1z1I III1IC!
IIVII\
o ur, sou, gouo v
uuo ur 800 pus C//
oosursuru o
ursvos, o .ouus
u o os.
H C/ CUD C
C//
\\, 2H DC
* /.ou oosurs uu pus C// oss
* Dugrus. so.ur ops ,uo ussoss voo u u.os
,uo ospop ous
* rsgs ru o C// oxuu u uoor osurg u,s
uu o Cuuouo /urugouor /uussur uor.
^CII 1IA! 1 ^IIIIC! \CIII' 'CII \CIII\III
1z1I III1IC!
IIVII\
o ur, sou, gouo v
uuo ur 800 pus C//
oosursuru o
ursvos, o .ouus
u o os.
H C/ CUD C
C//
\\, 2H DC
* /.ou oosurs uu pus C// oss
* Dugrus. so.ur ops ,uo ussoss voo u u.os
,uo ospop ous
* rsgs ru o C// oxuu u uoor osurg u,s
uu o Cuuouo /urugouor /uussur uor.
^CII 1IA! 1 ^IIIIC! \CIII' 'CII \CIII\III
THE OFFICIAL GUIDE FOR GMAT
REVIEW, 12TH EDITION
Copyright 2009 by thc Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council. All rights rcscrvcd.
Publishcd by Vilcy Publishing, !nc., Hobokcn, Ncw Jcrscy
No part ol this publication may bc rcproduccd, storcd in a rctricval systcm or transmittcd in any lorm
or by any mcans, clcctronic, mcchanical, photocopying, rccording, scanning or othcrwisc, cxccpt as
pcrmittcd undcr Scctions 107 or 108 ol thc 1976 Unitcd Statcs Copyright Act, without cithcr thc prior
writtcn pcrmission ol thc Publishcr, or authorization through paymcnt ol thc appropriatc pcrcopy lcc
to thc Copyright Clcarancc Ccntcr, 222 Roscwood rivc, anvcrs, MA 01923, (978) 7508400, lax
(978) 6468600, or on thc wcb at www.copyright.com. Rcqucsts to thc Publishcr lor pcrmission should
bc addrcsscd to thc Pcrmissions cpartmcnt, John Vilcy & Sons, !nc., 111 Rivcr Strcct, Hobokcn, NJ
07030, (201) 7486011, lax (201) 7486008, or onlinc at http://www.wilcy.com/go/pcrmissions.
c publishcr and thc author makc no rcprcscntations or warrantics with rcspcct to thc accuracy or
complctcncss ol thc contcnts ol this work and spccincally disclaim all warrantics, including without
limitation warrantics ol ntncss lor a particular purposc. No warranty may bc crcatcd or cxtcndcd by
c advicc and stratcgics containcd hcrcin may not bc suitablc lor cvcry
is work is sold with thc undcrstanding that thc publishcr is not cngagcd in rcndcring lcgal,
accounting, or othcr prolcssional scrviccs. !l prolcssional assistancc is rcquircd, thc scrviccs ol a
compctcnt prolcssional pcrson should bc sought. Ncithcr thc publishcr nor thc author shall bc liablc
c lact that an organization or Vcb sitc is rclcrrcd to in this work as a
citation and/or a potcntial sourcc ol lurthcr inlormation docs not mcan that thc author or thc publishcr
cndorscs thc inlormation thc organization or Vcb sitc may providc or rccommcndations it may makc.
Furthcr, rcadcrs should bc awarc that !ntcrnct Vcb sitcs listcd in this work may havc changcd or
disappcarcd bctwccn whcn this work was writtcn and whcn it is rcad.
Trademarks Vilcy, thc Vilcy Publishing logo, and rclatcd tradcmarks arc tradcmarks or rcgistcrcd
liatcs. GMAC
, GMAT
, GMAT CAT
,
Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council
, and Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Tcst
arc
rcgistcrcd tradcmarks ol thc Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council
(GMAC
). Crcating Acccss
to Graduatc 8usincss ducation
sm
is a scrvicc mark ol thc Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council
.
All othcr tradcmarks arc thc propcrty ol thcir rcspcctivc owncrs. Vilcy Publishing, !nc. is not
associatcd with any product or vcndor mcntioncd in this book.
For gcncral inlormation on our othcr products and scrviccs or to obtain tcchnical support plcasc
contact our Customcr Carc cpartmcnt within thc U.S. at (877) 7622974, outsidc thc U.S. at (317)
5723993 or lax (317) 5724002.
Vilcy also publishcs its books in a varicty ol clcctronic lormats. Somc contcnt that appcars in print
may not bc availablc in clcctronic books. For morc inlormation about Vilcy products, plcasc visit our
Vcb sitc at www.wilcy.com.
Library ol Congrcss Control Numbcr: 2008940699
!S8N: 9780470449745
Printcd in thc Unitcd Statcs ol Amcrica
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
8ook production by Vilcy Publishing, !nc. Composition Scrviccs
Charlcs Forstcr, csigncr
Mikc Vilson, Production csigncr
Iable of Contents I.0 What Is the GMAT
. why 1ake the 0l/1
1est' 7
.Z 0l/1
1est lormat 8
.3 what ls the Content ol the 1est lke' I0
.4 uanttatve 3ecton I0
.o Verba 3ecton I0
.b what Computer 3ks w l Need' II
./ what /re the 1est Centers lke' II
. How /re 3cores Cacuated' II
.9 /naytca wrtn /ssessment 3cores IZ
.C 1est 0eveopment lrocess I3
Z.0 Hcw tc Preare I4
Z. How Can l Best lrepare to 1ake the 1est' Ib
Z.Z what /bout lractce 1ests' Ib
Z.3 How 3houd l 0se the 0anostc 1est' I
Z.4 where Can l 0et /ddtona lractce' I
Z.o 0enera 1est1akn 3uestons I
3.0 Dagncstc Test I8
3. uanttatve 3ampe uestons Z0
3.Z Verba 3ampe uestons Z7
3.3 uanttatve and Verba /nswer beys 4b
3.4 lnterpretve 0ude 4b
3.o uanttatve /nswer Lxpanatons 4
3.b Verba /nswer Lxpanatons b
4.0 Math Revew I0
4. /rthmetc I08
4.Z /ebra IZ0
4.3 0eometry IZ7
4.4 word lrobems I40
b.0 Prcbem Scvng I48
o. 1est1akn 3tratees Ib0
o.Z 1he 0rectons Ib0
o.3 3ampe uestons IbZ
o.4 /nswer bey I8
o.o /nswer Lxpanatons I88
.0 Data Sufhcency Z
b. 1est1akn 3tratees Z8
b.Z 1he 0rectons Z70
b.3 3ampe uestons Z7Z
b.4 /nswer bey Z89
b.o /nswer Lxpanatons Z90
7.0 Readng Ccmrehenscn 3bZ
/. what ls leasured 3b4
/.Z 1est1akn 3tratees 3b
/.3 1he 0rectons 3b7
/.4 3ampe uestons 3b8
/.o /nswer bey 408
/.b /nswer Lxpanatons 409
8.0 Crtca Reascnng 48Z
. what ls leasured 484
.Z 1est1akn 3tratees 484
.3 1he 0rectons 48b
.4 3ampe uestons 48
.o /nswer bey bZb
.b /nswer Lxpanatons bZ
9.0 Sentence Ccrrectcn b0
9. Basc Lnsh 0rammar bues bI
9.Z 3tudy 3uestons b
9.3 what ls leasured b
9.4 1est1akn 3tratees b
9.o 1he 0rectons b7
9.b 3ampe uestons b8
9./ /nswer bey 84
9. /nswer Lxpanatons 8b
I0.0 Anaytca Wrtng Assessment 7b8
C. what ls leasured 7b9
C.Z 1est1akn 3tratees 70
C.3 1he 0rectons 7I
C.4 0l/1
3corn 0ude: /nayss ol an lssue 7Z
C.o 3ampe: /nayss ol an lssue 74
C.b /nayss ol an lssue 3ampe 1opcs 79
C./ 0l/1
3corn 0ude: /nayss ol an /rument 790
C. 3ampe: /nayss ol an /rument 79Z
C.9 /nayss ol an /rument 3ampe 1opcs 79
Aendx A lercente bankn 1abes 8Z8
Aendx /nswer 3heets 834
0anostc /nswer 3heet 83b
lrobem 3ovn /nswer 3heet 83
0ata 3ulhcency /nswer 3heet 837
beadn Comprehenson /nswer 3heet 838
Crtca beasonn /nswer 3heet 839
3entence Correcton /nswer 3heet 840
car Futurc 8usincss Lcadcr,
8y using this book to prcparc lor thc GMAT tcst, you arc taking a vcry important stcp toward
gaining admission to a highquality busincss or managcmcnt program and achicving a rcwarding
carccr in managcmcnt. ! applaud your dccision.
c Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council dcvclopcd thc GMAT tcst morc than 50 ycars
ago to hclp lcading graduatc schools ol busincss and managcmcnt choosc thc applicants who bcst
suit thcir programs. Today, thc tcst is uscd by morc than 1,800 graduatc programs and is givcn to
tcst takcrs daily in morc than 110 countrics around thc world. Programs that usc GMAT scorcs in
sclcctivc admissions havc hclpcd cstablish thc M8A dcgrcc as a hallmark ol cxccllcncc worldwidc.
Vhy do GMAT scorcs mattcr so much: thcr admissions lactorssuch as work cxpcricncc,
gradcs, admissions cssays, and intcrvicwscan say somcthing about who you arc and what you havc
donc in your carccr, but only your GMAT scorcs can tcll schools how you arc likcly to pcrlorm
acadcmically in thc busincss school courscs that arc lundamcntal to thc M8A dcgrcc. !n lact, thc
tcst has bccn provcn rcliablc as a prcdictor ol acadcmic pcrlormancc lor morc than hall a ccntury.
!n othcr words, busincss schools that rcquirc you to takc thc GMAT rcally carc about thc
quality ol thcir studcnt body. And cxccllcnt M8A studcnts mcan a strongcr M8A program, a
morc cnriching lcarning cnvironmcnt, and a morc valuablc dcgrcc lor you to takc into thc busincss
world. 8y cnrolling in a school that uscs thc GMAT tcst lor your graduatc busincss dcgrcc, you
in many ways, throughout
your carccr.
! wish you grcat succcss in prcparing lor this important ncxt stcp in your prolcssional cducation,
and ! wish you a vcry rcwarding managcmcnt carccr.
Sinccrcly
avid A. Vilson
Prcsidcnt and C
Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council
6
1.0 What Is the GMAT
?
7
1.0 What Is the GMAT
?
c Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Tcst (GMAT) is a standardizcd, thrccpart tcst dclivcrcd
c tcst was dcsigncd to hclp admissions olnccrs cvaluatc how suitablc individual
applicants arc lor thcir graduatc busincss and managcmcnt programs. !t mcasurcs basic vcrbal,
mathcmatical, and analytical writing skills that a tcst takcr has dcvclopcd ovcr a long pcriod ol timc
through cducation and work.
c GMAT tcst docs not a mcasurc a pcrson's knowlcdgc ol spccinc nclds ol study. Graduatc
crcnt undcrgraduatc and work
backgrounds, so rathcr than tcst your mastcry ol any particular subjcct arca, thc GMAT tcst will
asscss your acquircd skills. Your GMAT scorc will givc admissions olnccrs a statistically rcliablc
mcasurc ol how wcll you arc likcly to pcrlorm acadcmically in thc corc curriculum ol a graduatc
busincss program.
l coursc, thcrc arc many othcr qualincations that can hclp pcoplc succccd in busincss school and in
thcir carccrslor instancc, job cxpcricncc, lcadcrship ability, motivation, and intcrpcrsonal skills.
at is why your GMAT scorc is intcndcd to bc
uscd as onc standard admissions critcrion among othcr, morc subjcctivc, critcria, such as admissions
cssays and intcrvicws.
1.1 Why Take the GMAT
Test?
GMAT scorcs arc uscd by admissions olnccrs in roughly 1,800 graduatc busincss and managcmcnt
programs worldwidc. Schools that rcquirc prospcctivc studcnts to submit GMAT scorcs in thc
application proccss arc gcncrally intcrcstcd in
admitting thc bcstqualincd applicants lor thcir
programs, which mcans that you may nnd a morc
bcncncial lcarning cnvironmcnt at schools that
rcquirc GMAT scorcs as part ol your application.
8ccausc thc GMAT tcst gaugcs skills that arc
important to succcsslul study ol busincss and
managcmcnt at thc graduatc lcvcl, your scorcs will
givc you a good indication ol how wcll prcparcd
you arc to succccd acadcmically in a graduatc
managcmcnt program, how wcll you do on thc tcst
may also hclp you choosc thc busincss schools to
which you apply. Furthcrmorc, thc pcrccntilc tablc
you rcccivc with your scorcs will tcll you how your
pcrlormancc on thc tcst comparcs to thc
pcrlormancc ol othcr tcst takcrs, giving you onc
way to gaugc your compctition lor admission to
busincss school.
1.0 What Is the GMAT
?
 I! I don't score in the 90th
percentiIe, I von't get into
any schooI I choose.
f  Very !ev peopIe get very
high scores.
lewer lhan 50 ol lhe more lhan 200,000
people laking lhe CMAT lesl each year
gel a perlecl score ol 800. Thus, while
you may be exceplionally capable, lhe odds
are againsl your achieving a perlecl score.
Also, lhe CMAT lesl is jusl one piece ol
your applicalion packel. Admissions ollcers
use CMAT scores in conjunclion wilh
undergraduale records, applicalion essays,
inlerviews, lellers ol recommendalion, and
olher inlormalion when deciding whom lo
accepl inlo lheir programs.
fACT
8
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
crcnt aspccts ol an application bclorc making an admissions dccision, so
cvcn il you scorc wcll on thc GMAT tcst, you should contact thc schools that intcrcst you to lcarn
morc about thcm and to ask about how thcy usc GMAT scorcs and othcr admissions critcria (such
as your undcrgraduatc gradcs, cssays, and lcttcrs ol rccommcndation) to cvaluatc candidatcs lor
admission. School admissions olnccs, school Vcb sitcs, and matcrials publishcd by thc school arc
thc bcst sourccs lor you to tap whcn you arc doing rcscarch about whcrc you might want to go to
busincss school.
For morc inlormation about how schools should usc GMAT scorcs in admissions dccisions,
plcasc rcad Appcndix A ol this book. For morc inlormation on thc GMAT, rcgistcring to takc
thc tcst, scnding your scorcs to schools, and applying to busincss school, plcasc visit our Vcb sitc
at www.mba.com.
1.2 GMAT
Test format
c GMAT tcst consists ol lour scparatcly timcd scctions (scc thc tablc on thc ncxt pagc).
You start thc tcst with two 30minutc Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt (AVA) qucstions that
c writing scction is lollowcd by
two 75minutc, multiplcchoicc scctions: thc Quantitativc and \crbal scctions ol thc tcst.
c GMAT is a computcradaptivc tcst (CAT),
which mcans that in thc multiplcchoicc scctions
ol thc tcst, thc computcr constantly gaugcs how
wcll you arc doing on thc tcst and prcscnts you
with qucstions that arc appropriatc to your ability
csc qucstions arc drawn lrom a hugc pool
ol possiblc tcst qucstions. So, although wc talk
about thc GMAT as onc tcst, thc GMAT tcst you
crcnt lrom thc tcst ol
thc pcrson sitting ncxt to you.
Hcrc's how it works. At thc start ol cach GMAT
multiplcchoicc scction (\crbal and Quantitativc),
you will bc prcscntcd with a qucstion ol modcratc
c computcr uscs your rcsponsc to that
nrst qucstion to dctcrminc which qucstion to
prcscnt ncxt. !l you rcspond corrcctly, thc tcst
usually will givc you qucstions ol incrcasing
dilnculty. !l you rcspond incorrcctly, thc ncxt
qucstion you scc usually will bc casicr than thc onc
you answcrcd incorrcctly. As you continuc to
rcspond to thc qucstions prcscntcd, thc computcr
will narrow your scorc to thc numbcr that bcst
charactcrizcs your ability. Vhcn you complctc
cach scction, thc computcr will havc an accuratc
asscssmcnt ol your ability.
 Getting an easier question
means I ansvered the Iast one
vrong.
f  Getting an easier question
does not necessariIy mean you
got the previous question
vrong.
To ensure lhal everyone receives lhe same
conlenl, lhe lesl selecls a specilc number
ol queslions ol each lype. The lesl may call
lor your nexl queslion lo be a relalively
hard problemsolving ilem involving
arilhmelic operalions. 8ul, il lhere are no
more relalively dillcull problemsolving
ilems involving arilhmelic, you mighl be
given an easier ilem.
Mosl people are nol skilled al eslimaling
ilem dillcully, so don'l worry when laking
lhe lesl or wasle valuable lime lrying lo
delermine lhe dillcully ol lhe queslions
you are answering.
fACT
9
8ccausc cach qucstion is prcscntcd on thc basis ol your answcrs to all prcvious qucstions, you must
answcr cach qucstion as it appcars. You may not skip, rcturn to, or changc your rcsponscs to
prcvious qucstions. Random gucssing can signincantly lowcr your scorcs. !l you do not know thc
answcr to a qucstion, you should try to climinatc as many choiccs as possiblc, thcn sclcct thc answcr
you think is bcst. !l you answcr a qucstion incorrcctly by mistakcor corrcctly by lucky gucss
your answcrs to subscqucnt qucstions will lcad you back to qucstions that arc at thc appropriatc lcvcl
ol dilnculty lor you.
ach multiplcchoicc qucstion uscd in thc GMAT tcst has bccn thoroughly rcvicwcd by
prolcssional tcst dcvclopcrs. Ncw multiplcchoicc qucstions arc tcstcd cach timc thc tcst is
administcrcd. Answcrs to trial qucstions arc not countcd in thc scoring ol your tcst, but thc trial
crclorc, you should try to do
your bcst on cvcry qucstion.
c tcst includcs thc typcs ol qucstions lound in this guidc, but thc lormat and prcscntation ol thc
crcnt on thc computcr. Vhcn you takc thc tcst:
nly onc qucstion at a timc is prcscntcd on thc computcr scrccn.
c answcr choiccs lor thc multiplcchoicc qucstions will bc prcccdcd by circlcs, rathcr than by
lcttcrs.
crcnt qucstion typcs appcar in random ordcr in thc multiplcchoicc scctions ol thc tcst.
You must sclcct your answcr using thc computcr.
You must choosc an answcr and connrm your choicc bclorc moving on to thc ncxt qucstion.
You may not go back to changc answcrs to prcvious qucstions.
1.2 What Is the GMAT
? GMAT
Test format
format o! the GMAT
Qucstions Timing
Analytical Vriting
Analysis ol an Argumcnt
Analysis ol an !ssuc
1
1
30 min.
30 min.
ptional brcak 5 min.
Quantitativc
Problcm Solving
ata Sulncicncy
37 75 min.
ptional brcak 5 min.
\crbal
Rcading Comprchcnsion
Critical Rcasoning
Scntcncc Corrcction
41 75 min.
Total Timc: 210220 min.
10
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
1.3 What Is the Content o! the Test Like?
!t is important to rccognizc that thc GMAT tcst cvaluatcs skills and abilitics dcvclopcd ovcr a
rclativcly long pcriod ol timc. Although thc scctions contain qucstions that arc basically vcrbal and
mathcmatical, thc complctc tcst providcs onc mcthod ol mcasuring ovcrall ability.
Kccp in mind that although thc qucstions in this guidc arc arrangcd by qucstion typc and ordcrcd
crcnt
typcs ol qucstions in any ordcr.
1.4 uantitative 5ection
c GMAT Quantitativc scction mcasurcs your ability to rcason quantitativcly, solvc quantitativc
problcms, and intcrprct graphic data.
Two typcs ol multiplcchoicc qucstions arc uscd in thc Quantitativc scction:
Problcm solving
ata sulncicncy
Problcm solving and data sulncicncy qucstions arc intcrminglcd throughout thc Quantitativc
scction. 8oth typcs ol qucstions rcquirc basic knowlcdgc ol:
Arithmctic
lcmcntary algcbra
Commonly known conccpts ol gcomctry
To rcvicw thc basic mathcmatical conccpts that will bc tcstcd in thc GMAT Quantitativc
qucstions, scc thc math rcvicw in chaptcr 4. For tcsttaking tips spccinc to thc qucstion typcs in
thc Quantitativc scction ol thc GMAT tcst, samplc qucstions, and answcr cxplanations, scc
chaptcrs 5 and 6.
1.5 VerbaI 5ection
c GMAT \crbal scction mcasurcs your ability to rcad and comprchcnd writtcn matcrial, to
rcason and cvaluatc argumcnts, and to corrcct writtcn matcrial to conlorm to standard writtcn
crcnt contcnt arcas,
you may bc gcncrally lamiliar with somc ol thc matcrial, howcvcr, ncithcr thc rcading passagcs nor
thc qucstions assumc dctailcd knowlcdgc ol thc topics discusscd.
rcc typcs ol multiplcchoicc qucstions arc uscd in thc \crbal scction:
Rcading comprchcnsion
Critical rcasoning
Scntcncc corrcction
csc qucstion typcs arc intcrminglcd throughout thc \crbal scction.
11
For tcsttaking tips spccinc to cach qucstion typc in thc \crbal scction, samplc qucstions, and
answcr cxplanations, scc chaptcrs 7 through 9.
1.6 What Computer 5kiIIs WiII I Need?
You only nccd minimal computcr skills to takc thc GMAT ComputcrAdaptivc Tcst (CAT). You
will bc rcquircd to typc your cssays on thc computcr kcyboard using standard wordproccssing
kcystrokcs. !n thc multiplcchoicc scctions, you will sclcct your rcsponscs using cithcr your mousc or
thc kcyboard.
To lcarn morc about thc spccinc skills rcquircd to takc thc GMAT CAT, download thc lrcc tcst
prcparation soltwarc availablc at www.mba.com.
1.7 What Are the Test Centers Like?
c GMAT tcst is administcrcd at a tcst ccntcr providing thc quict and privacy ol individual
computcr workstations. You will havc thc opportunity to takc two nvcminutc brcaksonc altcr
complcting thc cssays and anothcr bctwccn thc Quantitativc and \crbal scctions. An crasablc
notcpad will bc providcd lor your usc during thc tcst.
1.8 Hov Are 5cores CaIcuIated?
Your GMAT scorcs arc dctcrmincd by:
c numbcr ol qucstions you answcr
Vhcthcr you answcr corrcctly or incorrcctly
c lcvcl ol dilnculty and othcr statistical charactcristics ol cach qucstion
Your \crbal, Quantitativc, and Total GMAT scorcs arc dctcrmincd by a complcx mathcmatical
proccdurc that takcs into account thc dilnculty ol thc qucstions that wcrc prcscntcd to you and how
you answcrcd thcm. Vhcn you answcr thc casicr qucstions corrcctly, you gct a chancc to answcr
hardcr qucstionsmaking it possiblc to carn a highcr scorc. Altcr you havc complctcd all thc
qucstions on thc tcstor whcn your timc is upthc computcr will calculatc your scorcs. Your
scorcs on thc \crbal and Quantitativc scctions arc combincd to producc your Total scorc. !l you havc
not rcspondcd to all thc qucstions in a scction (37 Quantitativc qucstions or 41 \crbal qucstions),
your scorc is adjustcd, using thc proportion ol qucstions answcrcd.
Appcndix A contains thc 2007 pcrccntilc ranking tablcs that cxplain how your GMAT scorcs
comparc with scorcs ol othcr 2007 GMAT tcst takcrs.
1.6 What Is the GMAT
? What Computer 5kiIIs WiII I Need?
12
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
1.9 AnaIyticaI Writing Assessment 5cores
c Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt consists ol two writing tasks: Analysis ol an !ssuc and Analysis
c rcsponscs to cach ol thcsc tasks arc scorcd on a 6point scalc, with 6 bcing thc
topic, arc in a
lorcign languagc, mcrcly attcmpt to copy thc topic, consist only ol kcystrokc charactcrs, or arc
blank.
c rcadcrs who cvaluatc thc rcsponscs arc collcgc and univcrsity laculty mcmbcrs lrom various
csc rcadcrs rcad holisticallythat is, thcy
rcspond to thc ovcrall quality ol your critical thinking and writing. (For dctails on how rcadcrs arc
qualincd, visit www.mba.com.) !n addition, rcsponscs may bc scorcd by an automatcd scoring
program dcsigncd to rccct thc judgmcnt ol cxpcrt rcadcrs.
rcadcr adjudicatcs. (8ccausc ol ongoing training and monitoring, discrcpant ratings arc rarc.)
Your nnal scorc is thc avcragc (roundcd to thc ncarcst hall point) ol thc lour scorcs indcpcndcntly
assigncd to your rcsponscstwo scorcs lor thc Analysis ol an !ssuc and two lor thc Analysis ol an
Argumcnt. For cxamplc, il you carncd scorcs ol 6 and 5 on thc Analysis ol an !ssuc and 4 and 4 on
thc Analysis ol an Argumcnt, your nnal scorc would bc 5: (6 5 4 4) 4  4.75, which rounds
up to 5.
Your Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt scorcs arc computcd and rcportcd scparatcly lrom thc
cct on your \crbal, Quantitativc, or Total scorcs.
c schools that you havc dcsignatcd to rcccivc your scorcs may rcccivc your rcsponscs to thc
Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt with your scorc rcport. Your own copy ol your scorc rcport will not
includc copics ol your rcsponscs.
13
1.10 Test DeveIopment Process
c GMAT tcst is dcvclopcd by cxpcrts who usc standardizcd proccdurcs to cnsurc highquality,
widcly appropriatc tcst matcrial. All qucstions arc subjcctcd to indcpcndcnt rcvicws and arc rcviscd
or discardcd as ncccssary. Multiplcchoicc qucstions arc tcstcd during GMAT tcst administrations.
Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt tasks arc tricd out on nrstycar busincss school studcnts and thcn
asscsscd lor thcir lairncss and rcliability. For morc inlormation on tcst dcvclopmcnt, scc www.
mba.com.
1.10 What Is the GMAT
? Test DeveIopment Process
14
2.0 Hov to Prepare
15
2.0 Hov to Prepare
2.0 Hov to Prepare
2.1 Hov Can I est Prepare to Take the Test?
Vc at thc Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council (GMAC) nrmly bclicvc that thc tcst
taking skills you can dcvclop by using this guidcand thc \crbal and Quantitativc guidcs, il you
want additional practiccarc all you nccd to pcrlorm your bcst whcn you takc thc GMAT tcst.
8y answcring qucstions that havc appcarcd on thc GMAT tcst bclorc, you will gain cxpcricncc with
thc typcs ol qucstions you may scc on thc tcst whcn you takc it. As you practicc with this guidc, you
will dcvclop conndcncc in your ability to rcason through thc tcst qucstions. No additional
tcchniqucs or stratcgics arc nccdcd to do wcll on thc standardizcd tcst il you dcvclop a practical
lamiliarity with thc abilitics it rcquircs. Simply by practicing and undcrstanding thc conccpts that
arc asscsscd on thc tcst, you will lcarn what you nccd to know to answcr thc qucstions corrcctly.
2.2 What About Practice Tests?
8ccausc a computcradaptivc tcst cannot bc prcscntcd in papcr lorm, wc havc crcatcd GMATPrcp
c soltwarc is availablc lor download at no chargc lor
thosc who havc crcatcd a uscr pronlc on www.mba.com. !t is also providcd on a disk, by rcqucst, to
plus additional practicc qucstions, inlormation about thc tcst, and tutorials to hclp you bccomc
lamiliar with how thc GMAT tcst will appcar on thc computcr scrccn at thc tcst ccntcr.
Vc rccommcnd that you download thc soltwarc as
you start to prcparc lor thc tcst. Takc onc practicc
tcst to lamiliarizc yourscll with thc tcst and to gct
an idca ol how you might scorc. Altcr you havc
studicd using this book, and as your tcst datc
approachcs, takc thc sccond practicc tcst to
dctcrminc whcthcr you nccd to shilt your locus
to othcr arcas you nccd to strcngthcn.
!l you complctc all thc qucstions in this guidc and
think you would likc additional practicc, you may
purchasc e Ofcial Guide for GMT" !erbal
Fe.ie. or e Ofcial Guide for GMT"
Quantitati.e Fe.ie. at www.mba.com.
crc may bc somc ovcrlap bctwccn this
book and thc rcvicw scctions ol thc GMATPrcp
soltwarc.
 You need very advanced
math skiIIs to get a high
GMAT score.
f  The math skiIIs tested on the
GMAT test are quite basic.
The CMAT lesl only requires basic
quanlilalive analylic skills. You should
review lhe malh skills (algebra, geomelry,
basic arilhmelic) presenled in lhis book, bul
lhe required skill level is low. The dillcully
ol CMAT Quanlilalive queslions slems
lrom lhe logic and analysis used lo solve
lhe problems and nol lhe underlying malh
skills.
fACT
16
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
2.3 Hov 5houId I Use the Diagnostic Test?
is book contains a iagnostic Tcst to hclp you dctcrminc thc typcs ol qucstions that you nccd to
practicc most. You should takc thc iagnostic Tcst around thc samc timc that you takc thc nrst
c iagnostic Tcst will givc you a
ratingbelo. a.erage, a.erage, abo.e a.erage, or excellentol your skills in cach typc ol GMAT
csc ratings will hclp you idcntily arcas to locus on as you prcparc lor thc
GMAT tcst.
Usc thc rcsults ol thc iagnostic Tcst to hclp you sclcct thc right chaptcr ol this book to start with.
Ncxt, rcad thc introductory matcrial carclully, and answcr thc samplc qucstions in that chaptcr.
Makc surc you lollow thc dircctions lor cach typc ol qucstion and try to work as quickly and as
cn rcvicw thc cxplanations lor thc corrcct answcrs, spcnding as much timc
as ncccssary to lamiliarizc yourscll with thc rangc ol qucstions or problcms prcscntcd.
2.4 Where Can I Get AdditionaI Practice?
!l you nnd you would likc additional practicc with thc \crbal scction ol thc tcst, e Ofcial Guide
for GMT" !erbal Fe.ie. is availablc lor purchasc at www.mba.com. !l you want morc practicc
with thc Quantitativc scction, e Ofcial Guide for GMT" Quantitati.e Fe.ie. is also availablc
lor purchasc at www.mba.com.
2.5 GeneraI TestTaking 5uggestions
c
lollowing arc gcncral suggcstions to hclp you pcrlorm your bcst on thc tcst.
1. Use your time viseIy.
Although thc GMAT tcst strcsscs accuracy morc than spccd, it is important to usc your timc wiscly.
n avcragc, you will havc about 1 minutcs lor cach vcrbal qucstion and about two minutcs lor
cach quantitativc qucstion. ncc you start thc tcst, an onscrccn clock will continuously count thc
timc you havc lclt. You can hidc this display il you want, but it is a good idca to chcck thc clock
c clock will automatically alcrt you whcn nvc minutcs
rcmain in thc allottcd timc lor thc scction you arc working on.
2. Ansver practice questions ahead o! time.
Altcr you bccomc gcncrally lamiliar with all qucstion typcs, usc thc samplc qucstions in this book
to prcparc lor thc actual tcst. !t may bc usclul to timc yourscll as you answcr thc practicc qucstions
to gct an idca ol how long you will havc lor cach qucstion during thc actual GMAT tcst as wcll as
to dctcrminc whcthcr you arc answcring quickly cnough to complctc thc tcst in thc timc allottcd.
3. ead aII test directions care!uIIy.
c dircctions cxplain cxactly what is rcquircd to answcr cach qucstion typc. !l you rcad hastily, you
may miss important instructions and lowcr your scorcs. To rcvicw dircctions during thc tcst, click
17
on thc Hclp icon. 8ut bc awarc that thc timc you spcnd rcvicwing dircctions will count against thc
timc allottcd lor that scction ol thc tcst.
4. ead each question care!uIIy and
thoroughIy.
8clorc you answcr a multiplcchoicc qucstion,
dctcrminc cxactly what is bcing askcd, thcn
climinatc thc wrong answcrs and sclcct thc bcst
choicc. Ncvcr skim a qucstion or thc possiblc
answcrs, skimming may causc you to miss
important inlormation or nuanccs.
5. Do not spend too much time on any one
question.
!l you do not know thc corrcct answcr, or il thc
qucstion is too timcconsuming, try to climinatc
choiccs you know arc wrong, sclcct thc bcst ol thc
rcmaining answcr choiccs, and movc on to thc ncxt
qucstion. Try not to worry about thc impact on
your scorcgucssing may lowcr your scorc, but
not nnishing thc scction will lowcr your scorc
morc.
8car in mind that il you do not nnish a scction in
thc allottcd timc, you will still rcccivc a scorc.
6. Conrm your ansvers ONLY vhen you are
ready to move on.
ncc you havc sclcctcd your answcr to a multiplc
choicc qucstion, you will bc askcd to connrm it.
ncc you connrm your rcsponsc, you cannot go
back and changc it. You may not skip qucstions,
bccausc thc computcr sclccts cach qucstion on thc
basis ol your rcsponscs to prcccding qucstions.
7. PIan your essay ansvers be!ore you begin
to vrite.
c bcst way to approach thc two writing tasks
that comprisc thc Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt
is to rcad thc dircctions carclully, takc a lcw
minutcs to think about thc qucstion, and plan a
rcsponsc bclorc you bcgin writing. Takc carc to
organizc your idcas and dcvclop thcm lully, but
lcavc timc to rcrcad your rcsponsc and makc any
rcvisions that you think would improvc it.
2.5 Hov to Prepare GeneraI TestTaking 5uggestions
 It is more important to
respond correctIy to the test
questions than it is to nish
the test.
f  There is a severe penaIty
!or not compIeting the
GMAT test.
ll you are slumped by a queslion, give il
your besl guess and move on. ll you guess
incorreclly, lhe compuler program will likely
give you an easier queslion, which you are
likely lo answer correclly, and lhe compuler
will rapidly relurn lo giving you queslions
malched lo your abilily. ll you don'l lnish
lhe lesl, your score will be reduced greally.
lailing lo answer lve verbal queslions, lor
example, could reduce your score lrom
lhe 9!sl percenlile lo lhe 77lh percenlile.
Pacing is imporlanl.
fACT
 The rst 10 questions are
criticaI and you shouId invest
the most time on those.
f  AII questions count.
ll is lrue lhal lhe compuleradaplive lesling
algorilhm uses lhe lrsl !0 queslions lo
oblain an inilial eslimale ol your abilily,
however, lhal is only an eslimale. As
you conlinue lo answer queslions, lhe
algorilhm sellcorrecls by compuling an
updaled eslimale on lhe basis ol all lhe
queslions you have answered, and lhen
adminislers ilems lhal are closely malched
lo lhis new eslimale ol your abilily. Your
lnal score is based on all your responses
and considers lhe dillcully ol all lhe
queslions you answered. Taking addilional
lime on lhe lrsl !0 queslions will nol game
lhe syslem and can hurl your abilily lo
lnish lhe lesl.
fACT
18
3.0 Diagnostic Test
19
3.0 Diagnostic Test
Likc thc practicc scctions latcr in thc book, thc iagnostic Tcst uscs qucstions lrom rcal GMAT
c purposc ol thc iagnostic Tcst is to hclp you dctcrminc how skillcd you arc in answcring
cach ol thc nvc typcs ol qucstions on thc GMAT tcst: data sulncicncy, problcm solving, rcading
comprchcnsion, critical rcasoning, and scntcncc corrcction.
Scorcs on thc iagnostic Tcst arc dcsigncd to hclp you answcr thc qucstion, "!l all thc qucstions on
thc GMAT tcst wcrc likc thc qucstions in this scction, how wcll would ! do:" Your scorcs arc
classincd as bcing excellent, abo.e a.erage, a.erage, or belo. a.erage, rclativc to thc scorcs ol othcr tcst
takcrs. You can usc this inlormation to locus your tcstprcparation activitics.
Instructions
c iagnostic Tcst is not timcd. 1.
!l you arc stumpcd by a qucstion, you should gucss and movc on, just likc you should 2.
do on thc rcal GMAT tcst.
You can takc onc scgmcnt at a timc, il you want. !t is bcttcr to nnish an cntirc scction 3.
(Quantitativc or \crbal) in onc sitting, but this is not a rcquircmcnt.
You can go back and changc your answcrs in thc iagnostic Tcst. 4.
Altcr you takc thc tcst, chcck your answcrs using thc answcr kcy that lollows thc tcst. 5.
c numbcr ol corrcct answcrs is your raw scorc.
Convcrt your raw scorc, using thc tablc providcd. 6.
Note c iagnostic Tcst is dcsigncd to givc you guidancc on how to prcparc lor thc GMAT tcst,
howcvcr, a strong scorc on onc typc ol qucstion docs not guarantcc that you will pcrlorm as wcll on
c statistical rcliability ol scorcs on thc iagnostic Tcst rangcs lrom 0.75 to
0.89, and thc subscalc classincation is about 8590 accuratc, mcaning that your scorcs on thc
iagnostic Tcst arc a good, but not pcrlcct, mcasurc ol how you arc likcly to pcrlorm on thc rcal
tcst. Usc thc tcsts on thc lrcc onlinc soltwarc to obtain a good cstimatc ol your cxpcctcd GMAT
\crbal, Quantitativc, and Total scorcs.
You should not comparc thc numbcr ol qucstions you got right in cach scction. !nstcad, you should
comparc how your rcsponscs arc ratcd in cach scction.
3.0 Diagnostic Test
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
20
. last month a certan musc cub ollered a dscount to
prelerred customers. /lter the hrst compact dsc
purchased, prelerred customers pad S3.99 lor each
addtona compact dsc purchased. ll a prelerred
customer purchased a tota ol b compact dscs and
pad So.9o lor the hrst compact dsc, then the doar
amount that the customer pad lor the b compact
dscs s equvaent to whch ol the loown'
/ o4.CC + o.9C
B o4.CC + o.9o
C o4.CC + b.CC
0 o4.CC  C.C + o.9C
L o4.CC  C.Co + o.9o
Z. 1he averae arthmetc mean ol the nteers lrom
ZCC to 4CC, ncusve, s how much reater than the
averae ol the nteers lrom oC to CC, ncusve'
/ oC
B /o
C ZCC
0 ZZo
L 3CC
3. 1he sequence a
, a
Z
, a
3
,...,a
n
,... s such that
a
n
lor a n a
3
4 and
a
o
ZC, what s the vaue ol a
b
'
/ Z
B b
C ZC
0 Z4
L Z
4. /mon a roup ol Z,oCC peope, 3o percent nvest n
muncpa bonds, percent nvest n o stocks, and
/ percent nvest n both muncpa bonds and o
stocks. ll person s to be randomy seected lrom
the Z,oCC peope, what s the probabty that the
person seected w be one who nvests n muncpa
bonds but N01 n o stocks'
/
B
/
Zo
C
/
ZC
0
Z
oC
L
Z/
oC
water and s hed to hal ts capacty. when the tank
s paced uprht on ts crcuar base on eve round,
the heht ol the water n the tank s 4 leet. when the
tank s paced on ts sde on eve round, what s the
heht, n leet, ol the surlace ol the water above the
round'
/ Z
B 3
C 4
0 b
L 9
3.1 uantitative 5ampIe uestions
ProbIem 5oIving
5oIve the probIem and indicate the best o! the ansver choices given.
Numbers. AII numbers used are reaI numbers.
figures. AII gures accompanying probIem soIving questions are intended to provide in!ormation
use!uI in soIving the probIems. figures are dravn as accurateIy as possibIe. Exceptions viII be
cIearIy noted. Lines shovn as straight are straight, and Iines that appear jagged are aIso
straight. The positions o! points, angIes, regions, etc., exist in the order shovn, and angIe
measures are greater than zero. AII gures Iie in a pIane unIess othervise indicated.
21
b. / marketn hrm determned that, ol ZCC househods
surveyed, C used nether Brand / nor Brand B soap,
bC used ony Brand / soap, and lor every househod
that used both brands ol soap, 3 used ony Brand B
soap. How many ol the ZCC househods surveyed used
both brands ol soap'
/ o
B ZC
C 3C
0 4C
L 4o
/. / certan cub has C members, ncudn Harry. 0ne
ol the C members s to be chosen at random to be
the presdent, one ol the remann 9 members s to
be chosen at random to be the secretary, and one ol
the remann members s to be chosen at random
to be the treasurer. what s the probabty that Harry
w be ether the member chosen to be the secretary
or the member chosen to be the treasurer'
/
/ZC
B
C
C
C
0
9
L
o
. ll a certan toy store's revenue n November was
Z
o
ol ts revenue n 0ecember and ts revenue n
January was
4
ol ts revenue n November, then the
store's revenue n 0ecember was how many tmes the
averae arthmetc mean ol ts revenues n November
and January'
/
4
B
Z
C
Z
3
0 Z
L 4
9. / researcher computed the mean, the medan, and the
standard devaton lor a set ol perlormance scores.
ll o were to be added to each score, whch ol these
three statstcs woud chane'
/ 1he mean ony
B 1he medan ony
C 1he standard devaton ony
0 1he mean and the medan
L 1he mean and the standard devaton
x
.
.
y
z
C. ln the hure shown, what s the vaue ol
v + x + y + z + w '
/ 4o
B 9C
C C
0 Z/C
L 3bC
3.1 Diagnostic Test uantitative 5ampIe uestions
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
22
. 0l the threedt nteers reater than /CC, how many
have two dts that are equa to each other and the
remann dt dllerent lrom the other two'
/ 9C
B Z
C C
0 4o
L 3b
Z. lostve nteer y s oC percent ol oC percent ol
postve nteer x, and y percent ol x equas CC. what
s the vaue ol x '
/ oC
B CC
C ZCC
0 ,CCC
L Z,CCC
3. ll s and t are postve nteers such that
s
t
b4.Z,
whch ol the loown coud be the remander when
s s dvded by t '
/ Z
B 4
C
0 ZC
L 4o
4. 0l the 4 parents who attended a meetn at a
schoo, 3o vounteered to supervse chdren durn
the schoo pcnc and vounteered both to supervse
chdren durn the pcnc and to brn relreshments to
the pcnc. ll the number ol parents who vounteered
to brn relreshments was .o tmes the number ol
parents who nether vounteered to supervse chdren
durn the pcnc nor vounteered to brn
relreshments, how many ol the parents vounteered to
brn relreshments'
/ Zo
B 3b
C 3
0 4Z
L 4o
o. 1he product ol a the prme numbers ess than ZC s
cosest to whch ol the loown powers ol C '
/ C
9
B C
C C
/
0 C
b
L C
o
b. ll 3 Z Z x x , then 4x
Z
/
B 4
C Z  Zx
0 4x  Z
L bx 
/. ll n =
b
, what s the vaue ol '
/
9
B
4
C
4
9
0
Z
3
L
9
Z
. ll n s the product ol the nteers lrom to ,
ncusve, how many dllerent prme lactors reater
than does n have'
/ lour
B lve
C 3x
0 3even
L Lht
9. ll k s an nteer and Z < k < /, lor how many dllerent
vaues ol k s there a trane wth sdes ol enths Z,
/, and k '
/ 0ne
B 1wo
C 1hree
0 lour
L lve
23
3.1 Diagnostic Test uantitative 5ampIe uestions
ZC. / rht crcuar cone s nscrbed n a hemsphere so
that the base ol the cone concdes wth the base ol
the hemsphere. what s the rato ol the heht ol the
cone to the radus ol the hemsphere'
/
B :
C :
Z
0
L Z:
Z. John deposted SC,CCC to open a new savns
account that earned 4 percent annua nterest,
compounded quartery. ll there were no other
transactons n the account, what was the amount ol
money n John's account b months alter the account
was opened'
/ SC,CC
B SC,C
C SC,ZCC
0 SC,ZC
L SC,4CC
ZZ. / contaner n the shape ol a rht crcuar cynder
s
Z
lu ol water. ll the voume ol water n the
contaner s 3b cubc nches and the heht ol the
contaner s 9 nches, what s the dameter ol the base
ol the cynder, n nches'
/
b
9
B
4
C
Z
0
Z
L 4
Z
Z3. ll the postve nteer x s a mutpe ol 4 and the
postve nteer y s a mutpe ol b, then xy must be a
mutpe ol whch ol the loown'
l.
ll. Z
lll.
