresponding to the more common loading patterns such as uniformly distributed load, triangular load intensity, tip concentrated load, etc.
Station
I

15

Station

Station 3

1
t

T
P q

Loading

Direction

Fig. 7. Stations in a typical building.

~~ ~h~
where
(a) (b)

are considered later in the paper) a system o f horizontal shears is set up in the floors along the "cut" lines, the effect of which is to compel all stations to deflect equally. The behaviour of the rth such station is then given by d2M(')
dx2 ~2,14(r) "% " = d2M(r) -- - - - x 2 Yr (r)

dx 2

Mx

(9)

d2y M (,) = (EI~')+EI~')+ . . . ) dx 2 In equation (9) M (') is the sum of the moments accepted into the shear walls of the station, whilst Mtr) is the moment applied to the station and is x derived from all loads which are applied to the station at its boundaries. Thus M~') is derived not only from externally applied loading (such as wind or seismic load) but also from the interaction shear forces referred to above. The sum of all the bending moments in all the shear walls of the building is
P

Fig. 6. Typical behaviours o f shear wall systems.

Behaviour of a building having several shear walls


Consider a building which has several shear walls and is subjected to a horizontal loading, for example a wind or earthquake loading. Let it be assumed (figure 7) that it is possible to split up the building into "stations" by taking imaginary vertical cuts through the floor system along lines parallel to the direction of the applied loading such that each "station" then consists of one or another of the three coupled-shear-wall systems (i) to (iii) as defined above. Then each station has its own value of fl,; in estimating this value it is necessary to assess approximately what width of the flooring system is effective in the interactio0 bending of the shear walls and floors at the station. Useful information exists in the literature on this point, for example in the paper by Qadeer and Stafford Smith[6]. If the individual stations were uncoupled from one another, each would deflect in accordance with its own fl value and the external loading applied to it. However, given sufficiently stiff flooring (and, for the present, leaving out twisting effects, which

M =

~
r=l

M (').

M tr)

Let
P

2,~
r=l

r=

1,2. . . . . p;

then

2r = 1

Thus the p governing differential equations are obtained by substituting M (') = 2,M in equation

(9)
d2M 2 2M = d2Mxt') 2 (,) 2, --d-~-x2 ,~, ~x2 ~,M~ for r = 1,2. . . . . p (lO)

16
Adding up all p equations (~ 2,) dM _ __ \, { ~ ).,~2) 2 ~~x _ 2
M =

L. G. Jaeger, A. A. Mufti and J. C. Mamet

d2 { ~ M~")
Unit load
P __ ~ "

~, Mx

(r)

or

dx'-"2-ct2M='~x2

d2(
P r=l

r==l

r=l

~ M~")

)
Fig. 8. Unithorizontal load.
Let the unit load be applied at nH below the top; then the statically determinate externally applied bending moment pattern is as shown in figure 9. This pattern is

-Z
where and ~ 2r - l
r--l

~',ZM~t"(11)

~2=

~ 2r~2
r=l

Mx = x - n i l
= 0 or M~ = [ x - n i l ]

forx~nH for x < n H (12)

ct2 is the weighted mean of the ~, values from z which one defines "overall ~" for the entire building. As noted above, and dealing now with the terms on the right hand side of equation (11), M~') for the rth station arises from both external sources and internal interaction shears. On adding up across the set of stations, the interaction effects vanish identically so that the first term on the right hand side is dZMx simply ~ , where M~ is the overturning moment applied to the entire building (at a distance x below the top) by the external forces (wind or seismic). The second term of the right hand side cannot be expressed accurately in terms of statically determinate moments; however, noting that M~ may be written as (2,Mx+interaction moment) and that on summing over the set of stations the interaction moments will be at least partially self-cancelling (though not exactly so because of the weighting ~,2), and approximation to this last term is y2Mx
r--p

wherein the square bracket indicates the Heaviside unit step function. Such a term is often called "Macaulay type".

///
(I-n) H

......... J ....

Fig. 9. M o m e n t diagram f o r a concentrated load.