/ ll ony
B l and ll ony
C l and lll ony
0 ll and lll ony
L l, ll, and lll
Z4. /aron w jo lrom home at x mes per hour and then
wak back home by the same route at y mes per hour.
How many mes lrom home can /aron jo so that he
spends a tota ol t hours jon and wakn'
/
xt
y
B
x + t
xy
C
xy t
x + y
0
x + y + t
xy
L
y + t

t
x y
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
24
Data 5u!ciency
Each data su!ciency probIem consists o! a question and tvo statements, IabeIed (1) and (2), vhich
contain certain data. Using these data and your knovIedge o! mathematics and everyday !acts (such as
the number o! days in 1uIy or the meaning o! the vord counterclockwise), decide vhether the data
given are su!cient !or ansvering the question and then indicate one o! the !oIIoving ansver choices.
A 5tatement (1) ALONE is su!cient, but statement (2) aIone is not su!cient.
5tatement (2) ALONE is su!cient, but statement (1) aIone is not su!cient.
C OTH statements TOGETHE are su!cient, but NEITHE statement ALONE is su!cient.
D EACH statement ALONE is su!cient.
E 5tatements (1) and (2) TOGETHE are not su!cient.
Note. In data su!ciency probIems that ask !or the vaIue o! a quantity, the data given in the statements
are su!cient onIy vhen it is possibIe to determine exactIy one numericaI vaIue !or the quantity.
ExampIe.
x
P
Q F
ln lR, what s the vaue ol x '
 l = lR
Z y = 4C
ExpIanation. According to statement (1) PQ = PR, there!ore, PQR is isosceIes and y = z. 5ince x + y + z =
180, it !oIIovs that x + 2y = 180. 5ince statement (1) does not give a vaIue !or y, you cannot ansver the
question using statement (1) aIone. According to statement (2), y = 40, there!ore, x + z = 140. 5ince
statement (2) does not give a vaIue !or z, you cannot ansver the question using statement (2) aIone.
Using both statements together, since x + 2y = 180 and the vaIue o! y is given, you can nd the vaIue
o! x. There!ore, OTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHE are su!cient to ansver the question, but
NEITHE statement ALONE is su!cient.
Numbers. AII numbers used are reaI numbers.
figures.
figures con!orm to the in!ormation given in the question, but viII not necessariIy con!orm to the
additionaI in!ormation given in statements (1) and (2).
Lines shovn as straight are straight, and Iines that appear jagged are aIso straight.
The positions o! points, angIes, regions, etc., exist in the order shovn, and angIe measures are
greater than zero.
AII gures Iie in a pIane unIess othervise indicated.
25
3.1 Diagnostic Test uantitative 5ampIe uestions
Zo. ll the unts dt ol nteer n s reater than Z, what s
the unts dt ol n '
 1he unts dt ol n s the same as the unts dt
ol n
Z
.
Z 1he unts dt ol n s the same as the unts dt
ol n
3
.
Zb. what s the vaue ol the nteer p '
 Lach ol the nteers Z, 3, and o s a lactor ol p.
Z Lach ol the nteers Z, o, and / s a lactor ol p.
Z/. ll the enth ol wanda's teephone ca was rounded up
to the nearest whoe mnute by her teephone
company, then wanda was chared lor how many
mnutes lor her teephone ca'
 1he tota chare lor wanda's teephone ca was
Sb.oC.
Z wanda was chared SC.oC more lor the hrst
mnute ol the teephone ca than lor each
mnute alter the hrst.
Z. what s the permeter ol soscees trane MNl '
 MN b
Z Nl 20
Z9. ln a survey ol retaers, what percent had purchased
computers lor busness purposes'
 o percent ol the retaers surveyed who owned
ther own store had purchased computers lor
busness purposes.
Z 4C percent ol the retaers surveyed owned ther
own store.
3C. 1he ony lt certhcates that a certan store sod
yesterday were worth ether SCC each or SC each. ll
the store sod a tota ol ZC lt certhcates yesterday,
how many lt certhcates worth SC each dd the
store se yesterday'
 1he lt certhcates sod by the store yesterday
were worth a tota ol between S,boC and
S,CC.
Z Yesterday the store sod more than o lt
certhcates worth SCC each.
3. ls the standard devaton ol the set ol measurements
x
, x
Z
, x
3
, x
4
, . . ., x
ZC
ess than 3 '
 1he varance lor the set ol measurements s 4.
Z lor each measurement, the dllerence between
the mean and that measurement s Z.
3Z. ls the rane ol the nteers b, 3, y, 4, o, and x reater
than 9 '
 y > 3x
Z y > x > 3
33. ls '
 o
x
<
Z x < C
34. 0l the companes surveyed about the sks they
requred n prospectve empoyees, ZC percent
requred both computer sks and wrtn sks. what
percent ol the companes surveyed requred nether
computer sks nor wrtn sks'
 0l those companes surveyed that requred
computer sks, hal requred wrtn sks.
Z 4o percent ol the companes surveyed requred
wrtn sks but not computer sks.
3o. what s the vaue ol w + q '
 3w 3  3q
Z ow + oq o
3b. ll X and Y are ponts n a pane and X es nsde the
crce L wth center U and radus Z, does Y e nsde
crce L '
 1he enth ol ne sement XY s 3.
Z 1he enth ol ne sement UY s .o.
3/. ls x > y '
 x y + Z
Z y 
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
26
3. ll laua drove the dstance lrom her home to her
coee at an averae speed that was reater than
/C kometers per hour, dd t take her ess than
3 hours to drve ths dstance'
 1he dstance that laua drove lrom her home to
her coee was reater than ZCC kometers.
Z 1he dstance that laua drove lrom her home to
her coee was ess than ZCo kometers.
39. ln the xypane, l ne k has neatve sope and passes
throuh the pont o,r , s the xntercept ol ne k
postve'
 1he sope ol ne k s o.
Z r > C
4C. ll So,CCC nvested lor one year at p percent smpe
annua nterest yeds SoCC, what amount must be
nvested at k percent smpe annua nterest lor one
year to yed the same number ol doars'
 k C.p
Z k
4. ll
x + y
z
> C, s x < C '
 x < y
Z z < C
4Z. 0oes the nteer k have at east three dllerent
postve prme lactors'

k
o
s an nteer.
Z
k
C
s an nteer.
43. ln Cty / ast /pr, was the averae arthmetc mean
day hh temperature reater than the medan day
hh temperature'
 ln Cty / ast /pr, the sum ol the 3C day hh
temperatures was Z,bC".
Z ln Cty / ast /pr, bC percent ol the day hh
temperatures were ess than the averae day
hh temperature.
44. ll m and n are postve nteers, s an nteer'
 s an nteer.
Z s an nteer.
4o. 0l the bb peope n a certan audtorum, at most
b peope have ther brthdays n any one ven month.
0oes at east one person n the audtorum have a
brthday n January'
 lore ol the peope n the audtorum have ther
brthday n lebruary than n larch.
Z lve ol the peope n the audtorum have ther
brthday n larch.
4b. last year the averae arthmetc mean saary ol the
C empoyees ol Company / was S4Z,CC. what s the
averae saary ol the same C empoyees ths year'
 lor ol the C empoyees, ths year's saary s
o percent reater than ast year's saary.
Z lor Z ol the C empoyees, ths year's saary s
the same as ast year's saary.
4/. ln a certan cassroom, there are C books, ol whch
Z4 are hcton and Z3 are wrtten n 3pansh. How many
ol the hcton books are wrtten n 3pansh'
 0l the hcton books, there are b more that are
not wrtten n 3pansh than are wrtten n
3pansh.
Z 0l the books wrtten n 3pansh, there are o
more nonhcton books than hcton books.
4. ll p s the permeter ol rectane , what s the vaue
ol p '
 Lach daona ol rectane has enth C.
Z 1he area ol rectane s 4.
27
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe uestions
lne
o
C
o
ZC
Zo
3C
/ccordn to economc snan theory,
consumers may perceve the lrequency wth
whch an unlamar brand s advertsed as a cue
that the brand s ol hh quaty. 1he noton that
hhy advertsed brands are assocated wth
hhquaty products does have some emprca
support. larquardt and lc0ann lound that
heavy advertsed products dd ndeed rank hh
on certan measures ol product quaty.Because
are advertsn expendtures represent
a snhcant nvestment on the part ol a
manulacturer, ony companes that expect to
recoup these costs n the on run, throuh
consumers' repeat purchases ol the product,
can allord to spend such amounts.
However, two studes by brman have lound
that athouh consumers ntay perceve expensve
advertsn as a sna ol hh brand quaty,
at some eve ol spendn the manulacturer's
advertsn ellort may be perceved as unreasonaby
hh, mpyn ow manulacturer conhdence n
product quaty. ll consumers perceve excessve
advertsn ellort as a sn ol a manulacturer's
desperaton, the resut may be ess lavorabe
brand perceptons. ln addton, a thrd study by
brman, ol prnt advertsements, lound that the
use ol coor allected consumer percepton ol
brand quaty. Because consumers reconze that
coor advertsements are more expensve than
back and whte, the pont at whch repetton ol an
advertsement s perceved as excessve comes
sooner lor a coor advertsement than lor a back
andwhte advertsement.
. whch ol the loown best descrbes the purpose ol
the sentence n nes Co '
/ 1o show that economc snan theory las to
expan a hndn
B 1o ntroduce a dstncton not accounted lor by
economc snan theory
C 1o account lor an excepton to a enerazaton
suested by larquardt and lc0ann
0 1o expan why larquardt and lc0ann's
research was conducted
L 1o oller an expanaton lor an observaton
reported by larquardt and lc0ann
Z. 1he prmary purpose ol the passae s to
/ present hndns that contradct one expanaton
lor the ellects ol a partcuar advertsn
practce
B arue that theoretca expanatons about the
ellects ol a partcuar advertsn practce are
ol mted vaue wthout emprca evdence
C dscuss how and why partcuar advertsn
practces may allect consumers' perceptons
0 contrast the research methods used n two
dllerent studes ol a partcuar advertsn
practce
L expan why a hndn about consumer responses
to a partcuar advertsn practce was
unexpected
3.2 VerbaI 5ampIe uestions
eading Comprehension
Each o! the reading comprehension questions is based on the content o! a passage. A!ter reading the
passage, ansver aII questions pertaining to it on the basis o! vhat is stated or impIied in the passage. for
each question, seIect the best ansver o! the choices given.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
28
3. brman's research, as descrbed n the passae,
suests whch ol the loown reardn consumers'
expectatons about the quaty ol advertsed products'
/ 1hose expectatons are key to be hhest l a
manulacturer runs both backandwhte and
coor advertsements lor the same product.
B 1hose expectatons can be shaped by the
presence ol coor n an advertsement as we as
by the lrequency wth whch an advertsement
appears.
C 1hose expectatons are usuay hh lor
lrequenty advertsed new brands but not lor
lrequenty advertsed lamar brands.
0 1hose expectatons are key to be hher lor
products whose backandwhte advertsements
are olten repeated than lor those whose coor
advertsements are ess olten repeated.
L 1hose expectatons are ess dehntvey shaped
by the manulacturer's advertsements than by
nlormaton that consumers ather lrom other
sources.
4. brman's thrd study, as descrbed n the passae,
suests whch ol the loown concusons about a
backandwhte advertsement'
/ lt can be repeated more lrequenty than a
comparabe coor advertsement coud belore
consumers ben to suspect ow manulacturer
conhdence n the quaty ol the advertsed
product.
B lt w have the reatest mpact on consumers'
perceptons ol the quaty ol the advertsed
product l t appears durn perods when a coor
verson ol the same advertsement s aso ben
used.
C lt w attract more attenton lrom readers ol the
prnt pubcaton n whch t appears l t s used
ony a lew tmes.
0 lt may be perceved by some consumers as
more expensve than a comparabe coor
advertsement.
L lt s key to be perceved by consumers as a
sn ol hher manulacturer conhdence n the
quaty ol the advertsed product than a
comparabe coor advertsement woud be.
o. 1he passae suests that brman woud be most
key to aree wth whch ol the loown statements
about consumers' perceptons ol the reatonshp
between the lrequency wth whch a product s
advertsed and the product's quaty'
/ Consumers' perceptons about the lrequency
wth whch an advertsement appears are ther
prmary consderaton when evauatn an
advertsement's cams about product quaty.
B Because most consumers do not notce the
lrequency ol advertsement, t has tte mpact
on most consumers' expectatons reardn
product quaty.
C Consumers perceve lrequency ol advertsement
as a sna about product quaty ony when the
advertsement s lor a product that s newy on
the market.
0 1he lrequency ol advertsement s not aways
perceved by consumers to ndcate that
manulacturers are hhy conhdent about ther
products' quaty.
L Consumers who try a new product that has been
lrequenty advertsed are key to perceve the
advertsement's lrequency as havn been an
accurate ndcator ol the product's quaty.
29
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe uestions
lne
o
C
o
ZC
Zo
3C
3o
4C
1he dea ol the bran as an nlormaton
processora machne manpuatn bps ol enery
accordn to lathomabe rueshas come to
domnate neuroscence. However, one enemy ol
the branascomputer metaphor s John b. 3eare,
a phosopher who arues that snce computers
smpy loow aorthms, they cannot dea wth
mportant aspects ol human thouht such as
meann and content. Computers are syntactc,
rather than semantc, creatures. leope, on the
other hand, understand meann because they have
somethn 3eare obscurey cas the causa powers
ol the bran.
Yet how woud a bran work l not by reducn
what t earns about the word to nlormatonsome
knd ol code that can be transmtted lrom neuron
to neuron' what ese coud meann and content
be' ll the code can be cracked, a computer shoud
be abe to smuate t, at east n prncpe. But
even l a computer coud smuate the workns
ol the mnd, 3eare woud cam that the machne
woud not reay be thnkn; t woud just be actn
as l t were. Hs arument proceeds thus: l a
computer were used to smuate a stomach, wth
the stomach's churnns lathluy reproduced on a
vdeo screen, the machne woud not be destn
rea lood. lt woud just be bndy manpuatn the
symbos that enerate the vsua dspay.
3uppose, thouh, that a stomach were smuated
usn pastc tubes, a motor to do the churnn, a
suppy ol destve juces, and a tmn mechansm.
ll lood went n one end ol the devce, what came out
the other end woud surey be dested lood. Brans,
unke stomachs, are nlormaton processors, and l
one nlormaton processor were made to smuate
another nlormaton processor, t s hard to see
how one and not the other coud be sad to thnk.
3muated thouhts and rea thouhts are made ol
the same eement: nlormaton. 1he representatons
ol the word that humans carry around n ther heads
are aready smuatons. 1o accept 3eare's arument,
one woud have to deny the most lundamenta noton
n psychooy and neuroscence: that brans work
by processn nlormaton.
b. 1he man purpose ol the passae s to
/ propose an experment
B anayze a luncton
C relute an arument
0 expan a contradcton
L smuate a process
/. whch ol the loown s most consstent wth 3eare's
reasonn as presented n the passae'
/ leann and content cannot be reduced to
aorthms.
B 1he process ol deston can be smuated
mechancay, but not on a computer.
C 3muated thouhts and rea thouhts are
essentay smar because they are composed
prmary ol nlormaton.
0 / computer can use "causa powers' smar to
those ol the human bran when processn
nlormaton.
L Computer smuatons ol the word can acheve
the compexty ol the bran's representatons ol
the word.
. 1he author ol the passae woud be most key to
aree wth whch ol the loown statements about the
smuaton ol oran lunctons'
/ /n arthca devce that acheves the lunctons ol
the stomach coud be consdered a vad mode
ol the stomach.
B Computer smuatons ol the bran are best used
to crack the bran's codes ol meann and
content.
C Computer smuatons ol the bran chaene
deas that are lundamenta to psychooy and
neuroscence.
0 Because the bran and the stomach both act as
processors, they can best be smuated by
mechanca devces.
L 1he computer's mtatons n smuatn
deston suest equa mtatons n computer
smuated thnkn.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
30
9. lt can be nlerred that the author ol the passae
beeves that 3eare's arument s Nawed by ts
laure to
/ dstnush between syntactc and semantc
operatons
B expan adequatey how peope, unke
computers, are abe to understand meann
C provde concrete exampes ustratn ts cams
about thnkn
0 understand how computers use aorthms to
process nlormaton
L decpher the code that s transmtted lrom
neuron to neuron n the bran
C. lrom the passae, t can be nlerred that the author
woud aree wth 3eare on whch ol the loown
ponts'
/ Computers operate by loown aorthms.
B 1he human bran can never luy understand ts
own lunctons.
C 1he comparson ol the bran to a machne s
overy smpstc.
0 1he most accurate modes ol physca
processes are computer smuatons.
L Human thouht and computersmuated thouht
nvove smar processes ol representaton.
. whch ol the loown most accuratey represents
3eare's crtcsm ol the branascomputer metaphor,
as that crtcsm s descrbed n the passae'
/ 1he metaphor s not expermentay verhabe.
B 1he metaphor does not take nto account the
unque powers ol the bran.
C 1he metaphor suests that a bran's lunctons
can be smuated as easy as those ol a
stomach.
0 1he metaphor suests that a computer can
smuate the workns ol the mnd by usn the
codes ol neura transmsson.
L 1he metaphor s unheplu because both the
bran and the computer process nlormaton.
31
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe uestions
lne
o
C
o
ZC
Zo
3C
women's rassroots actvsm and ther vson
ol a new cvc conscousness ay at the heart ol
soca relorm n the 0nted 3tates throuhout the
lroressve Lra, the perod between the depresson
ol 93 and /merca's entry nto the 3econd
word war. 1houh arey dsenlranchsed except
lor schoo eectons, whte mddecass women
relormers won a varety ol vctores, notaby n
the mprovement ol workn condtons, especay
lor women and chdren. lroncay, thouh,
chd abor esaton ptted women ol dllerent
casses aanst one another. 1o the relormers,
chd abor and ndustra home work were equay
nhumane practces that shoud be outawed, but,
as a number ol women hstorans have recenty
observed, workncass mothers dd not aways
share ths vew. 0ven the precarous hnances ol
workncass lames and the necessty ol poon
the waes ol as many lamy members as possbe,
workncass lames vewed the passae and
enlorcement ol strnent chd abor statutes as a
persona economc dsaster and made strenuous
ellorts to crcumvent chd abor aws. Yet
relormers rarey understood ths resstance n terms
ol the desperate economc stuaton ol workn
cass lames, nterpretn t nstead as evdence
ol poor parentn. 1hs s not to dspute women
relormers' percepton ol chd abor as a terrby
expotatve practce, but ther understandn ol
chd abor and ther esatve soutons lor endn
t laed to take account ol the economc needs ol
workncass lames.
Z. 1he prmary purpose ol the passae s to
/ expan why women relormers ol the lroressve
Lra laed to acheve ther oas
B dscuss the orns ol chd abor aws n the ate
nneteenth and eary twenteth centures
C compare the vn condtons ol workncass
and mddecass women n the lroressve Lra
0 dscuss an oversht on the part ol women
relormers ol the lroressve Lra
L revse a tradtona vew ol the roe payed by
women relormers n enactn lroressve Lra
relorms
3. 1he view mentoned n ne / ol the passae relers to
whch ol the loown'
/ 3ome workncass mothers' resstance to the
enlorcement ol chd abor aws
B belormers' beel that chd abor and ndustra
home work shoud be aboshed
C belormers' opnons about how workncass
lames rased ther chdren
0 Certan women hstorans' observaton that there
was a ack ol consensus between women ol
dllerent casses on the ssue ol chd abor and
ndustra home work
L workncass lames' lears about the adverse
consequences that chd abor aws woud have
on ther abty to earn an adequate vn
4. 1he author ol the passae mentons the observatons
ol women hstorans nes o/ most probaby n
order to
/ provde support lor an asserton made n the
precedn sentence nes CZ
B rase a queston that s answered n the ast
sentence ol the passae nes Z/3Z
C ntroduce an opnon that chaenes a statement
made n the hrst sentence ol the passae
0 oller an aternatve vew to the one attrbuted n
the passae to workncass mothers
L pont out a contradcton nherent n the
tradtona vew ol chd abor relorm as t s
presented n the passae
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
32
o. 1he passae suests that whch ol the loown was
a reason lor the dllerence ol opnon between
workncass mothers and women relormers on the
ssue ol chd abor'
/ belormers' beel that ndustra home work was
prelerabe to chd abor outsde the home
B belormers' beel that chd abor aws shoud
pertan to workn condtons but not to pay
C workncass mothers' resentment at relormers'
attempts to nterlere wth ther parentn
0 workncass mothers' beel that chd abor
was an nhumane practce
L workncass lames' need lor every
empoyabe member ol ther lames to earn
money
b. 1he author ol the passae asserts whch ol the
loown about women relormers who tred to abosh
chd abor'
/ 1hey aenated workncass mothers by
attemptn to enst them n atatn lor
proressve causes.
B 1hey underestmated the prevaence ol chd
abor amon the workn casses.
C 1hey were correct n ther convcton that chd
abor was deporabe but shortshted about the
mpact ol chd abor esaton on workncass
lames.
0 1hey were aressve n ther attempts to
enlorce chd abor esaton, but were unabe
to prevent workncass lames lrom
crcumventn them.
L 1hey were prevented by ther neary tota
dsenlranchsement lrom makn snhcant
proress n chd abor relorm.
/. /ccordn to the passae, one ol the most strkn
achevements ol whte mddecass women relormers
durn the lroressve Lra was
/ ann the rht to vote n schoo eectons
B mobzn workncass women n the hht
aanst chd abor
C untn women ol dllerent casses n rassroots
actvsm
0 mprovn the economc condtons ol workn
cass lames
L mprovn women's and chdren's workn
condtons
33
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe uestions
. Vasquezlorre /ssurance specazes n nsurn
manulacturers. whenever a pocyhoder makes a
cam, a cams adjuster determnes the amount that
Vasquezlorre s obated to pay. Vasquezlorre s
cuttn ts stall ol cams adjusters by o percent. 1o
ensure that the company's abty to hande cams
prompty s allected as tte as possbe by the stall
cuts, consutants recommend that Vasquezlorre ay
oll those adjusters who now take onest, on averae,
to compete work on cams assned to them.
whch ol the loown, l true, most serousy cas nto
queston the consutants' crteron lor seectn the
stall to be ad oll'
/ ll the tme that Vasquezlorre takes to sette
cams ncreases snhcanty, t coud ose
busness to other nsurers.
B 3upervsors at Vasquezlorre tend to assn
the most compex cams to the most capabe
adjusters.
C /t Vasquezlorre, no nsurance payments are
made unt a cams adjuster has reached a hna
determnaton on the cam.
0 1here are no postons at Vasquezlorre to
whch stall currenty empoyed as cams
adjusters coud be reassned.
L 1he premums that Vasquezlorre currenty
chares are no hher than those chared lor
smar coverae by compettors.
9. lrooned spes ol hot, dry weather at the end ol the
raperown season typcay reduce a vneyard's
yed, because the rapes stay reatvey sma. ln
years wth such weather, wne producers can make
ony a reatvey sma quantty ol wne lrom a ven
area ol vneyards. Nonetheess, n reons where wne
producers eneray row ther own rapes, anaysts
typcay expect a on, hot, dry spe ate n the
rown season to resut n ncreased revenues lor
oca wne producers.
whch ol the loown, l true, does most to justly the
anaysts' expectaton'
/ 1he ower a vneyard's yed, the ess abor s
requred to harvest the rapes.
B lon, hot, dry spes at the bennn ol the
raperown season are rare, but they can
have a devastatn ellect on a vneyard's yed.
C 0rapes rown lor wne producton are typcay
made nto wne at or near the vneyard n whch
they were rown.
0 when hot, dry spes are loowed by heavy rans,
the rans lrequenty destroy rape crops.
L 0rapes that have matured n hot, dry weather
make snhcanty better wne than ordnary
rapes.
ZC. ln the past, most chdren who went seddn n the
wnter snow n Verand used wooden seds wth
runners and steern bars. 1en years ao, smooth
pastc seds became popuar; they o laster than
wooden seds but are harder to steer and sow. 1he
concern that pastc seds are more danerous s
ceary borne out by the lact that the number ol
chdren njured whe seddn was much hher ast
wnter than t was C years ao.
whch ol the loown, l true n Verand, most
serousy undermnes the lorce ol the evdence cted'
CriticaI easoning
Each o! the criticaI reasoning questions is based on a short argument, a set o! statements,
or a pIan o! action. for each question, seIect the best ansver o! the choices given.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
34
/ / lew chdren st use tradtona wooden seds.
B Very lew chdren wear any knd ol protectve
ear, such as hemets, whe seddn.
C lastc seds can be used n a much wder varety
ol snow condtons than wooden seds can.
0 lost seddn njures occur when a sed codes
wth a tree, a rock, or another sed.
L Because the tradtona wooden seds can
carry more than one rder, an accdent nvovn
a wooden sed can resut n severa chdren
ben njured.
Z. leta rns recenty excavated lrom seventhcentury
settements n the western part ol lexco were made
usn the same metaurca technques as those used
by Lcuadoran artsans belore and durn that perod.
1hese technques are sulhcenty compex to make
ther ndependent deveopment n both areas unkey.
3nce the peope ol these two areas were n cutura
contact, archaeoosts hypothesze that the
metaurca technques used to make the rns lound
n lexco were earned by lexcan artsans lrom
Lcuadoran counterparts.
whch ol the loown woud t be most uselu to
estabsh n order to evauate the archaeoosts'
hypothess'
/ whether meta objects were traded lrom
Lcuador to western lexco durn the seventh
century
B whether trave between western lexco and
Lcuador n the seventh century woud have been
prmary by and or by sea
C whether artsans lrom western lexco coud
have earned compex metaurca technques
lrom ther Lcuadoran counterparts wthout
actuay eavn western lexco
0 whether meta toos were used n the seventh
century settements n western lexco
L whether any ol the technques used n the
manulacture ol the meta rns lound n western
lexco are st practced amon artsans n
Lcuador today
ZZ. loown severa years ol decnn advertsn
saes, the Ureenville !imes reoranzed ts
advertsn saes lorce. Belore reoranzaton, the
saes lorce was oranzed eoraphcay, wth some
saes representatves concentratn on ctycenter
busnesses and others concentratn on dllerent
outyn reons. 1he reoranzaton attempted to
ncrease the saes representatves' knowede ol
cents' busnesses by havn each saes
representatve dea wth ony one type ol ndustry or
ol retan. /lter the reoranzaton, revenue lrom
advertsn saes ncreased.
ln assessn whether the mprovement n advertsn
saes can propery be attrbuted to the reoranzaton,
t woud be most heplu to hnd out whch ol the
loown'
/ what proporton ol the tota revenue ol the
Ureenville !imes s enerated by advertsn
saes'
B Has the crcuaton ol the Ureenville !imes
ncreased substantay n the ast two years'
C /mon a the types ol ndustry and retan that
use the Ureenville !imes as an advertsn
vehce, whch type accounts lor the arest
proporton ol the newspaper's advertsn saes'
0 0o any cents ol the saes representatves ol
the Ureenville !imes have a standn order wth
the !imes lor a hxed amount ol advertsn per
month'
L /mon the advertsers n the Ureenville !imes,
are there more types ol reta busness or more
types ol ndustra busness'
35
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe uestions
Z3. lotorsts n a certan country lrequenty compan
that tralhc coneston s much worse now than t was
ZC years ao. No rea measure ol how much tralhc
coneston there was ZC years ao exsts, but the
motorsts' compants are amost certany
unwarranted. 1he country's hhway capacty has
trped n the ast twenty years, thanks to a vorous
hhway constructon proram, whereas the number
ol automobes restered n the country has ncreased
by ony /o percent.
whch ol the loown, l true, most serousy weakens
the arument'
/ lost automobe trave s oca, and the
networks ol roads and streets n the country's
setted areas have chaned tte over the ast
ZC years.
B 0asone prces are hh, and mes traveed per
car per year have not chaned much over the
ast ZC years.
C 1he country's urban centers have wedeveoped
pubc transt systems that carry most ol the
peope who commute nto those centers.
0 1he averae ae ol automobes restered n the
country s ower now than t was ZC years ao.
L bado statons have on been broadcastn
reuar tralhc reports that nlorm motorsts
about tralhc coneston.
Z4. 1he percentae ol househods wth an annua ncome
ol more than S4C,CCC s hher n lerton County than
n any other county. However, the percentae ol
househods wth an annua ncome ol SbC,CCC or more
s hher n 3ommer County.
ll the statements above are true, whch ol the
loown must aso be true'
/ 1he percentae ol househods wth an annua
ncome ol SC,CCC s hher n 3ommer County
than n lerton County.
B lerton County has the second hhest
percentae ol househods wth an annua ncome
ol SbC,CCC or more.
C 3ome househods n lerton County have an
annua ncome between S4C,CCC and SbC,CCC.
0 1he number ol househods wth an annua
ncome ol more than S4C,CCC s reater n
lerton County than n 3ommer County.
L /verae annua househod ncome s hher n
3ommer County than n lerton County.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
36
Zo. 1er beetes are such last runners that they can
capture vrtuay any nonNyn nsect. However, when
runnn toward an nsect, a ter beete w
ntermttenty stop and then, a moment ater, resume
ts attack. lerhaps the beetes cannot mantan ther
pace and must pause lor a moment's rest; but an
aternatve hypothess s that whe runnn, ter
beetes are unabe to adequatey process the resutn
rapdy chann vsua nlormaton and so qucky o
bnd and stop.
whch ol the loown, l dscovered n experments
usn arthcay moved prey nsects, woud support
one ol the two hypotheses and undermne the other'
/ when a prey nsect s moved drecty toward a
beete that has been chasn t, the beete
mmedatey stops and runs away wthout ts
usua ntermttent stoppn.
B ln pursun a swervn nsect, a beete aters ts
course whe runnn and ts pauses become
more lrequent as the chase proresses.
C ln pursun a movn nsect, a beete usuay
responds mmedatey to chanes n the nsect's
drecton, and t pauses equay lrequenty
whether the chase s up or down an ncne.
0 ll, when a beete pauses, t has not aned on
the nsect t s pursun, the beete eneray
ends ts pursut.
L 1he laster a beete pursues an nsect Neen
drecty away lrom t, the more lrequenty the
beete stops.
Zb. 0uemots are brds ol /rctc reons. 1hey leed on
hsh that ather beneath thn sheets ol Noatn ce, and
they nest on nearby and. 0uemots need C
consecutve snowlree days n a year to rase ther
chcks, so unt averae temperatures n the /rctc
bean to rse recenty, the uemots' rane was
mted to the southernmost /rctc coast. 1herelore, l
the warmn contnues, the uemots' rane w
probaby be enared by ben extended northward
aon the coast.
whch ol the loown, l true, most serousy weakens
the arument'
/ Lven l the warmn trend contnues, there w
st be years n whch uemot chcks are ked
by an unusuay eary snow.
B ll the /rctc warmn contnues, uemots'
current predators are key to succeed n
extendn ther own rane larther north.
C 0uemots nest n coasta areas, where
temperatures are eneray hher than n nand
areas.
0 ll the /rctc warmn contnues, much ol the thn
ce n the southern /rctc w dsappear.
L 1he hsh that uemots eat are currenty preyed
on by a wder varety ol predators n the
southernmost /rctc reons than they are
larther north.
Z/. 3ome batches ol poo vaccne used around 9bC
were contamnated wth 3V4C, a vrus that n monkeys
causes varous cancers. 3ome researchers now cam
that ths contamnaton caused some cases ol a
certan cancer n humans, mesotheoma. 1hs cam s
not undercut by the lact that a very carelu survey
made n the 9bCs ol peope who had receved the
contamnated vaccne lound no eevated ncdence ol
any cancer, snce ____________.
/ most cases ol mesotheoma are caused by
exposure to asbestos
B n some countres, there was no contamnaton
ol the vaccne
C 3V4C s wdey used n aboratores to produce
cancers n anmas
0 mesotheomas take severa decades to deveop
L mesotheoma was somewhat ess common n
9bC than t s now
37
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe uestions
Z. 0ortand has on been narrowy selsulhcent n both
ran and meat. However, as per capta ncome n
0ortand has rsen toward the word averae, per
capta consumpton ol meat has aso rsen toward the
word averae, and t takes severa pounds ol ran to
produce one pound ol meat. 1herelore, snce per
capta ncome contnues to rse, whereas domestc
ran producton w not ncrease, 0ortand w soon
have to mport ether ran or meat or both.
whch ol the loown s an assumpton on whch the
arument depends'
/ 1he tota acreae devoted to ran producton n
0ortand w soon decrease.
B lmportn ether ran or meat w not resut n a
snhcanty hher percentae ol 0ortanders'
ncomes ben spent on lood than s currenty
the case.
C 1he per capta consumpton ol meat n 0ortand
s ncreasn at rouhy the same rate across a
ncome eves.
0 1he per capta ncome ol meat producers n
0ortand s rsn laster than the per capta
ncome ol ran producers.
L leope n 0ortand who ncrease ther
consumpton ol meat w not radcay decrease
ther consumpton ol ran.
Z9. 1he Hazeton coaprocessn pant s a major
empoyer n the Hazeton area, but natona
envronmenta reuatons w lorce t to cose l t
contnues to use od, poutn processn methods.
However, to update the pant to use newer, ceaner
methods woud be so expensve that the pant w
cose uness t receves the tax break t has requested.
ln order to prevent a major ncrease n oca
unempoyment, the Hazeton overnment s
consdern rantn the pant's request.
whch ol the loown woud be most mportant lor the
Hazeton overnment to determne belore decdn
whether to rant the pant's request'
/ whether the company that owns the pant woud
open a new pant n another area l the present
pant were cosed
B whether the pant woud empoy lar lewer
workers when updated than t does now
C whether the eve ol poutants presenty ben
emtted by the pant s hh enouh to consttute
a heath hazard lor oca resdents
0 whether the majorty ol the coa processed by
the pant s sod outsde the Hazeton area
L whether the pant woud be abe to process
more coa when updated than t does now
3C. / physcay actve lestye has been shown to hep
ncrease onevty. ln the wstar reon ol Beara, the
averae ae at death s consderaby hher than n
any other part ol the country. wstar s the ony
mountanous part ol Beara. / mountanous terran
makes even such basc actvtes as wakn reatvey
strenuous; t essentay mposes a physcay actve
lestye on peope. Ceary, ths crcumstance expans
the on ves ol peope n wstar.
whch ol the loown, l true, most serousy weakens
the arument'
/ ln Beara a medca expenses are pad by the
overnment, so that persona ncome does not
allect the quaty ol heath care a person
receves.
B 1he wstar reon s one ol Beara's east
popuated reons.
C lany peope who ve n the wstar reon have
moved there n mdde ae or upon retrement.
0 1he many opportuntes lor hkn, skn, and
other outdoor actvtes that wstar's mountans
oller make t a lavorte destnaton lor
vacatonn Bearans.
L ler capta spendn on recreatona actvtes s
no hher n wstar than t s n other reons ol
Beara.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
38
3. Cheever Coee ollers severa onne courses va
remote computer connecton, n addton to tradtona
cassroombased courses. / study ol student
perlormance at Cheever lound that, overa, the
averae student rade lor onne courses matched
that lor cassroombased courses. ln ths cacuaton
ol the averae rade, course wthdrawas were
wehted as equvaent to a course laure, and the
rate ol wthdrawa was much ower lor students
enroed n cassroombased courses than lor students
enroed n onne courses.
ll the statements above are true, whch ol the
loown must aso be true ol Cheever Coee'
/ /mon students who dd not wthdraw, students
enroed n onne courses ot hher rades, on
averae, than students enroed n cassroom
based courses.
B 1he number ol students enroed per course at
the start ol the schoo term s much hher, on
averae, lor the onne courses than lor the
cassroombased courses.
C 1here are no students who take both an onne
and a cassroombased course n the same
schoo term.
0 /mon Cheever Coee students wth the best
rades, a snhcant majorty take onne, rather
than cassroombased, courses.
L Courses ollered onne tend to dea wth subject
matter that s ess chaenn than that ol
cassroombased courses.
3Z. lor years the beautlu benassance budns n latto
have been damaed by exhaust lrom the many tour
buses that come to the cty. 1here has been tte
parkn space, so most buses have ded at the curb
durn each stop on ther tour, and dn produces as
much exhaust as drvn. 1he cty has now provded
parkn that accommodates a thrd ol the tour buses,
so damae to latto's budns lrom the buses'
exhaust w dmnsh snhcanty.
whch ol the loown, l true, most strony supports
the arument'
/ 1he exhaust lrom latto's lew automobes s
not a snhcant threat to latto's budns.
B latto's benassance budns are not
threatened by pouton other than enne
exhaust.
C 1our buses typcay spend ess than onequarter
ol the tme they are n latto transportn
passeners lrom one ste to another.
0 lore toursts come to latto by tour bus than
by any other sne means ol transportaton.
L 3ome ol the tour buses that are unabe to hnd
parkn drve around latto whe ther
passeners are vstn a ste.
39
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe uestions
33. 0urn the 9Cs and 99Cs, the annua number ol
peope who vsted the 3ordean lountans ncreased
contnuay, and many new sk resorts were but. 0ver
the same perod, however, the number ol vstors to
sk resorts who were cauht n avaanches decreased,
even thouh there was no reducton n the annua
number ol avaanches n the 3ordean lountans.
whch ol the loown, l true n the 3ordean
lountans durn the 9Cs and 99Cs, most heps to
expan the decrease'
/ /vaanches were most key to happen when a
are new snowla covered an oder ayer ol
snow.
B /vaanches destroyed at east some budns n
the 3ordean lountans n every year.
C leope pannn new sk sopes and other resort
lactes used ncreasny accurate nlormaton
about whch ocatons are key to be n the path
ol avaanches.
0 1he averae enth ol stay lor peope vstn
the 3ordean lountans ncreased shty.
L Constructon ol new sk resorts olten ed to the
cearn ol wooded areas that had heped to
prevent avaanches.
34. / year ao, 0etz loods aunched a yearon
advertsn campan lor ts canned tuna. last year
0etz sod Z mon cans ol tuna compared to the C
mon sod durn the prevous year, an ncrease
drecty attrbutabe to new customers brouht n by
the campan. lrohts lrom the addtona saes,
however, were substantay ess than the cost ol the
advertsn campan. Ceary, therelore, the campan
dd nothn to lurther 0etz's economc nterests.
whch ol the loown, l true, most serousy weakens
the arument'
/ 3aes ol canned tuna account lor a reatvey
sma percentae ol 0etz loods' prohts.
B lost ol the peope who bouht 0etz's canned
tuna lor the hrst tme as a resut ol the
campan were aready oya customers ol other
0etz products.
C / ess expensve advertsn campan woud
have brouht n snhcanty lewer new
customers lor 0etz's canned tuna than dd the
campan 0etz loods aunched ast year.
0 0etz made money on saes ol canned tuna ast
year.
L ln each ol the past hve years, there was a steep,
ndustrywde decne n saes ol canned tuna.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
40
3o. 0nke the budns n lesopotaman ctes, whch
were arraned haphazardy, the same basc pan was
loowed lor a ctes ol the lndus Vaey: wth houses
ad out on a northsouth, eastwest rd, and houses
and was were but ol standardsze brcks.
/ the budns n lesopotaman ctes, whch were
arraned haphazardy, the same basc pan was
loowed lor a ctes ol the lndus Vaey: wth
houses
B the budns n lesopotaman ctes, whch were
haphazard n arranement, the same basc pan
was used n a ctes ol the lndus Vaey: houses
were
C the arranement ol budns n lesopotaman
ctes, whch were haphazard, the ctes ol the
lndus Vaey a loowed the same basc pan:
houses
0 lesopotaman ctes, n whch budns were
arraned haphazardy, the ctes ol the lndus
Vaey a loowed the same basc pan: houses
were
L lesopotaman ctes, whch had budns that
were arraned haphazardy, the same basc pan
was used lor a ctes n the lndus Vaey: houses
that were
3b. New data lrom 0nted 3tates lorest 3ervce ecoosts
show that lor every doar spent on controed sma
scae burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol hre
manaement personne, t saves seven doars that
woud not be spent on havn to extnush b hres.
/ that lor every doar spent on controed sma
scae burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol
hremanaement personne, t saves seven
doars that woud not be spent on havn to
extnush
B that lor every doar spent on controed sma
scae burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol
hremanaement personne, seven doars are
saved that woud have been spent on
extnushn
C that lor every doar spent on controed sma
scae burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol
hremanaement personne saves seven doars
on not havn to extnush
0 lor every doar spent on controed smascae
burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol hre
manaement personne, that t saves seven
doars on not havn to extnush
L lor every doar spent on controed smascae
burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol hre
manaement personne, that seven doars are
saved that woud not have been spent on
extnushn
5entence Correction
Each o! the sentence correction questions presents a sentence, part or aII o! vhich is underIined.
eneath the sentence you viII nd ve vays o! phrasing the underIined part. The rst o! these repeats
the originaI, the other !our are di!!erent. foIIov the requirements o! standard vritten EngIish to choose
your ansver, paying attention to grammar, vord choice, and sentence construction. 5eIect the ansver
that produces the most e!!ective sentence, your ansver shouId make the sentence cIear, exact, and !ree
o! grammaticaI error. It shouId aIso minimize avkvardness, ambiguity, and redundancy.
41
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe uestions
3/. lke the rassy heds and od pastures that the upand
sandpper needs lor leedn and nestn when t
returns n lay alter wntern n the /rentne
lampas, the sandppers vanshn n the northeastern
0nted 3tates s a resut ol resdenta and ndustra
deveopment and ol chanes n larmn practces.
/ the sandppers vanshn n the northeastern
0nted 3tates s a resut ol resdenta and
ndustra deveopment and ol chanes n
B the brd tsel s vanshn n the northeastern
0nted 3tates as a resut ol resdenta and
ndustra deveopment and ol chanes n
C that the brds themseves are vanshn n the
northeastern 0nted 3tates s due to resdenta
and ndustra deveopment and chanes to
0 n the northeastern 0nted 3tates, sandppers'
vanshn due to resdenta and ndustra
deveopment and to chanes n
L n the northeastern 0nted 3tates, the
sandppers' vanshn, a resut ol resdenta and
ndustra deveopment and chann
3. 1he resuts ol two recent unreated studes support
the dea that dophns may share certan contve
abtes wth humans and reat apes; the studes
ndcate dophns as capabe ol reconzn
themseves n mrrorsan abty that s olten
consdered a sn ol selawarenessand to rasp
spontaneousy the mood or ntenton ol humans.
/ dophns as capabe ol reconzn themseves
n mrrorsan abty that s olten consdered a
sn ol selawarenessand to rasp
spontaneousy
B dophns' abty to reconze themseves n
mrrorsan abty that s olten consdered as a
sn ol selawarenessand ol spontaneousy
raspn
C dophns to be capabe ol reconzn
themseves n mrrorsan abty that s olten
consdered a sn ol selawarenessand to
rasp spontaneousy
0 that dophns have the abty ol reconzn
themseves n mrrorsan abty that s olten
consdered as a sn ol selawarenessand
spontaneousy raspn
L that dophns are capabe ol reconzn
themseves n mrrorsan abty that s olten
consdered a sn ol selawarenessand ol
spontaneousy raspn
39. /ccordn to schoars, the earest wrtn was
probaby not a drect rendern ol speech, but was
more key to ben as a separate and dstnct
symboc system ol communcaton, and ony ater
mered wth spoken anuae.
/ was more key to ben as
B more than key bean as
C more than key bennn lrom
0 t was more than key beun lrom
L t was more key that t bean
4C. ln 99o bchard 3taman, a weknown crtc ol the
patent system, testhed n latent 0lhce hearns
that, to test the system, a coeaue ol hs had
manaed to wn a patent lor one ol brchholl's aws,
an observaton about eectrc current hrst made n
4o and now ncuded n vrtuay every textbook ol
eementary physcs.
/ aws, an observaton about eectrc current hrst
made n 4o and
B aws, whch was an observaton about eectrc
current hrst made n 4o and t s
C aws, namey, t was an observaton about
eectrc current hrst made n 4o and
0 aws, an observaton about eectrc current hrst
made n 4o, t s
L aws that was an observaton about eectrc
current, hrst made n 4o, and s
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
42
4. Lxcavators at the lndus Vaey ste ol Harappa n
eastern lakstan say the dscovery ol nscrbed
shards datn to crca ZCCZbCC B.C. ndcate ther
deveopment ol a Harappan wrtn system, the use
ol nscrbed seas mpressed nto cay lor markn
ownershp, and the standardzaton ol wehts lor
trade or taxaton occurred many decades, l not
centures, earer than was prevousy beeved.
/ ndcate ther deveopment ol a Harappan wrtn
system, the use ol
B ndcate that the deveopment ol a Harappan
wrtn system, usn
C ndcates that ther deveopment ol a Harappan
wrtn system, usn
0 ndcates the deveopment ol a Harappan wrtn
system, ther use ol
L ndcates that the deveopment ol a Harappan
wrtn system, the use ol
4Z. 1he 3upreme Court has rued that pubc unverstes
may coect student actvty lees even wth students'
objectons to partcuar actvtes, so on as the
roups they ve money to w be chosen wthout
reard to ther vews.
/ wth students' objectons to partcuar actvtes,
so on as the roups they ve money to w be
B l they have objectons to partcuar actvtes
and the roups that are ven the money are
C l they object to partcuar actvtes, but the
roups that the money s ven to have to be
0 lrom students who object to partcuar actvtes,
so on as the roups ven money are
L thouh students have an objecton to partcuar
actvtes, but the roups that are ven the
money be
43. 0espte the ncreasn number ol women raduatn
lrom aw schoo and passn bar examnatons, the
proporton ol judes and partners at major aw hrms
who are women have not rsen to a comparabe
extent.
/ the proporton ol judes and partners at major
aw hrms who are women have not rsen to a
comparabe extent
B the proporton ol women judes and partners at
major aw hrms have not rsen comparaby
C the proporton ol judes and partners at major
aw hrms who are women has not rsen
comparaby
0 yet the proporton ol women judes and
partners at major aw hrms has not rsen to a
comparabe extent
L yet the proporton ol judes and partners at
major aw hrms who are women has not rsen
comparaby
44. 3edom more than 4C leet wde and Z leet deep,
but t ran 3b3 mes across the rued wderness
ol upstate New York, the Lre Cana connected the
Hudson bver at /bany to the 0reat lakes at Bullao,
provdn the port ol New York Cty wth a drect water
nk to the heartand ol the North /mercan contnent.
/ 3edom more than 4C leet wde and Z leet
deep, but t ran 3b3 mes across the rued
wderness ol upstate New York, the Lre Cana
connected
B 3edom more than 4C leet wde or Z leet deep
but runnn 3b3 mes across the rued
wderness ol upstate New York, the Lre Cana
connected
C lt was sedom more than 4C leet wde and
Z leet deep, and ran 3b3 mes across the
rued wderness ol upstate New York, but the
Lre Cana, connectn
0 1he Lre Cana was sedom more than 4C leet
wde or Z leet deep and t ran 3b3 mes
across the rued wderness ol upstate New
York, whch connected
L 1he Lre Cana, sedom more than 4C leet wde
and Z leet deep, but runnn 3b3 mes across
the rued wderness ol upstate New York,
connectn
43
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe uestions
4o. ln 9Z3, the 3upreme Court decared a mnmum wae
lor women and chdren n the 0strct ol Coumba as
unconsttutona, and run that t was a lorm ol prce
hxn and, as such, an abrdment ol the rht ol
contract.
/ the 3upreme Court decared a mnmum wae
lor women and chdren n the 0strct ol
Coumba as unconsttutona, and
B the 3upreme Court decared as unconsttutona
a mnmum wae lor women and chdren n the
0strct ol Coumba, and
C the 3upreme Court decared unconsttutona a
mnmum wae lor women and chdren n the
0strct ol Coumba,
0 a mnmum wae lor women and chdren n the
0strct ol Coumba was decared
unconsttutona by the 3upreme Court,
L when the 3upreme Court decared a mnmum
wae lor women and chdren n the 0strct ol
Coumba as unconsttutona,
4b. besearchers have lound that ndvduas who have
been bnd lrom brth, and who thus have never seen
anyone esture, nevertheess make hand motons
when speakn just as lrequenty and n vrtuay the
same way as shted peope do, and that they w
esture even when conversn wth another bnd
person.
/ who thus have never seen anyone esture,
nevertheess make hand motons when speakn
just as lrequenty and n vrtuay the same way
as shted peope do, and that they w esture
B who thus never saw anyone esturn,
nevertheess make hand motons when speakn
just as lrequent and n vrtuay the same way as
shted peope dd, and that they w esture
C who thus have never seen anyone esture,
nevertheess made hand motons when speakn
just as lrequenty and n vrtuay the same way
as shted peope do, as we as esturn
0 thus never havn seen anyone esture,
nevertheess made hand motons when speakn
just as lrequent and n vrtuay the same way as
shted peope dd, as we as esturn
L thus never havn seen anyone esture,
nevertheess to make hand motons when
speakn just as lrequenty and n vrtuay the
same way as shted peope do, and to esture
4/. lke embryonc erm ces, whch are ces that
deveop eary n the lormaton ol the letus and that
ater enerate es or sperm, embryonc stem ces
have the abty ol deveopn themseves nto dllerent
knds ol body tssue.
/ embryonc stem ces have the abty ol
deveopn themseves nto dllerent knds ol
body tssue
B embryonc stem ces have the abty to deveop
nto dllerent knds ol body tssue
C n embryonc stem ces there s the abty to
deveop nto dllerent knds ol body tssue
0 the abty to deveop themseves nto dllerent
knds ol body tssue characterzes embryonc
stem ces
L the abty ol deveopn nto dllerent knds ol
body tssue characterzes embryonc stem ces
4. Crtcs contend that the new msse s a weapon
whose mportance s arey symboc, more a too
lor manpuatn peope's perceptons than to luh
a rea mtary need.
/ lor manpuatn peope's perceptons than
to luh
B lor manpuatn peope's perceptons than
lor luhn
C to manpuate peope's perceptons rather than
that t luhs
0 to manpuate peope's perceptons rather than
luhn
L to manpuate peope's perceptons than
lor luhn
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
44
49. /s an actress and, more mportanty, as a teacher ol
actn, 3tea /der was one ol the most nNuenta
artsts n the /mercan theater, who traned severa
eneratons ol actors ncudn laron Brando and
bobert 0e Nro.
/ 3tea /der was one ol the most nNuenta
artsts n the /mercan theater, who traned
severa eneratons ol actors ncudn
B 3tea /der, one ol the most nNuenta artsts n
the /mercan theater, traned severa
eneratons ol actors who ncude
C 3tea /der was one ol the most nNuenta
artsts n the /mercan theater, trann severa
eneratons ol actors whose ranks ncuded
0 one ol the most nNuenta artsts n the
/mercan theater was 3tea /der, who traned
severa eneratons ol actors ncudn
L one ol the most nNuenta artsts n the
/mercan theater, 3tea /der, traned severa
eneratons ol actors whose ranks ncuded
oC. By deveopn the 3ecure 0ta lusc lntatve, the
recordn ndustry assocatons ol North /merca,
Japan, and Lurope hope to create a standardzed way
ol dstrbutn sons and luenth recordns on the
lnternet that w protect copyrht hoders and lo the
many audo prates who copy and dstrbute dta
musc eay.
/ ol dstrbutn sons and luenth recordns
on the lnternet that w protect copyrht hoders
and lo the many audo prates who copy and
dstrbute
B ol dstrbutn sons and luenth recordns
on the lnternet and to protect copyrht hoders
and lon the many audo prates copyn and
dstrbutn
C lor dstrbutn sons and luenth recordns
on the lnternet whe t protects copyrht
hoders and los the many audo prates who
copy and dstrbute
0 to dstrbute sons and luenth recordns on
the lnternet whe they w protect copyrht
hoders and lo the many audo prates copyn
and dstrbutn
L to dstrbute sons and luenth recordns on
the lnternet and t w protect copyrht hoders
and lon the many audo prates who copy and
dstrbute
o. whereas a ramjet eneray cannot acheve hh
speeds wthout the nta assstance ol a rocket, hh
speeds can be attaned by scramjets, or supersonc
combuston ramjets, n that they reduce arNow
compresson at the entrance ol the enne and ettn
ar pass throuh at supersonc speeds.
/ hh speeds can be attaned by scramjets, or
supersonc combuston ramjets, n that they
reduce
B that hh speeds can be attaned by scramjets,
or supersonc combuston ramjets, s a resut ol
ther reducn
C the abty ol scramjets, or supersonc
combuston ramjets, to acheve hh speeds s
because they reduce
0 scramjets, or supersonc combuston ramjets,
have the abty ol attann hh speeds when
reducn
L scramjets, or supersonc combuston ramjets,
can attan hh speeds by reducn
oZ. lt w not be possbe to mpcate metn sea ce n
the coasta Noodn that many oba warmn modes
have projected: just ke a ass ol water that w not
overNow due to metn ce cubes, so metn sea ce
does not ncrease oceanc voume.
/ ke a ass ol water that w not overNow due to
metn ce cubes,
B ke metn ce cubes that do not cause a ass
ol water to overNow,
C a ass ol water w not overNow because ol
metn ce cubes,
0 as metn ce cubes that do not cause a ass
ol water to overNow,
L as metn ce cubes do not cause a ass ol
water to overNow,
45
3.3 Diagnostic Test uantitative and VerbaI Ansver Keys
. /
Z. 0
3. L
4. B
o. B
b. /
/. L
. L
9. 0
C. C
. C
Z. C
3. L
4. B
o. C
b. L
/. 0
. /
9. /
ZC. B
Z. 0
ZZ. L
Z3. B
Z4. C
Zo. L
Zb. L
Z/. L
Z. L
Z9. L
3C. /
3. 0
3Z. C
33. 0
34. C
3o. 0
3b. B
3/. /
3. B
39. L
4C. 0
4. C
4Z. C
43. B
44. /
4o. 0
4b. L
4/. 0
4. C
. L
Z. C
3. B
4. /
o. 0
b. C
/. /
. /
9. B
C. /
. B
Z. 0
3. B
4. /
o. L
b. C
/. L
. B
9. L
ZC. C
Z. /
ZZ. B
Z3. /
Z4. C
Zo. B
Zb. 0
Z/. 0
Z. L
Z9. B
3C. C
3. /
3Z. C
33. C
34. L
3o. 0
3b. B
3/. B
3. L
39. B
4C. /
4. L
4Z. 0
43. C
44. B
4o. C
4b. /
4/. B
4. B
49. C
oC. /
o. L
oZ. L
3.3 uantitative and VerbaI Ansver Keys
uantitative VerbaI
3.4 Interpretive Guide
c lollowing tablc providcs a guidc lor intcrprcting your scorc, on thc basis ol thc numbcr ol qucstions
you got right.
Interpretive Guide
Rcmcmbcr, you should not comparc thc numbcr ol qucstions you got right in cach scction. !nstcad, you
should comparc how your rcsponsc ratcd in cach scction.
xccllcnt Abovc Avcragc Avcragc 8clow Avcragc
Problcm Solving 1924 1618 1015 09
ata Sulncicncy 1924 1618 1015 09
Rcading Comprchcnsion 1617 1415 913 08
Critical Rcasoning 1417 913 68 05
Scntcncc Corrcction 1618 1115 810 07
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
46
. last month a certan musc cub ollered a dscount to
prelerred customers. /lter the hrst compact dsc
purchased, prelerred customers pad S3.99 lor each
addtona compact dsc purchased. ll a prelerred
customer purchased a tota ol b compact dscs and
pad So.9o lor the hrst compact dsc, then the doar
amount that the customer pad lor the b compact
dscs s equvaent to whch ol the loown'
/ o4.CC + o.9C
B o4.CC + o.9o
C o4.CC + b.CC
0 o4.CC  C.C + o.9C
L o4.CC  C.Co + o.9o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c cost ol thc 6 compact discs, with 815.95 lor
thc nrst onc and 83.99 lor thc othcr 5 discs, can
bc cxprcsscd as 5(3.99) 15.95. !t is clcar lrom
looking at thc answcr choiccs that somc
rcgrouping ol thc valucs is nccdcd bccausc nonc
ol thc answcr choiccs uscs 83.99 in thc
calculation.
!l 84.00 is uscd instcad ol 83.99, cach onc ol thc
5 additional compact discs is calculatcd at 80.01
too much, and thc total cost is 5(0.01)  80.05
crc is an ovcragc ol 80.05 that
must bc subtractcd lrom thc 815.95, or thus
crclorc, thc cost
can bc cxprcsscd as 5(4.00) 15.90.
e correct answer is A.
Z. 1he averae arthmetc mean ol the nteers lrom
ZCC to 4CC, ncusve, s how much reater than the
averae ol the nteers lrom oC to CC, ncusve'
/ oC
B /o
C ZCC
0 ZZo
L 3CC
Arithmetic 5tatistics
!n thc list ol intcgcrs lrom 200 to 400 inclusivc,
thc middlc valuc is 300. For cvcry intcgcr abovc
300, thcrc cxists an intcgcr bclow 300 that is thc
samc distancc away lrom 300, thus thc avcragc ol
thc intcgcrs lrom 200 to 400, inclusivc, will bc
kcpt at 300. !n thc samc manncr, thc avcragc ol
thc intcgcrs lrom 50 to 100, inclusivc, is 75.
crcncc is 300 75  225.
e correct answer is D.
3. 1he sequence a
, a
Z
, a
3
,...,a
n
,... s such that
lor a n a
3
4 and
a
o
ZC, what s the vaue ol a
b
'
/ Z
B b
C ZC
0 Z4
L Z
3.5 uantitative Ansver ExpIanations
ProbIem 5oIving
The !oIIoving discussion is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!cient and e!!ective approaches
to the kinds o! probIems common to probIem soIving questions. The particuIar questions in this chapter
are generaIIy representative o! the kinds o! quantitative questions you viII encounter on the GMAT.
emember that it is the probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the specic detaiIs o! a
particuIar question.
47
3.5 Diagnostic Test uantitative Ansver ExpIanations
AIgebra AppIied probIems
According to this lormula, it is ncccssary to know
thc two prior tcrms in thc scqucncc to dctcrminc
thc valuc ol a tcrm, that is, it is ncccssary
to know both a
n  1
and a
n  2
to nnd a
n
.
crclorc, to nnd a
6
, thc valucs ol a
5
and a
4
must bc dctcrmincd. To nnd a
4
, lct a
n
 a
5
,
which makcs a
n  1
 a
4
and a
n  2
 a
3
cn, by
substituting thc givcn valucs into thc lormula
substitutc known valucs
40  a
4
4 multiply both sidcs
36  a
4
subtract 4 lrom both sidcs
cn, lctting a
n
 a
6
, substitutc thc known valucs:
4
substitutc known valucs
simplily
a
6
 28
e correct answer is E.
4. /mon a roup ol Z,oCC peope, 3o percent nvest n
muncpa bonds, percent nvest n o stocks, and
/ percent nvest n both muncpa bonds and o
stocks. ll person s to be randomy seected lrom
the Z,oCC peope, what s the probabty that the
person seected w be one who nvests n muncpa
bonds but N01 n o stocks'
/
B
C
0
L
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
Sincc thcrc arc 2,500 pcoplc, 2,500(0.35) 
875 pcoplc invcst in municipal bonds, and
2,500(0.07)  175 ol thosc pcoplc invcst in
crclorc,
thcrc arc 875 175  700 pcoplc who invcst in
municipal bonds but not in oil stocks. Probability
ol an cvcnt 
Probability ol invcsting in municipal bonds but
not in oil stocks 
.
e correct answer is B.
water and s hed to hal ts capacty. when the tank s
paced uprht on ts crcuar base on eve round, the
heht ol the water n the tank s 4 leet. when the tank
s paced on ts sde on eve round, what s the
heht, n leet, ol the surlace ol the water above the
round'
/ Z
B 3
C 4
0 b
L 9
Geometry VoIume
Sincc thc cylindcr is hall lull, it will bc nllcd to
hall its hcight, whcthcr it is upright or on its sidc.
Vhcn thc cylindcr is on its sidc, hall its hcight is
cqual to its radius.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
48
water eve
radus = hal the heht
Using thc inlormation about thc volumc ol watcr
in thc upright cylindcr, solvc lor this radius to
dctcrminc thc hcight ol thc watcr whcn thc
cylindcr is on its sidc.
! r
2
h
2
)(hcight)
r
2
h
36  r
2
(4) substitutc 4 lor h, dividc both
9  r
2
solvc lor r
3  r radius  hcight ol thc watcr
in thc cylindcr on its sidc
e correct answer is B.
b. / marketn hrm determned that, ol ZCC househods
surveyed, C used nether Brand / nor Brand B soap,
bC used ony Brand / soap, and lor every househod
that used both brands ol soap, 3 used ony Brand B
soap. How many ol the ZCC househods surveyed used
both brands ol soap'
/ o
B ZC
C 3C
0 4C
L 4o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Sincc it is givcn that 80 houscholds usc ncithcr
8rand A nor 8rand 8, thcn 200 80  120 must
usc 8rand A, 8rand 8, or both. !t is also givcn
that 60 houscholds usc only 8rand A and that
thrcc timcs as many houscholds usc 8rand 8
cxclusivcly as usc both brands. !l x is thc numbcr
ol houscholds that usc both 8rand A and
8rand 8, thcn 3x usc 8rand 8 alonc. A \cnn
diagram can bc hclplul lor visualizing thc logic
ol thc givcn inlormation lor this itcm:
Brand / Brand B
bC 3x x
All thc scctions in thc circlcs can bc addcd up
and sct cqual to 120, and thcn thc cquation can
bc solvcd lor x:
60 x 3x  120
60 4x  120 combinc likc tcrms
4x  60 subtract 60 lrom both sidcs
x  15 dividc both sidcs by 4
e correct answer is A.
/. / certan cub has C members, ncudn Harry.
0ne ol the C members s to be chosen at random
to be the presdent, one ol the remann 9 members
s to be chosen at random to be the secretary, and
one ol the remann members s to be chosen at
random to be the treasurer. what s the probabty
that Harry w be ether the member chosen to be the
secretary or the member chosen to be the treasurer'
/
B
C
0
L
49
3.5 Diagnostic Test uantitative Ansver ExpIanations
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
Two probabilitics must bc calculatcd hcrc: (1) thc
probability ol Harry's bcing choscn lor sccrctary
and (2) thc probability ol Harry's bcing choscn lor
trcasurcr. For any probability, thc probability ol
an cvcnt's occurring 
(1) !l Harry is to bc sccrctary, hc nrst
CANNT havc bccn choscn lor prcsidcnt, and
c
probability that hc will bc choscn lor prcsidcnt
is , so thc probability ol his NT bcing
choscn lor prcsidcnt is cn, thc
probability ol his bcing choscn lor sccrctary is .
ncc hc is choscn, thc probability that hc will bc
sclcctcd lor trcasurcr is 0, so thc probability that
hc will NT bc sclcctcd lor trcasurcr is 1 0  1.
us, thc probability that Harry will bc choscn
lor sccrctary is
.
(2) !l Harry is to bc trcasurcr, hc nccds to bc
NT choscn lor prcsidcnt, thcn NT choscn lor
sccrctary, and thcn nnally choscn lor trcasurcr.
c probability that hc will NT bc choscn lor
prcsidcnt is again
c probability ol
his NT bcing choscn lor sccrctary is
.
c probability ol his bcing choscn lor trcasurcr
is , so thc probability that Harry will bc choscn
lor trcasurcr is
.
(3) So, nnally, thc probability ol Harry's bcing
choscn as cithcr sccrctary or trcasurcr is thus
.
e correct answer is E.
. ll a certan toy store's revenue n November was
ol ts revenue n 0ecember and ts revenue n
January was ol ts revenue n November, then the
store's revenue n 0ecember was how many tmes the
averae arthmetc mean ol ts revenues n November
and January'
/
B
C
0 Z
L 4
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Lct n bc thc storc's rcvcnuc in Novcmbcr, d bc thc
storc's rcvcnuc in cccmbcr, and j bc thc storc's
c inlormation lrom thc
problcm can bc cxprcsscd as
Substituting lor n in thc sccond cquation
givcs
rcvcnucs in Novcmbcr and January can bc lound
by using thcsc valucs in thc lormula
avcragc
sum ol valucs
numbcr ol valucs
as lollows: ,
avcragc
22
5
1
10
2
4
10
1
10
2
5
10
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
d d d d d
d d
Solvc lor thc storc's rcvcnuc in cccmbcr by
multiplying both sidcs ol this cquation by 4:
avcragc 
4(avcragc)  d
us, thc storc's rcvcnuc in cccmbcr was 4 timcs
its avcragc rcvcnuc in Novcmbcr and January.
e correct answer is E.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
50
9. / researcher computed the mean, the medan, and the
standard devaton lor a set ol perlormance scores. ll
o were to be added to each score, whch ol these
three statstcs woud chane'
/ 1he mean ony
B 1he medan ony
C 1he standard devaton ony
0 1he mean and the medan
L 1he mean and the standard devaton
Arithmetic 5tatistics
!l 5 wcrc addcd to cach scorc, thc mcan would go
up by 5, as would thc mcdian. Howcvcr, thc
sprcad ol thc valucs would rcmain thc samc,
simply ccntcrcd around a ncw valuc. So, thc
standard dcviation would NOT changc.
e correct answer is D.
x
.
.
y
z
C. ln the hure shown, what s the vaue ol
v + x + y + z + w '
/ 4o
B 9C
C C
0 Z/C
L 3bC
Geometry AngIes and their measure
!n thc lollowing ngurc, thc ccntcr scction ol thc
star is a pcntagon.
x
.
.
y
z
a
b
c d
e
c sum ol thc intcrior anglcs ol any polygon is
180(n 2), whcrc n us,
a b c d e  180(5  2)  180(3)  540.
ach ol thc intcrior anglcs ol thc pcntagon
dcnncs a trianglc with two ol thc anglcs at thc
is givcs thc lollowing nvc
cquations:
a x z  180
b . y  180
c x .  180
d . z  180
e y .  180
Summing thcsc 5 cquations givcs:
a b c d e 2. 2x 2y 2z 2.  900.
Substituting 540 lor a b c d e givcs:
540 2. 2x 2y 2z 2.  900.
From this:
2. 2x 2y 2z 2.  360 subtract 540 lrom
both sidcs
2(. x y z .)  360 lactor out 2 on thc
lclt sidc
. x y z .  180 dividc both sidcs
by 2
e correct answer is C.
. 0l the threedt nteers reater than /CC, how many
have two dts that are equa to each other and the
remann dt dllerent lrom the other two'
/ 9C
B Z
C C
0 4o
L 3b
51
3.5 Diagnostic Test uantitative Ansver ExpIanations
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
!n thrccdigit intcgcrs, thcrc arc thrcc pairs ol
digits that can bc thc samc whilc thc othcr digit is
crcnt: tcns and oncs, hundrcds and tcns, and
hundrcds and oncs. !n cach ol thcsc pairs, thcrc
arc 9 options lor having thc third digit bc
c singlc cxccption
to this is in thc 700799 sct, whcrc thc numbcr
700 cannot bc includcd bccausc thc problcm
calls lor intcgcrs "grcatcr than 700." So, in thc
700799 sct, thcrc arc only 8 options lor whcn
is is shown in
thc tablc bclow.
Number o! digits avaiIabIe !or the third digit
vhen tvo given digits are the same
Samc 701799 800899 900999
tcns and oncs 8 9 9
hundrcds and tcns 9 9 9
hundrcds and oncs 9 9 9
us, ol thc thrccdigit intcgcrs grcatcr than 700,
thcrc arc 9(9) 1  80 numbcrs that havc two
digits that arc cqual to cach othcr whcn thc
crcnt lrom thcsc two.
e correct answer is C.
Z. lostve nteer y s oC percent ol oC percent ol
postve nteer x, and y percent ol x equas CC. what
s the vaue ol x '
/ oC
B CC
C ZCC
0 ,CCC
L Z,CCC
Arithmetic, AIgebra Percents,
5imuItaneous equations
8ccausc y is a positivc intcgcr, y pcrccnt is
notatcd as . According to thc problcm,
y  0.50(0.50x) and x  100 .
c nrst cquation simplincs to y  0.25x , and
multiplying thc sccond cquation by 100 givcs
xy  10,000 .
Substituting thc simplincd nrst cquation into this
sccond cquation givcs:
x(0.25x)  10,000
0.25x
2
 10,000 simplily lclt sidc
x
2
 40,000 dividc both sidcs by 0.25
x  200 solvc lor thc valuc ol x
e correct answer is C.
3. ll s and t are postve nteers such that b4.Z,
whch ol the loown coud be the remander when
s s dvded by t '
/ Z
B 4
C
0 ZC
L 4o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
8y using a long division modcl, it can bc sccn that
thc rcmaindcr altcr dividing s by t is s 64t:
t s
t
s t
64
64
64
cn, thc givcn cquation can bc writtcn as 64.12t  s.
8y splitting portions ol t into its intcgcr multiplc
and its dccimal multiplc, this bccomcs
64t 0.12t  s, or 0.12t  s 64t, which is thc
rcmaindcr. So, 0.12t  rcmaindcr. Tcst thc answcr
choiccs to nnd thc situation in which t is an
intcgcr.
A 0.12t  2 or t  16.67 NT an intcgcr
8 0.12t  4 or t  33.33 NT an intcgcr
C 0.12t  8 or t  66.67 NT an intcgcr
0.12t  20 or t  166.67 NT an intcgcr
0.12t  45 or t  375 !NTGR
e correct answer is E.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
52
4. 0l the 4 parents who attended a meetn at a
schoo, 3o vounteered to supervse chdren durn
the schoo pcnc and vounteered both to supervse
chdren durn the pcnc and to brn relreshments to
the pcnc. ll the number ol parents who vounteered
to brn relreshments was .o tmes the number ol
parents who nether vounteered to supervse chdren
durn the pcnc nor vounteered to brn
relreshments, how many ol the parents vounteered to
brn relreshments'
/ Zo
B 3b
C 3
0 4Z
L 4o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
ut ol thc 35 parcnts who agrccd to supcrvisc
childrcn during thc school picnic, 11 parcnts
arc also bringing rclrcshmcnts, so 35 11 
24 parcnts arc only supcrvising childrcn. Lct x
bc thc numbcr ol parcnts who voluntccrcd to
bring rclrcshmcnts, and lct y bc thc numbcr ol
parcnts who dcclincd to supcrvisc or to bring
c lact that thc numbcr ol
parcnts who voluntccrcd to bring rclrcshmcnts
is 1.5 timcs thc numbcr who did not voluntccr at
all can thcn bc cxprcsscd as x  1.5y. A \cnn
diagram, such as thc onc bclow, can bc hclplul in
answcring problcms ol this kind.
Supcrvisc
8ring
Rclrcshmcnts, x
24 11
y
cn, thc sum ol thc scctions can bc sct cqual to
thc total numbcr ol parcnts at thc picnic, and thc
cquation can bc solvcd lor y:
y 24 x  84 sum ol scctions  total
parcnts at picnic
y x  60 subtract 24 lrom cach sidc
y  60 x subtract x lrom cach sidc
cn, substituting thc valuc 60 x lor y in thc
cquation x  1.5y givcs thc lollowing:
x  1.5(60 x)
x  90 1.5x distributc thc 1.5
2.5x  90 add 1.5x to both sidcs
x  36 dividc both sidcs by 2.5
e correct answer is B.
o. 1he product ol a the prme numbers ess than ZC s
cosest to whch ol the loown powers ol C '
/ C
9
B C
C C
/
0 C
b
L C
o
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c primc numbcrs lcss than 20 arc 2, 3, 5, 7, 11,
cir product is 9,699,690
(arrivcd at as lollows:
2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19  9,699,690).
is is closcst to 10,000,000  10
7
(10 10 10 10 10 10 10  10,000,000).
e correct answer is C.
b. ll then, 4x
Z
=
/
B 4
C Z  Zx
0 4x  Z
L bx 
53
3.5 Diagnostic Test uantitative Ansver ExpIanations
AIgebra 5econddegree equations
Vork with thc cquation to crcatc 4x
2
on onc sidc.
ovc all non
squarcroot tcrms to
onc sidc (i.c.,
subtrract and 1) 2x
sqquarc both sidcs
isolatc thc 4 add
2
x
x 4
(
aand subtract 1
lrom both sidcs)
dividc both sidcs by 2
e correct answer is E.
/. ll n =
b
, what s the vaue ol '
/
9
B
4
C
4
9
0
Z
3
L
9
Z
Arithmetic Operations on radicaI expressions
Vork thc problcm.
Sincc , thcn . n n
16
81
4
9
4
9
2
3
e correct answer is D.
. ll n s the product ol the nteers lrom to ,
ncusve, how many dllerent prme lactors reater
than does n have'
/ lour
B lve
C 3x
0 3even
L Lht
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
!l n is thc product ol thc intcgcrs lrom 1 to 8,
thcn its primc lactors will bc thc primc numbcrs
crc arc lour primc numbcrs
bctwccn 1 and 8: 2, 3, 5, and 7.
e correct answer is A.
9. ll k s an nteer and Z < k < /, lor how many dllerent
vaues ol k s there a trane wth sdes ol enths Z,
/, and k '
/ 0ne
B 1wo
C 1hree
0 lour
L lve
Geometry TriangIes
!n a trianglc, thc sum ol thc smallcr two sidcs
must bc largcr than thc largcst sidc.
For k valucs 3, 4, 5, and 6, thc only trianglc
possiblc is 2, 7, and k  6 bccausc only 2 6 ~ 7.
For k valucs 3, 4, and 5, thc sum ol thc smallcr
two sidcs is not largcr than thc third sidc, thus,
6 is thc only possiblc valuc ol k that satisncs thc
conditions.
e correct answer is A.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
54
ZC. / rht crcuar cone s nscrbed n a hemsphere so
that the base ol the cone concdes wth the base ol
the hemsphere. what s the rato ol the heht ol the
cone to the radus ol the hemsphere'
/
B :
C
Z
:
0 :
L Z:
Geometry VoIume
As thc diagram bclow shows, thc hcight ol thc
conc will bc thc radius ol thc hcmisphcrc, so thc
ratio is 1:1.
r
e correct answer is B.
Z. John deposted SC,CCC to open a new savns
account that earned 4 percent annua nterest,
compounded quartery. ll there were no other
transactons n the account, what was the amount ol
money n John's account b months alter the account
was opened'
/ SC,CC
B SC,C
C SC,ZCC
0 SC,ZC
L SC,4CC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Sincc John's account is compoundcd quartcrly,
hc rcccivcs ol his annual intcrcst, or 1,
is is addcd to thc amount
alrcady in thc account to accruc intcrcst lor thc
ncxt quartcr. Altcr 6 months, this proccss will
havc occurrcd twicc, so thc amount in John's
account will thcn bc
(810,000)(1.01)(1.01)  810,000(1.01)
2
 810,201
e correct answer is D.
ZZ. / contaner n the shape ol a rht crcuar cynder
s
Z
lu ol water. ll the voume ol water n the
contaner s 3b cubc nches and the heht ol the
contaner s 9 nches, what s the dameter ol the base
ol the cynder, n nches'
/
b
9
B
4
C
Z
0
Z
L 4
Z
Geometry VoIume
For a right cylindcr, volumc  (radius)
2
(hcight).
Sincc thc volumc ol watcr is 36 cubic inchcs and
sincc this rcprcscnts thc containcr, thc watcr
is occupying thc containcr's hcight, or
9  4.5 inchcs. Lct r bc thc radius ol thc
cylindcr.
r
2
(4.5)
r
2
dividc both sidcs by 4.5
2
r
8
8
r
takc thc squarc root ol both
sidcs
simplily thc to gct thc radius
55
3.5 Diagnostic Test uantitative Ansver ExpIanations
cn, sincc thc diamctcr is twicc thc lcngth ol thc
radius, thc diamctcr cquals
e correct answer is E.
Z3. ll the postve nteer x s a mutpe ol 4 and the
postve nteer y s a mutpe ol b, then xy must be a
mutpe ol whch ol the loown'
l.
ll. Z
lll.
/ ll ony
B l and ll ony
C l and lll ony
0 ll and lll ony
L l, ll, and lll
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c product xy must bc a multiplc ol 4(6)  24
and any ol its lactors. Tcst cach altcrnativc.
!.  3 8 is a lactor ol 24
MUST bc a multiplc ol 8
!!. 12 is a lactor ol 24
MUST bc a multiplc ol 12
!!!. 18 is NT a lactor ol 24
N NT bc a multiplc ol 18
e correct answer is B.
Z4. /aron w jo lrom home at x mes per hour and then
wak back home by the same route at y mes per hour.
How many mes lrom home can /aron jo so that he
spends a tota ol t hours jon and wakn'
/
B
C
0
L
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Lct j bc thc numbcr ol hours Aaron spcnds
jogging, thcn lct t j bc thc total numbcr ol
hours hc spcnds walking. !t can bc statcd that
Aaron jogs a distancc ol xj milcs and walks a
distancc ol y (t j ) milcs. 8ccausc Aaron travcls
thc samc routc, thc milcs joggcd must cqual thc
milcs walkcd, and thcy can bc sct cqual.
xj  y(t  j) sct numbcr ol milcs cqual to
cach othcr
xj  yt  jy distributc thc y
xj jy  yt add jy to both sidcs to gct all
tcrms with j to onc sidc
j(x y)  yt lactor out thc j
dividc both sidcs by x y
So, thc numbcr ol hours Aaron spcnds jogging is
j  .
c numbcr ol milcs hc can jog is xj or, by
substitution ol this valuc ol
e correct answer is C.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
56
Zo. ll the unts dt ol nteer n s reater than Z, what s
the unts dt ol n '
 1he unts dt ol n s the same as the unts dt
ol n
Z
.
Z 1he unts dt ol n s the same as the unts dt
ol n
3
.
Arithmetic Arithmetic operations
!l thc units digit ol n is grcatcr than 2, thcn it can
only bc thc digits 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.
(1) To solvc this problcm, it is ncccssary to
nnd a digit that is thc samc as thc units digit ol
its squarc. For cxamplc, both 43 squarcd (1,849)
and 303 squarcd (91,809) havc a units digit ol 9,
crcnt lrom thc units digit ol 43 and
303. Howcvcr, 25 squarcd (625) and 385 squarcd
(148,225) both havc a units digit ol 5, and 16 and
226 both havc a units digit ol 6 and thcir squarcs
(256 and 51,076, rcspcctivcly) do, too. Howcvcr,
thcrc is no lurthcr inlormation to choosc
bctwccn 5 or 6, NT sulncicnt.
(2) ncc again, 5 and 6 arc thc only numbcrs
which, whcn cubcd, will both havc a 5 or 6
rcspcctivcly in thcir units digits. Howcvcr, thc
inlormation givcn docs not distinguish bctwccn
thcm, NT sulncicnt.
Sincc (1) and (2) togcthcr yicld thc samc
inlormation but with no dircction as to which to
choosc, thcrc is not cnough inlormation to
dctcrminc thc answcr.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
Zb. what s the vaue ol the nteer p '
 Lach ol the nteers Z, 3, and o s a lactor ol p.
Z Lach ol the nteers Z, o, and / s a lactor ol p.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
csc arc lactors ol p, but it is not clcar that
thcy arc thc only lactors ol p, NT sulncicnt.
csc arc lactors ol p, but it is not clcar that
thcy arc thc only lactors ol p, NT sulncicnt.
Takcn togcthcr, (1) and (2) ovcrlap, but again
thcrc is no clcar indication that thcsc arc thc only
lactors ol p.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
Z/. ll the enth ol wanda's teephone ca was rounded up
to the nearest whoe mnute by her teephone
company, then wanda was chared lor how many
mnutes lor her teephone ca'
 1he tota chare lor wanda's teephone ca was
Sb.oC.
Z wanda was chared SC.oC more lor the hrst
mnute ol the teephone ca than lor each
mnute alter the hrst.
Arithmetic Arithmetic operations
is docs not givc any inlormation as to thc
call's cost pcr minutc, NT sulncicnt.
(2) From this, it can bc dctcrmincd only that thc
call was longcr than onc minutc and that thc chargc
lor thc nrst minutc was 80.50 morc than thc chargc
lor cach succccding minutc, NT sulncicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, thc numbcr ol
minutcs cannot bc dctcrmincd as long as thc
cost ol cach minutc altcr thc nrst is unknown.
For cxamplc, il thc cost ol cach minutc altcr thc
nrst minutc wcrc 80.40, thcn thc cost ol thc nrst
cn thc total cost ol thc
othcr minutcs would bc 86.50 80.90  85.60,
Data 5u!ciency
The !oIIoving section on data su!ciency is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!cient and
e!!ective approaches to the kinds o! probIems common to data su!ciency. The particuIar questions in
this chapter are generaIIy representative o! the kinds o! data su!ciency questions you viII encounter on
the GMAT. emember that it is the probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the specic detaiIs o!
a particuIar question.
57
3.5 Diagnostic Test uantitative Ansver ExpIanations
and 85.60 80.40 would yicld 14. !n this casc,
thc timc ol thc call would bc 1 14  15 minutcs.
!l, howcvcr, thc cost ol cach minutc altcr thc nrst
minutc wcrc 80.15, thcn thc cost ol thc nrst
cn 86.50 80.65
would bc 85.85, and this in turn, whcn dividcd
by 80.15, would yicld 39 minutcs, lor a total call
lcngth ol 40 minutcs. Morc inlormation on thc
cost ol cach minutc altcr thc nrst minutc is still
nccdcd.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
Z. what s the permeter ol soscees trane MNl '
 MN = b
Z Nl = ZC
Geometry TriangIes
c pcrimctcr ol a trianglc is thc sum ol all thrcc
sidcs. !n thc casc ol an isoscclcs trianglc, two ol
thc sidcs arc cqual. To dctcrminc thc pcrimctcr ol
this trianglc, it is ncccssary to know both thc
lcngth ol an cqual sidc and thc lcngth ol thc basc
ol thc trianglc.
(1) nly givcs thc lcngth ol onc sidc, NT
sulncicnt.
(2) nly givcs thc lcngth ol onc sidc, NT
sulncicnt.
Sincc it is unclcar whcthcr MN or NP is onc ol
thc cqual sidcs, it is not possiblc to dctcrminc
thc lcngth ol thc third sidc or thc pcrimctcr
c pcrimctcr could bc cithcr
((2)(16)) 20  52 or ((2)(20)) 16  56.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
Z9. ln a survey ol retaers, what percent had purchased
computers lor busness purposes'
 o percent ol the retaers surveyed who owned
ther own store had purchased computers lor
busness purposes.
Z 4C percent ol the retaers surveyed owned ther
own store.
Arithmetic Percents
(1) Vith only this, it cannot bc known what
pcrccnt ol thc rctailcrs not owning thcir own storc
had purchascd computcrs, and so it cannot bc
known how many rctailcrs purchascd computcrs
ovcrall, NT sulncicnt.
(2) Vhilc this pcrmits thc pcrccnt ol owncrs
and nonowncrs in thc survcy to bc dcduccd, thc
ovcrall pcrccnt ol rctailcrs who had purchascd
computcrs cannot bc dctcrmincd, NT sulncicnt.
Using thc inlormation lrom both (1) and (2), thc
pcrccnt ol survcycd owncrrctailcrs who had
purchascd computcrs can bc dcduccd, and thc
pcrccnt ol nonowncrrctailcrs can also bc
dcduccd. Howcvcr, thc inlormation that would
pcrmit a dctcrmination ol cithcr thc pcrccnt ol
nonowncrrctailcrs who had purchascd computcrs
or thc ovcrall pcrccnt ol all rctailcrs (both owncrs
and nonowncrs) who had purchascd computcrs is
still not providcd.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
3C. 1he ony lt certhcates that a certan store sod
yesterday were worth ether SCC each or SC each. ll
the store sod a tota ol ZC lt certhcates yesterday,
how many lt certhcates worth SC each dd the
store se yesterday'
 1he lt certhcates sod by the store yesterday
were worth a tota ol between S,boC and
S,CC.
Z Yesterday the store sod more than o lt
certhcates worth SCC each.
AIgebra AppIied probIems, 5imuItaneous
equations, InequaIities
Lct x rcprcscnt thc numbcr ol 8100 ccrtincatcs
sold, and lct y rcprcscnt thc numbcr ol 810
bc cxprcsscd as x y  20 or thus y  20 x c
valuc ol thc 8100 ccrtincatcs sold is 100x, and thc
valuc ol thc 810 ccrtincatcs sold is 10y.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
58
(1) From this, it is known that 100x 10y ~
1,650. Sincc y  20 x, this valuc can bc
substitutcd lor y, and thc incquality can bc solvcd
lor x:
100x 10y ~ 1,650
100x 10(20 x) ~ 1,650 substitutc lor y
100x 200 10x ~ 1,650 distributc
90x 200 ~ 1,650 simplily
90x ~ 1,450 subtract 200 lrom
both sidcs
x ~ 16.1
us, morc than 16 ol thc 8100 ccrtincatcs wcrc
sold. !l 17 8100 ccrtincatcs wcrc sold, thcn it must
bc that 3 810 ccrtincatcs wcrc also sold lor a total
ol 81,730, which satisncs thc condition ol bcing
bctwccn 81,650 and 81,800. !l, howcvcr, 18 8100
ccrtincatcs wcrc sold, thcn it must bc that 2 810
ccrtincatcs wcrc sold, and this totals 81,820,
which is morc than 81,800 and lails to satisly thc
crclorc, 3 ol thc 810 ccrtincatcs wcrc
sold, SUFF!C!NT.
(2) From this it can bc known only that thc
numbcr ol 810 ccrtincatcs sold was 4 or lcwcr,
NT sulncicnt.
e correct answer is A,
statement 1 alone is sufhcient.
3. ls the standard devaton ol the set ol measurements
x
, x
Z
, x
3
, x
4
, ..., x
ZC
ess than 3 '
 1he varance lor the set ol measurements s 4.
Z lor each measurement, the dllerence between
the mean and that measurement s Z.
Arithmetic 5tatistics
!n dctcrmining thc standard dcviation, thc
crcncc bctwccn cach mcasurcmcnt and thc
crcnccs
arc addcd and dividcd by thc numbcr ol
c quoticnt is thc variancc and
thc positivc squarc root ol thc variancc is thc
standard dcviation.
(1) !l thc variancc is 4, thcn thc standard
dcviation , which is lcss than 3,
SUFF!C!NT.
crcncc
bctwccn thc mcan and that mcasurcmcnt is 2.
crcncc is 4, and
c
standard dcviation is , which is
lcss than 3, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
3Z. ls the rane ol the nteers b, 3, y, 4, o, and x reater
than 9 '
 y > 3x
Z y > x > 3
Arithmetic 5tatistics
c rangc ol a sct ol intcgcrs is cqual to thc
crcncc bctwccn thc largcst intcgcr and thc
c rangc ol thc sct ol intcgcrs
3, 4, 5, and 6 is 3, which is dcrivcd lrom 6 3.
(1) Although it is known that y ~ 3x, thc valuc
ol x is unknown. !l, lor cxamplc, x  1, thcn thc
valuc ol y would bc grcatcr than 3. Howcvcr, il
x  2, thcn thc valuc ol y would bc grcatcr than 6,
and, sincc 6 would no longcr bc thc largcst
cctcd. 8ccausc thc
actual valucs ol x and y arc unknown, thc valuc ol
thc rangc is also unknown, NT sulncicnt.
(2) !l x ~ 3, and y ~ x, thcn x could bc 4 and y
cn thc rangc ol thc 6 intcgcrs would
still bc 6 3 or 3. Howcvcr, il x wcrc 4 and y wcrc
15, thcn thc rangc ol thc 6 intcgcrs would bc
crc is no mcans to cstablish thc
valucs ol x and y, bcyond thc lact that thcy both
arc grcatcr than 3, NT sulncicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, it is known that
x ~ 3 and that y ~ 3x. Sincc thc smallcst intcgcr
that x could bc is thus 4, thcn y ~ 3(4) or y ~ 12.
crclorc, thc intcgcr y must bc 13 or largcr.
Vhcn y is cqual to 13, thc rangc ol thc 6 intcgcrs
is 13 3  10, which is largcr than 9. As y incrcascs
in valuc, thc valuc ol thc rangc will also incrcasc.
e correct answer is C,
both statements together are sufhcient.