Solving equation (8) with Mx defined by equation (12) one finds Mx = A sinh ~x + B cosh ~x for O< x <_nil and 72 Mx = A' sinh ~x+B' cosh ~x+-~ ( x - n i l ) for n i l < x < H (13)

where y2 = ~ ~,y, . One notes that 7 is related to , 2


r--1

the 7~ values in the same manner that is related d2M 2 d2Mx to the ~, values. Thus (l l) gives -~--x2- ~ M = d x 2 Hence the form of equation (8) is retrieved. with the ct and i, parameters now being representative of the entire building instead of one particular station.
)~2M x.

Boundary and junction conditions sufficient for the evaluation of the constants are as follows: At x = 0, we h a v e M = 0

Stiffness matrix of a multiple shear wall structure


The next step in the analysis is to apply a unit load to the structure, as shown in figure 8, the transverse position of the load being selected in such a way that no twisting occurs, and to find deflections, moments, shears, etc., which result throughout the structure.

At x = nil, M is continuous across the junction dM. At x = nil, --~-xjumps by a unit amount (because we cross the unit load) dM At x = H , - - ~ x = I

The Structural Analysis o f Tall Buildings Having Irregularly Positioned Shear Walls dM (It may be noted at this point that ~ is NOT in

17

general equal to the total shear force, because of the effect of the axial forces in the shear walls; in dT fact ~ = v - ~ B x where V is total shear force. Hence care must be exercised in evaluating the constants.) Using the above conditions, one finds

y at all twenty places for each load position (i.e. twenty values of O). One obtains a 20 x 20 flexibility matrix which may be inverted to give the stiffness matrix.
Load acceptance, moments and shears, at each station

Recalling that
2r

I(
M =

y2"~{l-cosh(l-n)ff~... ~ ,] sinh,x
y2 (I4)

total shear wall E1 at the rth station total shear wall E1 for the whole building

+ sinh [~x- nfl]~ -~[otx+ nil]

In equation (14) the square bracketed terms are "Macaulay type". At this stage it is convenient to express all distances in non-dimensional terms. The "nondimensional distances"are shown in figure 10 and

Unit load

one first finds the sum of the bending moments in all of the shear walls of the building, M, from equation (15) and thence obtains the sum of the bending moments in all of the shear walls of the rth station, which is 2,M. It is then possible to return to equation (10) and solve this for M~'), which is the total moment accepted at the rth station and comprises not only the moments in the shear walls but also the contributions arising from axial forces in the shear walls and columns. The total horizontal load acceptance at the station is then found to be composed of the following parts: 1. A concentrated load 2, at the level of the applied unit load. 2. A distributed load of intensity- A,(y2 - 7,~)Mx. (It will be recalled from equation (12) that Mx is zero at points above the load level and is ( x - n i l ) at points below.) 3. A distributed load 2,(~t2 - ~t,2)M. On evaluating the above terms, and integrating up, the total horizontal shear force accepted by all of the shear walls at the rth station is

/Z/Z/Y//

Fig. 10. Non-dimensiona! distances.

are ~ times the physical distances. Thus we have x = ~p, emil = nfl = O, ~p-0 = Q, etc. Defining
1 C = ~-~ I - ~ - ~

and K =

for convenience, the

v, = [2,] + L(~ 2 - ~,:)~C {(1 - cosh N)


cosh fl cosh (17)

total bending moment accepted by all the shear walls is M = a 2 C [ I - c s h N1 cosh fl J sinh ~b+~2C [sinh Q] in which + 6~2K [Q] (15)
1 e, _ Y

+ [cosh Q - 1]} +32:iV, ( N 2 - [Q] 2)

On integrating equation (15) twice and inserting boundary conditions, the deflection of the building is obtained in the form
Ely = C

a= W
This is divided up between the shear wails of the rth station in a manner described in the appendix. Consideration of the overall equilibrium of the station next gives the station moment M~ as (o 2, ~ I'(1 M(, ) = 2, [Q] + A,(~2 _ ~, )t. < - c o s h N) sinh

I1 -- cosh U 1 co--O~p .j [sinh - s i n h fl]