59
3.5 Diagnostic Test uantitative Ansver ExpIanations
!t is givcn that 20 pcrccnt ol thc survcycd
companics lcll into catcgory 1. !t is ncccssary to
dctcrminc what pcrccnt ol thc survcycd
companics lcll into catcgory 4.
is hclps idcntily thc pcrccntagc in
catcgory 2. Sincc thc companics that rcquircd
computcr skills also rcquircd writing skills
(i.c., thosc in catcgory 1), thcn thc othcr
ol thc companics that rcquircd computcr skills
did not rcquirc writing skills (thus catcgory 2 
catcgory 1). Howcvcr, this inlormation only
cstablishcs that 20 pcrccnt rcquircd computcr
skills, but not writing skills, NT sulncicnt.
(2) Vhilc this cstablishcs catcgory 3, that is,
that 45 pcrccnt rcquircd writing skills but not
computcr skills, no lurthcr inlormation is
availablc, NT sulncicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, thc nrst thrcc
catcgorics add up to 85 pcrccnt (20 20 45).
crclorc, catcgory 4 would bc cqual to 100 85 
15 pcrccnt ol thc survcycd companics rcquircd
ncithcr computcr skills nor writing skills.
e correct answer is C,
both statements together are sufhcient.
3o. what s the vaue ol w + q '
 3w = 3  3q
Z ow + oq = o
AIgebra first and seconddegree equations
(1) !l 3q is addcd to both sidcs ol this cquation, it
can bc rcwrittcn as 3. 3q  3. Vhcn cach tcrm
is thcn dividcd by 3, it yiclds . q  1,
SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Vhcn cach tcrm in this cquation is dividcd
by 5, it bccomcs . q  1, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
33. ls '
 o
x
<
Z x < C
AIgebra InequaIities
Notc that x
r + s
(x
r
)(x
s
).
If 5
x
< 1, then < 1 since
= = 5
x
; SUFFICIENT.
(2) !l x 0, thcn
x + 2 < 2 add 2 to both sides
5
x + 2
< 5
2
because a < b implies 5
a
< 5
b
< 1 divide both sides by 5
2
= 25;
SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
34. 0l the companes surveyed about the sks they
requred n prospectve empoyees, ZC percent
requred both computer sks and wrtn sks. what
percent ol the companes surveyed requred nether
computer sks nor wrtn sks'
 0l those companes surveyed that requred
computer sks, hal requred wrtn sks.
Z 4o percent ol the companes surveyed requred
wrtn sks but not computer sks.
Arithmetic Percents
c survcycd companics could bc placcd into onc
ol thc lollowing lour catcgorics:
1. Rcquiring computcr skills and rcquiring writing
skills
2. Rcquiring computcr skills but not rcquiring
writing skills
3. Not rcquiring computcr skills but rcquiring
writing skills
4. Not rcquiring cithcr computcr skills or writing
skills
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
60
3b. ll X and Y are ponts n a pane and X es nsde the
crce L wth center U and radus Z, does Y e nsde
crce L '
 1he enth ol ne sement XY s 3.
Z 1he enth ol ne sement UY s .o.
Geometry CircIes
c maximum distancc bctwccn two points
that lic on a circlc is cqual to thc diamctcr, or
2 timcs thc radius. Sincc thc radius ol circlc
C is 2, thc diamctcr in this casc is 4. !t cannot bc
assumcd, howcvcr, that X and Y arc points on thc
diamctcr, X can lic anywhcrc within thc circlc.
Vhcn thc distancc bctwccn X and Y is 3, it is
still possiblc cithcr that Y is within thc circlc or
that Y is outsidc thc circlc, NT sulncicnt.
(2) !l thc lcngth ol thc linc scgmcnt OY is 1.5
and thc circlc has a radius ol 2, thcn thc distancc
lrom thc ccntcr O to point Y is lcss than thc
radius, and point Y must thcrclorc lic within thc
circlc, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
3/. ls x > y '
 x y + Z
Z y 
AIgebra first and seconddegree equations
(1) Sincc 2 has to bc addcd to y in ordcr to
makc it cqual to x, it can bc rcasoncd that x ~ y,
SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Multiplying both sidcs ol this cquation by 2
rcsults in x  2(y 1) or x  2y 2. !l y wcrc 0,
thcn x would bc 2, and y would bc grcatcr than
x. !l y wcrc a ncgativc numbcr likc 2, thcn
x  2(2) 2  6, and again y would bc grcatcr
than x. Howcvcr, il y wcrc a positivc numbcr such
as 4, thcn x  2(4) 2  6, and x ~ y. Sincc thcrc is
no othcr inlormation conccrning thc valuc ol y, it
cannot bc dctcrmincd il x ~ y, NT sulncicnt.
e correct answer is A,
statement 1 alone is sufhcient.
3. ll laua drove the dstance lrom her home to her
coee at an averae speed that was reater than
/C kometers per hour, dd t take her ess than
3 hours to drve ths dstance'
 1he dstance that laua drove lrom her home to
her coee was reater than ZCC kometers.
Z 1he dstance that laua drove lrom her home to
her coee was ess than ZCo kometers.
Arithmetic Distance probIem
A distancc problcm uscs thc lormula distancc 
ratc timc. To nnd thc timc, thc lormula would
bc rcarrangcd as timc  . To solvc this
problcm, it is ncccssary to know thc ratc (givcn
hcrc as 70 kilomctcrs pcr hour) and thc distancc.
(1) If D is the distance Paula drove then
D > 200 and > = so t > and
t may or may not be less than 3; NOT sufcient.
(2) !l D is thc distancc Paula drovc thcn
D < 205 and <  so t < < 3,
SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
39. ln the xypane, l ne k has neatve sope and
passes throuh the pont o,r , s the xntercept ol
ne k postve'
 1he sope ol ne k s o.
Z r > C
61
3.5 Diagnostic Test uantitative Ansver ExpIanations
Geometry Coordinate geometry
c xintcrccpt is thc xcoordinatc ol thc point in
which thc linc k crosscs thc xaxis and would
havc thc coordinatcs (x,0).
(1) Knowing thc slopc ol thc linc docs not hclp
in dctcrmining thc xintcrccpt, sincc lrom point
(5,r ) thc linc k cxtcnds in both dircctions.
Vithout knowing thc valuc ol r, thc xintcrccpt
could bc 5 il r wcrc 0, or it could bc othcr
numbcrs, both positivc and ncgativc, dcpcnding
on thc valuc ol r , NT sulncicnt.
(2) Knowing that r ~ 0, suggcsts that thc
xintcrccpt is not 5, thc point (5,r ), whcrc r is a
positivc numbcr, docs lic in quadrant !!. !t could,
howcvcr, bc any point with an xcoordinatc
ol 5 in that quadrant and linc k could havc any
ncgativc slopc, and so thc linc k would vary with
thc valuc ol r crclorc, thc xintcrccpt ol linc k
cannot bc dctcrmincd, NT sulncicnt.
Using (1) and (2) togcthcr docs not hclp in thc
dctcrmination ol thc xintcrccpt, sincc thc point
(5,r ) could havc any positivc ycoordinatc and
thus linc k could cross thc xaxis at many
crcnt placcs.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
4C. ll So,CCC nvested lor one year at p percent smpe
annua nterest yeds SoCC, what amount must be
nvested at k percent smpe annua nterest lor one
year to yed the same number ol doars'
 k = C.p
Z k =
Arithmetic Interest probIem
Vith simplc annual intcrcst, thc lormula to usc
is intcrcst  principal ratc timc. !t is givcn
that 8500  85,000
p
100
1 (ycar), so
p  10 pcrccnt intcrcst.
(1) !l p is 10 pcrccnt, thcn k  0.8p is 0.08. Using
thc samc lormula, thc timc is again 1 ycar, thc
intcrcst is thc samc amount, and thc ratc is 0.08,
us, 8500  principal 0.08 1, or
principal  86,250, SUFF!C!NT.
(2) !l k  8, thcn thc ratc is 8 pcrccnt, and thc
samc lormula and proccdurc as abovc arc
cmploycd again, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
4. ll > C, s x < C '
 x < y
Z z < C
AIgebra InequaIities
!l ~ 0 , thcn cithcr onc ol two cascs holds
truc. ithcr (x y) ~ 0 and z ~ 0, or (x y) 0
and z 0. !n othcr words, in ordcr lor thc tcrm to
bc grcatcr than zcro, it must bc truc that cithcr
1) both thc numcrator and dcnominator arc
grcatcr than 0 or 2) both thc numcrator and
dcnominator arc lcss than 0.
(1) Rcgardlcss ol whcthcr (x y) is positivc or
ncgativc, thc positivc or ncgativc valuc ol z must
bc in agrccmcnt with thc sign ol (x y) in ordcr
lor ~ 0. Howcvcr, thcrc is no inlormation
about z hcrc, NT sulncicnt.
(2) !l z 0, thcn (x y) must bc lcss than 0.
Howcvcr, this statcmcnt givcs no inlormation
about (x y), NT sulncicnt.
is can bc solvcd using (1) and (2) togcthcr.
From (2), it is known that z 0, and, going back
to thc original analysis, lor thc tcrm to bc grcatcr
than zcro, (x y) must also bc lcss than 0. !l
x y 0 thcn x y. 8ut x y lrom (1) so
x x y y
2x 0
x 0.
e correct answer is C,
both statements together are sufhcient.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
62
4Z. 0oes the nteer k have at east three dllerent
postve prme lactors'
 s an nteer.
Z s an nteer.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c primc lactors ol 15 arc 3 and 5. So in
this casc, k crcnt positivc primc
lactors, but it is unknown il thcrc arc morc
positivc primc lactors, NT sulncicnt.
c primc lactors ol 10 arc 2 and 5,
showing that k crcnt
positivc primc lactors, but k might or might not
havc morc, NT sulncicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, sincc k is divisiblc
by both 10 and 15, it must bc divisiblc by thcir
crcnt positivc primc lactors ol 2, 3, and 5.
us k crcnt positivc primc
lactors.
e correct answer is C,
both statements together are sufhcient.
43. ln Cty / ast /pr, was the averae arthmetc mean
day hh temperature reater than the medan day
hh temperature'
 ln Cty / ast /pr, the sum ol the 3C day hh
temperatures was Z,bC".
Z ln Cty / ast /pr, bC percent ol the day hh
temperatures were ess than the averae day
hh temperature.
Arithmetic 5tatistics
c lormula lor calculating thc arithmctic mcan,
or thc avcragc, is as lollows:
Avcragc 
csc data will producc an avcragc ol
thcrc is no inlormation rcgarding thc mcdian lor
comparison, NT sulncicnt.
c mcdian is thc middlc tcmpcraturc ol
thc data. As such, 50 pcrccnt ol thc daily high
tcmpcraturcs will bc at or abovc thc mcdian, and
50 pcrccnt will bc at or bclow thc mcdian. !l
60 pcrccnt ol thc daily high tcmpcraturcs wcrc
lcss than thc avcragc daily high tcmpcraturc, thcn
thc avcragc ol thc daily highs must bc grcatcr
than thc mcdian, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
44. ll m and n are postve nteers, s an nteer'
 s an nteer.
Z s an nteer.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
(1) !l is an intcgcr and n is a positivc
intcgcr, thcn is an intcgcr bccausc an
intcgcr raiscd to a positivc intcgcr is an intcgcr,
SUFF!C!NT.
c inlormation that is an intcgcr is
not hclplul in answcring thc qucstion. For
cxamplc, il m  2 and n  9,  3, which is an
intcgcr, but  , which is not an
intcgcr. 8ut il m  4 and n  9, thcn  3,
which is an intcgcr, and  2
9
 512 is an
cicnt.
e correct answer is A,
statement 1 alone is sufhcient.
63
3.5 Diagnostic Test uantitative Ansver ExpIanations
4o. 0l the bb peope n a certan audtorum, at most
b peope have brthdays n any one ven month. 0oes
at east one person n the audtorum have a brthday
n January'
 lore ol the peope n the audtorum have
brthdays n lebruary than n larch.
Z lve ol the peope n the audtorum have
brthdays n larch.
AIgebra 5ets and !unctions
8ccausc it is givcn that 6 is thc grcatcst numbcr
ol individuals who can havc birthdays in any
particular month, thcsc 66 pcoplc could bc
cvcnly distributcd across 11 ol thc 12 months ol
at is to say, it could bc possiblc lor thc
distribution to bc 11 6  66, and thus any givcn
month, such as January, would not havc a pcrson
with a birthday. Assumc that January has no
pcoplc with birthdays, and scc il this assumption
is disprovcd.
c inlormation that morc pcoplc havc
Fcbruary birthdays than March birthdays
indicatcs that thc distribution is not cvcn.
crclorc, March is undcrrcprcscntcd and
must thus havc lcwcr than 6 birthdays. Sincc
no month can havc morc than 6 pcoplc with
birthdays, and cvcry month but January alrcady
has as many pcoplc with birthdays as it can havc,
January has to havc at lcast 1 pcrson with a
birthday, SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Again, March is undcrrcprcscntcd with
only 5 birthdays, and nonc ol thc othcr months
crclorc, thc
cxtra birthday (lrom March) must occur in
January, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
4b. last year the averae arthmetc mean saary ol the
C empoyees ol Company / was S4Z,CC. what s the
averae saary ol the same C empoyees ths year'
 lor ol the C empoyees, ths year's saary s
o percent reater than ast year's saary.
Z lor Z ol the C empoyees, ths year's saary s
the same as ast year's saary.
Arithmetic 5tatistics
(1) Sincc all 10 cmployccs did not rcccivc thc
samc 15 pcrccnt incrcasc, it cannot bc assumcd
that thc mcan this ycar is 15 pcrccnt highcr than
last ycar. !t rcmains unknown whcthcr thcsc 8
salarics wcrc thc top 8 salarics, thc bottom 8
salarics, or somcwhcrc inbctwccn. Vithout this
typc ol inlormation lrom last ycar, thc mcan lor
this ycar cannot bc dctcrmincd, NT sulncicnt.
(2) !l 2 salarics rcmaincd thc samc as last ycar,
thcn 8 salarics changcd. Vithout lurthcr
inlormation about thc changcs, thc mcan lor this
ycar cannot bc dctcrmincd, NT sulncicnt.
vcn taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, it rcmains
impossiblc to tcll thc mcan salary lor this ycar
without additional data.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
4/. ln a certan cassroom, there are C books, ol whch
Z4 are hcton and Z3 are wrtten n 3pansh. How many
ol the hcton books are wrtten n 3pansh'
 0l the hcton books, there are b more that are
not wrtten n 3pansh than are wrtten n 3pansh.
Z 0l the books wrtten n 3pansh, there are o
more nonhcton books than hcton books.
AIgebra 5ets and !unctions
Lct x rcprcscnt thc nction books that arc writtcn
in Spanish. A tablc could bc sct up likc thc onc
bclow, nlling in thc inlormation that is known or
ablc to bc known:
Spanish NonSpanish Total
Fiction x 24
Nonnction 56
Total 23 57 80
(1) !l x rcprcscnts thc nction books writtcn in
Spanish, thcn x 6 can now bc uscd to rcprcscnt
thc nction books that arc not writtcn in Spanish.
From thc tablc abovc, it can bc sccn thcn that
x x 6  24, or 2x crclorc, x , or thc
numbcr ol nction books writtcn in Spanish, is 9,
SUFF!C!NT.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
64
(2) !l x rcprcscnts thc nction books writtcn in
Spanish, thcn x 5 can now bc uscd to rcprcscnt
thc nonnction books writtcn in Spanish. From
thc tablc, it can bc said that x x 5  23, or
2x crclorc, x, or thc numbcr ol nction
books writtcn in Spanish, is 9, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
4. ll p s the permeter ol rectane , what s the
vaue ol p '
 Lach daona ol rectane has enth C.
Z 1he area ol rectane s 4.
Geometry ectangIes, Perimeter, Area
c pcrimctcr ol a rcctanglc is cqual to 2 timcs
thc rcctanglc's lcngth plus 2 timcs thc rcctanglc's
width, or p  2 l 2. c diagonals ol a rcctanglc
arc cqual. !n a rcctanglc, bccausc a diagonal lorms
a right trianglc, thc lcngth ol a diagonal is cqual
to thc squarc root ol thc lcngth squarcd plus thc
width squarcd, or .
(1) !l a diagonal  10, thcn , or,
by squaring both sidcs, 100  l
2
.
2
. Vithout
knowing thc valuc or thc rclationship bctwccn
thc othcr two sidcs ol thc right trianglc, it is
impossiblc to solvc lor l or ., and thus lor thc
pcrimctcr ol thc rcctanglc, NT sulncicnt.
(2) !l thc arca ol thc rcctanglc is 48, thcn it can
bc statcd that l .  48. Howcvcr, without lurthcr
inlormation, thc pcrimctcr cannot bc dctcrmincd.
For cxamplc, l could bc 6 and . could bc 8,
and thc pcrimctcr would thcn bc 12 16  28.
Howcvcr, it could also bc that l is 4 and . is 12,
and in that casc thc pcrimctcr would bc 8 24 
32, NT sulncicnt.
Using (1) and (2) togcthcr, it is possiblc to solvc
this problcm. Sincc lrom (2) l.  48, thcn
. Substituting this into 100  l
2
.
2
lrom
(1) thc cquation can bc solvcd as lollows:
substitution
100l
2
 l
4
2,304 multiply both sidcs by l
2
l
4
100l
2
2,304  0 movc all tcrms to onc sidc
(l
2
64)(l
2
36)  0 lactor likc a quadratic
l
2
 64, l
2
 36 solvc lor l
2
Sincc l is a lcngth, it must bc positivc, so l is
cithcr 8 or 6. Vhcn l  8, .   6, and whcn
l  6, .   8, both ol which givc thc samc
pcrimctcr.
e correct answer is C,
both statements together are sufhcient.
65
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
uestions 15 re!er to the passage on page 27.
. whch ol the loown best descrbes the purpose ol
the sentence n nes Co'
/ 1o show that economc snan theory las to
expan a hndn
B 1o ntroduce a dstncton not accounted lor by
economc snan theory
C 1o account lor an excepton to a enerazaton
suested by larquardt and lc0ann
0 1o expan why larquardt and lc0ann's
research was conducted
L 1o oller an expanaton lor an observaton
reported by larquardt and lc0ann
LogicaI structure
Marquardt and McGann lound a corrclation
bctwccn highly advcrtiscd products and high
c conncction can bc cxplaincd
by undcrstanding that companics may invcst
hcavily in such advcrtising, anticipating that
rccurring purchascs ol highquality products will
c
consumcrs will continuc to buy thcsc products
ovcr timc bccausc ol loyalty to thcir high quality.
c statcmcnt in bold providcs this cxplanation
lor thc corrclation notcd by Marquardt and
McGann.
c shadcd scntcncc docs not cxplain a
lailurc ol thc cconomic signaling thcory.
8 conomic signaling thcory is about
pcrccptions ol quality, but this cxplanation
is about actual quality and its corrclation
with advcrtising.
C No cxccption is mcntioncd in Marquardt
and McGann's work.
c statcmcnt docs not cxaminc why or how
thc rcscarch was undcrtakcn.
E Correct. is statcmcnt providcs an
cxplanation ol why highly advcrtiscd products
did indeed rank high on certain measures of
product quality.
e correct answer is E.
Z. 1he prmary purpose ol the passae s to
/ present hndns that contradct one expanaton
lor the ellects ol a partcuar advertsn
practce
B arue that theoretca expanatons about the
ellects ol a partcuar advertsn practce are ol
mted vaue wthout emprca evdence
C dscuss how and why partcuar advertsn
practces may allect consumers' perceptons
0 contrast the research methods used n two
dllerent studes ol a partcuar advertsn
practce
L expan why a hndn about consumer responses
to a partcuar advertsn practce was
unexpected
3.6 VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
eading Comprehension
The !oIIoving discussion is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!cient and e!!ective approaches
to the kinds o! probIems common to reading comprehension. The particuIar questions in this chapter are
generaIIy representative o! the kinds o! reading comprehension questions you viII encounter on the
GMAT. emember that it is the probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the specic detaiIs o! a
particuIar question.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
66
Main idea
c primary purposc can bc dctcrmincd only by
c nrst paragraph
discusscs consumcrs' pcrccptions ol quality bascd
c sccond paragraph
discusscs thrcc studics that show how consumcrs
basc thcir cvaluations ol products on thc kinds
crclorc, thc purposc ol
thc wholc passagc is to show how consumcrs'
pcrccptions ol products arc shapcd by ccrtain
advcrtising practiccs.
c passagc shows that cxpcnsivc
advcrtising works to a ccrtain point, but not
altcr it, this mcthod cxamincs a continuum,
not a contradiction.
8 Most ol thc passagc is dcvotcd to cmpirical
cvidcncc.
C Correct. c passagc shows how thc
lrcqucncy and thc kind ol advcrtising
inucncc consumcrs' pcrccptions about thc
quality ol thc products advcrtiscd.
c passagc rcports thc nndings ol lour
studics but docs not mcntion rcscarch
mcthods.
c passagc docs not indicatc that any ol thc
nndings wcrc uncxpcctcd.
e correct answer is C.
3. brman's research, as descrbed n the passae,
suests whch ol the loown reardn consumers'
expectatons about the quaty ol advertsed products'
/ 1hose expectatons are key to be hhest l a
manulacturer runs both backandwhte and
coor advertsements lor the same product.
B 1hose expectatons can be shaped by the
presence ol coor n an advertsement as we as
by the lrequency wth whch an advertsement
appears.
C 1hose expectatons are usuay hh lor
lrequenty advertsed new brands but not lor
lrequenty advertsed lamar brands.
0 1hose expectatons are key to be hher lor
products whose backandwhte advertsements
are olten repeated than lor those whose coor
advertsements are ess olten repeated.
L 1hose expectatons are ess dehntvey shaped
by the manulacturer's advertsements than by
nlormaton that consumers ather lrom other
sources.
In!erence
c qucstion's usc ol thc word suggests mcans that
is
rcscarch is discusscd in thc sccond paragraph.
Kirmani lound that too much advcrtising tcndcd
to makc thc consumcrs bclicvc that manulacturcrs
c usc ol color was also lound to
cct consumcrs' pcrccptions ol brand quality.
Rcalizing that color advcrtising is morc cxpcnsivc
than blackandwhitc, consumcrs rcact morc
quickly to what thcy pcrccivc to bc its ovcrusc
than thcy do to a rcpctition ol blackandwhitc
advcrtiscmcnts.
67
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
is situation is not discusscd in thc
rcscarch, at lcast as it is rcportcd in this
passagc.
B Correct. !t can bc inlcrrcd that consumcrs'
pcrccptions ol product quality arc inucnccd
by thc usc ol color in an advcrtiscmcnt and
by thc lrcqucncy ol thc advcrtiscmcnt's
appcarancc.
c rcscarch docs not makc a distinction
bctwccn ncw and lamiliar brands.
c rcscarch indicatcs only that consumcrs
can tolcratc blackandwhitc advcrtiscmcnts
lor a longcr timc than color advcrtiscmcnts
bclorc dismissing thcm as cxccssivc.
crc is no discussion ol what consumcrs
lcarn lrom othcr sourccs.
e correct answer is B.
4. brman's thrd study, as descrbed n the passae,
suests whch ol the loown concusons about a
backandwhte advertsement'
/ lt can be repeated more lrequenty than a
comparabe coor advertsement coud belore
consumers ben to suspect ow manulacturer
conhdence n the quaty ol the advertsed
product.
B lt w have the reatest mpact on consumers'
perceptons ol the quaty ol the advertsed
product l t appears durn perods when a coor
verson ol the same advertsement s aso ben
used.
C lt w attract more attenton lrom readers ol the
prnt pubcaton n whch t appears l t s used
ony a lew tmes.
0 lt may be perceved by some consumers as
more expensve than a comparabe coor
advertsement.
L lt s key to be perceved by consumers as a
sn ol hher manulacturer conhdence n the
quaty ol the advertsed product than a
comparabe coor advertsement woud be.
In!erence
Kirmani's third study is discusscd in thc nnal two
scntcnccs. Consumcrs suspcct cxpcnsivc
advcrtising rcsults lrom a manulacturcr's lack ol
conndcncc in thc quality ol thc product.
Consumcrs rcach thc point at which thcy nnd
advcrtising excessi.e morc quickly with color
advcrtising than with blackandwhitc advcrtising
bccausc thcy undcrstand that thc addition ol color
incrcascs advcrtising cxpcnscs. !t is rcasonablc to
inlcr that thc rcvcrsc is also truc and thus that
consumcrs will tolcratc lcngthicr rcpctitions ol
blackandwhitc advcrtising without bccoming
suspicious ol product quality.
A Correct. Consumcrs nnd color advcrtising
cxccssivc morc quickly and thus can bc
cxpcctcd to nnd blackandwhitc advcrtising
cxccssivc lcss quickly.
c study docs not discuss concurrcnt
appcaranccs ol color and blackandwhitc
advcrtiscmcnts lor thc samc product.
c solc conclusion about lrcqucncy is that
consumcrs can tolcratc a grcatcr lrcqucncy
ol blackandwhitc advcrtiscmcnts than
color advcrtiscmcnts.
!t is statcd that consumcrs undcrstand that
color advcrtiscmcnts arc morc cxpcnsivc.
c rcscarch ccrtainly docs not rcport this
nnding.
e correct answer is A.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
68
o. 1he passae suests that brman woud be most
key to aree wth whch ol the loown statements
about consumers' perceptons ol the reatonshp
between the lrequency wth whch a product s
advertsed and the product's quaty'
/ Consumers' perceptons about the lrequency
wth whch an advertsement appears are ther
prmary consderaton when evauatn an
advertsement's cams about product quaty.
B Because most consumers do not notce the
lrequency ol advertsement, t has tte mpact
on most consumers' expectatons reardn
product quaty.
C Consumers perceve lrequency ol advertsement
as a sna about product quaty ony when the
advertsement s lor a product that s newy on
the market.
0 1he lrequency ol advertsement s not aways
perceved by consumers to ndcate that
manulacturers are hhy conhdent about ther
products' quaty.
L Consumers who try a new product that has been
lrequenty advertsed are key to perceve the
advertsement's lrequency as havn been an
accurate ndcator ol the product's quaty.
In!erence
c nrst scntcncc ol thc sccond paragraph
providcs thc answcr to this qucstion: at some le.el
ort may
be percei.ed as unreasonably high, implying lo.
manufacturer condence in product quality us, it
is logical to assumc that il a product is advcrtiscd
too lrcqucntly, consumcrs may bclicvc that thc
manulacturcr is spcnding cxccssivc amounts on
advcrtising bccausc that manulacturcr is not
conndcnt ol thc product's quality.
A Kirmani's rcscarch, as rcportcd hcrc, docs
not support this claim.
8 Kirmani's rcscarch cxamincs how consumcrs
rcspond to thc lrcqucncy ol advcrtising, thc
rcscarch docs not indicatc that consumcrs do
not noticc lrcqucncy.
c rcscarch docs not distinguish bctwccn
ncw and lamiliar products.
D Correct. xccssivc advcrtising may lcad
consumcrs to bclicvc that thc manulacturcr
lacks conndcncc in thc quality ol thc
product.
Kirmani's rcscarch docs not spccincally
addrcss ncw products.
e correct answer is D.
uestions 611 re!er to the passage on
page 29.
b. 1he man purpose ol the passae s to
/ propose an experment
B anayze a luncton
C relute an arument
0 expan a contradcton
L smuate a process
Main idea
ctcrmining thc main purposc comcs lrom
c nrst
paragraph bcgins by noting that the idea of the
brain as an information processor is gcncrally
c author thcn
prcscnts Scarlc as an enemy ol this position and
cxplains Scarlc's bclicl that human thought is
c sccond
paragraph qucstions Scarlc's position, and thc
third asscrts that thc brain is an inlormation
proccssor, rcluting Scarlc's argumcnt.
69
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
A c author uscs thc idca ol a mcchanical
simulation ol a stomach as a mctaphor lor a
computcr's simulation ol thought, this is not
a proposal lor an cxpcrimcnt.
c author analyzcs Scarlc's position, but no
lunction is analyzcd.
C Correct. c author cxplains Scarlc's
argumcnt in ordcr to rclutc it.
c author points out a wcakncss in Scarlc's
thinking, but not a contradiction.
c simulation ol a proccss is includcd as a
mctaphor, but it is not csscntial to thc
passagc.
e correct answer is C.
/. whch ol the loown s most consstent wth 3eare's
reasonn as presented n the passae'
/ leann and content cannot be reduced to
aorthms.
B 1he process ol deston can be smuated
mechancay, but not on a computer.
C 3muated thouhts and rea thouhts are
essentay smar because they are composed
prmary ol nlormaton.
0 / computer can use "causa powers' smar to
those ol the human bran when processn
nlormaton.
L Computer smuatons ol the word can acheve
the compexty ol the bran's representatons ol
the word.
EvaIuation
Scarlc's position is statcd in thc nrst paragraph:
bccausc computcrs mcrcly lollow algorithms,
they cannot deal .ith important aspects of human
thought such as meaning and content us, Scarlc
bclicvcs that mcaning and contcnt cannot bc
rcduccd to algorithms.
A Correct. Scarlc bclicvcs that mcaning and
contcnt cannot bc rcduccd to algorithms.
c author argucs lor thc mcchanical
crs no cvidcncc that
Scarlc would agrcc.
is statcmcnt rcccts thc author's position,
but it is thc oppositc ol Scarlc's.
Scarlc asscrts that only pcoplc, not
computcrs, havc the causal po.ers of the brain.
c passagc docs not discuss computcr
simulations ol thc world.
e correct answer is A.
. 1he author ol the passae woud be most key to
aree wth whch ol the loown statements about the
smuaton ol oran lunctons'
/ /n arthca devce that acheves the lunctons ol
the stomach coud be consdered a vad mode
ol the stomach.
B Computer smuatons ol the bran are best used
to crack the bran's codes ol meann and
content.
C Computer smuatons ol the bran chaene
deas that are lundamenta to psychooy and
neuroscence.
0 Because the bran and the stomach both act as
processors, they can best be smuated by
mechanca devces.
L 1he computer's mtatons n smuatn
deston suest equa mtatons n computer
smuated thnkn.
AppIication
To answcr this qucstion, think about how thc
author would rcspond to cach statcmcnt.
Anticipating thc author's rcsponsc dcpcnds on
undcrstanding thc author's point ol vicw. !n this
passagc, thc author is arguing against Scarlc's
vicw ol thc brain and in lavor ol thc brain as
c author bclicvcs that
thc computcr can bc a modcl ol thc brain and uscs
thc cxamplc ol thc mcchanical stomach to
support his position on simulations.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
70
A Correct. c nrst two scntcnccs ol thc third
paragraph imply that a mcchanical dcvicc is
a valid modcl.
c author bclicvcs a computcr can simulatc
thc brain but docs not commcnt on how
crc is
no way to prcdict thc author's rcaction to
this statcmcnt.
c author would rcjcct this statcmcnt sincc
ncuroscicncc and psychology do in lact scc
thc brain as an inlormation proccssor.
c author agrccs that both thc brain and
thc stomach act as proccssors, bclicvcs that
thc computcr, a nonmcchanical dcvicc, can
crs a way that a
mcchanical dcvicc could simulatc thc
c author docs not suggcst that
mcchanical dcviccs arc thc bcst way to
simulatc both thcir proccsscs.
is statcmcnt rcccts Scarlc's vicwpoint,
which thc author rcjccts.
e correct answer is A.
9. lt can be nlerred that the author ol the passae
beeves that 3eare's arument s Nawed by ts
laure to
/ dstnush between syntactc and semantc
operatons
B expan adequatey how peope, unke
computers, are abe to understand meann
C provde concrete exampes ustratn ts cams
about thnkn
0 understand how computers use aorthms to
process nlormaton
L decpher the code that s transmtted lrom
neuron to neuron n the bran
In!erence
c author's attitudc toward Scarlc's argumcnt is
apparcnt in thc nrst paragraph, which cnds with
thc author's summary ol what Scarlc is saying.
Computcrs undcrstand structurcs, Scarlc argucs,
but only pcoplc undcrstand mcaning. How do
c author notcs
that Scarlc is not ablc to answcr this qucstion and
is ablc only to asscrt that pcoplc havc causal po.ers
of the brain.
c author makcs it clcar in thc nrst
paragraph that Scarlc docs distinguish
bctwccn thc two. !n Scarlc's vicw computcrs
arc syntactic, intcrprcting structurc or
arrangcmcnt, rathcr than scmantic,
undcrstanding mcaning.
B Correct. c nrst paragraph cnds with thc
contrast bctwccn pcoplc and computcrs:
People, on the other hand, understand meaning
because they ha.e something Searle obscurely
calls the causal po.ers of the brain. 8y calling
Scarlc's cxplanation obscurc, thc author
implics that Scarlc has not adcquatcly
clarincd how pcoplc undcrstand mcaning.
C Nothing in thc passagc criticizcs Scarlc lor
not providing concrctc cxamplcs. !ndccd, in
thc sccond paragraph, thc author anticipatcs
how Scarlc would rcact to onc concrctc
cxamplc, thc computcr simulation ol thc
stomach.
!n thc nrst paragraph, thc author says that
Scarlc argucs that computers simply follo.
algorithms, whcthcr or not Scarlc
undcrstands how thcy usc algorithms is
irrclcvant.
Sincc, as thc author suggcsts in thc nrst
paragraph, Scarlc docs not bclicvc
inlormation could bc a codc transmittcd
lrom ncuron to ncuron, hc cannot bc
cxpcctcd to dcciphcr that codc.
e correct answer is B.
71
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
C. lrom the passae, t can be nlerred that the author
woud aree wth 3eare on whch ol the loown
ponts'
/ Computers operate by loown aorthms.
B 1he human bran can never luy understand ts
own lunctons.
C 1he comparson ol the bran to a machne s
overy smpstc.
0 1he most accurate modes ol physca
processes are computer smuatons.
L Human thouht and computersmuated thouht
nvove smar processes ol representaton.
In!erence
An inlcrcncc rcquircs going bcyond thc matcrial
cxplicitly statcd in thc passagc to thc author's
c author and
Scarlc takc oppositc points ol vicw on thc brain
cir arca ol agrccmcnt
is narrow. Howcvcr, thcy do both agrcc that
computcrs work by lollowing algorithms.
A Correct. c nrst paragraph cxplains that
Scarlc dismisscs computcrs bccausc thcy
simply follo. algorithms, whilc thc author
disagrccs with Scarlc on virtually cvcry
othcr point, no disagrccmcnt is voiccd hcrc.
c nrst paragraph shows this to bc Scarlc's
position, but not thc author's.
c nrst paragraph shows this to bc Scarlc's
position, but not thc author's.
c sccond paragraph cxplains Scarlc's
rcjcction ol this position.
c nnal paragraph cstablishcs this as thc
author's position, but not Scarlc's.
e correct answer is A.
. whch ol the loown most accuratey represents
3eare's crtcsm ol the branascomputer metaphor,
as that crtcsm s descrbed n the passae'
/ 1he metaphor s not expermentay verhabe.
B 1he metaphor does not take nto account the
unque powers ol the bran.
C 1he metaphor suests that a bran's lunctons
can be smuated as easy as those ol a
stomach.
0 1he metaphor suests that a computer can
smuate the workns ol the mnd by usn the
codes ol neura transmsson.
L 1he metaphor s unheplu because both the
bran and the computer process nlormaton.
In!erence
Scarlc's criticism ol thc brainascomputcr
mctaphor is discusscd in thc nrst paragraph.
Computcrs arc mcrcly machincs, only pcoplc arc
cndowcd with causal po.ers of the brain that allow
thcm to undcrstand mcaning and contcnt.
A Scarlc docs not bclicvc in thc valuc ol thc
mctaphor, so its vcrincation is bcsidc thc
point.
B Correct. Scarlc bclicvcs that pcoplc havc
somcthing computcrs do not, causal po.ers of
the brain lor undcrstanding important aspects
of human thought.
C Comparing thc brain to a computcr, thc
mctaphor docs not makc this suggcstion.
!n thc sccond paragraph, thc author says,
but e.en if a computer could simulate the
.orkings of the mind, making it clcar that
prcscntly it cannot, this statcmcnt docs not
rccct why Scarlc rcjccts thc mctaphor.
is is not thc basis ol Scarlc's objcction
sincc hc docs not acccpt thc prcmisc that thc
brain is an inlormation proccssor.
e correct answer is B.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
72
uestions 1217 re!er to the passage on
page 31.
Z. 1he prmary purpose ol the passae s to
/ expan why women relormers ol the lroressve
Lra laed to acheve ther oas
B dscuss the orns ol chd abor aws n the ate
nneteenth and eary twenteth centures
C compare the vn condtons ol workncass
and mddecass women n the lroressve Lra
0 dscuss an oversht on the part ol women
relormers ol the lroressve Lra
L revse a tradtona vew ol the roe payed by
women relormers n enactn lroressve Lra
relorms
Main idea
Undcrstanding thc author's purposc comcs only
c
bcginning ol thc passagc notcs thc succcss ol
middlcclass womcn rclormcrs in improving
c
middlc discusscs thc position ol workingclass
mothcrs, who wcrc morc conccrncd with thc
cconomic survival ol thcir lamilics than with
labor rclorm and conscqucntly tricd to circumvcnt
c closc ol thc passagc obscrvcs that,
although middlcclass rclormcrs wcrc right to
point out cxploitation ol childrcn, thcy lailcd to
undcrstand thc cconomic plight ol workingclass
lamilics, who nccdcd thc incomc carncd by cvcry
c purposc ol this passagc is
to show thc lailurc ol middlcclass rclormcrs to
undcrstand thc cconomic position ol working
class lamilics.
A Lincs 610 cmphasizc thc victorics ol thc
rclormcrs.
ccts, rathcr
than thc origins, ol child labor laws.
C Living conditions ol middlcclass and
workingclass womcn arc not comparcd.
D Correct. As is madc clcar, cspccially in thc
nnal scntcncc ol thc passagc, womcn
rclormcrs lailcd to undcrstand thc cconomic
nccds ol workingclass lamilics.
A traditional vicw is not comparcd with a
ncwcr, rcviscd vicw ol thc rclormcrs.
e correct answer is D.
3. 1he view mentoned n ne / ol the passae relers to
whch ol the loown'
/ 3ome workncass mothers' resstance to the
enlorcement ol chd abor aws
B belormers' beel that chd abor and ndustra
home work shoud be aboshed
C belormers' opnons about how workncass
lames rased ther chdren
0 Certan women hstorans' observaton that there
was a ack ol consensus between women ol
dllerent casses on the ssue ol chd abor and
ndustra home work
L workncass lames' lears about the adverse
consequences that chd abor aws woud have
on ther abty to earn an adequate vn
In!erence
To nnd what this appcarancc ol .ie. rclcrs to, it
is ncccssary to look back to thc bcginning ol thc
scntcncc. is .ie., not sharcd by workingclass
mothcrs, rclcrs to thc rclormcrs' conviction that
child labor and industrial home .ork .ere equally
inhumane practices that should be outla.ed.
73
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
A is .ie. must rclcr back to a point alrcady
statcd, rcsistancc to child labor laws is not
discusscd until thc lollowing scntcncc.
B Correct. is .ie. rclcrs to thc position
ol rclormcrs statcd carlicr in thc samc
scntcncc: that child labor and industrial home
.ork.should be outla.ed.
C is .ie. must rclcr back to a point alrcady
statcd, thc rclormcrs' bclicl that rcsistancc to
child labor laws was duc to poor parcnting is
discusscd latcr in thc passagc.
A numbcr ol womcn historians havc said
that workingclass mothcrs did not always
sharc thc .ie. ol middlcclass womcn
rclormcrs about child labor.
is .ie. must rclcr back to a point alrcady
statcd, thc lcars ol workingclass lamilics
arc cxamincd in thc lollowing scntcncc.
e correct answer is B.
4. 1he author ol the passae mentons the observatons
ol women hstorans nes o/ most probaby n
order to
/ provde support lor an asserton made n the
precedn sentence nes CZ
B rase a queston that s answered n the ast
sentence ol the passae nes Z/3Z
C ntroduce an opnon that chaenes a statement
made n the hrst sentence ol the passae
0 oller an aternatve vew to the one attrbuted n
the passae to workncass mothers
L pont out a contradcton nherent n the
tradtona vew ol chd abor relorm as t s
presented n the passae
EvaIuation
!n lincs 1012, thc author asscrts that child labor
laws erent classes against one
another. c vicw ol thc middlcclass womcn
rclormcrs is statcd, and thcn, to show that
workingclass mothcrs did not hold thc samc
opinion, thc author turns to thc rcccnt work ol
womcn historians to support this statcmcnt.
A Correct. c author uscs thc rcccnt work ol
womcn historians to support thc statcmcnt
crcnt social classcs wcrc
pittcd against onc anothcr.
c womcn historians ha.e recently obser.ed ,
thc vcrb obser.ed introduccs a statcmcnt
rathcr than a qucstion.
c rclcrcncc to womcn historians has to do
with workingclass mothcrs, it docs not
challcngc womcn's activism and rolc in
social rclorm.
c passagc supports what thc womcn
historians say about workingclass mothcrs.
c author docs not dcnnc or prcscnt thc
traditional vicw ol child labor rclorm, nor is
any inhcrcnt contradiction pointcd out.
e correct answer is A.
o. 1he passae suests that whch ol the loown was
a reason lor the dllerence ol opnon between
workncass mothers and women relormers on the
ssue ol chd abor'
/ belormers' beel that ndustra home work was
prelerabe to chd abor outsde the home
B belormers' beel that chd abor aws shoud
pertan to workn condtons but not to pay
C workncass mothers' resentment at relormers'
attempts to nterlere wth ther parentn
0 workncass mothers' beel that chd abor
was an nhumane practce
L workncass lames' need lor every
empoyabe member ol ther lames to earn
money
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
74
In!erence
c qucstion's usc ol thc word suggests mcans that
thc answcr dcpcnds on making an inlcrcncc.
crcnt vicws ol
middlcclass rclormcrs and workingclass
mothcrs on child labor laws. Vhilc thc rclormcrs
saw child labor as an inhumane practicc that
should bc outla.ed, working class mothcrs
undcrstood the necessity of pooling the .ages of as
many family members as possible and vicwcd child
labor lcgislation as a personal economic disaster.
A Lincs 1214 show that rclormcrs rcgardcd
both kinds ol work as equally inhumane
practices that should be outla.ed.
8 Pay is not spccincally discusscd in thc
passagc.
C Lincs 2427 indicatc that thc rclormcrs
bclicvcd workingclass rcsistancc to child
labor laws was a sign ol poor parcnting, but
nothing is said about thc workingclass
rcsponsc to this vicw.
Lincs 1217 say that thc rclormcrs hcld this
position, but .orking class mothers did not
al.ays share this .ie..
E Correct. Lincs 1723 cxplain that working
class lamilics nccdcd the .ages of as many
family members as possible.
e correct answer is E.
b. 1he author ol the passae asserts whch ol the
loown about women relormers who tred to abosh
chd abor'
/ 1hey aenated workncass mothers by
attemptn to enst them n atatn lor
proressve causes.
B 1hey underestmated the prevaence ol chd
abor amon the workn casses.
C 1hey were correct n ther convcton that chd
abor was deporabe but shortshted about the
mpact ol chd abor esaton on workncass
lames.
0 1hey were aressve n ther attempts to
enlorce chd abor esaton, but were unabe
to prevent workncass lames lrom
crcumventn them.
L 1hey were prevented by ther neary tota
dsenlranchsement lrom makn snhcant
proress n chd abor relorm.
5upporting ideas
is qucstion is bascd on inlormation cxplicitly
statcd in thc nnal scntcncc ol thc passagc.
Vomcn rclormcrs vicwcd child labor as a terribly
exploitati.e practice but thcy failed to take account of
the economic needs of .orkingclass families.
c passagc docs not say that rclormcrs
tricd to cnlist workingclass mothcrs in
progrcssivc causcs.
crcd to support such a
statcmcnt.
C Correct. c nnal scntcncc makcs clcar that
thc rclormcrs rccognizcd child labor as
exploitati.e but did not undcrstand the
economic needs of .orkingclass families.
c rclormcrs' activitics involvcd promoting
lcgislation, thcrc is no cvidcncc in thc
passagc that thc rclormcrs thcmsclvcs
attcmptcd to cnlorcc thcsc laws.
Lincs 610 show that thc rclormcrs
improvcd working conditions lor
womcn and childrcn, dcspitc thcir
discnlranchiscmcnt.
e correct answer is C.
75
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
/. /ccordn to the passae, one ol the most strkn
achevements ol whte mddecass women relormers
durn the lroressve Lra was
/ ann the rht to vote n schoo eectons
B mobzn workncass women n the hht
aanst chd abor
C untn women ol dllerent casses n rassroots
actvsm
0 mprovn the economc condtons ol workn
cass lames
L mprovn women's and chdren's workn
condtons
5upporting ideas
c qucstion's usc ol thc phrasc according to the
passage indicatcs that thc answcr can bc lound
is
qucstion is bascd on inlormation cxplicitly statcd
in lincs 710, which statc that .hite middleclass
.omen reformers .on a .ariety of .ictories, notably
in the impro.ement of .orking conditions, especially
for .omen and children.
A Lincs 67 show that womcn alrcady had thc
right to votc in school clcctions.
8 Lincs 2024 show that workingclass
lamilics tried to circum.ent child labor la.s.
C Lincs 1112 say that onc product ol
grassroots activism, child labor lcgislation,
erent classes against one
another.
Lincs 3132 say that thc rclormcrs failed to
take account of the economic needs of .orking
class families.
E Correct. c passagc statcs that rclormcrs
improvcd thc working conditions ol womcn
and childrcn.
e correct answer is E.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
76
. Vasquezlorre /ssurance specazes n nsurn manulacturers. whenever a pocyhoder makes a cam, a cams
adjuster determnes the amount that Vasquezlorre s obated to pay. Vasquezlorre s cuttn ts stall ol cams
adjusters by o percent. 1o ensure that the company's abty to hande cams prompty s allected as tte as possbe by
the stall cuts, consutants recommend that Vasquezlorre ay oll those adjusters who now take onest, on averae, to
compete work on cams assned to them.
whch ol the loown, l true, most serousy cas nto queston the consutants' crteron lor seectn the stall to be
ad oll'
/ ll the tme that Vasquezlorre takes to sette cams ncreases snhcanty, t coud ose busness to other nsurers.
B 3upervsors at Vasquezlorre tend to assn the most compex cams to the most capabe adjusters.
C /t Vasquezlorre, no nsurance payments are made unt a cams adjuster has reached a hna determnaton on
the cam.
0 1here are no postons at Vasquezlorre to whch stall currenty empoyed as cams adjusters coud be reassned.
L 1he premums that Vasquezlorre currenty chares are no hher than those chared lor smar coverae by
compettors.
EvaIuation o! a PIan
5ituation ol claims adjustcrs. To cnsurc continuing
thosc adjustcrs who
takc thc longcst to complctc claims.
easoning !hat problem could there be .ith the criterion? c consultants' critcrion is thc timc an adjustcr
takcs to scttlc a claim. Howcvcr, somc claims arc naturally morc complicatcd and rcquirc morc
timc. !l it is truc that thc company now assigns thcsc timcconsuming cascs to its most capablc
adjustcrs, thcn thcsc adjustcrs would bc likcly to bc thc oncs who takc longcst to complctc thcir
thc company's
, which could vcry wcll dccrcasc its ability to handlc claims promptly.
c consultants' advicc makcs scnsc il incrcascd timc to handlc claims causcs thc company to losc busincss.
B Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs thc problcm with thc consultants' critcrion.
is statcmcnt mcrcly dcscribcs thc proccss ol handling a claim, it docs not providc any inlormation about
s.
, so indicating that thcrc arc no positions
availablc docs not call thcir advicc into qucstion.
c consultants do not rccommcnd a changc in prcmiums, noting that thcy arc similar to compctitors'
prcmiums docs not undcrminc thc plan that thc consultants rccommcnd.
e correct answer is B.
CriticaI easoning
The !oIIoving discussion is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!cient and e!!ective approaches
to criticaI reasoning questions. The particuIar questions in this chapter are generaIIy representative o!
the kinds o! criticaI reasoning questions you viII encounter on the GMAT. emember that it is the
probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the specic detaiIs o! a particuIar question.
77
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
9. lrooned spes ol hot, dry weather at the end ol the raperown season typcay reduce a vneyard's yed, because
the rapes stay reatvey sma. ln years wth such weather, wne producers can make ony a reatvey sma quantty ol
wne lrom a ven area ol vneyards. Nonetheess, n reons where wne producers eneray row ther own rapes,
anaysts typcay expect a on, hot, dry spe ate n the rown season to resut n ncreased revenues lor oca wne
producers.
whch ol the loown, l true, does most to justly the anaysts' expectaton'
/ 1he ower a vneyard's yed, the ess abor s requred to harvest the rapes.
B lon, hot, dry spes at the bennn ol the raperown season are rare, but they can have a devastatn ellect
on a vneyard's yed.
C 0rapes rown lor wne producton are typcay made nto wne at or near the vneyard n whch they were rown.
0 when hot, dry spes are loowed by heavy rans, the rans lrequenty destroy rape crops.
L 0rapes that have matured n hot, dry weather make snhcanty better wne than ordnary rapes.
Argument Construction
5ituation Hot, dry wcathcr at thc cnd ol thc grapcgrowing scason rcduccs yicld, so wincmakcrs can only
producc a small quantity ol winc. Howcvcr, analysts cxpcct that this wcathcr will incrcasc
wincmakcrs' rcvcnucs.
easoning !hat additional piece of information explains the analysts` expectations? c samc conditions that
lcad to low quantity also lcad to somcthing that incrcascs rcvcnucs. Vhat could this bc: !l thcsc
wcathcr conditions lcad to highcrquality winc that will scll lor highcr priccs, thc analysts'
cxpcctations lor incrcascd rcvcnucs arc justincd.
A Lowcr labor costs mcan lcss cxpcnditurc lor thc wincmakcrs, this docs not cxplain how rcvcnucs would
incrcasc.
is statcmcnt about low yiclds docs not cxplain an incrcasc in rcvcnucs.
c proximity ol production to thc vincyard is irrclcvant to thc qucstion ol how hot, dry wcathcr can bc
rcsponsiblc lor dccrcascd yicld and incrcascd rcvcnucs.
cct on grapc crops, but it docs not cxplain how
rcvcnucs arc incrcascd.
E Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly providcs thc cxplanation that thc wcathcr conditions will lcad to bcttcr
wincs. Vith bcttcr wincs typically commanding highcr priccs, thc wincmakcrs will gain thc incrcascd
rcvcnucs that thc analysts anticipatc.
e correct answer is E.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
78
ZC. ln the past, most chdren who went seddn n the wnter snow n Verand used wooden seds wth runners and steern
bars. 1en years ao, smooth pastc seds became popuar; they o laster than wooden seds but are harder to steer and
sow. 1he concern that pastc seds are more danerous s ceary borne out by the lact that the number ol chdren njured
whe seddn was much hher ast wnter than t was C years ao.
whch ol the loown, l true n Verand, most serousy undermnes the lorce ol the evdence cted'
/ / lew chdren st use tradtona wooden seds.
B Very lew chdren wear any knd ol protectve ear, such as hemets, whe seddn.
C lastc seds can be used n a much wder varety ol snow condtons than wooden seds can.
0 lost seddn njures occur when a sed codes wth a tree, a rock, or another sed.
L Because the tradtona wooden seds can carry more than one rder, an accdent nvovn a wooden sed can resut
n severa chdren ben njured.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation Tcn ycars ago, woodcn slcds bcgan to bc rcplaccd by plastic slcds that go lastcr but arc hardcr to
contr crcd
injurics last ycar than thcy did 10 ycars ago.
easoning !hat .eakens this argument? is argumcnt dcpcnds on a comparison ol two kinds ol slcds.
Any cvidcncc that would cithcr strcngthcn or wcakcn thc argumcnt must indicatc a comparison.
vidcncc that applics only to onc kind ol slcd or to both kinds ol slcds cqually cannot wcakcn
this argumcnt. Considcr thc implications ol thc cvidcncc prcscntcd in thc answcr choiccs. !l
plastic slcds can bc uscd in a widcr varicty ol conditions than woodcn slcds can, thcn plastic
slcds can bc uscd morc lrcqucntly. !t is possiblc that morc lrcqucnt usc, rathcr than thc slcds
thcmsclvcs, has lcd to morc accidcnts.
c limitcd usc ol somc woodcn slcds docs not wcakcn thc argumcnt.
cct accidcnts with both kinds ol slcds.
C Correct.
incrcascd accidcnts.
is statcmcnt is truc ol accidcnts with both kinds ol slcds.
is cxplains why woodcn slcds may bc dangcrous but docs not wcakcn thc argumcnt that plastic slcds arc
cvcn morc dangcrous.
e correct answer is C.
79
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Z. leta rns recenty excavated lrom seventhcentury settements n the western part ol lexco were made usn the same
metaurca technques as those used by Lcuadoran artsans belore and durn that perod. 1hese technques are
sulhcenty compex to make ther ndependent deveopment n both areas unkey. 3nce the peope ol these two areas
were n cutura contact, archaeoosts hypothesze that the metaurca technques used to make the rns lound n
lexco were earned by lexcan artsans lrom Lcuadoran counterparts.
whch ol the loown woud t be most uselu to estabsh n order to evauate the archaeoosts' hypothess'
/ whether meta objects were traded lrom Lcuador to western lexco durn the seventh century
B whether trave between western lexco and Lcuador n the seventh century woud have been prmary by and or
by sea
C whether artsans lrom western lexco coud have earned compex metaurca technques lrom ther Lcuadoran
counterparts wthout actuay eavn western lexco
0 whether meta toos were used n the seventhcentury settements n western lexco
L whether any ol the technques used n the manulacture ol the meta rns lound n western lexco are st practced
amon artsans n Lcuador today
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation Mctal rings cxcavatcd lrom scvcnthccntury scttlcmcnts in wcstcrn Mcxico wcrc madc with thc
samc complcx tcchniqucs uscd in cuador bclorc and during a pcriod whcn thc two culturcs
wcrc known to bc in contact. Mcxican artisans arc thought to havc lcarncd thc tcchniqucs lrom
cuadorian artisans.
easoning !hat point could best be applied in e.aluating this hypothesis? Considcr what spccinc inlormation
would hclp to asscss thc archacologists' thcory. !t is givcn that thc two arcas had somc cultural
contact. !l it wcrc dctcrmincd that mctal objccts wcrc tradcd lrom onc culturc to thc othcr, it
could bc possiblc that thc mctalworking tcchniqucs wcrc passcd along as wcll. Such cvidcncc
would bc rclcvant to thc hypothcsis that Mcxican artisans saw thc work ol thcir cuadorian
countcrparts and, lrom this cxchangc, lcarncd thc tcchniqucs to makc thc mctal rings.
A Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs inlormation that would bc usclul in thc cvaluation ol thc
archacologists' hypothcsis.
c mcans ol travcl is irrclcvant to thc hypothcsis about thc sourcc ol thc tcchniqucs.
c hypothcsis is not about whcrc Mcxican artisans lcarncd thc tcchniqucs, but whcthcr thcy lcarncd thcm
lrom thc cuadorians.
c cxistcncc ol mctal tools providcs no hclplul inlormation in cstablishing whcthcr thc cuadorians wcrc
thc sourcc ol thc mctallurgical tcchniqucs.
c comparison to thc prcscnt day is irrclcvant to thc hypothcsis.
e correct answer is A.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
80
ZZ. loown severa years ol decnn advertsn saes, the Ureenville !imes reoranzed ts advertsn saes lorce. Belore
reoranzaton, the saes lorce was oranzed eoraphcay, wth some saes representatves concentratn on cty
center busnesses and others concentratn on dllerent outyn reons. 1he reoranzaton attempted to ncrease the
saes representatves' knowede ol cents' busnesses by havn each saes representatve dea wth ony one type ol
ndustry or ol retan. /lter the reoranzaton, revenue lrom advertsn saes ncreased.
ln assessn whether the mprovement n advertsn saes can propery be attrbuted to the reoranzaton, t woud be
most heplu to hnd out whch ol the loown'
/ what proporton ol the tota revenue ol the Ureenville !imes s enerated by advertsn saes'
B Has the crcuaton ol the Ureenville !imes ncreased substantay n the ast two years'
C /mon a the types ol ndustry and retan that use the Ureenville !imes as an advertsn vehce, whch type
accounts lor the arest proporton ol the newspaper's advertsn saes'
0 0o any cents ol the saes representatves ol the Ureenville !imes have a standn order wth the !imes lor a hxed
amount ol advertsn per month'
L /mon the advertsers n the Ureenville !imes, are there more types ol reta busness or more types ol ndustra
busness'
EvaIuation o! a PIan
5ituation !n thc lacc ol dcclining advcrtising salcs, a ncwspapcr rcorganizcs its salcs lorcc so that salcs
rcprcscntativcs havc a bcttcr undcrstanding ol busincsscs. Rcvcnuc lrom advcrtising salcs
incrcascd altcr thc rcorganization.
easoning !hat additional e.idence .ould help determine the source of the increased re.enue? !n ordcr to
attributc thc incrcascd rcvcnuc to thc rcorganization ol thc salcs lorcc, othcr possiblc causcs
must bc climinatcd. Ncwspapcr advcrtising ratcs arc linkcd to circulation, whcn circulation
incrcascs, highcr ratcs can bc chargcd and rcvcnucs will incrcasc. An altcrnatc cxplanation
might bc a signincant risc in circulation, so it would bc particularly hclplul to know il
circulation had incrcascd.
c qucstion conccrns only incrcascd rcvcnuc lrom advcrtising salcs, thc proportion ol advcrtising rcvcnuc
to total rcvcnuc is outsidc thc scopc ol thc qucstion.
B Correct. is statcmcnt providcs anothcr possiblc cxplanation lor incrcascd rcvcnuc ol advcrtising salcs,
and so thc answcr to this qucstion would hclp to clarily thc rcason lor thc incrcascd rcvcnuc.
C Knowing how thc advcrtising salcs brcak down by typc ol busincss might bc usclul lor othcr purposcs, but
it docs not hclp to show thc causc ol thc incrcasc.
A nxcd amount ol advcrtising would not cxplain incrcascd rcvcnuc, so thc answcr to this qucstion would
bc irrclcvant.
istinguishing bctwccn thc typcs ol busincsscs will not contributc to dctcrmining whcthcr thc
rcorganization was rcsponsiblc lor thc incrcascd rcvcnuc.
e correct answer is B.
81
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Z3. lotorsts n a certan country lrequenty compan that tralhc coneston s much worse now than t was ZC years ao. No
rea measure ol how much tralhc coneston there was ZC years ao exsts, but the motorsts' compants are amost
certany unwarranted. 1he country's hhway capacty has trped n the ast twenty years, thanks to a vorous hhway
constructon proram, whereas the number ol automobes restered n the country has ncreased by ony /o percent.
whch ol the loown, l true, most serousy weakens the arument'
/ lost automobe trave s oca, and the networks ol roads and streets n the country's setted areas have chaned
tte over the ast twenty years.
B 0asone prces are hh, and mes traveed per car per year have not chaned much over the ast ZC years.
C 1he country's urban centers have wedeveoped pubc transt systems that carry most ol the peope who commute
nto those centers.
0 1he averae ae ol automobes restered n the country s ower now than t was ZC years ao.
L bado statons have on been broadcastn reuar tralhc reports that nlorm motorsts about tralhc coneston.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation Motorists complain that tralnc congcstion in thcir country is much worsc than it was twcnty
ycars ago. 8ut thcsc complaints havc no basis sincc thc highway capacity in this country has
triplcd in thc samc pcriod, whcrcas thc numbcr ol cars rcgistcrcd has riscn by only 75 pcrccnt.
easoning !hich point most undermines the argument that the complaints are un.arranted? Considcr that thc
rcsponsc to thc gcncralizcd complaints about congcstion discusscs only thc topic ol highway
capacity. Vhat il thc congcstion that motorists arc complaining about is not on highways but on
local roads: iscovcring that travcl tcnds to bc local in this country and that thc local roads
havc not bccn improvcd in thc last twcnty ycars would scriously wcakcn thc argumcnt.
A Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a wcakncss in thc argumcnt: thc rcsponsc to thc broad
most motorists.
8 !l high gas priccs actually prcvcntcd motorists lrom driving, and il motorists' driving habits wcrc thc samc
as thcy wcrc twcnty ycars ago, thcn thcsc points should strcngthcn thc argumcnt that thcrc is no basis lor
thcir complaints.
cct thc argumcnt that thc motorists'
complaints havc no basis.
c agc ol rcgistcrcd cars is irrclcvant to thc argumcnt.
cct thc
argumcnt.
e correct answer is A.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
82
Z4. 1he percentae ol househods wth an annua ncome ol more than S4C,CCC s hher n lerton County than n any other
county. However, the percentae ol househods wth an annua ncome ol SbC,CCC or more s hher n 3ommer County.
ll the statements above are true, whch ol the loown must aso be true'
/ 1he percentae ol househods wth an annua ncome ol SC,CCC s hher n 3ommer County than n lerton County.
B lerton County has the second hhest percentae ol househods wth an annua ncome ol SbC,CCC or more.
C 3ome househods n lerton County have an annua ncome between S4C,CCC and SbC,CCC.
0 1he number ol househods wth an annua ncome ol more than S4C,CCC s reater n lerton County than n 3ommer
County.
L /verae annua househod ncome s hher n 3ommer County than n lerton County.
Argument Construction
5ituation c pcrccntagc ol houscholds with annual incomcs ol morc than 840,000 is highcr in Mcrton
County than in any othcr county, thc pcrccntagc ol houscholds with annual incomcs ol 860,000
or morc is highcr in Sommcr County.
easoning On the basis of this information, .hat point must be true? c givcn inlormation makcs clcar that
Mcrton County has somc houscholds that cxcccd 840,000 in annual incomc. Sommcr County
has a highcr pcrccntagc ol houscholds with annual incomcs at or abovc 860,000. A highcr
pcrccntagc ol thc Mcrton County houscholds must in turn havc annual incomcs ol 860,000 or
us, thc annual incomc ol somc houscholds in Mcrton County is bctwccn 840,000 and
860,000.
A Sincc it is possiblc that thcrc arc no houscholds with an annual incomc ol 880,000 in Sommcr County, this
statcmcnt docs not lollow lrom thc situation.
8 !t is not possiblc to makc this dctcrmination on thc basis ol thc availablc cvidcncc, Mcrton County may
havc no houscholds at all with an incomc ol morc than 860,000.
C Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a conclusion that can bc drawn lrom thc givcn inlormation: in
ordcr lor thc pcrccntagc ol 840,000plus incomcs to bc highcr in Mcrton county than any othcr county
whilc Sommcr has thc highcst pcrccntagc ol 860,000plus incomcs, thcrc must bc somc houscholds in
Mcrton County that bring in bctwccn 840,000 and 860,000 annually.
n thc basis ol inlormation about thc percentages ol houscholds, it is not possiblc to arrivc at this conclusion
about thc number ol houscholds.
From thc givcn inlormation, it is not possiblc to dctcrminc whcrc thc avcragc incomc is grcatcr. !t is
cntircly possiblc that thc numbcr ol 860,000plus incomcs in Sommcr County is quitc small and that thc
numbcr ol 840,000plus incomcs in Mcrton County is substantial.
e correct answer is C.
83
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Zo. 1er beetes are such last runners that they can capture vrtuay any nonNyn nsect. However, when runnn toward an
nsect, a ter beete w ntermttenty stop and then, a moment ater, resume ts attack. lerhaps the beetes cannot
mantan ther pace and must pause lor a moment's rest; but an aternatve hypothess s that whe runnn, ter beetes
are unabe to adequatey process the resutn rapdy chann vsua nlormaton and so qucky o bnd and stop.
whch ol the loown, l dscovered n experments usn arthcay moved prey nsects, woud support one ol the two
hypotheses and undermne the other'
/ when a prey nsect s moved drecty toward a beete that has been chasn t, the beete mmedatey stops and runs
away wthout ts usua ntermttent stoppn.
B ln pursun a swervn nsect, a beete aters ts course whe runnn and ts pauses become more lrequent as the
chase proresses.
C ln pursun a movn nsect, a beete usuay responds mmedatey to chanes n the nsect's drecton, and t pauses
equay lrequenty whether the chase s up or down an ncne.
0 ll, when a beete pauses, t has not aned on the nsect t s pursun, the beete eneray ends ts pursut.
L 1he laster a beete pursues an nsect Neen drecty away lrom t, the more lrequenty the beete stops.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation crcd to cxplain thc suddcn stop that tigcr bcctlcs makc whilc pursuing
thcir prcy: (1) thcy cannot maintain thc rapid pacc and must rcst, and (2) thcy run too quickly to
proccss visual inlormation and so tcmporarily go blind.
easoning !hat point .ould strengthen one of the t.o hypotheses and .eaken the other? Considcr thc
inlormation providcd in cach answcr choicc, rcmcmbcring that inlormation that supports onc
hypothcsis must ncccssarily dctract lrom thc othcr. Any inlormation that is not about pursuit or
ccts thc two hypothcscs cqually may bc dismisscd lrom considcration. !l thc lrcqucncy ol
stopping incrcascs whcn thc bcctlc lollows a swcrving inscct and must constantly changc its
coursc, thcn thc sccond hypothcsis is strcngthcncd, thc bcctlc's pauscs incrcasc as thc varicty ol
visual inlormation that it nccds to dcal with incrcascs.
c hypothcscs conccrn ongoing pursuit, sincc this inlormation is not about thc bcctlc's continuing pursuit
ol prcy, it ncithcr strcngthcns nor wcakcns cithcr hypothcsis.
B Correct. is statcmcnt providcs inlormation that strcngthcns thc sccond hypothcsis: thc swcrving pursuit
and thc rcsulting continual coursc adjustmcnts appcar to bc lorcing thc bcctlc to stop with incrcasing
lrcqucncy to sort out thc crratic visual inlormation.
C !n this cxpcrimcnt, sincc ncithcr vision nor tircdncss appcars to bc problcmatic, thc bcctlc could bc
stopping lor cithcr rcason, this inlormation ncithcr strcngthcns nor wcakcns cithcr hypothcsis.
is inlormation is irrclcvant sincc both thc hypothcscs arc about midpursuit bchaviors.
ccts both hypothcscs cqually, thc pauscs could bc
cqually duc to an inability to maintain thc pacc or duc to a nccd to proccss thc visual inlormation.
e correct answer is B.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
84
Zb. 0uemots are brds ol /rctc reons. 1hey leed on hsh that ather beneath thn sheets ol Noatn ce, and they nest on
nearby and. 0uemots need C consecutve snowlree days n a year to rase ther chcks, so unt averae temperatures
n the /rctc bean to rse recenty, the uemots' rane was mted to the southernmost /rctc coast. 1herelore, l the
warmn contnues, the uemots' rane w probaby be enared by ben extended northward aon the coast.
whch ol the loown, l true, most serousy weakens the arument'
/ Lven l the warmn trend contnues, there w st be years n whch uemot chcks are ked by an unusuay
eary snow.
B ll the /rctc warmn contnues, uemots' current predators are key to succeed n extendn ther own rane
larther north.
C 0uemots nest n coasta areas, where temperatures are eneray hher than n nand areas.
0 ll the /rctc warmn contnues, much ol the thn ce n the southern /rctc w dsappear.
L 1he hsh that uemots eat are currenty preyed on by a wder varety ol predators n the southernmost /rctc
reons than they are larther north.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation !n thc southcrn Arctic, guillcmots nnd thcir prcy bcncath thin shccts ol icc, ncst ncarby, and
rcquirc 80 snowlrcc days to raisc thcir young. A warming trcnd mcans that thcir rangc may bc
cnlargcd by cxtcnding northward along thc coast.
easoning !hich point .eakens the argument about the enlargement of the guillemots` range? How could thc
birds movc northward and simultancously not cnlargc thcir rangc: Considcr thc assumption
implicd by thc idca ol enlargement. !l thc guillcmots lost thcir southcrn habitat, thcn thcir
northward movc would bc a displaccmcnt rathcr than an cnlargcmcnt. !l thcir sourcc ol lood
was no longcr availablc to thcm in thc southcrn Arctic, thcn thcy would abandon that arca as
part ol thcir rangc.
A An cxccptional ycar is not an argumcnt against an cnlargcd rangc bccausc an unusually early sno. could
happcn in thc southcrn Arctic as wcll.
8 !l thcir currcnt prcdators also migratc northward, thcn thc guillcmots' situation has not changcd, so this is
not an argumcnt against thcir cnlargcd rangc.
c argumcnt suggcsts that thcy will movc not inland, but north.ard along the coast.
D Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a lactor that wcakcns thc argumcnt: thc guillcmots' movc
northward would not cnlargc thcir rangc il thcy lost thcir lood sourcc, nsh lound undcr thin icc, in thc
southcrn Arctic.
c possibility that thcy may nnd prcy morc casily in thc north docs not mcan that thcy would abandon
thc southcrn Arctic, and so this point docs not wcakcn thc argumcnt.
e correct answer is D.
85
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Z/. 3ome batches ol poo vaccne used around 9bC were contamnated wth 3V4C, a vrus that n monkeys causes varous
cancers. 3ome researchers now cam that ths contamnaton caused some cases ol a certan cancer n humans,
mesotheoma. 1hs cam s not undercut by the lact that a very carelu survey made n the 9bCs ol peope who had
receved the contamnated vaccne lound no eevated ncdence ol any cancer, snce __________.
/ most cases ol mesotheoma are caused by exposure to asbestos
B n some countres, there was no contamnaton ol the vaccne
C 3V4C s wdey used n aboratores to produce cancers n anmas
0 mesotheomas take severa decades to deveop
L mesotheoma was somewhat ess common n 9bC than t s now
Argument Construction
5ituation Rcscarchcrs claim that contaminatcd polio vaccinc administcrcd in 1960 causcd somc cascs ol
mcsot cir claim is not undcrmincd by thc rcsults ol a 1960s survcy
showing that thosc who rcccivcd thc contaminatcd vaccinc had no clcvatcd incidcncc ol canccr.
easoning !hy did the sur.ey results not challenge the researchers` claim? c survcy did not rcvcal a highcr
is qucstion thcn rcquircs complcting a scntcncc that cstablishcs
causc. Vhat could bc thc rcason that thc pcoplc survcycd in thc 1960s showcd no signs ol thc
discasc: !l thc discasc takcs dccadcs to dcvclop, thcn thosc pcoplc survcycd would not yct havc
shown any signs ol it, lcss than a dccadc had passcd bctwccn thcir cxposurc to thc vaccinc and
thc survcy.
c contaminatcd vaccinc is said to havc causcd some cascs, not most, thc qucstion rcmains why thc survcy
rcsults posc no obstaclc to thc rcscarchcrs' claim.
c claim is only about contaminatcd vaccinc, not uncontaminatcd vaccinc.
at thc virus can causc canccrs in laboratory animals had alrcady bccn providcd as a givcn, this additional
inlormation is irrclcvant to thc survcy ol pcoplc who rcccivcd contaminatcd vaccinc.
D Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs thc rcason that thc survcy docs not call into qucstion thc
rcscarchcrs' claim: thc pcoplc survcycd in thc 1960s showcd no signs ol discasc bccausc thc canccr takcs
dccadcs to dcvclop.
c lrcqucncy ol mcsothclioma in thc gcncral population is not rclatcd to thc claim that contaminatcd
vaccinc causcd thc discasc in a spccinc population.
e correct answer is D.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
86
Z. 0ortand has on been narrowy selsulhcent n both ran and meat. However, as per capta ncome n 0ortand has rsen
toward the word averae, per capta consumpton ol meat has aso rsen toward the word averae, and t takes severa
pounds ol ran to produce one pound ol meat. 1herelore, snce per capta ncome contnues to rse, whereas domestc
ran producton w not ncrease, 0ortand w soon have to mport ether ran or meat or both.
whch ol the loown s an assumpton on whch the arument depends'
/ 1he tota acreae devoted to ran producton n 0ortand w soon decrease.
B lmportn ether ran or meat w not resut n a snhcanty hher percentae ol 0ortanders' ncomes ben spent
on lood than s currenty the case.
C 1he per capta consumpton ol meat n 0ortand s ncreasn at rouhy the same rate across a ncome eves.
0 1he per capta ncome ol meat producers n 0ortand s rsn laster than the per capta ncome ol ran producers.
L leope n 0ortand who ncrease ther consumpton ol meat w not radcay decrease ther consumpton ol ran.
Argument Construction
5ituation A country prcviously scllsulncicnt in grain and mcat will soon havc to import onc or thc othcr
or both. Consumption ol mcat has riscn as pcr capita incomc has riscn, and it takcs scvcral
pounds ol grain to producc onc pound ol mcat.
easoning !hat conditions must be true for the conclusion to be true? Mcat consumption is rising. Vhat about
grain consumption: A sharp rcduction in thc amount ol grain consumcd could compcnsatc lor
incrcascd mcat consumption, making thc conclusion lalsc. !l pcoplc did radically dccrcasc thcir
grain consumption, it might not bc ncccssary to import grain or mcat or both. Sincc thc argumcnt
concludcs that thc imports arc ncccssary, it assumcs grain consumption will not plungc.
c argumcnt makcs no assumptions about thc acrcagc dcvotcd to grain, it assumcs only that thc dcmand
lor grain will risc.
c argumcnt docs not discuss thc pcrccntagc ol thcir incomc that Gortlandcrs spcnd on lood, so an
assumption about this topic is not nccdcd.
c argumcnt involvcs only mcat consumption in gcncral, not its distribution by incomc lcvcl.
Sincc thc argumcnt docs not rclcr to thc incomcs ol mcat produccrs and grain produccrs, it cannot dcpcnd
on an assumption about thcm.
E Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs thc assumption that thcrc will bc no grcat dccrcasc in grain
consumption.
e correct answer is E.
87
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Z9. 1he Hazeton coaprocessn pant s a major empoyer n the Hazeton area, but natona envronmenta reuatons w
lorce t to cose l t contnues to use od, poutn processn methods. However, to update the pant to use newer,
ceaner methods woud be so expensve that the pant w cose uness t receves the tax break t has requested. ln order
to prevent a major ncrease n oca unempoyment, the Hazeton overnment s consdern rantn the pant's request.
whch ol the loown woud be most mportant lor the Hazeton overnment to determne belore decdn whether to
rant the pant's request'
/ whether the company that owns the pant woud open a new pant n another area l the present pant were cosed
B whether the pant woud empoy lar lewer workers when updated than t does now
C whether the eve ol poutants presenty ben emtted by the pant s hh enouh to consttute a heath hazard lor
oca resdents
0 whether the majorty ol the coa processed by the pant s sod outsde the Hazeton area
L whether the pant woud be abe to process more coa when updated than t does now
EvaIuation o! a PIan
5ituation 8ccausc ol thc cxpcnscs ol mandatory updating, a plant that is a major cmploycr in thc local
arca will closc unlcss it rcccivcs thc tax brcak it has rcqucstcd lrom thc local govcrnmcnt.
easoning !hat point is most critical to the e.aluation of the request? Considcr thc inlormation providcd in
c plant is important to thc local govcrnmcnt primarily bccausc it is a
major cmploycr ol local rcsidcnts. Vhat il updating thc plant signincantly rcduccd thc numbcr
ol cmployccs nccdcd: !t is crucial lor thc local govcrnmcnt to dctcrminc whcthcr thc plant will
continuc to cmploy thc samc numbcr ol pcoplc oncc it has updatcd.
c local govcrnmcnt is conccrncd only with thc local arca, so a ncw sitc outsidc that arca is irrclcvant.
B Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a lactor that is critical to thc plant's argumcnt and thc local
govcrnmcnt's dccision.
cctcd
by thc plant's pollutants or not.
At issuc is thc plant's rolc as a major cmploycr, whcrc its product is sold is irrclcvant.
c amount ol coal proccsscd by thc updatcd plant is irrclcvant to thc critical issuc ol thc numbcr ol pcoplc
cmploycd to proccss that coal.
e correct answer is B.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
88
3C. / physcay actve lestye has been shown to hep ncrease onevty. ln the wstar reon ol Beara, the averae ae at
death s consderaby hher than n any other part ol the country. wstar s the ony mountanous part ol Beara. /
mountanous terran makes even such basc actvtes as wakn reatvey strenuous; t essentay mposes a physcay
actve lestye on peope. Ceary, ths crcumstance expans the on ves ol peope n wstar.
whch ol the loown, l true, most serousy weakens the arument'
/ ln Beara a medca expenses are pad by the overnment, so that persona ncome does not allect the quaty ol
heath care a person receves.
B 1he wstar reon s one ol Beara's east popuated reons.
C lany peope who ve n the wstar reon have moved there n mdde ae or upon retrement.
0 1he many opportuntes lor hkn, skn, and other outdoor actvtes that wstar's mountans oller make t a lavorte
destnaton lor vacatonn Bearans.
L ler capta spendn on recreatona actvtes s no hher n wstar than t s n other reons ol Beara.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation c highcr avcragc agc
at timc ol dcath is attributcd to thc hcalthy lilcstylc ol thc pcoplc in this rcgion, whcrc thc
mountainous tcrrain dcmands a physically activc lilc.
easoning !hat point .eakens the argument? Considcr what assumption undcrlics thc argumcnt that thc
physically activc lilcstylc rcquircd ol living in Vistar is rcsponsiblc lor its rcsidcnts' rclativc
c mountainous cnvironmcnt ncccssitatcs lilclong lcvcls ol rigorous physical activity
that build a morc robust population. Vhat il a signincant portion ol thc population has not
bccn conditioncd sincc childhood to thc dcmands ol thc tcrrain: !t is assumcd hcrc that thc
hcalthy lilcstylc imposcd by thc tcrrain has shapcd rcsidcnts lrom birth and accounts lor thcir
longcr lilc span. !l many rcsidcnts only movcd thcrc latcr in lilc, thc argumcnt is wcakcncd.
c argumcnt is not about thc quality ol hcalth carc throughout thc country, but thc lcngth ol thc
rcsidcnts' livcs in a particular rcgion.
cct thc argumcnt.
C Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a point that wcakcns thc argumcnt.
cct thc longcvity ol thc local rcsidcnts.
c argumcnt cstablishcs that mcrcly living in thc rcgion is strcnuous, thc spcnding on rccrcational
activitics is irrclcvant.
e correct answer is C.
89
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
3. Cheever Coee ollers severa onne courses va remote computer connecton, n addton to tradtona cassroombased
courses. / study ol student perlormance at Cheever lound that, overa, the averae student rade lor onne courses
matched that lor cassroombased courses. ln ths cacuaton ol the averae rade, course wthdrawas were wehted as
equvaent to a course laure, and the rate ol wthdrawa was much ower lor students enroed n cassroombased courses
than lor students enroed n onne courses.
ll the statements above are true, whch ol the loown must aso be true ol Cheever Coee'
/ /mon students who dd not wthdraw, students enroed n onne courses ot hher rades, on averae, than
students enroed n cassroombased courses.
B 1he number ol students enroed per course at the start ol the schoo term s much hher, on averae, lor the onne
courses than lor the cassroombased courses.
C 1here are no students who take both an onne and a cassroombased course n the same schoo term.
0 /mon Cheever Coee students wth the best rades, a snhcant majorty take onne, rather than cassroom
based, courses.
L Courses ollered onne tend to dea wth subject matter that s ess chaenn than that ol cassroombased
courses.
Argument Construction
5ituation A comparison ol onlinc and classroom courscs showcd similar avcragc gradcs. !n dctcrmining
avcragc g c ratc ol withdrawal
was highcr lrom onlinc than lrom classroom courscs.
easoning !hat conclusion about the courses can be deri.ed from this comparison? Considcr thc ramincations ol
thc mcthodology uscd to calculatc thc gradc avcragcs lor thc two typcs ol courscs. 8ccausc ol
coursc withdrawals, thc onlinc courscs cxpcricnccd a highcr ratc ol lailurc, but thc avcragc
gradc lor thcsc courscs still matchcd thc avcragc gradc lor classroom courscs. From this it is
logical to concludc that, lor thc two avcragcs to match, thc studcnts who rcmaincd in thc onlinc
courscs must havc had highcr initial avcragc gradcs than thosc in classroom courscs.
A Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs thc logical conclusion that thc highcr pcrccntagc ol withdrawals
lrom onlinc classcs rcquircs highcr gradcs, on avcragc, to compcnsatc lor thc highcr ratc ol lailurc.
8 A numbcr ol studcnts cannot bc dcrivcd lrom a discussion ol avcragc gradcs and ratcs ol withdrawal.
is conclusion cannot bc dctcrmincd on thc basis ol thc inlormation providcd.
c inlormation is about avcragc gradcs, thc argumcnt docs not providc any basis lor a conclusion about
bcst gradcs.
!t is impossiblc to dctcrminc thc dilnculty ol subjcct mattcr lrom this inlormation.
e correct answer is A.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
90
3Z. lor years the beautlu benassance budns n latto have been damaed by exhaust lrom the many tour buses that
come to the cty. 1here has been tte parkn space, so most buses have ded at the curb durn each stop on ther tour,
and dn produces as much exhaust as drvn. 1he cty has now provded parkn that accommodates a thrd ol the tour
buses, so damae to latto's budns lrom the buses' exhaust w dmnsh snhcanty.
whch ol the loown, l true, most strony supports the arument'
/ 1he exhaust lrom latto's lew automobes s not a snhcant threat to latto's budns.
B latto's benassance budns are not threatened by pouton other than enne exhaust.
C 1our buses typcay spend ess than onequarter ol the tme they are n latto transportn passeners lrom one
ste to another.
0 lore toursts come to latto by tour bus than by any other sne means ol transportaton.
L 3ome ol the tour buses that are unabe to hnd parkn drve around latto whe ther passeners are vstn a ste.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation Tour buscs havc damagcd Rcnaissancc buildings with thcir cxhaust lumcs bccausc lack ol
parking has kcpt thc buscs idling at curbs. Providing ncw parking lor a third ol thc buscs should
signincantly rcducc thc damagc causcd by thc cxhaust.
easoning !hat point strengthens the argument? c argumcnt lor rcduccd damagc rclics on thc rcduction ol
thc vchiclcs' cxhaust lumcs. Any additional cvidcncc rcgarding thc cxtcnt to which thc
vchicular cmissions arc likcly to bc rcduccd also supports thc argumcnt lor thc bcncnts ol thc
ncw parking spaccs. Lcarning that tour buscs spcnd not just a lcw minutcs but most ol thcir
, causing no damagc at all.
cctcd.
is statcmcnt docs not addrcss thc qucstion ol whcthcr thc ncw parking will rcducc thc damagc causcd by
cnginc cxhaust lrom thc buscs.
C Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly citcs a lactor that supports thc argumcnt: sincc most ol thc buscs' timc
has bccn spcnt producing damaging cxhaust, thc ncw parking should rcducc thc damagc signincantly.
is statcmcnt about tourists' choscn mcans ol transportation is irrclcvant to thc issuc ol what thc buscs do
whilc in thc city.
!t is givcn that thc ncw parking will only providc spacc lor a third ol thc buscs, and thus somc buscs will
is
statcmcnt docs not strcngthcn thc argumcnt.
e correct answer is C.
91
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
33. 0urn the 9Cs and 99Cs, the annua number ol peope who vsted the 3ordean lountans ncreased contnuay, and
many new sk resorts were but. 0ver the same perod, however, the number ol vstors to sk resorts who were cauht n
avaanches decreased, even thouh there was no reducton n the annua number ol avaanches n the 3ordean
lountans.
whch ol the loown, l true n the 3ordean lountans durn the 9Cs and 99Cs, most heps to expan the decrease'
/ /vaanches were most key to happen when a are new snowla covered an oder ayer ol snow.
B /vaanches destroyed at east some budns n the 3ordean lountans n every year.
C leope pannn new sk sopes and other resort lactes used ncreasny accurate nlormaton about whch
ocatons are key to be n the path ol avaanches.
0 1he averae enth ol stay lor peope vstn the 3ordean lountans ncreased shty.
L Constructon ol new sk resorts olten ed to the cearn ol wooded areas that had heped prevent avaanches.
Argument Construction
5ituation vcr a ccrtain pcriod, ncw ski rcsorts accommodatcd an incrcasing numbcr ol visitors at thc
samc timc that lcwcr visitors wcrc caught in avalanchcs. Yct thcrc wcrc no lcwcr avalanchcs
than usual during this pcriod.
easoning !hat explains the apparent contradiction of increased .isitors but fe.er .isitors caught in a.alanches?
Morc rcsort visitors would imply morc avalanchcrclatcd accidcnts, but thc avcragc has shiltcd
so that lcwcr visitors arc bcing caught in thc avalanchcs. !t must bc that lcwcr visitors arc
cxposcd to this dangcr, considcr thc answcr choiccs to idcntily a logical rcason lor this
improvcmcnt in thcir cxposurc. !l thc likcly paths ol avalanchcs had bccomc bcttcr undcrstood,
that inlormation would havc bccn applicd to idcntily salcr locations lor ncw ski slopcs and ski
c lacilitics would thus havc bccn built wcll out ol thc way ol avalanchcs, rcsulting in
lcwcr visitors trappcd in avalanchcs.
is likclihood would rcmain truc lrom ycar to ycar, it docs not cxplain thc dccrcasc.
is point docs not cxplain why lcwcr visitors wcrc caught in thcsc avalanchcs.
C Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a lactor that cxplains thc dccrcascd numbcr ol accidcnts.
c grcatcr lcngth ol stay would sccm to cxposc visitors to grcatcr dangcr.
is inlormation points to an cxpcctcd incrcasc, rathcr than dccrcasc, in visitors who might bc caught
by avalanchcs.
e correct answer is C.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
92
34. / year ao, 0etz loods aunched a yearon advertsn campan lor ts canned tuna. last year 0etz sod Z mon cans
ol tuna compared to the C mon sod durn the prevous year, an ncrease drecty attrbutabe to new customers
brouht n by the campan. lrohts lrom the addtona saes, however, were substantay ess than the cost ol the
advertsn campan. Ceary, therelore, the campan dd nothn to lurther 0etz's economc nterests.
whch ol the loown, l true, most serousy weakens the arument'
/ 3aes ol canned tuna account lor a reatvey sma percentae ol 0etz loods' prohts.
B lost ol the peope who bouht 0etz's canned tuna lor the hrst tme as a resut ol the campan were aready oya
customers ol other 0etz products.
C / ess expensve advertsn campan woud have brouht n snhcanty lewer new customers lor 0etz's canned
tuna than dd the campan 0etz loods aunched ast year.
0 0etz made money on saes ol canned tuna ast year.
L ln each ol the past hve years, there was a steep, ndustrywde decne n saes ol canned tuna.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation An advcrtising campaign was rcsponsiblc lor incrcascd salcs ol canncd tuna. Sincc thc pronts
lrom thc incrcascd salcs wcrc lcss than thc costs ol thc campaign, thc campaign did not
contributc to thc company's cconomic intcrcsts.
easoning !hich point .eakens the argument? Considcr thc basis ol thc argumcnt: il pronts arc lowcr than
costs, thc campaign madc no contribution to thc company's nnancial wcllbcing. !n what casc
might this bc untruc: Vhat il thc advcrtising campaign rcvcrscd an industrywidc trcnd ol
dcclining salcs: !l ictz cxpcricnccd incrcasing salcs, whilc othcr companics cxpcricnccd
dccrcascd salcs, thcn thc campaign did contributc to thc cconomic intcrcsts ol thc company, and
thc argumcnt is considcrably wcakcncd.
c issuc is not thc pcrccntagc ol pronts that canncd tuna contributcs, but thc succcss ol thc advcrtising
campaign.
8 !l thc customcrs bought thc tuna bccausc ol thc campaign, it is irrclcvant to thc argumcnt that thcy also
bought othcr ictz products.
is inlormation ncithcr strcngthcns nor wcakcns thc argumcnt.
c argumcnt is not about pronts only, but about whcthcr thc advcrtising campaign contributcd to thc
cconomic intcrcsts ol thc company.
E Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a lactor that wcakcns thc argumcnt: thc campaign sccurcd thc
bcncnts ol incrcascd salcs at a timc whcn thc cntirc industry was cxpcricncing a dcclinc in salcs.
e correct answer is E.