+ C [ N - sinh N - [O] + [sinh Q]]


+ K [3N2P - N 3 + [Q]a]

(16)

Equation (16) yields the flexibilities of the building; for example, taking (say) twenty positions for the unit load (i.e. twenty values of N) and evaluating
B

+ [sinh Q - Q]~+2,G,(3N2dp- [Q]3) 08)

18
The

L. G. Jaeger, A. A. Mufti and J. C. Mamet


shear walls change their cross sections drastically at different heights up the building unless such changes of cross section are similar for all shear walls. Within the limitations of these simplifying assumptions, it is a straightforward matter to develop an elementary torsion analysis. On the basis of deflection into geometrically similar shapes, the shear force developed in a particular wall is

vertical shear force per unit depth of the transverse medium is similarly found to be

q, = ~ r (lotc%2 (Csh N - !) coshO /~ \ ?ff~T


- ~tCct~ [cosh Q - 1] + 3ctG,(Nz - [Q]2)} (19) where d = B for a two shear wall station ] See figs. = 2B for a single wall or three J 5 (a), (b) wall station and (c). The axial force T in the shear walls, or columns as the case may be, is T =

L I

Mt')- 2~M
x

Iyy ~
v/Orgin
x

CT~)_

(20)

I,~

Approximate treatment of the effects of torsion


If the resultant horizontal force due to wind or inertia loading, does not pass through the centre of twist of the building, the application of the horizontal force causes not only deflection but also twisting. Such a force is therefore replaced by a parallel force passing through the centre of twist together with a torsion moment. All twisting effects are then associated with the torsion moment and the analysis developed in the preceeding pages gives the response of the structure to the horizontal force through the centre of twist. In response to the torsion moment, it may be assumed, for the sake of simplicity, that the floors are rigid horizontal diaphrams, and that these rotate as rigid bodies around the centre of twist of the building. Hence all shear walls deflect into geometrically similar shapes, the magnitude of the deflection being proportional to the perpendicular distance from the centre of twist to the relevant principal axis of inertia of the shear wall; the torsional rigidities of the shear walls are neglected and the torsion moment is equilibrated by the shear forces associated with bending of the shear walls, as shown schematically in figure 11. It may be noted that the tacit assumption is being made that the position of the centre of twist remains the same at all heights; this is not defensible in cases where

_[

Fig.

12.

Determination of the centre Of twist

approximately proportional to its moment of inertia (in the bending direction concerned) and to the amount of deflection which occurs. Taking an arbitrary origin and co-o.rdinate system (e.g. at one corner of the building, figure 12) the position of the centre of twist is readily found to be

= ~xlxx
Ixx V= E Y6v
l~y

(21)

Transferring the origin to the centre of twist and quoting co-ordinates Xo Y~ for the shear walls referred to this origin, the shear force in the rth shear wall in the x direction due to a twisting moment L is
L ytr)pr) --c "xx

v,j, = y (xc)21,x+~
and similarly for v ~r) --y

(rc)21.

Experimental work in verification of the theory


| ~ .... I

cz 1
Fig. 11. Shear forces due to twisting.

Figure 13 shows a model structure, made of steel, which was used to check this (elastic) theory along with the finite element solution. Provision was made for loading the structure by centrally situated horizontal point loads at seven different heights and deflections were read at these same heights for each load position. The loads could be applied in either a N-S or E-W direction.

Thp Structural Analysis of Tall Buildings Having Irregularly Positioned Shear Walls
1.51aI 0'1251A

19

Level 7 6 5 4 3 2 Level I

"

Elevation
(a)

Elevation

Plan (b}

Fig. 13. Seven-storey model structure.

It will be noted that the two-way symmetric nature of the structure means that no torsional effects were introduced. Four theoretical calculations were performed using the formulae presented in this paper, the four cases are: (i) Load in N-S direction, load at tip. (ii) Load in N-S direction, load at level 4. (iii) Load in E-W direction, load at tip. (iv) Load in E-W direction, load at level 2.