93
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
3o. 0nke the budns n lesopotaman ctes, whch
were arraned haphazardy, the same basc pan was
loowed lor a ctes ol the lndus Vaey: wth houses
ad out on a northsouth, eastwest rd, and houses
and was were but ol standardsze brcks.
/ the budns n lesopotaman ctes, whch were
arraned haphazardy, the same basc pan was
loowed lor a ctes ol the lndus Vaey: wth
houses
B the budns n lesopotaman ctes, whch
were haphazard n arranement, the same basc
pan was used n a ctes ol the lndus Vaey:
houses were
C the arranement ol budns n lesopotaman
ctes, whch were haphazard, the ctes ol the
lndus Vaey a loowed the same basc pan:
houses
0 lesopotaman ctes, n whch budns were
arraned haphazardy, the ctes ol the lndus
Vaey a loowed the same basc pan: houses
were
L lesopotaman ctes, whch had budns that
were arraned haphazardy, the same basc pan
was used lor a ctes n the lndus Vaey: houses
that were
Comparisoncontrast, Modi!ying cIause
c contrast introduccd by unlike must bc
logical and clcar. Contrasting the buildings in
Mesopotamian cities with the same basic plan docs
not makc scnsc, Mesopotamian cities should bc
contrastcd with the cities of the Indus !alley. Also,
it nccds to bc clcar that it was thc buildings in thc
citics that .ere arranged haphazardly rathcr than
thc cities c sccond hall ol thc scntcncc nccds
houses .ere laid out to bc parallcl in structurc to
and houses and .alls .ere built.
A !llogically contrasts the buildings in
Mesopotamian cities with the same basic plan,
not clcar whcthcr .hich .ere arranged
haphazardly modincs cities or buildings, .ith
houses lacks parallclism and is conlusing.
8 !llogically contrasts the buildings in
Mesopotamian cities with the same basic plan,
docs not clarily what .hich .ere haphazard
in arrangement modincs.
C !llogically contrasts the arrangement of
buildings with the cities of the Indus !alley,
not clcar whcthcr .hich .ere haphazard
modincs buildings or cities, houses not
lollowcd by a vcrb.
D Correct. !n this scntcncc, Mesopotamian
cities arc propcrly contrastcd with the cities
of the Indus !alley, in .hich buildings .ere
arranged haphazardly cxprcsscs thc idca
clcarly, and houses is lollowcd by .ere as
rcquircd.
!llogically contrasts Mesopotamian cities with
the same basic plan, houses that .ere lacks
parallclism and is conlusing.
e correct answer is D.
3b. New data lrom 0nted 3tates lorest 3ervce ecoosts
show that lor every doar spent on controed sma
scae burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol hre
manaement personne, t saves seven doars that
woud not be spent on havn to extnush b hres.
/ that lor every doar spent on controed
smascae burnn, lorest thnnn, and the
trann ol hremanaement personne, t saves
seven doars that woud not be spent on havn
to extnush
5entence Correction
The !oIIoving discussion is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!cient and e!!ective approaches
to sentence correction questions. The particuIar questions in this chapter are generaIIy representative o!
the kinds o! sentence correction questions you viII encounter on the GMAT. emember that it is the
probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the specic detaiIs o! a particuIar question.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
94
B that lor every doar spent on controed sma
scae burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol
hremanaement personne, seven doars are
saved that woud have been spent on
extnushn
C that lor every doar spent on controed sma
scae burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol
hremanaement personne saves seven doars
on not havn to extnush
0 lor every doar spent on controed smascae
burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol hre
manaement personne, that t saves seven
doars on not havn to extnush
L lor every doar spent on controed smascae
burnn, lorest thnnn, and the trann ol hre
manaement personne, that seven doars are
saved that woud not have been spent on
extnushn
LogicaI predication, hetoricaI construction
c pronoun it (it sa.es se.en dollars) has no
rclcrcnt. Making se.en dollars thc subjcct ol
thc clausc climinatcs this problcm, and it also
lulnlls a rcadcr's cxpcctation that altcr thc
phrasc bcginning for e.ery dollar anothcr spccinc
is changc
in structurc also allows thc awkward and wordy
clausc that .ould not be spent on ha.ing to
extinguish to bc rcwrittcn so that spent balanccs
sa.ed: se.en dollars are sa.ed that .ould ha.e been
spent on extinguishing, and thc unncccssary ha.ing
to is omittcd.
A It has no rclcrcnt, not be spent is awkward,
on ha.ing to extinguish is wordy.
B Correct. is scntcncc propcrly uscs se.en
dollars as thc subjcct ol thc clausc to balancc
e.ery dollar in thc introductory phrasc, thc
phrasing is concisc and parallcl.
C Sa.es docs not havc a subjcct, construction is
not a complctc scntcncc, not ha.ing to
extinguish is wordy and awkward.
at introduccs a subordinatc rathcr than
main clausc, making a scntcncc lragmcnt,
it has no rclcrcnt, not ha.ing to extinguish is
wordy and awkward.
!ntroductory that makcs a scntcncc
lragmcnt, that .ould not ha.e been spent on
extinguishing is awkward and illogical.
e correct answer is B.
3/. lke the rassy heds and od pastures that the upand
sandpper needs lor leedn and nestn when t
returns n lay alter wntern n the /rentne
lampas, the sandppers vanshn n the northeastern
0nted 3tates s a resut ol resdenta and ndustra
deveopment and ol chanes n larmn practces.
/ the sandppers vanshn n the northeastern
0nted 3tates s a resut ol resdenta and
ndustra deveopment and ol chanes n
B the brd tsel s vanshn n the northeastern
0nted 3tates as a resut ol resdenta and
ndustra deveopment and ol chanes n
C that the brds themseves are vanshn n the
northeastern 0nted 3tates s due to resdenta
and ndustra deveopment and chanes to
0 n the northeastern 0nted 3tates, sandppers'
vanshn due to resdenta and ndustra
deveopment and to chanes n
L n the northeastern 0nted 3tates, the
sandppers' vanshn, a resut ol resdenta and
ndustra deveopment and chann
Comparison, 5entence structure
c comparison introduccd by like must bc logical
and clcar, thc point ol this comparison is that
both thc habitat and thc bird arc disappcaring lor
c comparison must usc
comparablc grammatical componcnts, the bird
itself is a noun phrasc and matchcs thc noun
phrascs grassy elds and old pastures.
A !llogically comparcs the sandpipers .anishing
to grassy elds and old pastures, omits
apostrophc in sandpipers` .anishing, wordy.
B Correct. is scntcncc propcrly comparcs
the bird itself to grassy elds and old pastures, is
.anishing as thc vcrb strcngthcns thc
scntcncc by making thc comparison clcarcr.
95
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
C ocs not nnish thc comparison bcgun with
like but instcad substitutcs a clausc (that the
birds themsel.es are .anishing).
!llogically comparcs the sandpipers' .anishing
to grassy elds and old pastures, crcatcs a
scntcncc lragmcnt.
!llogically comparcs the sandpipers' .anishing
to grassy elds and old pastures, crcatcs a
scntcncc lragmcnt.
e correct answer is B.
3. 1he resuts ol two recent unreated studes support
the dea that dophns may share certan contve
abtes wth humans and reat apes; the studes
ndcate dophns as capabe ol reconzn
themseves n mrrorsan abty that s olten
consdered a sn ol selawarenessand to rasp
spontaneousy the mood or ntenton ol humans.
/ dophns as capabe ol reconzn themseves
n mrrorsan abty that s olten consdered a
sn ol selawarenessand to rasp
spontaneousy
B dophns' abty to reconze themseves n
mrrorsan abty that s olten consdered as a
sn ol selawarenessand ol spontaneousy
raspn
C dophns to be capabe ol reconzn
themseves n mrrorsan abty that s olten
consdered a sn ol selawarenessand to
rasp spontaneousy
0 that dophns have the abty ol reconzn
themseves n mrrorsan abty that s olten
consdered as a sn ol selawarenessand
spontaneousy raspn
L that dophns are capabe ol reconzn
themseves n mrrorsan abty that s olten
consdered a sn ol selawarenessand ol
spontaneousy raspn
GrammaticaI construction, ParaIIeIism
!n thc contcxt ol this scntcncc, the studies indicate
must introducc a clausc, thc clausc must bcgin
with that and havc a subjcct, dolphins, and a vcrb,
are (thc complctc vcrb phrasc would bc are capable
of c two capabilitics should bc parallcl: capable
of recognizing.and of spontaneously grasping.
A Contcxt rcquircs a clausc, but this
construction is not a clausc, capable of
recognizing is not parallcl to to grasp
spontaneously.
8 Construction is not a clausc, and a clausc is
rcquircd, dolphins` ability to recognize is not
parallcl to of spontaneously grasping.
C A clausc is rcquircd lollowing the studies
indicate, to be capable of recognizing is not
parallcl to to grasp spontaneously.
Ha.e the ability of is wordy and unidiomatic,
of recognizing and spontaneously grasping arc
not parallcl.
E Correct. at introduccs thc subordinatc
clausc ncccssary to complctc this scntcncc
propcrly, of recognizing and of spontaneously
grasping arc parallcl.
e correct answer is E.
39. /ccordn to schoars, the earest wrtn was
probaby not a drect rendern ol speech, but was
more key to ben as a separate and dstnct
symboc system ol communcaton, and ony ater
mered wth spoken anuae.
/ was more key to ben as
B more than key bean as
C more than key bennn lrom
0 t was more than key beun lrom
L t was more key that t bean
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
96
Idiom, Verb !orm
is scntcncc is a comparison in which probably
not x is balanccd by but more than likely y. Vhcn
more is uscd in thc comparativc lorm ol an
adjcctivc (more difcult) or advcrb (more likely), it is
lollowcd by than c words uscd to show thc
comparison bctwccn x and y, but more than likely,
must also introducc thc corrcct vcrb lorm,
allowing y to nt grammatically into thc rcst ol thc
c subjcct ol thc scntcncc has thrcc
vcrbs, all ol which should bc parallcl: the earliest
.riting .as.began.merged. !as.to begin is not
parallcl and rcsults in a construction that is not
grammatically corrcct.
A !n this contcxt, more likely is not a complctc
idiomatic cxprcssion, .as.to begin is not
parallcl to .as and merged.
B Correct. !n this scntcncc, more than likely is
thc corrcct comparativc construction, thc
simplc past tcnsc began, parallcl to .as and
merged, nts grammatically into thc scntcncc.
C Subjcct should bc lollowcd by thrcc vcrbs,
beginning from is not a vcrb.
Usc ol thc pronoun it makcs this
construction a main clausc, in which casc
thc comma altcr communication must bc
omittcd and began must bc uscd to bc
parallcl to merged, .as.begun is not thc
corrcct tcnsc.
!n this awkward, unclcar, and wordy
construction, thc nrst it must bc lollowcd by
is, not .as, bccausc thc thcory is currcnt, thc
sccond it acts as thc subjcct ol thc
subordinatc clausc, and this usagc rcquircs
thc omission ol thc comma altcr
communication.
e correct answer is B.
4C. ln 99o bchard 3taman, a weknown crtc ol the
patent system, testhed n latent 0lhce hearns
that, to test the system, a coeaue ol hs had
manaed to wn a patent lor one ol brchholl's aws,
an observaton about eectrc current hrst made n
4o and now ncuded n vrtuay every textbook ol
eementary physcs.
/ aws, an observaton about eectrc current hrst
made n 4o and
B aws, whch was an observaton about eectrc
current hrst made n 4o and t s
C aws, namey, t was an observaton about
eectrc current hrst made n 4o and
0 aws, an observaton about eectrc current hrst
made n 4o, t s
L aws that was an observaton about eectrc
current, hrst made n 4o, and s
LogicaI predication, ParaIIeIism
c lunction ol thc cntirc long phrasc
(obser.ation.physics) that lollows `s
la.s is to dcscribc that law. !t is a noun phrasc in
apposition, which mcans that it has thc samc
syntactic rclation to all thc othcr parts ol thc
scntcncc that thc noun phrasc `s
la.s docs. Vithin thc long modilying phrasc,
parallclism is maintaincd by balancing an
obser.ation.rst made with and no. included.
A Correct. !n this scntcncc, thc noun phrasc
in apposition propcrly idcntincs and cxplains
thc law, using parallcl structurc and concisc
cxprcssion.
8 !hich is ambiguous bccausc it could rclcr to
one or to la.s, it is violatcs thc parallclism ol
rst made and no. included.
C It is ambiguous, thc introduction ol it .as
docs not allow this construction to nt
grammatically into thc scntcncc.
c rclcrcnt ol it is unclcar, it is crcatcs a
runon scntcncc and violatcs thc parallclism
ol rst made and no. included.
at appcars to rclcr to la.s rathcr than one,
thc
phrasc rst made in 1843 in commas distorts
mcaning, is violatcs parallclism.
e correct answer is A.
97
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
4. Lxcavators at the lndus Vaey ste ol Harappa n
eastern lakstan say the dscovery ol nscrbed
shards datn to crca ZCCZbCC B.C. ndcate ther
deveopment ol a Harappan wrtn system, the use
ol nscrbed seas mpressed nto cay lor markn
ownershp, and the standardzaton ol wehts lor
trade or taxaton occurred many decades, l not
centures, earer than was prevousy beeved.
/ ndcate ther deveopment ol a Harappan wrtn
system, the use ol
B ndcate that the deveopment ol a Harappan
wrtn system, usn
C ndcates that ther deveopment ol a Harappan
wrtn system, usn
0 ndcates the deveopment ol a Harappan wrtn
system, ther use ol
L ndcates that the deveopment ol a Harappan
wrtn system, the use ol
Agreement, Idiom, ParaIIeIism
!n long scntcnccs such as this onc, thc
rclationship bctwccn parts ol thc scntcncc may bc
dilncult to scc. Hcrc, thc main clausc ol thc
scntcncc is exca.ators.say and thc logical
scqucncc that lollows is the disco.ery.indicates
that c subjcct ol this nrst subordinatc clausc is
thc singular noun disco.ery, which should bc
lollowcd by thc singular vcrb indicates rathcr than
by thc plural indicate, as is donc in thc original
scntcncc. eir, uscd with cithcr de.elopment or
use, has no clcar or logical rclcrcnt in any ol thc
c subjcct ol thc lollowing
subordinatc (that) clausc, which has occurred as its
vcrb, is a scrics ol thrcc phrascs, which must bc
parallcl, cspccially in a scntcncc ol this lcngth and
complcxity: the de.elopment of., the use of., and
the standardization of..
A Indicate docs not agrcc with disco.ery, thc
pronoun their has no logical rclcrcnt, and
their de.elopment is not parallcl to the use and
the standardization.
8 Indicate docs not agrcc with disco.ery, using
is not parallcl to the de.elopment and the
standardization.
C eir has no logical rclcrcnt, thc scrics ol
thrcc clcmcnts should bc parallcl, but hcrc
crcnt.
c pronoun their has no logical rclcrcnt,
and their use is not parallcl to the de.elopment
and the standardization, thc prclcrrcd
scntcncc structurc would havc indicates
lollowcd by that whcn introducing a clausc.
E Correct. !n this scntcncc, indicates agrccs
with disco.ery and is lollowcd by that to
introducc a clausc, thc thrcc parallcl phrascs
bcgin with an articlc (the), a noun, and thc
prcposition of.
e correct answer is E.
4Z. 1he 3upreme Court has rued that pubc unverstes
can coect student actvty lees even wth students'
objectons to partcuar actvtes, so on as the
roups they ve money to w be chosen wthout
reard to ther vews.
/ wth students' objectons to partcuar actvtes,
so on as the roups they ve money to w be
B l they have objectons to partcuar actvtes
and the roups that are ven the money are
C l they object to partcuar actvtes, but the
roups that the money s ven to have to be
0 lrom students who object to partcuar actvtes,
so on as the roups ven money are
L thouh students have an objecton to partcuar
actvtes, but the roups that are ven the
money be
LogicaI predication, hetoricaI construction
c undcrlincd portion ol thc scntcncc lails to
cstablish a clcar rclationship among uni.ersities,
students, and groups. To which ol thcsc thrcc docs
they rclcr: !t would appcar that thc uni.ersities
must givc thc moncy, but they docs not havc a
rclcrcnt. Furthcrmorc, they is lollowcd by their
.ie.s, and in this casc their must rclcr to groups.
Vordy and awkward phrasing as wcll as an
unncccssary shilt in vcrb tcnsc (.ill be chosen)
compound thc dilnculty ol undcrstanding this
scntcncc in its original lorm.
A !ith students` objections.is awkward and
dcnsc, they docs not havc a rclcrcnt, thc
luturc .ill be is incorrcct sincc thc Suprcmc
Court has alrcady ruled.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
98
8 Rclcrcnt lor they is student acti.ity fees,
which cannot possibly ha.e objections., thc
usc ol and is illogical.
C ey rclcrs to studcnt acti.ity fees rathcr than
students, but docs not havc thc rcquisitc
scnsc ol .ith the pro.ision that, ha.e to be is
wordy.
D Correct. !n this scntcncc, from students .ho
object is clcar and idiomatic, so long as is uscd
appropriatcly, groups gi.en money climinatcs
thc problcm ol a pronoun without a rclcrcnt,
are is thc propcr tcnsc.
Ha.e an objection is an unncccssarily wordy
way to say object, thc vcrb be docs not
complctc thc lattcr part ol thc scntcncc.
e correct answer is D.
43. 0espte the ncreasn number ol women raduatn
lrom aw schoo and passn bar examnatons, the
proporton ol judes and partners at major aw hrms
who are women have not rsen to a comparabe
extent.
/ the proporton ol judes and partners at major
aw hrms who are women have not rsen to a
comparabe extent
B the proporton ol women judes and partners at
major aw hrms have not rsen comparaby
C the proporton ol judes and partners at major
aw hrms who are women has not rsen
comparaby
0 yet the proporton ol women judes and
partners at major aw hrms has not rsen to a
comparabe extent
L yet the proporton ol judes and partners at
major aw hrms who are women has not rsen
comparaby
Agreement, hetoricaI construction
Vhcn a numbcr ol plural nouns appcar in phrascs
bctwccn a singular subjcct and thc vcrb, it can bc
casy to ovcrlook thc truc subjcct ol thc vcrb. Hcrc,
judges, partners, rms, and .omen all occur
bctwccn thc singular subjcct, proportion, and thc
vcrb, which should also bc singular, has risen.
Concisc cxprcssion is particularly important in a
long construction, to a comparable extent may bc
morc conciscly cxprcsscd as comparably.
A Plural vcrb, ha.e risen, docs not agrcc with
thc singular subjcct, proportion.
8 Ha.e risen docs not agrcc with proportion,
hcrc, .omen applics only to judges, not to
partners at major la. rms.
C Correct. !n this scntcncc, has risen agrccs
with proportion, and comparably is morc
concisc than to a comparable extent c
modilying clausc .ho are .omen lollows
(1) judges and (2) partners at major la. rms
as closcly as is possiblc givcn thc contcnt ol
thc scntcncc, this positioning has thc virtuc
ol bcing clcar in its mcaning.
c contrast has alrcady bccn introduccd by
despite, so thc addition ol yet is illogical and
ungrammatical, to a comparable extent is
wordy.
Despite introduccs thc contrast, adding yet is
illogical and rcsults in an ungrammatical
construction.
e correct answer is C.
44. 3edom more than 4C leet wde and Z leet deep,
but t ran 3b3 mes across the rued wderness
ol upstate New York, the Lre Cana connected the
Hudson bver at /bany to the 0reat lakes at Bullao,
provdn the port ol New York Cty wth a drect water
nk to the heartand ol the North /mercan contnent.
/ 3edom more than 4C leet wde and Z leet
deep, but t ran 3b3 mes across the rued
wderness ol upstate New York, the Lre Cana
connected
B 3edom more than 4C leet wde and Z leet
deep but runnn 3b3 mes across the rued
wderness ol upstate New York, the Lre Cana
connected
99
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
C lt was sedom more than 4C leet wde and Z
leet deep, and ran 3b3 mes across the rued
wderness ol upstate New York, but the Lre
Cana, connectn
0 1he Lre Cana was sedom more than 4C leet
wde or Z leet deep and t ran 3b3 mes
across the rued wderness ol upstate New
York, whch connected
L 1he Lre Cana, sedom more than 4C leet wde
and Z leet deep, but runnn 3b3 mes across
the rued wderness ol upstate New York,
connectn
LogicaI predication, GrammaticaI construction
c phrasc seldom.deep is thc nrst hall ol a
modincr that dcscribcs the Erie Canal. Howcvcr,
bccausc a comma incorrcctly lollows deep, this
phrasc appcars to bc thc cntirc modincr, which
must agrcc with thc noun or pronoun that
is phrasc cannot modily
thc conjunction but, and it has no rclcrcnt, but it
ran is not a logical or grammatical construction
lollowing thc modilying phrasc. Substituting
running lor it ran crcatcs an adjcctivc phrasc
parallcl to thc nrst adjcctivc phrasc (seldom...deep).
To contrast thc small sizc rcportcd in thc nrst
phrasc with thc grcat distancc rcportcd in thc
sccond, thc two phrascs may bc joincd with but,
togcthcr thcy crcatc a singlc modincr corrcctly
modilying the Erie Canal. e Erie Canal is thcn
thc subjcct ol thc scntcncc and rcquircs thc vcrb
connected to providc a logical statcmcnt.
A But it ran cannot logically or grammatically
lollow thc modilying phrasc.
B Correct. is scntcncc propcrly has thc
singlc modincr consisting ol two contrasting
parts.
C Ncithcr and nor but acts as a logical
conncctor, thc usc ol connecting rcsults in a
scntcncc lragmcnt.
c paircd conccpts ol width and dcpth
should bc joincd by and, not or, this
construction calls lor two main clauscs to bc
scparatcd by a comma altcr deep, .hich is
ambiguous.
c two halvcs ol thc modincr should not
bc scparatcd by a comma altcr deep, thc
subjcct is awkwardly and conlusingly placcd
at a grcat distancc lrom thc prcdicatc, thc
usc ol connecting rathcr than connected crcatcs
a scntcncc lragmcnt.
e correct answer is B.
4o. ln 9Z3, the 3upreme Court decared a mnmum wae
lor women and chdren n the 0strct ol Coumba as
unconsttutona, and run that t was a lorm ol prce
hxn and, as such, an abrdment ol the rht ol
contract.
/ the 3upreme Court decared a mnmum wae
lor women and chdren n the 0strct ol
Coumba as unconsttutona, and
B the 3upreme Court decared as unconsttutona
a mnmum wae lor women and chdren n the
0strct ol Coumba, and
C the 3upreme Court decared unconsttutona a
mnmum wae lor women and chdren n the
0strct ol Coumba,
0 a mnmum wae lor women and chdren n the
0strct ol Coumba was decared
unconsttutona by the 3upreme Court,
L when the 3upreme Court decared a mnmum
wae lor women and chdren n the 0strct ol
Coumba as unconsttutona,
Idiom, GrammaticaI construction
is scntcncc dcpcnds on thc corrcct usc ol an
idiom: the court declares x unconstitutional. c
invcrtcd lorm should bc uscd hcrc bccausc ol
thc long phrascs involvcd: the court declares
e Supreme Court is thc subjcct
ol thc scntcncc, declared is thc vcrb. Fuling.
contract acts a modincr dcscribing thc action ol
thc main clausc, bccausc thc modincr is
subordinatc to thc main clausc, thc conjunction
and must bc omittcd. nd is uscd to join two
indcpcndcnt clauscs, not a clausc and its modincr.
A Declared.as unconstitutional is not thc
corrcct idiom, thc usc ol and crcatcs an
ungrammatical construction.
8 Declared as unconstitutional is not thc corrcct
idiom, thc usc ol and crcatcs an
ungrammatical construction.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
100
C Correct. !n this scntcncc, thc corrcct idiom
is uscd, and thc modincr is grammatically
and logically attachcd to thc main clausc.
Passivc voicc construction is wcak and
wordy, its usc causcs thc modincr to bc
misplaccd and ambiguous.
Declared.as unconstitutional is not thc
corrcct idiom, .hen translorms thc main
clausc into a subordinatc clausc, rcsulting in
a scntcncc lragmcnt.
e correct answer is C.
4b. besearchers have lound that ndvduas who have
been bnd lrom brth, and who thus have never seen
anyone esture, nevertheess make hand motons
when speakn just as lrequenty and n vrtuay the
same way as shted peope do, and that they w
esture even when conversn wth another bnd
person.
/ who thus have never seen anyone esture,
nevertheess make hand motons when speakn
just as lrequenty and n vrtuay the same way
as shted peope do, and that they w esture
B who thus never saw anyone esturn,
nevertheess make hand motons when speakn
just as lrequent and n vrtuay the same way as
shted peope dd, and that they w esture
C who thus have never seen anyone esture,
nevertheess made hand motons when speakn
just as lrequenty and n vrtuay the same way
as shted peope do, as we as esturn
0 thus never havn seen anyone esture,
nevertheess made hand motons when speakn
just as lrequent and n vrtuay the same way as
shted peope dd, as we as esturn
L thus never havn seen anyone esture,
nevertheess to make hand motons when
speakn just as lrequenty and n vrtuay the
same way as shted peope do, and to esture
ParaIIeIism, Verb !orm, Diction
c rcscarchcrs havc lound (1) that indi.iduals.
make hand motions.as sighted people do and (2)
that they .ill gesture..ith another blind person. !n
thc original scntcncc, thc two nndings arc
rcportcd in two parallcl subordinatc clauscs
introduccd by that c vcrb tcnscs arc logical and
parallcl: .ho ha.e been blind and .ho ha.e ne.er
seen indicatc a condition that bcgan in thc past
and continucs in thc prcscnt, make and do rclcr to
c vcrb make (hand motions) is
corrcctly modincd by thc advcrb frequently to
show how thc action ol thc vcrb is carricd out.
c cmphatic luturc .ill gesture is propcrly uscd
hcrc with e.en to cmphasizc thc cxtrcmc or thc
uncxpcctcd.
A Correct. Although thc original scntcncc is
complicatcd, thc parallclism ol its structurc
and phrasing allows its mcaning to bc clcar
cctivc.
8 \crbs sa. and did indicatc action complctcd
in thc past, thc simplc past tcnsc is not
appropriatc in cithcr casc, thc adjcctivc
frequent cannot modily thc vcrb, awkward
and muddy.
C Made indicatcs past action, but thc
prcscnt tcnsc is logically rcquircd, as .ell as
gesturing violatcs thc parallclism ol thc two
subordinatc (that) clauscs, choppy and
unclcar.
Ha.ing seen is not parallcl to ha.e been,
made and did do not show ongoing action,
frequent incorrcctly modincs thc vcrb, as .ell
as gesturing dcstroys thc parallclism ol thc
two subordinatc (that) clauscs, awkward and
unclcar.
Rcplacing thc vcrb make with thc innnitivc
to make rcsults in an ungrammatical
construction that lails to complctc thc
scntcncc.
e correct answer is A.
101
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
4/. lke embryonc erm ces, whch are ces that
deveop eary n the lormaton ol the letus and that
ater enerate es or sperm, embryonc stem ces
have the abty ol deveopn themseves nto dllerent
knds ol body tssue.
/ embryonc stem ces have the abty ol
deveopn themseves nto dllerent knds ol
body tssue
B embryonc stem ces have the abty to deveop
nto dllerent knds ol body tssue
C n embryonc stem ces there s the abty to
deveop nto dllerent knds ol body tssue
0 the abty to deveop themseves nto dllerent
knds ol body tssue characterzes embryonc
stem ces
L the abty ol deveopn nto dllerent knds ol
body tssue characterzes embryonc stem ces
Idiom, GrammaticaI construction
Two constructions crcatc problcms in thc original
c nrst is thc unidiomatic construction
ha.e the ability of de.eloping, ability must bc
lollowcd by an innnitivc, to de.elop, not a phrasc.
c sccond problcmatic construction is to de.elop
themsel.es into. !n this biological contcxt, thc vcrb
de.elop mcans to progrcss lrom an carlicr to a latcr
stagc, it is uscd intransitivcly, which mcans that it
c pronoun themsel.es acts
as an objcct, crcating a construction that is not
grammatical or logical. mitting thc pronoun
rcmovcs thc problcm.
A bility is incorrcctly lollowcd by of
de.eloping, a pronoun cannot lollow de.elop,
whcn it is uscd, as it is hcrc, in its
intransitivc scnsc.
B Correct. bility is propcrly lollowcd by thc
innnitivc in this scntcncc, and thc pronoun
themsel.es is omittcd.
is awkward and wordy construction
violatcs thc parallclism ol like embryonic
germ cells.embryonic stem cells..
c two parts ol thc comparison must bc
parallcl, like embryonic germ cells must bc
lollowcd by embryonic stem cells, not the
ability to de.elop.
bility is lollowcd by thc unidiomatic of
de.eloping rathcr than to de.elop, thc main
clausc must bcgin with embryonic stem cells to
balancc and complctc like embryonic germ
cells.
e correct answer is B.
4. Crtcs contend that the new msse s a weapon
whose mportance s arey symboc, more a too
lor manpuatn peope's perceptons than to luh a
rea mtary need.
/ lor manpuatn peope's perceptons than to
luh
B lor manpuatn peope's perceptons than lor
luhn
C to manpuate peope's perceptons rather than
that t luhs
0 to manpuate peope's perceptons rather than
luhn
L to manpuate peope's perceptons than lor
luhn
ParaIIeIism
is scntcncc uscs thc comparativc construction
more x than y whcrc x and y must bc parallcl.
Hcrc, x is a tool for manipulating people`s
perceptions, and y is to fulll a real military need.
tool docs not nccd to bc rcpcatcd in thc sccond
hall ol thc comparison bccausc it is undcrstood,
but thc wording ol thc two phrascs docs nccd to
crc arc two acccptablc solutions: (1) for
manipulating can bc lollowcd by for fullling or
(2) to manipulate can bc lollowcd by to fulll.
A For manipulating is not parallcl to to fulll.
B Correct. For manipulating and for fullling
arc parallcl in this scntcncc.
C To manipulate is not parallcl to that it fullls.
To manipulate is not parallcl to fullling.
To manipulate is not parallcl to for fullling.
e correct answer is B.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
102
49. /s an actress and, more mportanty, as a teacher ol
actn, 3tea /der was one ol the most nNuenta
artsts n the /mercan theater, who traned severa
eneratons ol actors ncudn laron Brando and
bobert 0e Nro.
/ 3tea /der was one ol the most nNuenta
artsts n the /mercan theater, who traned
severa eneratons ol actors ncudn
B 3tea /der, one ol the most nNuenta artsts n
the /mercan theater, traned severa
eneratons ol actors who ncude
C 3tea /der was one ol the most nNuenta
artsts n the /mercan theater, trann severa
eneratons ol actors whose ranks ncuded
0 one ol the most nNuenta artsts n the
/mercan theater was 3tea /der, who traned
severa eneratons ol actors ncudn
L one ol the most nNuenta artsts n the
/mercan theater, 3tea /der, traned severa
eneratons ol actors whose ranks ncuded
LogicaI predication
c original scntcncc contains a numbcr ol
modincrs, but not all ol thcm arc corrcctly
c clausc .ho trained. dcscribcs
Stella dler, yct a rclativc clausc such as this onc
must bc placcd immcdiatcly altcr thc noun or
pronoun it modincs, and this clausc lollows
theater rathcr than dler. Rcplacing .ho trained
with training corrccts thc crror bccausc thc phrasc
training. modincs thc wholc prcccding clausc
rathcr than thc singlc prcccding noun. Se.eral
generations of actors including shows thc samc crror
in rcvcrsc, including modincs thc wholc phrasc,
but thc two actors namcd arc not generations of
actors c morc limiting clausc .hose ranks
included (rclcrring to actors) is appropriatc hcrc.
A Rclativc (.ho) clausc lollows theater rathcr
than dler, including rclcrs to generations of
actors, whcn thc rclcrcncc should bc to actors
only.
is construction, in which thc subjcct is
both prcccdcd and lollowcd by modincrs, is
awkward, thc vcrbs should bc consistcntly in
thc past tcnsc, but include is prcscnt tcnsc.
C Correct. !n this scntcncc, substituting
training lor .ho trained and .hose ranks
included lor including climinatcs thc
modincation crrors.
!ntroductory modincr must bc immcdiatcly
lollowcd by Stella dler, not one., including
rclcrs to generations of actors rathcr than to
actors only.
!ntroductory modincr must bc immcdiatcly
lollowcd by Stella dler, not one.
e correct answer is C.
oC. By deveopn the 3ecure 0ta lusc lntatve, the
recordn ndustry assocatons ol North /merca,
Japan, and Lurope hope to create a standardzed way
ol dstrbutn sons and luenth recordns on the
lnternet that w protect copyrht hoders and lo the
many audo prates who copy and dstrbute dta
musc eay.
/ ol dstrbutn sons and luenth recordns
on the lnternet that w protect copyrht hoders
and lo the many audo prates who copy and
dstrbute
B ol dstrbutn sons and luenth recordns
on the lnternet and to protect copyrht hoders
and lon the many audo prates copyn and
dstrbutn
C lor dstrbutn sons and luenth recordns
on the lnternet whe t protects copyrht
hoders and los the many audo prates who
copy and dstrbute
0 to dstrbute sons and luenth recordns on
the lnternet whe they w protect copyrht
hoders and lo the many audo prates copyn
and dstrbutn
L to dstrbute sons and luenth recordns on
the lnternet and t w protect copyrht hoders
and lon the many audo prates who copy and
dstrbute
103
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
ParaIIeIism
c original scntcncc dcpcnds on thc parallclism
ol its vcrbs to makc its point clcarly and
cctivcly. standardized .ay..ill protect and
(.ill undcrstood) foil, pirates.copy and distribute.
!n thc nrst pair ol parallcl vcrbs, .ill docs not
nccd to bc rcpcatcd bccausc it is undcrstood.
A Correct. c vcrbs .ill protect and (.ill ) foil
arc parallcl in this scntcncc, as arc thc vcrbs
copy and distribute.
8 nd to protect distorts mcaning, suggcsting
that protcction comcs in addition to the
standardized .ay, foiling is not parallcl to
to protect.
C !ay for should instcad bc .ay of, thc
pronoun rclcrcncc in .hile it protects is
ambiguous, construction suggcsts that
protcction comcs lrom somcthing othcr
than thc standardized .ay.
Pronoun they has no rclcrcnt, usc ol .hile
suggcsts that protcction comcs lrom
somcthing othcr than thc standardized .ay
ol distribution.
nd it .ill protect distorts mcaning,
suggcsting that protcction comcs in addition
to the standardized .ay, .ill protect and
foiling arc not parallcl.
e correct answer is A.
o. whereas a ramjet eneray cannot acheve hh
speeds wthout the nta assstance ol a rocket,
hh speeds can be attaned by scramjets, or
supersonc combuston ramjets, n that they reduce
arNow compresson at the entrance ol the enne
and ettn ar pass throuh at supersonc speeds.
/ hh speeds can be attaned by scramjets, or
supersonc combuston ramjets, n that they
reduce
B that hh speeds can be attaned by scramjets,
or supersonc combuston ramjets, s a resut ol
ther reducn
C the abty ol scramjets, or supersonc
combuston ramjets, to acheve hh speeds s
because they reduce
0 scramjets, or supersonc combuston ramjets,
have the abty ol attann hh speeds when
reducn
L scramjets, or supersonc combuston ramjets,
can attan hh speeds by reducn
hetoricaI construction
c undcrlincd portion ol thc original scntcncc is
cctivc. Translorming it lrom
passivc (high speeds can be attained by scramjets) to
activc voicc (scramjets can attain high speeds)
climinatcs much ol thc problcm. As thc subjcct ol
thc main clausc, scramjets corrcctly parallcls a
ramjet, thc subjcct ol thc subordinatc clausc, thc
cctivcly drawn. In
that they reduce is wordy and awkward, it can bc
rcplaccd by thc morc concisc phrasc by reducing.
A Passivc voicc contributcs to a wordy,
cctivc construction; in
that they reduce is also wordy and awkward.
8 Passivc voicc and subordinatc (that) clausc
constructions arc wordy, awkward, and
cctivc.
C e ability.is because is not a grammatical
construction, scramjets, not the ability, should
bc parallcl to a ramjet.
Ha.e the ability of attaining is wordy, .hen
cct
rclationship.
E Correct. Scramjets parallcls a ramjet lor an
cctivc contrast in this scntcncc, thc activc
voicc is clcar and concisc, by reducing shows
how scramjcts attain high spccds.
e correct answer is E.
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
104
oZ. lt w not be possbe to mpcate metn sea ce n
the coasta Noodn that many oba warmn modes
have projected: just ke a ass ol water that w not
overNow due to metn ce cubes, so metn sea ce
does not ncrease oceanc voume.
/ ke a ass ol water that w not overNow due to
metn ce cubes,
B ke metn ce cubes that do not cause a ass
ol water to overNow,
C a ass ol water w not overNow because ol
metn ce cubes,
0 as metn ce cubes that do not cause a ass
ol water to overNow,
L as metn ce cubes do not cause a ass ol
water to overNow,
Diction, ParaIIeIism
c prcposition like introduccs nouns and noun
phrascs, thc conjunction as introduccs vcrbs or
clauscs, so as c comparativc
construction uscd hcrc is just as x so y, x and y
c y clausc is writtcn in
cctivc subjcctvcrbobjcct ordcr: melting sea
ice does not increase oceanic .olume c original
wordy, awkward x clausc is not parallcl. To makc
it parallcl, melting ice cubes should bc thc subjcct
ol thc clausc, do not cause.to o.ero. thc vcrb
phrasc, and a glass of .ater thc objcct.
A Like is uscd in placc ol as, thc two clcmcnts
ol comparison arc not parallcl.
8 Like is uscd in placc ol as, that violatcs
parallclism.
C s or just as is nccdcd to introducc thc
clausc, thc two clauscs arc not parallcl.
at violatcs thc parallclism ol thc two
clauscs and crcatcs an ungrammatical
construction.
Correct. is scntcncc has just as propcrly
introducing thc nrst clausc, and thc two
clauscs arc parallcl.
e correct answer is E.
105
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
To register !or the GMAT test go to vvv.mba.com
106
4.0 Math eviev
107
4.0 Math eviev
4.0 Math eviev
Although this chaptcr providcs a rcvicw ol somc ol thc mathcmatical conccpts ol arithmctic,
algcbra, and gcomctry, it is not intcndcd to bc a tcxtbook. You should usc this chaptcr to lamiliarizc
yourscll with thc kinds ol topics that arc tcstcd in thc GMAT tcst. You may wish to consult an
arithmctic, algcbra, or gcomctry book lor a morc dctailcd discussion ol somc ol thc topics.
Scction 4.1, "Arithmctic," includcs thc lollowing topics:
1. Propcrtics ol !ntcgcrs 7. Powcrs and Roots ol Numbcrs
2. Fractions 8. cscriptivc Statistics
3. ccimals 9. Scts
4. Rcal Numbcrs 10. Counting Mcthods
5. Ratio and Proportion 11. iscrctc Probability
6. Pcrccnts
Scction 4.2, "Algcbra," docs not cxtcnd bcyond what is usually covcrcd in a nrstycar high school
c topics includcd arc as lollows:
1. Simplilying Algcbraic xprcssions 7. xponcnts
2. quations 8. !ncqualitics
3. Solving Lincar quations with nc Unknown 9. Absolutc \aluc
4. Solving Two Lincar quations with 10. Functions
Two Unknowns
5. Solving quations by Factoring
6. Solving Quadratic quations
Scction 4.3, "Gcomctry," is limitcd primarily to mcasurcmcnt and intuitivc gcomctry or spatial
visualization. xtcnsivc knowlcdgc ol thcorcms and thc ability to construct prools, skills that arc
c topics includcd in this scction arc
thc lollowing:
1. Lincs 6. Trianglcs
2. !ntcrsccting Lincs and Anglcs 7. Quadrilatcrals
3. Pcrpcndicular Lincs 8. Circlcs
4. Parallcl Lincs 9. Rcctangular Solids and Cylindcrs
5. Polygons (Convcx) 10. Coordinatc Gcomctry
Scction 4.4, "Vord Problcms," prcscnts cxamplcs ol and solutions to thc lollowing typcs ol word
problcms:
1. Ratc Problcms 6. Pront
2. Vork Problcms 7. Scts
3. Mixturc Problcms 8. Gcomctry Problcms
4. !ntcrcst Problcms 9. Mcasurcmcnt Problcms
5. iscount 10. ata !ntcrprctation
108
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
4.1 Arithmetic
1. Properties o! Integers
An integer is any numbcr in thc sct [. . . 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .]. !l x and y arc intcgcrs and x
thcn x is a di.isor (factor) ol y providcd that y  xn lor somc intcgcr n. !n this casc, y is also said to
bc di.isible by x or to bc a multiple ol x. For cxamplc, 7 is a divisor or lactor ol 28 sincc 28  (7)(4),
but 8 is not a divisor ol 28 sincc thcrc is no intcgcr n such that 28  8n.
!l x and y arc positivc intcgcrs, thcrc cxist uniquc intcgcrs q and r, callcd thc quotient and remainder,
rcspcctivcly, such that y  xq + r r x. For cxamplc, whcn 28 is dividcd by 8, thc quoticnt
is 3 and thc rcmaindcr is 4 sincc 28  (8)(3) 4. Notc that y is divisiblc by x il and only il thc
rcmaindcr r is 0, lor cxamplc, 32 has a rcmaindcr ol 0 whcn dividcd by 8 bccausc 32 is divisiblc
by 8. Also, notc that whcn a smallcr intcgcr is dividcd by a largcr intcgcr, thc quoticnt is 0 and thc
rcmaindcr is thc smallcr intcgcr. For cxamplc, 5 dividcd by 7 has thc quoticnt 0 and thc rcmaindcr 5
sincc 5  (7)(0) 5.
Any intcgcr that is divisiblc by 2 is an e.en integer, thc sct ol cvcn intcgcrs is
[. . . 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, . . .]. !ntcgcrs that arc not divisiblc by 2 arc odd integers,
[. . . 3, 1, 1, 3, 5, . . .] is thc sct ol odd intcgcrs.
!l at lcast onc lactor ol a product ol intcgcrs is cvcn, thcn thc product is cvcn, othcrwisc thc product
crcncc arc cvcn.
crcncc arc odd.
A prime crcnt positivc divisors, 1 and itscll.
crcnt
divisor. vcry intcgcr grcatcr than 1 cithcr is primc or can bc uniqucly cxprcsscd as a product ol
primc lactors. For cxamplc, 14  (2)(7), 81  (3)(3)(3)(3), and 484  (2)(2)(11)(11).
c numbcrs 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 arc consecuti.e integers. Consccutivc intcgcrs can bc rcprcscntcd
by n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, . . . , whcrc n is an i c numbcrs 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 arc consecuti.e e.en
integers, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 arc consecuti.e odd integers. Consccutivc cvcn intcgcrs can bc rcprcscntcd
by 2n, 2n + 2, 2n + 4, . . . , and consccutivc odd intcgcrs can bc rcprcscntcd by 2n + 1, 2n + 3,
2n + 5, . . . , whcrc n is an intcgcr.
Properties of the integer 1. !l n n  n, and lor any numbcr n n
1
n
 1.
c numbcr 1 can bc cxprcsscd in many ways, lor cxamplc,
n
n
 1 lor any numbcr n .
Multiplying or dividing an cxprcssion by 1, in any lorm, docs not changc thc valuc ol that
cxprcssion.
Properties of the integer 0 c intcgcr 0 is ncithcr positivc nor ncgativc. !l n is any numbcr,
thcn n + 0  n and n
4.1 Math eviev Arithmetic
109
2. fractions
!n a lraction
n
d
, n is thc numerator and d is thc denominator c dcnominator ol a lraction can ncvcr
bc 0, bccausc division by 0 is not dcnncd.
Two lractions arc said to bc equi.alent il thcy rcprcscnt thc samc numbcr. For cxamplc,
8
36
and
14
63
arc cquivalcnt sincc thcy both rcprcscnt thc numbcr
2
9
. !n cach casc, thc lraction is rcduccd to
lowcst tcrms by dividing both numcrator and dcnominator by thcir greatest common di.isor (gcd).
c gcd ol 8 and 36 is 4 and thc gcd ol 14 and 63 is 7.
Addition and subtraction o! !ractions.
Two lractions with thc samc dcnominator can bc addcd or subtractcd by pcrlorming thc rcquircd
opcration with thc numcrators, lcaving thc dcnominators thc samc. For cxamplc,
3
5
4
5
3 4
5
+
+
7
5
5
7
2
7
5 2
7
3
7
, and . !l two lractions do not havc thc samc dcnominator, cxprcss thcm as
cquivalcnt lractions with thc samc dcnominator. For cxamplc, to add
3
5
4
7
and , multiply thc
numcrator and dcnominator ol thc nrst lraction by 7 and thc numcrator and dcnominator ol thc
sccond lraction by 5, obtaining
21
35
20
35
21
35
20
35
41
35
and , rcspcctivcly, + .
For thc ncw dcnominator, choosing thc least common multiple (lcm) ol thc dcnominators
usually lcsscns thc work. For
2
3
1
6
+ , thc lcm ol 3 and 6 is 6 (not 3 6  18), so
2
3
1
6
2
3
2
2
1
6
4
6
1
6
5
6
+ + + .
MuItipIication and division o! !ractions.
To multiply two lractions, simply multiply thc two numcrators and multiply thc two dcnominators.
For cxamplc, .
2
3
4
7
2 4
3 7
8
21
To dividc by a lraction, invcrt thc divisor (that is, nnd its reciprocal) and multiply. For cxamplc
2
3
4
7
2
3
7
4
14
12
7
6
 .
!n thc problcm abovc, thc rcciprocal ol
4
7
7
4
is . !n gcncral, thc rcciprocal ol a lraction
n
d
d
n
is .
whcrc n and d arc not zcro.
110
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Mixed numbers.
A numbcr that consists ol a wholc numbcr and a lraction, lor cxamplc, 7
2
3
, is a mixcd numbcr:
7
2
3
mcans 7
2
3
.
To changc a mixcd numbcr into a lraction, multiply thc wholc numbcr by thc dcnominator ol thc
lraction and add this numbcr to thc numcrator ol thc lraction, thcn put thc rcsult ovcr thc
dcnominator ol thc lraction. For cxamplc, 7
2
3
3 7 2
3
 
23
3
.
( ) +
3. DecimaIs
!n thc dccimal systcm, thc position ol thc pcriod or decimal point dctcrmincs thc placc valuc ol thc
digits. For cxamplc, thc digits in thc numbcr 7,654.321 havc thc lollowing placc valucs:
7 , 6 5 4 . 3 2 1
Somc cxamplcs ol dccimals lollow.
0 321
3
10
2
100
1
1 000
321
1 000
0 0321
0
10
3
100
2
1 000
1
10 0
.
, ,
.
, ,
+ +
+ + +
000
321
10 000
1 56 1
5
10
6
100
156
100
+ +
,
.
Somctimcs dccimals arc cxprcsscd as thc product ol a numbcr with only onc digit to thc lclt ol thc
dccimal p is is callcd scientic notation. For cxamplc, 231 can bc writtcn as
2.31 10
2
and 0.0231 can bc writtcn as 2.31 10
2
. Vhcn a numbcr is cxprcsscd in scicntinc
notation, thc cxponcnt ol thc 10 indicatcs thc numbcr ol placcs that thc dccimal point is to bc
c
dccimal point is movcd to thc right il thc cxponcnt is positivc and to thc lclt il thc cxponcnt is
ncgativc. For cxamplc, 2.013 10
4
is cqual to 20,130 and 1.91 10
4
is cqual to 0.000191.
4.1 Math eviev Arithmetic
111
Addition and subtraction o! decimaIs.
To add or subtract two dccimals, thc dccimal points ol both numbcrs should bc lincd up. !l onc ol
thc numbcrs has lcwcr digits to thc right ol thc dccimal point than thc othcr, zcros may bc inscrtcd
to thc right ol thc last digit. For cxamplc, to add 17.6512 and 653.27, sct up thc numbcrs in a
column and add:
17 6512
653 2700
670 9212
.
.
.
+
Likcwisc lor 653.27 minus 17.6512:
653 2700
17 6512
635 6188
.
.
.
MuItipIication o! decimaIs.
To multiply dccimals, multiply thc numbcrs as il thcy wcrc wholc numbcrs and thcn inscrt thc
dccimal point in thc product so that thc numbcr ol digits to thc right ol thc dccimal point is cqual
to thc sum ol thc numbcrs ol digits to thc right ol thc dccimal points in thc numbcrs bcing
multiplicd. For cxamplc:
2090
2 09 2
627
. ( digits to thc right)
1.3 (1 digit to thc right)
2 digits to thc right) 2 717 1 3 . (
Division o! decimaIs.
To dividc a numbcr (thc dividcnd) by a dccimal (thc divisor), movc thc dccimal point ol thc divisor
cn movc thc dccimal point ol thc dividcnd thc
c dccimal point
in thc quoticnt will bc dircctly abovc thc dccimal point in thc ncw dividcnd. For cxamplc, to dividc
698.12 by 12.4:
)
12 4 698 12 . .
will bc rcplaccd by: ) 124 6981 2 .
and thc division would procccd as lollows:
)
124 6981 2
620
781
56 3
.
.
744
372
372
0
112
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
4. eaI Numbers
All real numbcrs corrcspond to points on thc numbcr linc and all points on thc numbcr linc
corrcspond to rcal numbcrs. All rcal numbcrs cxccpt zcro arc cithcr positivc or ncgativc.
3
2
0 2 2 .
] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ]
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
n a numbcr linc, numbcrs corrcsponding to points to thc lclt ol zcro arc ncgativc and numbcrs
corrcsponding to points to thc right ol zcro arc positivc. For any two numbcrs on thc numbcr linc,
thc numbcr to thc lclt is lcss than thc numbcr to thc right, lor cxamplc,
< < < < < 4 3
3
2
1 1 2 2 , and .
To say that thc numbcr n is bctwccn 1 and 4 on thc numbcr linc mcans that n 1 and n 4, that is,
1 n 4. !l n n
c distancc bctwccn a numbcr and zcro on thc numbcr linc is callcd thc absolute .alue ol thc
us 3 and 3 havc thc samc absolutc valuc, 3, sincc thcy arc both thrcc units lrom zcro.
c absolutc valuc ol 3 is dcnotcd ]3] . xamplcs ol absolutc valucs ol numbcrs arc
5 5 5
7
2
0 ,
7
2
, and 0
Notc that thc absolutc valuc ol any nonzcro numbcr is positivc.
Hcrc arc somc propcrtics ol rcal numbcrs that arc uscd lrcqucntly. !l x, y, and z arc rcal numbcrs, thcn
(1) x y  y x and xy  yx.
For cxamplc, 8 3  3 8  11, and (17)(5)  (5)(17)  85.
(2) (x y) z  x (y z) and (xy)z  x (yz).
For cxamplc, (7 5) 2  7 (5 2)  7 (7)  14, and 5 3 3 5 3 3 5 3 15
( )( )
( )
( )( ) .
(3) x(y z)  xy xz.
For cxamplc, 718(36) 718(64)  718(36 64)  718(100)  71,800.
(4) !l x and y arc both positivc, thcn x y and xy arc positivc.
(5) !l x and y arc both ncgativc, thcn x y is ncgativc and xy is positivc.
(6) !l x is positivc and y is ncgativc, thcn xy is ncgativc.
(7) !l xy  0, thcn x  0 or y  0. For cxamplc, 3y  0 implics y  0.
(8) ] x y x] ]y]. For cxamplc, il x  10 and y  2, thcn ]x y ]  ]12]  12  ]x] ]y ],
and il x  10 and y  2, thcn ]x y]  ]8]  8 12  ]x] ]y].
4.1 Math eviev Arithmetic
113
5. atio and Proportion
c ratio ol thc numbcr a to thc numbcr b (b
a
b
.
A ratio may bc cxprcsscd or rcprcscntcd in scvcral ways. For cxamplc, thc ratio ol 2 to 3 can bc
writtcn as 2 to 3, 2:3, or
2
3
c ordcr ol thc tcrms ol a ratio is important. For cxamplc, thc ratio ol
thc numbcr ol months with cxactly 30 days to thc numbcr with cxactly 31 days is
4
7
, not
7
4
.
A proportion is a statcmcnt that two ratios arc cqual, lor cxamplc,
2
3

8
12
is a proportion. nc way
to solvc a proportion involving an unknown is to cross multiply, obtaining a ncw cquality. For
cxamplc, to solvc lor n in thc proportion
2
3

n
12
, cross multiply, obtaining 24  3n, thcn dividc
both sidcs by 3, to gct n  8.
6. Percents
Percent mcans per hundred or number out of 100. A pcrccnt can bc rcprcscntcd as a lraction with a
dcnominator ol 100, or as a dccimal. For cxamplc, 37 
37
100
 0.37.
To nnd a ccrtain pcrccnt ol a numbcr, multiply thc numbcr by thc pcrccnt cxprcsscd as a dccimal or
lraction. For cxamplc:
20 90 0 2 90 18
20
100
90
1
5
90 18
.
.
ol
or
20 ol 90
Percents greater than 100%.
Pcrccnts grcatcr than 100 arc rcprcscntcd by numbcrs grcatcr than 1. For cxamplc:
300
300
100
3
250 2 5 80 200
. .
ol 80
Percents Iess than 1%.
c pcrccnt 0.5 mcans
1
2
ol 1 pcrccnt. For cxamplc, 0.5 ol 12 is cqual to 0.005 12  0.06.
Percent change.
ltcn a problcm will ask lor thc pcrccnt incrcasc or dccrcasc lrom onc quantity to anothcr quantity.
For cxamplc, "!l thc pricc ol an itcm incrcascs lrom 824 to 830, what is thc pcrccnt incrcasc in
pricc:" To nnd thc pcrccnt incrcasc, nrst nnd thc amount ol thc incrcasc, thcn dividc this incrcasc
by thc original amount, and cxprcss this quoticnt as a pcrccnt. !n thc cxamplc abovc, thc pcrccnt
crclorc,
thc pcrccnt incrcasc is
6
24
 0.25  25.
114
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Likcwisc, to nnd thc pcrccnt dccrcasc (lor cxamplc, thc pricc ol an itcm is rcduccd lrom 830 to 824),
nrst nnd thc amount ol thc dccrcasc, thcn dividc this dccrcasc by thc original amount, and cxprcss
this quoticnt as a pcrccnt. !n thc cxamplc abovc, thc amount ol dccrcasc is (30 24)  6.
crclorc, thc pcrccnt dccrcasc is
6
30
 0.20  20.
Notc that thc pcrccnt incrcasc lrom 24 to 30 is not thc samc as thc pcrccnt dccrcasc lrom 30 to 24.
!n thc lollowing cxamplc, thc incrcasc is grcatcr than 100 pcrccnt: !l thc cost ol a ccrtain housc in
1983 was 300 pcrccnt ol its cost in 1970, by what pcrccnt did thc cost incrcasc:
!l n is thc cost in 1970, thcn thc pcrccnt incrcasc is cqual to
7. Povers and oots o! Numbers
Vhcn a numbcr k is to bc uscd n timcs as a lactor in a product, it can bc cxprcsscd as k
n
, which
mcans thc nth powcr ol k. For cxamplc, 2
2
 2 2  4 and 2
3
 2 2 2  8 arc powcrs ol 2.
Squaring a numbcr that is grcatcr than 1, or raising it to a highcr powcr, rcsults in a largcr numbcr,
squaring a numbcr bctwccn 0 and 1 rcsults in a smallcr numbcr. For cxamplc:
A square root ol a numbcr n is a numbcr that, whcn squarcd, is cqual to n c squarc root ol a
ncgativc numbcr is not a rcal numbcr. vcry positivc numbcr n has two squarc roots, onc positivc
and thc othcr ncgativc, but dcnotcs thc positivc numbcr whosc squarc is n. For cxamplc,
c two squarc roots ol 9 arc  3 and  3.
vcry rcal numbcr r has cxactly onc rcal cube root, which is thc numbcr s such that s
3
 r. c rcal
cubc root ol r is dcnotcd by
8. Descriptive 5tatistics
A list ol numbcrs, or numcrical data, can bc dcscribcd by various statistical mcasurcs. nc ol thc
most common ol thcsc mcasurcs is thc a.erage, or (arithmetic) mean, which locatcs a typc ol "ccntcr"
c avcragc ol n numbcrs is dcnncd as thc sum ol thc n numbcrs dividcd by n. For
cxamplc, thc avcragc ol 6, 4, 7, 10, and 4 is
c median is anothcr typc ol ccntcr lor a list ol numbcrs. To calculatc thc mcdian ol n numbcrs,
nrst ordcr thc numbcrs lrom lcast to grcatcst, il n is odd, thc mcdian is dcnncd as thc middlc
numbcr, whcrcas il n is cvcn, thc mcdian is dcnncd as thc avcragc ol thc two middlc numbcrs. !n
thc cxamplc abovc, thc numbcrs, in ordcr, arc 4, 4, 6, 7, 10, and thc mcdian is 6, thc middlc numbcr.
4.1 Math eviev Arithmetic
115
For thc numbcrs 4, 6, 6, 8, 9, 12, thc mcdian is
6 8
2
 7. Notc that thc mcan ol thcsc numbcrs is 7.5.
c mcdian ol a sct ol data can bc lcss than, cqual to, or grcatcr than thc mcan. Notc that lor a largc
sct ol data (lor cxamplc, thc salarics ol 800 company cmployccs), it is oltcn truc that about hall ol
thc data is lcss than thc mcdian and about hall ol thc data is grcatcr than thc mcdian, but this is not
always thc casc, as thc lollowing data show.
3, 5, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 9, 10, 10
Hcrc thc mcdian is 7, but only
2
15
ol thc data is lcss than thc mcdian.
c mode ol a list ol numbcrs is thc numbcr that occurs most lrcqucntly in thc list. For cxamplc, thc
modc ol 1, 3, 6, 4, 3, 5 is 3. A list ol numbcrs may havc morc than onc modc. For cxamplc, thc list
1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 5, 7, 10, 10, 10, 20 has two modcs, 3 and 10.
c
simplcst mcasurc ol dispcrsion is thc range, which is dcnncd as thc grcatcst valuc in thc numcrical
data minus thc lcast valuc. For cxamplc, thc rangc ol 11, 10, 5, 13, 21 is 21 5  16. Notc how thc
rangc dcpcnds on only two valucs in thc data.
nc ol thc most common mcasurcs ol dispcrsion is thc standard de.iation. Gcncrally spcaking,
c standard
dcviation ol n numbcrs can bc calculatcd as lollows: (1) nnd thc arithmctic mcan, (2) nnd thc
crcnccs bctwccn thc mcan and cach ol thc n crcnccs, (4) nnd
crcnccs, and (5) takc thc nonncgativc squarc root ol this avcragc.
Shown bclow is this calculation lor thc data 0, 7, 8, 10, 10, which havc arithmctic mcan 7.
x x 7 (x 7)
2
0 7 49
7 0 0
8 1 1
10 3 9
10 3 9
Total 68
Standard dcviation
68
5
3 7 .
Noticc that thc standard dcviation dcpcnds on cvcry data valuc, although it dcpcnds most on valucs
that a is is why a distribution with data groupcd closcly around thc
mcan will havc a smallcr standard dcviation than will data sprcad lar lrom thc mcan. To illustratc
this, comparc thc data 6, 6, 6.5, 7.5, 9, which also havc mcan 7. Notc that thc numbcrs in thc sccond
sct ol data sccm to bc groupcd morc closcly around thc mcan ol 7 than thc numbcrs in thc nrst sct.
is is rccctcd in thc standard dcviation, which is lcss lor thc sccond sct (approximatcly 1.1) than
lor thc nrst sct (approximatcly 3.7).
crc arc many ways to display numcrical data that show how thc data arc distributcd. nc simplc
way is with a frequency distribution, which is usclul lor data that havc valucs occurring with varying
lrcqucncics. For cxamplc, thc 20 numbcrs
4 0 0 3 2 1 1 0 1 4
1 5 0 2 0 5 2 0 0 1
crcnt valuc x and thc
lrcqucncy f with which x occurs.
116
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
ata \aluc
x
Frcqucncy
f
5 2
4 2
3 1
2 3
1 5
0 7
Total 20
From thc lrcqucncy distribution, onc can rcadily computc dcscriptivc statistics:
Mcan: 
Mcdian: 1 (thc avcragc ol thc 10th and 11th numbcrs)
Modc: 0 (thc numbcr that occurs most lrcqucntly)
Rangc: 0 (5)  5
Standard dcviation:
9. 5ets
!n mathcmatics a set c objccts arc callcd thc elements
ol thc sct. !l S is a sct having a nnitc numbcr ol clcmcnts, thcn thc numbcr ol clcmcnts is dcnotcd
by ]S]. Such a sct is oltcn dcnncd by listing its clcmcnts, lor cxamplc, S [5, 0, 1] is a sct with ]S]  3.
c ordcr in which thc clcmcnts arc listcd in a sct docs not mattcr, thus [5, 0, 1]  [0, 1, 5]. !l all
thc clcmcnts ol a sct S arc also clcmcnts ol a sct T, thcn S is a subset ol T , lor cxamplc, S  [5, 0, 1]
is a subsct ol T  [5, 0, 1, 4, 10].
For any two scts and B, thc union ol and B is thc sct ol all clcmcnts that arc in or in B or in
c intersection ol and B is thc sct ol all clcmcnts that arc both in and in B c union
is dcnotcd by and thc intcrscction is dcnotcd by . As an cxamplc, il  [3, 4] and
B  [4, 5, 6], thcn  [3, 4, 5, 6] and  [4]. Two scts that havc no clcmcnts in common
arc said to bc disjoint or mutually exclusi.e.
c rclationship bctwccn scts is oltcn illustratcd with a !enn diagram in which scts arc rcprcscntcd
by rcgions in a planc. For two scts S and T that arc not disjoint and ncithcr is a subsct ol thc othcr,
thc intcrscction is rcprcscntcd by thc shadcd rcgion ol thc diagram bclow.
S T
is diagram illustratcs a lact about any two nnitc scts S and T : thc numbcr ol clcmcnts in thcir
union cquals thc sum ol thcir individual numbcrs ol clcmcnts minus thc numbcr ol clcmcnts in thcir
intcrscction (bccausc thc lattcr arc countcd twicc in thc sum), morc conciscly,
4.1 Math eviev Arithmetic
117
S T S T S T + .
is counting mcthod is callcd thc gcncral addition rulc lor two scts. As a spccial casc, il S and T
arc disjoint, thcn
S T S T +
sincc S T  0.
10. Counting Methods
crc arc somc usclul mcthods lor counting objccts and scts ol objccts without actually listing thc
c lollowing principlc ol multiplication is lundamcntal to thcsc mcthods.
!l an objcct is to bc choscn lrom a sct ol m objccts and a sccond objcct is to bc choscn lrom a
crcnt sct ol n objccts, thcn thcrc arc mn ways ol choosing both objccts simultancously.
As an cxamplc, supposc thc objccts arc itcms on a mcnu. !l a mcal consists ol onc cntrcc and onc
crcnt mcals
that can bc ordcrcd lrom thc mcnu. As anothcr cxamplc, cach timc a coin is ippcd, thcrc arc two
possiblc outcomcs, hcads and tails. !l an cxpcrimcnt consists ol 8 consccutivc coin ips, thcn thc
cxpcrimcnt has 2
8
possiblc outcomcs, whcrc cach ol thcsc outcomcs is a list ol hcads and tails in
somc ordcr.
A symbol that is oltcn uscd with thc multiplication principlc is thc factorial. !l n is an intcgcr
grcatcr than 1, thcn n lactorial, dcnotcd by thc symbol n!, is dcnncd as thc product ol all thc
intcgcrs lrom 1 to n crclorc,
2 1 2 2
3 1 2 3 6
4 1 2 3 4 24
! ( )( ) ,
! ( )( )( ) ,
! ( )( )( )( ) ,
ctc.
Also, by dcnnition, 0!  1!  1.
c lactorial is usclul lor counting thc numbcr ol ways that a sct ol objccts can bc ordcrcd. !l a
sct ol n objccts is to bc ordcrcd lrom 1st to nth, thcn thcrc arc n choiccs lor thc 1st objcct, n 1
choiccs lor thc 2nd objcct, n 2 choiccs lor thc 3rd objcct, and so on, until thcrc is only 1 choicc lor
thc n us, by thc multiplication principlc, thc numbcr ol ways ol ordcring thc n objccts is
n(n 1)(n 2) (3)(2)(1)  n!.
For cxamplc, thc numbcr ol ways ol ordcring thc lcttcrs A, 8, and C is 3!, or 6:
A8C, AC8, 8AC, 8CA, CA8, and C8A.
csc ordcrings arc callcd thc permutations ol thc lcttcrs A, 8, and C.
A pcrmutation can bc thought ol as a sclcction proccss in which objccts arc sclcctcd onc by onc in a
ccrtain ordcr. !l thc ordcr ol sclcction is not rclcvant and only k objccts arc to bc sclcctcd lrom a
largcr sct ol n crcnt counting mcthod is cmploycd.
118
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Spccincally, considcr a sct ol n objccts lrom which a complctc sclcction ol k objccts is to bc madc
k n cn thc numbcr ol possiblc complctc sclcctions ol k
objccts is callcd thc numbcr ol combinations ol n objccts takcn k at a timc and is dcnotcd by .
c valuc ol is givcn by .
Notc that is thc numbcr ol kclcmcnt subscts ol a sct with n clcmcnts. For cxamplc, il
S  [A, 8, C, , ], thcn thc numbcr ol 2clcmcnt subscts ol S, or thc numbcr ol combinations ol
5 lcttcrs takcn 2 at a timc, is
c subscts arc [A, 8], [A, C], [A, ], [A, ], [8, C], [8, ], [8, ], [C, ], [C, ,], and [, ].
Notc that bccausc cvcry 2clcmcnt subsct choscn lrom a sct ol 5 clcmcnts
corrcsponds to a uniquc 3clcmcnt subsct consisting ol thc clcmcnts not choscn.
!n gcncral,
11. Discrete ProbabiIity
Many ol thc idcas discusscd in thc prcccding thrcc topics arc important to thc study ol discrctc
probability. iscrctc probability is conccrncd with experiments that havc a nnitc numbcr ol outcomes.
Givcn such an cxpcrimcnt, an e.ent is a particular sct ol outcomcs. For cxamplc, rolling a numbcr
cubc with laccs numbcrcd 1 to 6 (similar to a 6sidcd dic) is an cxpcrimcnt with 6 possiblc
outcomcs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. nc cvcnt in this cxpcrimcnt is that thc outcomc is 4, dcnotcd [4],
anothcr cvcnt is that thc outcomc is an odd numbcr: [1, 3, 5].
c probability than an cvcnt E occurs, dcnotcd by P (E), is a numbcr bctwccn 0 and 1, inclusivc.
!l E has no outcomcs, thcn E is impossible and P (E )  0, il E is thc sct ol all possiblc outcomcs ol
thc cxpcrimcnt, thcn E is certain to occur and P (E)  1. thcrwisc, E is possiblc but unccrtain, and
0 P (E) 1. !l F is a subsct ol E, thcn P (F P (E). !n thc cxamplc abovc, il thc probability
ol cach ol thc 6 outcomcs is thc samc, thcn thc probability ol cach outcomc is
1
6
, and thc outcomcs
arc said to bc equally likely. For cxpcrimcnts in which all thc individual outcomcs arc cqually likcly,
thc probability ol an cvcnt E is
P (E) 
c numbcr ol outcomcs in E
c total numbcr ol possiblc outcomcs
.
!n thc cxamplc, thc probability that thc outcomc is an odd numbcr is
P 1 3 5
1 3 5
6
3
6
, ,
, ,
. { } ( )
=
{ }
=
Givcn an cxpcrimcnt with cvcnts E and F, thc lollowing cvcnts arc dcnncd:
"not E" is thc sct ol outcomcs that arc not outcomcs in E,
"E or F" is thc sct ol outcomcs in E or F or both, that is, E F,
"E and F" is thc sct ol outcomcs in both E and F, that is, E F.
4.1 Math eviev Arithmetic
119
c probability that E docs not occur is P (not E)  1 P (E c probability that "E or F " occurs is
P (E or F )  P (E) P (F ) P (E and F ), using thc gcncral addition rulc at thc cnd ol scction 4.1.9
("Scts"). For thc numbcr cubc, il E is thc cvcnt that thc outcomc is an odd numbcr, [1, 3, 5], and
F is thc cvcnt that thc outcomc is a primc numbcr, [2, 3, 5], thcn P (E and F )  P([3, 5]) 
2
6
and
so P(E or F)  P(E) P(F) P E F ( ) . and +
3
6
3
6
2
6
4
6
Notc that thc cvcnt "E or F " is E F
1 2 3 5 , , , , and hcncc P E F or ( ) =
{ }
=
1 2 3 5
6
4
6
, , ,
.
!l thc cvcnt "E and F " is impossiblc (that is, E F has no outcomcs), thcn E and F arc said to
bc mutually exclusi.e cvcnts, and P(E and F cn thc gcncral addition rulc is rcduccd to
P (E or F )  P (E) P (F ).
is is thc spccial addition rulc lor thc probability ol two mutually cxclusivc cvcnts.
Two cvcnts and B arc said to bc independent il thc occurrcncc ol cithcr cvcnt docs not altcr thc
probability that thc othcr cvcnt occurs. For onc roll ol thc numbcr cubc, lct  [2, 4, 6] and lct
B cn thc probability that occurs is P
( ) ,
6
3
6
1
2
whilc, presuming B occurs, thc
probability that occurs is
B
B
=
{ }
{ }
=
6
5 6
1
2
,
.
Similarly, thc probability that B occurs is P B
B
( ) ,
6
2
6
1
3
whilc, presuming occurs, thc
probability that B occurs is
B
=
{ }
{ }
=
6
2 4 6
1
3
, ,
.
cct thc probability that thc othcr cvcnt occurs.
crclorc, and B arc indcpcndcnt.
c lollowing multiplication rulc holds lor any indcpcndcnt cvcnts E and F:
P (E and F )  P (E) P (F ).
For thc indcpcndcnt cvcnts and B abovc, .
Notc that thc cvcnt " and B" is B P B P ( ) 6 6
1
6
, and hcncc and ( ) . !t lollows lrom
thc gcncral addition rulc and thc multiplication rulc abovc that il E and F arc indcpcndcnt, thcn
P (E or F) P(E) P (F ) P (E) P (F).
For a nnal cxamplc ol somc ol thcsc rulcs, considcr an cxpcrimcnt with cvcnts , B, and C lor which
P ()  0.23, P (B)  0.40, and P (C)  0.85. Also, supposc that cvcnts and B arc mutually cxclusivc
and cvcnts B and C cn
120
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Notc that P ( or C) and P ( and C) cannot bc dctcrmincd using thc inlormation givcn. 8ut it
can bc dctcrmincd that and C arc not mutually cxclusivc sincc P () P (C)  1.08, which is
grcatcr than 1, and thcrclorc cannot cqual P ( or C), lrom this it lollows that P ( and C
nc can also dcducc that P ( and C P ()  0.23, sincc is a subsct ol , and that
P ( or C P (C)  0.85 sincc C is a subsct ol . us, onc can concludc that
P ( or C P( and C
4.2 AIgebra
Algcbra is bascd on thc opcrations ol arithmctic and on thc conccpt ol an unkno.n quantity, or
.ariable. Lcttcrs such as x or n arc uscd to rcprcscnt unknown quantitics. For cxamplc, supposc
Pam has 5 morc pcncils than Frcd. !l F rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol pcncils that Frcd has, thcn thc
numbcr ol pcncils that Pam has is F 5. As anothcr cxamplc, il Jim's prcscnt salary S is incrcascd
by 7, thcn his ncw salary is 1.07S. A combination ol lcttcrs and arithmctic opcrations, such as
, is callcd an algebraic expression.
c cxprcssion 19x
2
6x 3 consists ol thc terms 19x
2
, 6x, and 3, whcrc 19 is thc coefcient ol x
2
,
6 is thc coclncicnt ol x
1
, and 3 is a constant term (or coclncicnt ol x
0
 1). Such an cxprcssion is
callcd a second degree (or quadratic) polynomial in x sincc thc highcst powcr ol x c cxprcssion
F 5 is a rst degree (or linear) polynomial in F sincc thc highcst powcr ol F c cxprcssion
is not a polynomial bccausc it is not a sum ol tcrms that arc cach powcrs ol x multiplicd
by coclncicnts.
1. 5impIi!ying AIgebraic Expressions
ltcn whcn working with algcbraic cxprcssions, it is ncccssary to simplily thcm by lactoring
or combining like tcrms. For cxamplc, thc cxprcssion 6x + 5x is cquivalcnt to (6 5)x, or 11x.
!n thc cxprcssion 9x 3y, 3 is a lactor common to both tcrms: 9x 3y  3(3x y). !n thc cxprcssion
5x
2
6y, thcrc arc no likc tcrms and no common lactors.
!l thcrc arc common lactors in thc numcrator and dcnominator ol an cxprcssion, thcy can bc dividcd
out, providcd that thcy arc not cqual to zcro.
For cxamplc, il x
x 3
x 3
is cqual to 1, thcrclorc,
121
4.2 Math eviev AIgebra
To multiply two algcbraic cxprcssions, cach tcrm ol onc cxprcssion is multiplicd by cach tcrm ol thc
othcr cxprcssion. For cxamplc:
An algcbraic cxprcssion can bc cvaluatcd by substituting valucs ol thc unknowns in thc cxprcssion.
For cxamplc, il x  3 and y  2, thcn 3xy x
2
y can bc cvaluatcd as
3(3)(2) (3)
2
(2)  18 9 2  29
2. Equations
A major locus ol algcbra is to solvc cquations involving algcbraic cxprcssions. Somc cxamplcs ol
such cquations arc
0 on thc othcr (an cquation that is lactorcd on onc sidc with
5 2 9
3 1 2
x x
x y
(a lincar cquation with onc unknown)
(a lincar cquation with two unknowns)
5 3 2 7
2
x x x (a quadratic cquation with onc unknown)
x x x
x
( )( )
3 5
4
0
2
)
c solutions ol an cquation with onc or morc unknowns arc thosc valucs that makc thc cquation
truc, or "satisly thc cquation," whcn thcy arc substitutcd lor thc unknowns ol thc cquation. An
cquation may havc no solution or onc or morc solutions. !l two or morc cquations arc to bc solvcd
togcthcr, thc solutions must satisly all thc cquations simultancously.
Two cquations having thc samc solution(s) arc equi.alent equations. For cxamplc, thc cquations
2 x  3
4 2x  6
cach havc thc uniquc solution x  1. Notc that thc sccond cquation is thc nrst cquation multiplicd
by 2. Similarly, thc cquations
3x y  6
6x 2y  12
havc thc samc solutions, although in this casc cach cquation has innnitcly many solutions. !l any
valuc is assigncd to x, thcn 3x 6 is a corrcsponding valuc lor y that will satisly both cquations, lor
cxamplc, x  2 and y  0 is a solution to both cquations, as is x  5 and y  9.
122
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
3. 5oIving Linear Equations vith One Unknovn
To solvc a lincar cquation with onc unknown (that is, to nnd thc valuc ol thc unknown that satisncs
is can bc donc by
pcrlorming thc samc mathcmatical opcrations on both sidcs ol thc cquation. Rcmcmbcr that il thc
samc numbcr is addcd to or subtractcd lrom both sidcs ol thc cquation, this docs not changc thc
cquality, likcwisc, multiplying or dividing both sidcs by thc samc nonzcro numbcr docs not changc
thc cquality. For cxamplc, to solvc thc cquation
5x 6
3
 4 lor x, thc variablc x can bc isolatcd using
thc lollowing stcps:
5 6 12
18
18
5
x
5x
x
(multiplying by 3)
(adding 6)
(dividing g by 5)
c solution,
18
5
, can bc chcckcd by substituting it lor x in thc original cquation to dctcrminc
whcthcr it satisncs that cquation:
crclorc, x 
18
5
is thc solution.
4. 5oIving Tvo Linear Equations vith Tvo Unknovns
For two lincar cquations with two unknowns, il thc cquations arc cquivalcnt, thcn thcrc arc
innnitcly many solutions to thc cquations, as illustratcd at thc cnd ol scction 4.2.2 ("quations").
c
lattcr casc is illustratcd by thc two cquations:
3x 4y  17
6x 8y  35
Notc that 3x 4y  17 implics 6x 8y us, no valucs
ol x and y can simultancously satisly both cquations.
crc arc scvcral mcthods ol solving two lincar cquations with two unknowns. Vith any mcthod,
il a contradiction is rcachcd, thcn thc cquations havc no solution, il a trivial cquation such as 0  0
is rcachcd, thcn thc cquations arc cquivalcnt and havc innnitcly many solutions. thcrwisc, a
uniquc solution can bc lound.
nc way to solvc lor thc two unknowns is to cxprcss onc ol thc unknowns in tcrms ol thc othcr using
onc ol thc cquations, and thcn substitutc thc cxprcssion into thc rcmaining cquation to obtain an
is cquation can bc solvcd and thc valuc ol thc unknown substitutcd
into cithcr ol thc original cquations to nnd thc valuc ol thc othcr unknown. For cxamplc, thc
lollowing two cquations can bc solvcd lor x and y.
123
4.2 Math eviev AIgebra
(1) 3x 2y  11
(2) x y  2
!n cquation (2), x  2 y. Substitutc 2 y in cquation (1) lor x:
3 2 2 11
6 3 2 11
6 5 11
5 5
1
( ) + +
+ +
+
y y
y y
y
y
y
!l y  1, thcn x 1  2 and x  2 1  3.
crc is anothcr way to solvc lor x and y is can bc donc by
making thc coclncicnts ol onc ol thc unknowns thc samc (disrcgarding thc sign) in both cquations
and cithcr adding thc cquations or subtracting onc cquation lrom thc othcr. For cxamplc, to solvc
thc cquations
(1) 6x 5y  29
(2) 4x 3y  6
by this mcthod, multiply cquation (1) by 3 and cquation (2) by 5 to gct
18x 15y  87
20x 15y  30
Adding thc two cquations climinatcs y, yiclding 38x  57, or x 
3
2
. Finally, substituting
3
2
lor x
in onc ol thc cquations givcs y csc answcrs can bc chcckcd by substituting both valucs into
both ol thc original cquations.
5. 5oIving Equations by factoring
Somc cquations can bc solvcd by lactoring. To do this, nrst add or subtract cxprcssions to bring all
cn try to lactor thc nonzcro
sidc into a product ol cxprcssions. !l this is possiblc, thcn using propcrty (7) in scction 4.1.4 ("Rcal
Numbcrs") cach ol thc lactors can bc sct cqual to 0, yiclding scvcral simplcr cquations that possibly
c solutions ol thc simplcr cquations will bc solutions ol thc lactorcd cquation. As
an cxamplc, considcr thc cquation x
3
2x
2
x  5(x 1)
2
:
x
3
2x
2
x 5(x 1)
2
 0
x(x
2
2x 1) 5(x 1)
2
 0
x(x 1)
2
5(x 1)
2
 0
(x 5)(x 1)
2
 0
x 5  0 or (x 1)
2
 0
x  5 or x  1.
For anothcr cxamplc, considcr
x(x  3)(x
2
5)
x 4
 0. A lraction cquals 0 il and only il its numcrator
us, x(x 3)(x
2
5)  0:
124
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
x  0 or x 3  0 or x
2
5  0
x  0 or x  3 or x
2
5  0.
8ut x
2
5  0 has no rcal solution bccausc x
2
us, thc solutions
arc 0 and 3.
c solutions ol an cquation arc also callcd thc roots csc roots can bc chcckcd by
substituting thcm into thc original cquation to dctcrminc whcthcr thcy satisly thc cquation.
6. 5oIving uadratic Equations
c standard lorm lor a quadratic equation is
ax
2
bx c  0,
whcrc a, b, and c arc rcal numbcrs and a
Somc quadratic cquations can casily bc solvcd by lactoring. For cxamplc:
(1)
(2)
A quadratic cquation has at most two rcal roots and may havc just onc or cvcn no rcal root. For
cxamplc, thc cquation x
2
6x 9  0 can bc cxprcsscd as (x 3)
2
 0, or (x 3)(x 3)  0, thus thc
c cquation x
2
4  0 has no rcal root, sincc thc squarc ol any rcal numbcr is grcatcr
than or cqual to zcro, x
2
4 must bc grcatcr than zcro.
An cxprcssion ol thc lorm a
2
 b
2
can bc lactorcd as (a b)(a b).
For cxamplc, thc quadratic cquation 9x
2
25  0 can bc solvcd as lollows.
!l a quadratic cxprcssion is not casily lactorcd, thcn its roots can always bc lound using thc quadratic
formula: !l ax
2
bx c  0 (a
125
4.2 Math eviev AIgebra
csc arc two distinct rcal numbcrs unlcss b
2
4ac b
2
4ac  0, thcn thcsc two cxprcssions
lor x arc cqual to
b
2a
, and thc cquation has only onc root. !l is not a
rcal numbcr and thc cquation has no rcal roots.
7. Exponents
A positivc intcgcr cxponcnt ol a numbcr or a variablc indicatcs a product, and thc positivc intcgcr is
thc numbcr ol timcs that thc numbcr or variablc is a lactor in thc product. For cxamplc, x
5
mcans
(x)(x)(x)(x)(x), that is, x is a lactor in thc product 5 timcs.
Somc rulcs about cxponcnts lollow.
Lct x and y bc any positivc numbcrs, and lct r and s bc any positivc intcgcrs.
!t can bc shown that rulcs 16 also apply whcn r and s arc not intcgcrs and arc not positivc, that is,
whcn r and s arc any rcal numbcrs.
8. InequaIities
An inequality is a statcmcnt that uscs onc ol thc lollowing symbols:
> grcatcr than
grcatcr than or cqual to
< lcss than
lcss than or cqual to
126
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Somc cxamplcs ol incqualitics arc 5 3 9 6
3
4
x x y , , and
1
2
. Solving a lincar incquality
with onc unknown is similar to solving an cquation, thc unknown is isolatcd on onc sidc ol thc
incquality. As in solving an cquation, thc samc numbcr can bc addcd to or subtractcd lrom both
sidcs ol thc incquality, or both sidcs ol an incquality can bc multiplicd or dividcd by a positivc
numbcr without changing thc truth ol thc incquality. Howcvcr, multiplying or dividing an
incquality by a ncgativc numbcr rcvcrscs thc ordcr ol thc incquality. For cxamplc, 6 ~ 2, but
(1)(6) (1)(2).
To solvc thc incquality 3x 2 ~ 5 lor x, isolatc x by using thc lollowing stcps:
3 2 5
3 7
7
3
x
x
x
>
>
>
(adding 2 to both sidcs)
dividing both sid ( ccs by 3)
To solvc thc incquality
5x 1
2
3 lor x, isolatc x by using thc lollowing stcps:
5 1
5 1 6
5 5
x
x
x
2
3
(multiplying both sidcs by 2)
(adding 1 to both sidcs)
(dividing both sidcs by 5) x 1
9. AbsoIute VaIue
10. functions
An algcbraic cxprcssion in onc variablc can bc uscd to dcnnc a function ol that variablc. A lunction
is dcnotcd by a lcttcr such as f or g along with thc variablc in thc cxprcssion. For cxamplc, thc
cxprcssion x
3
5x
2
2 dcnncs a lunction f that can bc dcnotcd by
f (x)  x
3
5x
2
2.
c cxprcssion
2 7
1
z
z
+
+
dcnncs a lunction g that can bc dcnotcd by
g z
z
z
( )
+
+
2 7
1
c symbols " f (x)" or "g (z)" do not rcprcscnt products, cach is mcrcly thc symbol lor an cxprcssion,
and is rcad " f ol x" or "g ol z."
Function notation providcs a short way ol writing thc rcsult ol substituting a valuc lor a variablc.
!l x  1 is substitutcd in thc nrst cxprcssion, thc rcsult can bc writtcn f (1)  2, and f (1) is callcd
thc "valuc ol f at x  1." Similarly, il z  0 is substitutcd in thc sccond cxprcssion, thcn thc valuc
ol g at z  0 is g(0)  7.
127
4.3 Math eviev Geometry
ncc a lunction f (x) is dcnncd, it is usclul to think ol thc variablc x as an input and f (x) as thc
corrcsponding output. !n any lunction thcrc can bc no morc than onc output lor any givcn input.
Howcvcr, morc than onc input can givc thc samc output, lor cxamplc, il h (x)  ]x 3], thcn
h (4)  1  h (2).
c sct ol all allowablc inputs lor a lunction is callcd thc domain ol thc lunction. For f and g dcnncd
abovc, thc domain ol f is thc sct ol all rcal numbcrs and thc domain ol g is thc sct ol all numbcrs
c domain ol any lunction can bc arbitrarily spccincd, as in thc lunction dcnncd
by "h(x)  9x x
ol x that rcsult in a rcal numbcr whcn substitutcd into thc lunction.
c domain ol a lunction can consist ol only thc positivc intcgcrs and possibly 0. For cxamplc,
a(n)  n
2
n
5
lor n  0, 1, 2, 3, . . . .
Such a lunction is callcd a sequence and a(n) is dcnotcd by a
n
c valuc ol thc scqucncc a
n
at n  3
is . As anothcr cxamplc, considcr thc scqucncc dcnncd by b
n
 (1)
n
(n!) lor
n  1, 2, 3, . . . . A scqucncc likc this is oltcn indicatcd by listing its valucs in thc ordcr
b
1
, b
2
, b
3
, . . . , b
n
, . . . as lollows:
1, 2, 6, . . . , (1)
n
(n!), . . . , and (1)
n
(n!) is callcd thc nth tcrm ol thc scqucncc.
4.3 Geometry
1. Lines
!n gcomctry, thc word "linc" rclcrs to a straight linc that cxtcnds without cnd in both dircctions.
c linc abovc can bc rclcrrcd to as linc PQ or linc c part ol thc linc lrom P to Q is callcd a
line segment. P and Q arc thc endpoints c notation PQ is uscd to dcnotc linc
scgmcnt PQ and PQ is uscd to dcnotc thc lcngth ol thc scgmcnt.
2. Intersecting Lines and AngIes
!l two lincs intcrscct, thc oppositc anglcs arc callcd .ertical angles and havc thc samc mcasurc.
!n thc ngurc
PFQ and SFT arc vcrtical anglcs and QFS and PFT arc vcrtical anglcs. Also, x y  180
sincc PFS is a straight linc.
128
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
3. PerpendicuIar Lines
An anglc that has a mcasurc ol 90 is a right angle. !l two lincs intcrscct at right anglcs, thc lincs arc
perpendicular. For cxamplc:
1
and
2
abovc arc pcrpcndicular, dcnotcd by
1
2
. A right anglc symbol in an anglc ol
intcrscction indicatcs that thc lincs arc pcrpcndicular.
4. ParaIIeI Lines
!l two lincs that arc in thc samc planc do not intcrscct, thc two lincs arc parallel. !n thc ngurc
lincs
1
and
2
arc parallcl, dcnotcd by
1
2
. !l two parallcl lincs arc intcrscctcd by a third linc, as
shown bclow, thcn thc anglc mcasurcs arc rclatcd as indicatcd, whcrc x y  180.
yx
x y
yx
xy
5. PoIygons (Convex)
A polygon is a closcd planc ngurc lormcd by thrcc or morc linc scgmcnts, callcd thc sides ol thc
c points ol intcrscction ol
thc sidcs arc .ertices c tcrm "polygon" will bc uscd to mcan a convcx polygon, that is, a polygon
in which cach intcrior anglc has a mcasurc ol lcss than 180.
c lollowing ngurcs arc polygons:
c lollowing ngurcs arc not polygons:
129
4.3 Math eviev Geometry
A polygon with thrcc sidcs is a triangle, with lour sidcs, a quadrilateral, with nvc sidcs, a pentagon,
and with six sidcs, a hexagon.
c sum ol thc intcrior anglc mcasurcs ol a trianglc is 180. !n gcncral, thc sum ol thc intcrior
anglc mcasurcs ol a polygon with n sidcs is cqual to (n 2)180. For cxamplc, this sum lor a
pcntagon is (5 2)180  (3)180  540 dcgrccs.