The theoretical deflection curves are plotted in figures 14 and 15 whilst the circles indicate experimental points. The agreement is very good. Details of the calculations are given in the Appendix.

Finite element solution


The structure described in the previous section has also been analysed by means of the finite element method. The cases of the tip loads acting in the N-S and E-W directions, alone, were considered and the deflexions obtained are plotted on figures 14 and 15. These results have been obtained by using a computer program developed at McGill University and in which the floors are treated as substructures. This program is documented in [7]. Figure 16 shows the idealization of one quarter of the building. Thirty-five elements of zero thickness only are used

--

//

//7

"Load at tip
___

/f

/~ /~;e~

Finite element method

Theoretical

Experimental

0 05

[iI

iI

025

ill

0.45

II

Ill,

065

I,

0.85

1,1,1

1.05

[IJl

1.25

ItlO -3,

in

Fig. 14. North-south loading--lateral deflections.

0
J )

Load a,
level 2 J//-'~

~,~;~'II
/ . . . i
!Oin

Load at tip

.~_/~"

_. Finite element

~//"
//

Experirnental
L

[ t 1 L l

I,

I'

n I I I

I I I I ~1

n 1 t I+

J~l

.fY

)0,.5

0.95

0.45

0.6.5

0-85

1.05

17'5

x 10 -3,

in

Fig. 15. East-west loading--lateral deflections.

Fig. 16. Idealization of one quarter of the building.

20

L. G. Jaeger, A. A. Mufti and J. C. M a m e t nodes 4 and 7 to ensure their co-linearity; other beams with appropriate non-zero rigidities are located along the axes of symmetry of the floor in order to enforce the boundary conditions, i.e. the conditions of symmetry of the floor. The correlation between the results is found to be quite good. Acknowledgement--One of the authors (L. G. Jaeger) is professionally associated with the firm of Adjeleian and Associates, Consulting Structural Engineers, Ottawa. The co-operation of Mr. John Adjeleian and Mr. Michael Allen of that firm in developing some aspects of the analytical method described in the paper is gratefully acknowledged. y

to define the geometry and properties of the vertical columns. Figure 17 shows the idealization of one quarter of a typical floor subjected to N-S loading. It may be noted that the boundary nodes indicated correspond to the nodes of the vertical system of figure 16. Some of them correspond to real columns, others are added in order to satisfy boundary conditions. Figure 18 shows a similar idealization of the typical floor subjected to E - W loading. The only difference is that the mesh size has been reduced in the main direction of bending. In both cases, a beam has been added between

.Oin Fictitious boundary node

Beam

,/ ///"

Real boundary node (column)

5 0~5m I

ooi.

i i
2 25in

[ 50in2 75in 300in

"11

i
!

2 25

in

275,r

O0 ~

i_ Fig. 17. Typical floor idealization--north-south loading.


REFERENCES

t Fig. 18. Typical quarter floor idealization--east-west loading.

1. M. HETENVl. A method of calculating drillage beams. Timoshenko 60th Anniversary Volume, New York. 2. A. W. HENDRY,and L. G. JA~6ER. A general method for the analysis of grid frameworks. Proe. Inst. Cir. Engrs. (London) Part lIl, December (1955). 3. L. CHITIV. On the cantilever composed of a number of parallel beams interconnected by cross-bars. Phil. Mag. (London) 38, Series 7, (1947). 4. A. COULLand J. R. CHAUDHURV.Stresses and deflections in coupled shear walls. J. Am. Concr. Inst., February (1967). 5. R. ROSMAN.Approximate analysis of shear walls subject to lateral loads. J. Am. Concr. Inst., June (1964). 6. A. QUADEERand B. STAFFORDSMITH. The bending stiffness of slabs connecting shear walls. J. Am. Concr. Inst., June (1969). 7. J. C. MAMET,A. A. MUFTIand L. G. JAEGER.New developments in the analysis of shear wall buildings. Proc. 1st Canadian Conf. on Earthquake Engineering Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, May (1971).

The Structural Analysis of Tall Buildings Having Irregularly Positioned Shear Walls
APPENDIX A APPENDIX B

21

Prediction of model deflections


As an example the deflection due to a tip load in the E - W direction will be found. Referring to figure 13(b) assume that a one inch width of floor is effective for each end station and a three quarter inch width is effective for the centre station. For the end stations the three weak columns are placed at the center as an approximation. For each end station one finds that the total moment of inertia of the shear walls and columns is I = 1064 10- 6 in. 4. There are seven floors, each ~ in. deep and effectively one inch wide, from which one finds at = 0.66 in. -1 and y~ = negligible. For the centre station similarly I = 3.44x 10-4in. 4
~t 2 = 0"11

In equation (17) of the paper there is given an expression for the total shear force V, accepted by all of the shear walls at the r~y station. This total shear force is divided between the shear walls in a manner which depends upon the type of station involved (i.e. whether case 1, 2 or 3 as defined in the body of the paper). 2 f / 1 - cosh N \ DefiningJ= :~,ctC~ co-'~ )cosh~b

-I- [cosh Q - 1 ] } - 3ctG {N"2we have:

[QI2}

in. -~

Case 1. A pair of shear walls.


Further defining

72 = 0"023 in.- 1 1064 Then for each end station 21 = 2(1064) + 34,400 = 0.029 whilst 22 = 1 - 221 = 0.042

eI:,,

( EI:,, )
2, = sum of El,,] 2,

2~,' ' = \Et:rr----+El~2,1 2, = sum of E1,] 2,

2~ 2) = \ e i ; ~ / ; ~ ) )

The overall a is then estimated by


ct2 = 2(0.029)(0.66) 2 +0.942(0.11) 2

then the shear force acceptances by Walls 1 and 2


are

whence giving

ct = 0.192 in. -1 fl = 42~t = 8.05

\-g, j
v~2' \2, i v ' +

/2,

,,

)J

Similarly the overall y is obtained by y2 = 0.942(0.023)2 whence y = 0.022 in.-1

-2~ 2~ J

The C and K constants are then calculated as C=~-~ 1 = 139"5 in. 3

Case 2. Three shear walls, with symmetry, say El(, ~), EP, 2) and Eli, 1) for the three walls.
Again defining
(1) =

EP, 1~
(Total E1 at station)

etc.

?2 K = ~ -- 0.387 in. 3

one finds

The E1 for the entire building is 1.095 x 106 lb. in. 2 in the E - W direction so that the deflection equation (16) for a 1 lb. load at the tip becomes 1.095x 106y = 139-5 . sinh ~b'~ 7.05-~b+~)

v;', \2,)
v:,, _-_? ; %

\4

\T)

\2

+ 0.387(8.05 - ~b)2(16.1 + ~b) The above equation gives the curve shown in figure 15(a) and the other curves are obtained similarly.

Case 3. A single shear wall, flanked by weak columns. Here there is no dividing up to be done; the entire shear force It, at the station is taken by the shear wall.

22

L. G. Jaeger, A. A. Mufti and J. C. Mamet


On d6veloppe une th6orie analytique pour l'analyse de grands b~timents tridimensionels et h parois de cisaillement multiples. Le fondement de la th6orie est l'abordage en continuum dans lequel les sols du b~timent sont remplac6s par un milieu continu 6quivalent. Les r6sultats sont compar6s avec les donn6es obtenues par la m6thode de l'el6ment fini et les exp6riences men6es sur le mod61e d'une paroi de cisaillement multiple de sept 6tages. On obtient une bonne corr61ation. Es wird eine analytische Theorie fiJr die Analyse von Versteifungsw~inden in hohen, drei-dimensionalen vielst6ckigen Geb/iuden entwickelt. Die Grundlage der Theorie ist die Kontinuum-Ann~iherung, in welcher die B6den des Geb/iudes mit einem gleichwertigen kontinuierlichem Medium ersetzt werden. Die Ergebnisse werden mit Daten verglichen, die aus der Methode der endlichen Elemente und aus Experimenten erhalten wurden, welche an einem Siebenstockwerk Modell mit mehrfacher Versteifungswand erhalten wurden. Es wird eine gute Korrelation erhalten.