Notc that a pcntagon can bc partitioncd into thrcc trianglcs and thcrclorc thc sum ol thc anglc
mcasurcs can bc lound by adding thc sum ol thc anglc mcasurcs ol thrcc trianglcs.
c perimeter ol a polygon is thc sum ol thc lcngths ol its sidcs.
c commonly uscd phrasc "arca ol a trianglc" (or any othcr planc ngurc) is uscd to mcan thc arca ol
thc rcgion cncloscd by that ngurc.
6. TriangIes
crc arc scvcral spccial typcs ol trianglcs with important propcrtics. 8ut onc propcrty that all
trianglcs sharc is that thc sum ol thc lcngths ol any two ol thc sidcs is grcatcr than thc lcngth ol thc
third sidc, as illustratcd bclow.
x
y
z
x + y z, x + z y, and y + z x
An equilateral trianglc has all sidcs ol cqual lcngth. All anglcs ol an cquilatcral trianglc havc cqual
mcasurc. An isosceles trianglc has at lcast two sidcs ol thc samc lcngth. !l two sidcs ol a trianglc
havc thc samc lcngth, thcn thc two anglcs oppositc thosc sidcs havc thc samc mcasurc. Convcrscly,
il two anglcs ol a trianglc havc thc samc mcasurc, thcn thc sidcs oppositc thosc anglcs havc thc
samc lcngth. !n isoscclcs trianglc PQF bclow, x  y sincc PQ  QF.
y x
Q
P F
10 10
130
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
A trianglc that has a right anglc is a right trianglc. !n a right trianglc, thc sidc oppositc thc right
anglc is thc hypotenuse, and thc othcr two sidcs arc thc legs. An important thcorcm conccrning right
trianglcs is thc Pythagorean theorem, which statcs: !n a right trianglc, thc squarc ol thc lcngth ol thc
hypotcnusc is cqual to thc sum ol thc squarcs ol thc lcngths ol thc lcgs.
6
8
FST is a right trianglc, so (FS)
2
(FT)
2
 (ST )
2
. Hcrc, FS  6 and FT  8,
so ST  10, sincc 6
2
8
2
 36 64  100  (ST )
2
and ST  100 . Any trianglc in which thc lcngths
ol thc sidcs arc in thc ratio 3:4:5 is a right trianglc. !n gcncral, il a, b, and c arc thc lcngths ol thc
sidcs ol a trianglc and a
2
+ b
2
 c
2
, thcn thc trianglc is a right trianglc.
L
K
J
45
2
45
Z
Y
X
30
3
60
!n 454590 trianglcs, thc lcngths ol thc sidcs arc in thc ratio 1:1: 2 JKL,
il JL  2, thcn JK  2 and KL  2 2 . !n 306090 trianglcs, thc lcngths ol thc sidcs arc in thc
ratio 1: 3 XYZ, il XZ  3, thcn XY  3 3 and YZ  6.
c altitude ol a trianglc is thc scgmcnt drawn lrom a vcrtcx pcrpcndicular to thc sidc oppositc that
vcrtcx. Rclativc to that vcrtcx and altitudc, thc oppositc sidc is callcd thc base.
c arca ol a trianglc is cqual to:
(thc lcngth ol thc altitudc) (thc lcngth ol thc basc)
2
D
E
B
C
8
BD  3
BC, BD is thc altitudc to basc C and E is thc altitudc to basc BC BC is
cqual to
BD C
2
5 8
2
20 .
131
4.3 Math eviev Geometry
c arca is also cqual to
E BC
2
BC abovc is isoscclcs and B  BC, thcn altitudc BD
bisccts thc basc, that is, D  DC  4. Similarly, any altitudc ol an cquilatcral trianglc bisccts thc
sidc to which it is drawn.
D
60
G
E
F
30
6
!n cquilatcral trianglc DEF, il DE  6, thcn DG  3 and EG  3 3 DEF is cqual
to
3 3 6
2
9 3
.
7. uadriIateraIs
A polygon with lour sidcs is a quadrilateral. A quadrilatcral in which both pairs ol oppositc sidcs arc
parallcl is a parallelogram c oppositc sidcs ol a parallclogram also havc cqual lcngth.
K
L
M
J
N
6
4
!n parallclogram JKLM, JK LM and JK  LM, KL JM and KL  JM.
c diagonals ol a parallclogram biscct cach othcr (that is, KN  NM and JN  NL).
c arca ol a parallclogram is cqual to
(thc lcngth ol thc altitudc) (thc lcngth ol thc basc).
c arca ol JKLM is cqual to 4 6  24.
A parallclogram with right anglcs is a rectangle, and a rcctanglc with all sidcs ol cqual lcngth is
a square.
X
!
Y
Z
3
7
c pcrimctcr ol !XYZ  2(3) 2(7)  20 and thc arca ol !XYZ is cqual to 3 7  21.
c diagonals ol a rcctanglc arc cqual, thcrclorc !Y XZ + 9 49 58.
132
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
P
F
S
16
12
Q
8
A quadrilatcral with two sidcs that arc parallcl, as shown abovc, is a trapezoid c arca ol trapczoid
PQFS may bc calculatcd as lollows:
1
2
(thc sum ol thc lcngths ol thc bascs)(thc hcight) 
1
2
(QF PS)(8) 
1
2
(28 8)  112.
8. CircIes
A circle is a sct ol points in a planc that arc all locatcd thc samc distancc lrom a nxcd point (thc
center ol thc circlc).
A chord ol a circlc is a linc scgmcnt that has its cndpoints on thc circlc. A chord that passcs through
thc ccntcr ol thc circlc is a diameter ol thc circlc. A radius ol a circlc is a scgmcnt lrom thc ccntcr ol
c words "diamctcr" and "radius" arc also uscd to rclcr to thc
lcngths ol thcsc scgmcnts.
c circumference ol a circlc is thc distancc around thc circlc. !l r is thc radius ol thc circlc, thcn thc
circumlcrcncc is cqual to 2 r, whcrc is approximatcly
22
7
c area ol a circlc ol radius r is
cqual to r
2
.
K
P F
J
O
7
!n thc circlc abovc, O is thc ccntcr ol thc circlc and JK and PF arc chords. PF is a diamctcr and OF
is a radius. !l OF  7, thcn thc circumlcrcncc ol thc circlc is 2 (7)  14 and thc arca ol thc circlc is
(7)
2
 49 .
c numbcr ol dcgrccs ol arc in a circlc (or thc numbcr ol dcgrccs in a complctc rcvolution) is 360.
133
4.3 Math eviev Geometry
S
T
F
O x
!n thc circlc with ccntcr O abovc, thc lcngth ol arc FST is
x
360
ol thc circumlcrcncc ol thc circlc,
lor cxamplc, il x  60, thcn arc FST has lcngth
1
6
ol thc circumlcrcncc ol thc circlc.
A linc that has cxactly onc point in common with a circlc is said to bc tangent to thc circlc, and that
common point is callcd thc point of tangency. A radius or diamctcr with an cndpoint at thc point ol
tangcncy is pcrpcndicular to thc tangcnt linc, and, convcrscly, a linc that is pcrpcndicular to a
diamctcr at onc ol its cndpoints is tangcnt to thc circlc at that cndpoint.
O T
c linc abovc is tangcnt to thc circlc and radius OT is pcrpcndicular to .
!l cach vcrtcx ol a polygon lics on a circlc, thcn thc polygon is inscribed in thc circlc and thc circlc is
circumscribed about thc polygon. !l cach sidc ol a polygon is tangcnt to a circlc, thcn thc polygon is
circumscribed about thc circlc and thc circlc is inscribed in thc polygon.
Q F
S P
B
C D
E
F
!n thc ngurc abovc, quadrilatcral PQFS is inscribcd in a circlc and hcxagon BCDEF is
circumscribcd about a circlc.
!l a trianglc is inscribcd in a circlc so that onc ol its sidcs is a diamctcr ol thc circlc, thcn thc trianglc
is a right trianglc.
134
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
X Z
Y
O
!n thc circlc abovc, XZ is a diamctcr and thc mcasurc ol XYZ is 90.
9. ectanguIar 5oIids and CyIinders
A rectangular solid is a thrccdimcnsional ngurc lormcd by 6 rcctangular surlaccs, as shown bclow.
ach rcctangular surlacc is a face. ach solid or dottcd linc scgmcnt is an edge, and cach point at
which thc cdgcs mcct is a .ertex. A rcctangular solid has 6 laccs, 12 cdgcs, and 8 vcrticcs. ppositc
laccs arc parallcl rcctanglcs that havc thc samc dimcnsions. A rcctangular solid in which all cdgcs
arc ol cqual lcngth is a cube.
c surface area c .olumc is
cqual to
(lcngth) (width) (hcight),
in othcr words, (arca ol basc) (hcight).
Q
F
U !
! T
P
4
3 S
8
c surlacc arca is cqual to
2(3 4) + 2(3 8) + 2(4 8) c volumc is cqual to 3 4 8 96.
O
P
c ngurc abovc is a right circular cylinder c two bascs arc circlcs ol thc samc sizc with ccntcrs
O and P, rcspcctivcly, and altitudc (hcight) OP c surlacc arca ol a
right circular cylindcr with a basc ol radius r and hcight h r
2
) + rh (thc sum ol thc
arcas ol thc two bascs plus thc arca ol thc curvcd surlacc).
r
2
h, that is,
(arca ol basc) (hcight).
135
4.3 Math eviev Geometry
8
5
!n thc cylindcr abovc, thc surlacc arca is cqual to
+
and thc volumc is cqual to
10. Coordinate Geometry
y
x
O
3
!\
!!!
! !!
2
1
1 2 3 4
1
2
3
1 2 3 4
c ngurc abovc shows thc (rcctangular) coordinate plane c horizontal linc is callcd thc xaxis
and thc pcrpcndicular vcrtical linc is callcd thc yaxis c point at which thcsc two axcs intcrscct,
dcsignatcd O, is callcd thc origin c axcs dividc thc planc into lour quadrants, !, !!, !!!, and !\,
as shown.
ach point in thc planc has an xcoordinate and a ycoordinate. A point is idcntincd by an ordcrcd
pair (x,y) ol numbcrs in which thc xcoordinatc is thc nrst numbcr and thc ycoordinatc is thc
sccond numbcr.
136
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
y
x
O
3
2
1
1
2
3
1 2 3 4 1 2 4 5 3 5
4
5
4
5
Q
P
!n thc graph abovc, thc (x,y ) coordinatcs ol point P arc (2,3) sincc P is 2 units to thc right ol
thc yaxis (that is, x 2) and 3 units abovc thc xaxis (that is, y 3). Similarly, thc (x,y ) coordinatcs
ol point Q c origin O has coordinatcs (0,0).
nc way to nnd thc distancc bctwccn two points in thc coordinatc planc is to usc thc Pythagorcan
thcorcm.
y
O
S
F
(2,4)
(3,3)
Z
x
To nnd thc distancc bctwccn points F and S using thc Pythagorcan thcorcm, draw thc trianglc as
shown. Notc that Z has (x,y) coordinatcs (2,3), FZ 7, and ZS crclorc, thc distancc
bctwccn F and S is cqual to
For a linc in thc coordinatc planc, thc coordinatcs ol cach point on thc linc satisly a lincar cquation
ol thc lorm y mx + b (or thc lorm x a il thc linc is vcrtical). For cxamplc, cach point on thc linc
on thc ncxt pagc satisncs thc cquation y
1
2
x + 1. nc can vcrily this lor thc points (2,2), (2,0),
and (0,1) by substituting thc rcspcctivc coordinatcs lor x and y in thc cquation.
137
4.3 Math eviev Geometry
y
x
O
2
1
1
1 2 3 1 2 3
(2,2)
(0,1)
(2,0)
!n thc cquation y mx + b ol a linc, thc coclncicnt m is thc slope ol thc linc and thc constant tcrm b
is thc yintercept ol thc linc. For any two points on thc linc, thc slopc is dcnncd to bc thc ratio ol thc
crcncc in thc y crcncc in thc xcoordinatcs. Using (2, 2) and (2, 0) abovc,
thc slopc is
1 y
xcoordinatcs
0 2
2 2
2
4 2 ( )
.
c yintcrccpt is thc ycoordinatc ol thc point at which thc linc intcrsccts thc yaxis. For thc linc
abovc, thc yintcrccpt is 1, and this is thc rcsulting valuc ol y whcn x is sct cqual to 0 in thc
cquation y 
1
2
x c xintercept is thc xcoordinatc ol thc point at which thc linc intcrsccts
thc x c xintcrccpt can bc lound by sctting y  0 and solving lor x. For thc linc y
1
2
x 1,
this givcs
+
1
2
1 0
1
2
1
2
x
x
x
.
us, thc xintcrccpt is 2.
Givcn any two points (x
1
,y
1
) and (x
2
,y
2
) with x
1
x
2
, thc cquation ol thc linc passing through
thcsc points can bc lound by applying thc dcnnition ol slopc. Sincc thc slopc is m 
y
2
 y
1
x
2
 x
1
,
thcn using a point known to bc on thc linc, say (x
1
,y
1
), any point (x,y) on thc linc must satisly
y  y
1
x  x
1
 m, or y y
1
 m(x x
1
). (Using (x
2
,y
2
) as thc known point would yicld an cquivalcnt
cquation.) For cxamplc, considcr thc points (2,4) and (3,3) on thc linc bclow.
y
x
O
3
2
1
1
2
3
1 2 3 4 1 2 4 3
4
5
4
5
(2,4)
(3,3)
138
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
c slopc ol this linc is
3 4
3 2
7
5 ( )
, so an cquation ol this linc can bc lound using thc point
(3,3) as lollows:
y
y x
y x
( )
.
3
7
5
3
3
7
5
21
5
7
5
6
5
( ) x
c yintcrccpt is
6
5
c xintercept can bc lound as lollows:
0
7
5
6
5
7
5
6
5
6
7
+
x
x
x
8oth ol thcsc intcrccpts can bc sccn on thc graph.
!l thc slopc ol a linc is ncgativc, thc linc slants downward lrom lclt to right, il thc slopc is positivc,
thc linc slants upward. !l thc slopc is 0, thc linc is horizontal, thc cquation ol such a linc is ol thc
lorm y b sincc m 0. For a vcrtical linc, slopc is not dcnncd, and thc cquation is ol thc lorm x a,
whcrc a is thc xintcrccpt.
crc is a conncction bctwccn graphs ol lincs in thc coordinatc planc and solutions ol two lincar
cquations with two unknowns. !l two lincar cquations with unknowns x and y havc a uniquc
solution, thcn thc graphs ol thc cquations arc two lincs that intcrscct in onc point, which is thc
solution. !l thc cquations arc cquivalcnt, thcn thcy rcprcscnt thc samc linc with innnitcly many
points or solutions. !l thc cquations havc no solution, thcn thcy rcprcscnt parallcl lincs, which
do not intcrscct.
crc is also a conncction bctwccn lunctions (scc scction 4.2.10) and thc coordinatc planc. !l a
crcnt and usclul
ways. Considcr thc lunction dcnncd by
f x x ( ) . +
7
5
6
5
!l thc valuc ol thc lunction, f (x), is cquatcd with thc variablc y, thcn thc graph ol thc lunction in thc
xycoordinatc planc is simply thc graph ol thc cquation
y x
7
5
6
5
shown abovc. Similarly, any lunction f (x) can bc graphcd by cquating y with thc valuc ol thc
lunction:
y f (x).
139
4.3 Math eviev Geometry
So lor any x in thc domain ol thc lunction f, thc point with coordinatcs (x, f (x)) is on thc graph ol f,
and thc graph consists cntircly ol thcsc points.
As anothcr cxamplc, considcr a quadratic polynomial lunction dcnncd by f (x) x
2
1. nc can plot
scvcral points (x, f (x)) on thc graph to undcrstand thc conncction bctwccn a lunction and its graph:
x f (x)
2 3
1 0
0 1
1 0
2 3
y
x
O
2
1
1
1 2 1 2
(2,3) (2,3)
(1,0)
3
2
(1,0)
!l all thc points wcrc graphcd lor 2 x 2, thcn thc graph would appcar as lollows.
y
x
O
2
1
1
1 2 1 2
3
2
c graph ol a quadratic lunction is callcd a parabola and always has thc shapc ol thc curvc abovc,
although it may bc upsidc down or havc a grcatcr or lcsscr width. Notc that thc roots ol thc cquation
f (x)  x
2
1  0 arc x  1 and x  1, thcsc coincidc with thc xintcrccpts sincc xintcrccpts arc
lound by sctting y  0 and solving lor x. Also, thc yintcrccpt is f (0)  1 bccausc this is thc valuc
ol y corrcsponding to x  0. For any lunction f, thc xintcrccpts arc thc solutions ol thc cquation
f (x)  0 and thc yintcrccpt is thc valuc f (0).
140
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
4.4 Word ProbIems
c lollowing
discussion ol word problcms illustratcs somc ol thc tcchniqucs and conccpts uscd in solving such
problcms.
1. ate ProbIems
c distancc that an objcct travcls is cqual to thc product ol thc avcragc spccd at which it travcls and
thc amount ol timc it takcs to travcl that distancc, that is,
Ratc Timc istancc.
Example 1: !l a car travcls at an avcragc spccd ol 70 kilomctcrs pcr hour lor 4 hours, how many
kilomctcrs docs it travcl:
Solution: Sincc ratc timc distancc, simply multiply 70 km/hour us, thc car travcls
280 kilomctcrs in 4 hours.
To dctcrminc thc avcragc ratc at which an objcct travcls, dividc thc total distancc travclcd by thc
total amount ol travcling timc.
Example 2: n a 400milc trip, Car X travclcd hall thc distancc at 40 milcs pcr hour (mph) and thc
othcr hall at 50 mph. Vhat was thc avcragc spccd ol Car X :
Solution: First it is ncccssary to dctcrminc thc amount ol travcling timc. uring thc nrst 200 milcs,
thc car travclcd at 40 mph, thcrclorc, it took
200
40
 5 hours to travcl thc nrst 200 milcs.
uring thc sccond 200 milcs, thc car travclcd at 50 mph, thcrclorc, it took
200
50
 4 hours to travcl
us, thc avcragc spccd ol Car X was
400
9
 44
4
9
mph. Notc that thc avcragc
spccd is not
40 + 50
2
 45.
Somc ratc problcms can bc solvcd by using ratios.
Example l: !l 5 shirts cost 844, thcn, at this ratc, what is thc cost ol 8 shirts:
Solution: !l c is thc cost ol thc 8 shirts, thcn
5
44

8
c
. Cross multiplication rcsults in thc cquation
5c  8 44  352
c 
352
5
 70.40
c 8 shirts cost 870.40.
141
4.4 Math eviev Word ProbIems
2. Work ProbIems
!n a work problcm, thc ratcs at which ccrtain pcrsons or machincs work alonc arc usually givcn, and
it is ncccssary to computc thc ratc at which thcy work togcthcr (or vicc vcrsa).
c basic lormula lor solving work problcms is
1
r
+
1
s
1
h
, whcrc r and s arc, lor cxamplc, thc
numbcr ol hours it takcs Rac and Sam, rcspcctivcly, to complctc a job whcn working alonc, and
h c rcasoning
is that in 1 hour Rac docs
1
r
ol thc job, Sam docs
1
s
ol thc job, and Rac and Sam togcthcr do
1
h
ol
thc job.
Example 1: !l Machinc X can producc 1,000 bolts in 4 hours and Machinc Y can producc 1,000
bolts in 5 hours, in how many hours can Machincs X and Y, working togcthcr at thcsc constant
ratcs, producc 1,000 bolts:
Solution:
1
4
1
5
1
5
20
4
20
1
9
20
1
9 20
20
9
2
2
9
+
+
h
h
h
h
h
Vorking togcthcr, Machincs X and Y can producc 1,000 bolts in 2
2
9
hours.
Example 2: !l Art and Rita can do a job in 4 hours whcn working togcthcr at thcir rcspcctivc
constant ratcs and Art can do thc job alonc in 6 hours, in how many hours can Rita do thc job
alonc:
Solution:
1
6
1 1
4
6
6
1
4
4 24 6
24 2
12
+
+
F
F
F
F F
F
F
Vorking alonc, Rita can do thc job in 12 hours.
142
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
3. Mixture ProbIems
crcnt charactcristics arc combincd, and it is ncccssary to
dctcrminc thc charactcristics ol thc rcsulting mixturc.
Example 1: !l 6 pounds ol nuts that cost 81.20 pcr pound arc mixcd with 2 pounds ol nuts that cost
81.60 pcr pound, what is thc cost pcr pound ol thc mixturc:
Solution:
6(81.20) 2(81.60)  810.40.
c cost pcr pound is
810.40
8
 81.30.
Example 2: How many litcrs ol a solution that is 15 pcrccnt salt must bc addcd to 5 litcrs ol a
solution that is 8 pcrccnt salt so that thc rcsulting solution is 10 pcrccnt salt:
Solution: Lct n c amount ol salt in thc 15
solution 0.15n plus thc amount ol salt in thc 8 solution (0.08)(5) must bc cqual to thc amount ol
salt in thc 10 mixturc 0.10 (n crclorc,
0.15n 0.08(5)  0.10(n 5)
15n 40  10n 50
5n  10
n  2 litcrs
Two litcrs ol thc 15 salt solution must bc addcd to thc 8 solution to obtain thc 10 solution.
4. Interest ProbIems
!ntcrcst can bc computcd in two basic ways. Vith simplc annual intcrcst, thc intcrcst is computcd
on thc principal only and is cqual to (principal) (intcrcst ratc) (timc). !l intcrcst is compoundcd,
thcn intcrcst is computcd on thc principal as wcll as on any intcrcst alrcady carncd.
Example 1: !l 88,000 is invcstcd at 6 pcrccnt simplc annual intcrcst, how much intcrcst is carncd
altcr 3 months:
Solution: Sincc thc annual intcrcst ratc is 6, thc intcrcst lor 1 ycar is
(0.06)(88,000)  8480.
c intcrcst carncd in 3 months is
3
12
(8480) 8120.
Example 2: !l 810,000 is invcstcd at 10 pcrccnt annual intcrcst, compoundcd scmiannually, what is
thc balancc altcr 1 ycar:
Solution: c balancc altcr thc nrst 6 months would bc
10,000 + (10,000)(0.05) 810,500.
c balancc altcr onc ycar would bc 10,500 + (10,500)(0.05) 811,025.
143
4.4 Math eviev Word ProbIems
Notc that thc intcrcst ratc lor cach 6month pcriod is 5, which is hall ol thc 10 annual ratc.
c balancc altcr onc ycar can also bc cxprcsscd as
5. Discount
!l a pricc is discountcd by n pcrccnt, thcn thc pricc bccomcs (100 n) pcrccnt ol thc original pricc.
Example 1: A ccrtain customcr paid 824 lor a drcss. !l that pricc rcprcscntcd a 25 pcrccnt discount
on thc original pricc ol thc drcss, what was thc original pricc ol thc drcss:
Solution: !l p is thc original pricc ol thc drcss, thcn 0.75p is thc discountcd pricc and 0.75p 824,
or p c original pricc ol thc drcss was 832.
Example 2: c pricc ol an itcm is discountcd by 20 pcrccnt and thcn this rcduccd pricc is discountcd
csc two discounts arc cqual to an ovcrall discount ol what pcrccnt:
Solution: !l p is thc original pricc ol thc itcm, thcn 0.8p c pricc
altcr thc sccond discount is (0.7)(0.8)p 0.56p is rcprcscnts an ovcrall discount ol 44 pcrccnt
(100 56).
6. Prot
Gross pront is cqual to rcvcnucs minus cxpcnscs, or sclling pricc minus cost.
Example: A ccrtain appliancc costs a mcrchant 830. At what pricc should thc mcrchant scll thc
appliancc in ordcr to makc a gross pront ol 50 pcrccnt ol thc cost ol thc appliancc:
Solution: !l s is thc sclling pricc ol thc appliancc, thcn s 30 (0.5)(30), or s c mcrchant
should scll thc appliancc lor 845.
7. 5ets
!l S is thc sct ol numbcrs 1, 2, 3, and 4, you can writc S  [1, 2, 3, 4]. Scts can also bc rcprcscntcd by
at is, thc rclationship among thc mcmbcrs ol scts can bc rcprcscntcd by circlcs.
Example 1: ach ol 25 pcoplc is cnrollcd in history, mathcmatics, or both. !l 20 arc cnrollcd in
history and 18 arc cnrollcd in mathcmatics, how many arc cnrollcd in both history and
mathcmatics:
Solution:
us a \cnn diagram may bc
drawn as lollows, whcrc n is thc numbcr ol pcoplc cnrollcd in both courscs, 20 n is thc numbcr
cnrollcd in history only, and 18 n is thc numbcr cnrollcd in mathcmatics only.
144
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
20 n 18 n n
History
Mathcmatics
Sincc thcrc is a total ol 25 pcoplc, (20 n) + n + (18 n) 25, or n irtccn pcoplc arc
cnrollcd in both history and mathcmatics. Notc that 20 + 18 13 25, which is thc gcncral
addition rulc lor two scts (scc scction 4.1.9).
Example 2: !n a ccrtain production lot, 40 pcrccnt ol thc toys arc rcd and thc rcmaining toys arc
grccn. Hall ol thc toys arc small and hall arc largc. !l 10 pcrccnt ol thc toys arc rcd and small, and
40 toys arc grccn and largc, how many ol thc toys arc rcd and largc.
Solution: For this kind ol problcm, it is hclplul to organizc thc inlormation in a tablc:
Rcd Grccn Total
Small 10 50
Largc 50
Total 40 60 100
c lollowing pcrccntagcs can bc computcd on
thc basis ol what is givcn:
Rcd Grccn Total
Small 10 40 50
Largc 30 20 50
Total 40 60 100
Sincc 20 ol thc numbcr ol toys (n) arc grccn and largc, 0.20n 40 (40 toys arc grccn and largc), or
n crclorc, 30 ol thc 200 toys, or (0.3)(200) 60, arc rcd and largc.
8. Geometry ProbIems
c lollowing is an cxamplc ol a word problcm involving gcomctry.
Example:
200 mctcrs
c ngurc abovc shows an acrial vicw ol a piccc ol land. !l all anglcs shown arc right anglcs, what is
thc pcrimctcr ol thc piccc ol land:
145
4.4 Math eviev Word ProbIems
Solution: For rclcrcncc, labcl thc ngurc as
Q F
S
T
S
U
P
!
!
!l all thc anglcs arc right anglcs, thcn QF + ST + U! P!, and FS + TU !! PQ. Hcncc, thc
pcrimctcr ol thc land is 2P! + 2PQ 2 200 + 2 200 800 mctcrs.
9. Measurement ProbIems
Somc qucstions on thc GMAT involvc mctric units ol mcasurc, whcrcas othcrs involvc nglish
units ol mcasurc. Howcvcr, cxccpt lor units ol timc, il a qucstion rcquircs convcrsion lrom onc unit
ol mcasurc to anothcr, thc rclationship bctwccn thosc units will bc givcn.
Example: A train travcls at a constant ratc ol 25 mctcrs pcr sccond. How many kilomctcrs docs it
travcl in 5 minutcs: (1 kilomctcr  1,000 mctcrs)
Solution: !n 1 minutc thc train travcls (25)(60)  1,500 mctcrs, so in 5 minutcs it travcls
7,500 mctcrs. Sincc 1 kilomctcr  1,000 mctcrs, it lollows that 7,500 mctcrs cquals
7,500
1,000
, or
7.5 kilomctcrs.
10. Data Interpretation
ccasionally a qucstion or sct ol qucstions will bc bascd on data providcd in a tablc or graph. Somc
cxamplcs ol tablcs and graphs arc givcn bclow.
Example 1:
PopuIation by Age Group
(in lhousands)
Agc Population
17 ycars and undcr 63,376
1844 ycars 86,738
4564 ycars 43,845
65 ycars and ovcr 24,054
How many pcoplc arc 44 ycars old or youngcr:
Solution c answcr in thousands can bc obtaincd
150,114,000.
146
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Example 2:
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AND
PRECPTATON N CTY
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Prccipitation
(righthand scalc)
Tcmpcraturc
(lclthand scalc)
January April July ctobcr
Vhat arc thc avcragc tcmpcraturc and prccipitation in City X during April:
Solution: Notc that thc scalc on thc lclt applics to thc tcmpcraturc linc graph and thc onc on thc
right applics to thc prccipitation linc graph. According to thc graph, during April thc avcragc
tcmpcraturc is approximatcly 14 Cclsius and thc avcragc prccipitation is approximatcly
8 ccntimctcrs.
Example l:
DSTRBUTON OI AL'S WEEKLY NET SALARY
Food
15
Rcnt and
Utilitics
10
30
Savings
25
thcr
20
Fucl and
!nsurancc
lor Automobilc
Al's wcckly nct salary is 8350. To how many ol thc catcgorics listcd was at lcast 880 ol Al's wcckly
nct salary allocatcd:
Solution: !n thc circlc graph, thc rclativc sizcs ol thc scctors arc proportional to thcir corrcsponding
valucs and thc sum ol thc pcrccnts givcn is 100. Notc that
80
350
is approximatcly 23, so at lcast
880 was allocatcd to cach ol 2 catcgoricsRcnt and Utilitics, and Savingssincc thcir allocations
arc cach grcatcr than 23.
147
To register !or the GMAT test go to vvv.mba.com
4.4 Math eviev Word ProbIems
148
5.0 ProbIem 5oIving
149
5.0 ProbIem 5oIving
c Quantitativc scction ol thc GMAT tcst uscs problcm solving and data sulncicncy qucstions to
is chaptcr locuscs on problcm solving qucstions. Rcmcmbcr that
quantitativc qucstions rcquirc knowlcdgc ol thc lollowing:
Arithmctic
lcmcntary algcbra
Commonly known conccpts ol gcomctry
Problcm solving qucstions arc dcsigncd to tcst your basic mathcmatical skills and undcrstanding ol
clcmcntary mathcmatical conccpts, as wcll as your ability to rcason quantitativcly, solvc quantitativc
c mathcmatics knowlcdgc rcquircd to answcr thc qucstions
is no morc advanccd than what is gcncrally taught in sccondary school (or high school) mathcmatics
classcs.
!n thcsc qucstions, you arc askcd to solvc cach problcm and sclcct thc bcst ol thc nvc answcr
choiccs givcn. 8cgin by rcading thc qucstion thoroughly to dctcrminc cxactly what inlormation is
givcn and to makc surc you undcrstand what is bcing askcd. Scan thc answcr choiccs to undcrstand
your options. !l thc problcm sccms simplc, takc a lcw momcnts to scc whcthcr you can dctcrminc
cn chcck your answcr against thc choiccs providcd.
!l you do not scc your answcr among thc choiccs, or il thc problcm is complicatcd, takc a closcr
look at thc answcr choiccs and think again about what thc problcm is asking. Scc whcthcr you can
climinatc somc ol thc answcr choiccs and narrow down your options. !l you arc still unablc to
narrow thc answcr down to a singlc choicc, rcrcad thc qucstion. Kccp in mind that thc answcr will
bc bascd solcly on thc inlormation providcd in thc qucstiondon't allow your own cxpcricncc and
assumptions to intcrlcrc with your ability to nnd thc corrcct answcr to thc qucstion.
!l you nnd yourscll stuck on a qucstion or unablc to sclcct thc singlc corrcct answcr, kccp in mind
that you havc about two minutcs to answcr cach quantitativc qucstion. You may run out ol timc il
you takc too long to answcr any onc qucstion, so you may simply nccd to pick thc answcr that sccms
to makc thc most scnsc. Although gucssing is gcncrally not thc bcst way to achicvc a high GMAT
scorc, making an cducatcd gucss is a good stratcgy lor answcring qucstions you arc unsurc ol. vcn
il your answcr to a particular qucstion is incorrcct, your answcrs to othcr qucstions will allow thc
tcst to accuratcly gaugc your ability lcvcl.
c lollowing pagcs includc tcsttaking stratcgics, dircctions that will apply to qucstions ol this
csc cxplanations
prcscnt problcm solving stratcgics that could bc hclplul in answcring thc qucstions.
5.0 ProbIem 5oIving
150
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
5.1 TestTaking 5trategies
1. Pace yourseI!.
Consult thc onscrccn timcr pcriodically. Vork as carclully as possiblc, but do not spcnd
valuablc timc chccking answcrs or pondcring problcms that you nnd dilncult.
2. Use the erasabIe notepad provided.
Vorking a problcm out may hclp you avoid crrors in solving thc problcm. !l diagrams or
ngurcs arc not prcscntcd, it may hclp il you draw your own.
3. ead each question care!uIIy to determine vhat is being asked.
For word problcms, takc onc stcp at a timc, rcading cach scntcncc carclully and translating thc
inlormation into cquations or othcr usclul mathcmatical rcprcscntations.
4. 5can the ansver choices be!ore attempting to ansver a question.
Scanning thc answcrs can prcvcnt you lrom putting answcrs in a lorm that is not givcn
(c.g., nnding thc answcr in dccimal lorm, such as 0.25, whcn thc choiccs arc givcn in lractional
lorm, such as
1
4
). Also, il thc qucstion rcquircs approximations, a shortcut could scrvc wcll
(c.g., you may bc ablc to approximatc 48 pcrccnt ol a numbcr by using hall).
5. Don't vaste time trying to soIve a probIem that is too di!cuIt !or you.
Makc your bcst gucss and movc on to thc ncxt qucstion.
5.2 The Directions
csc dircctions arc vcry similar to thosc you will scc lor problcm solving qucstions whcn you takc
thc GMAT tcst. !l you rcad thcm carclully and undcrstand thcm clcarly bclorc sitting lor thc
GMAT tcst, you will not nccd to spcnd too much timc rcvicwing thcm oncc thc tcst bcgins.
Solvc thc problcm and indicatc thc bcst ol thc answcr choiccs givcn.
Numbers All numbcrs uscd arc rcal numbcrs.
Iigures A ngurc accompanying a problcm solving qucstion is intcndcd to providc inlormation
usclul in solving thc problcm. Figurcs arc drawn as accuratcly as possiblc. xccptions will bc clcarly
c
positions ol points, anglcs, rcgions, ctc., cxist in thc ordcr shown, and anglc mcasurcs arc grcatcr
than zcro. All ngurcs lic in a planc unlcss othcrwisc indicatcd.
151
5.2 ProbIem 5oIving The Directions
To register !or the GMAT test go to vvv.mba.com
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
152
. / project schedued to be carred out over a sne
hsca year has a budet ol SZ,bCC, dvded nto
Z equa monthy aocatons. /t the end ol the lourth
month ol that hsca year, the tota amount actuay
spent on the project was S4,oC. By how much was
the project over ts budet'
/ S 3C
B S o4C
C S,CoC
0 S,3C
L S,43C
Z. ll the sum ol o, , Z, and o s equa to the sum ol 3,
4, x, and x + 3, what s the vaue ol x '
/ 4
B o
C b
0 /
L
3. lor whch ol the loown vaues ol n s
CC + n
n
N01 an nteer'
/
B Z
C 3
0 4
L o
4. bectanuar loors / and Y have equa area. ll loor /
s Z leet by leet and loor Y s 9 leet wde, what s
the enth ol loor Y, n leet'
/ 3
Z
B
C
3
4
0 Z
L Z4
l/Yb0ll /1 C0ll/NY /
Number ol
Lmpoyees
3aary
o SZC,CCC
4 SZZ,CCC
SZo,CCC
3 S3C,CCC
o. 1he tabe above shows the number ol empoyees
at each ol lour saary eves at Company /. what
s the averae arthmetc mean saary lor the
ZC empoyees'
/ SZ3,oCC
B SZ3,/oC
C SZ3,9CC
0 SZ4,Zo
L SZ4,ZoC
5.3 5ampIe uestions
5oIve the probIem and indicate the best o! the ansver choices given.
Numbers. AII numbers used are reaI numbers.
figures. A gure accompanying a probIem soIving question is intended to provide in!ormation use!uI
in soIving the probIem. figures are dravn as accurateIy as possibIe. Exceptions viII be cIearIy
noted. Lines shovn as straight are straight, and Iines that appear jagged are aIso straight.
The positions o! points, angIes, regions, etc., exist in the order shovn, and angIe measures
are greater than zero. AII gures Iie in a pIane unIess othervise indicated.
153
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
b. / case contans c cartons. Lach carton contans
b boxes, and each box contans CC paper cps. How
many paper cps are contaned n Z cases'
/ CCbc
B
CCb
c
C ZCCbc
0
ZCCb
c
L
ZCC
bc
/. 1he sum ol prme numbers that are reater than bC
but ess than /C s
/ b/
B Z
C 9
0 9/
L ZbC
. / ranstorm ncreased the amount ol water stored n
3tate J reservors lrom Z4 bon aons to
3 bon aons. ll the storm ncreased the amount
ol water n the reservors to Z percent ol tota
capacty, approxmatey how many bon aons ol
water were the reservors short ol tota capacty pror
to the storm'
/ 9
B 4
C Zo
0 3C
L 44
y
2
2 x 2
O
2
9. 0n the raph above, when x =
Z
, y = Z; and when
x = , y = . 1he raph s symmetrc wth respect to
the vertca ne at x = Z. /ccordn to the raph, when
x = 3, y =
/ 
B 
Z
C C
0
Z
L
C. when
C
percent ol o,CCC s subtracted lrom
C
ol
o,CCC, the dllerence s
/ C
B oC
C 4oC
0 49o
L oCC
. whch ol the loown s the vaue ol '
/ C.CC4
B C.CC
C C.CZ
0 C.C4
L C.Z
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
154
Z. balNe tckets numbered consecutvey lrom C
throuh 3oC are paced n a box. what s the
probabty that a tcket seected at random w
have a number wth a hundreds dt ol Z '
/
Z
o
B
Z
/
C
33
3
0
99
ZoC
L
CC
Z49
3. when leo mported a certan tem, he pad a / percent
mport tax on the porton ol the tota vaue ol the tem
n excess ol S,CCC. ll the amount ol the mport tax
that leo pad was S/.oC, what was the tota vaue ol
the tem'
/ S,bCC
B S,oC
C SZ,ZoC
0 SZ,4CC
L SZ,/oC
4. 0n londay, a person maed packaes wehn an
averae arthmetc mean ol Z
3
pounds, and on
1uesday, 4 packaes wehn an averae ol
o
4
pounds. what was the averae weht, n pounds,
ol a the packaes the person maed on both days'
/ 3
3
B 3
3
b
C o
Z
0 o
o
b
L b
Z
o. C. + C.
Z
+ C.
3
=
/ C.
B C.
C C.Z
0 C.Z34
L C.3
b. / carpenter constructed a rectanuar sandbox wth a
capacty ol C cubc leet. ll the carpenter were to
make a smar sandbox twce as on, twce as wde,
and twce as hh as the hrst sandbox, what woud be
the capacty, n cubc leet, ol the second sandbox'
/ ZC
B 4C
C bC
0 C
L CC
/. / bakery opened yesterday wth ts day suppy ol
4C dozen ros. Hal ol the ros were sod by noon, and
C percent ol the remann ros were sod between
noon and cosn tme. How many dozen ros had not
been sod when the bakery cosed yesterday'
/
B Z
C 3
0 4
L o
. ll the area ol a square reon havn sdes ol enth
b centmeters s equa to the area ol a rectanuar
reon havn wdth Z.o centmeters, then the enth
ol the rectane, n centmeters, s
/ .o
B 9.o
C 9.b
0 C.o
L 4.4
155
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
9. oC s what percent ol 3C '
/ o
B ZC
C oC
0 ZCC
L oCC
ZC. 1he rato Z to
3
s equa to the rato
/ b to
B o to
C 3 to Z
0 Z to 3
L to b
Z. bunnn at the same constant rate, b dentca
machnes can produce a tota ol Z/C bottes per
mnute. /t ths rate, how many bottes coud C such
machnes produce n 4 mnutes'
/ b4
B ,CC
C Z,/CC
0 C,CC
L b4,CC
1 2 1 2 0
B C D E
ZZ. 0l the hve coordnates assocated wth ponts A, , L,
0, and L on the number ne above, whch has the
reatest absoute vaue'
/ A
B
C L
0 0
L L
Z3. ll n s a prme number reater than 3, what s the
remander when n
Z
s dvded by Z '
/ C
B
C Z
0 3
L o
Z4.
3
+

Z
+
=
/

3
B 
b
C

Z
0
Z
L
3
y
x
5 O
5
!
Zo. ln the hure above, the coordnates ol pont \ are
/ /,o
B o,/
C o,/
0 /,o
L /,o
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
156
Zb. / rope 4C leet on s cut nto two peces. ll one pece
s leet oner than the other, what s the enth, n
leet, ol the shorter pece'
/ 9
B
C
0 ZZ
L Z9
Z/. / student's averae arthmetc mean test score on
4 tests s /. what must be the student's score on a
oth test lor the student's averae score on the o tests
to be C '
/ C
B Z
C 4
0 b
L
Z. 1he averae dstance between the 3un and a certan
panet s approxmatey Z.3 C
4
nches. whch ol the
loown s cosest to the averae dstance between
the 3un and the panet, n kometers'  kometer s
approxmatey 3.9 C
4
nches.
/ /. C
B o.9 C
9
C .b C
C
0 .b C
L o.9 C
Z9. ll the quotent
a
b
s postve, whch ol the loown
must be true'
/ a > C
B b > C
C ab > C
0 a  b > C
L a + b > C
28
32
24
20
20 25 30
Vcight
(hundrcds ol pounds)
3C. 1he dots on the raph above ndcate the wehts and
lue elhcency ratns lor ZC cars. How many ol the
cars weh more than Z,oCC pounds and aso et
more than ZZ mes per aon'
/ 3
B o
C
0 C
L
3. How many mnutes does t take John to type y words l
he types at the rate ol x words per mnute'
/
x
y
B
y
x
C xy
0
bCx
y
L
y
bCx
3Z.
    b ZC 3Z
/ 4 ZC
B Z4
C Zo
0 4 ZC Z +
L 3Z
157
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
150
O
33. ll U s the center ol the crce above, what lracton ol
the crcuar reon s shaded'
/
Z
B
9
C
b
0
4
L
3
34. ll Juan takes seconds to run y yards, how many
seconds w t take hm to run x yards at the same
rate'
/
x
y
B
y
x
C
x
y
0
xy
L
xy
3o. John has C pars ol matched socks. ll he oses
/ ndvdua socks, what s the reatest number
ol pars ol matched socks he can have elt'
/ /
B b
C o
0 4
L 3
3b. what s the owest postve nteer that s dvsbe by
each ol the nteers throuh /, ncusve'
/ 4ZC
B 4C
C ,ZbC
0 Z,oZC
L o,C4C
3/.
=
/ 4
B C.Zo
C C.Zo
0 C./o
L 4
3. ll , then
o
C Z
o
.
. +
x
x
/ 3./
B C.
C C.3
0 C.o
L Z.
2 3
x
1
2
1
1 1
y
Q(3,2)
P
O
39. ln the hure above, the pont on sement l that s
twce as lar lrom l as lrom s
/ 3,
B Z,
C Z,
0 .o,C.o
L ,C
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
158
4C. ll n s an nteer, whch ol the loown must be even'
/ n +
B n + Z
C Zn
0 Zn +
L n
Z
4. ll 4 s one souton ol the equaton x
Z
3x k C,
where k s a constant, what s the other souton'
/ /
B 4
C 3
0
L b
4Z. ll
a b
c d
= ad  bc lor a numbers a, b, c, and d, then
=
/ ZZ
B Z
C Z
0 /
L ZZ
43. 1he sum
/
9
s between
/
Z
and
3
4
B
3
4
and
C and
4
0
4
and
Z
L
Z
and Z
44. ll x =  3t and y = Zt  , then lor what vaue ol t
does x = y '
/
o
Z
B
3
Z
C
Z
3
0
Z
o
L C
4o.  =
/
b
o
B
/
b
C
b
/
0
o
b
L C
4b.
C.3
o
C.3
3
=
/ C.CC
B C.C
C C.C9
0 C.9
L .C
4/. ln a hortcutura experment, ZCC seeds were panted
n pot l and 3CC were panted n pot ll. ll o/ percent
ol the seeds n pot l ermnated and 4Z percent ol the
seeds n pot ll ermnated, what percent ol the tota
number ol panted seeds ermnated'
/ 4o.o
B 4b.o
C 4.C
0 49.o
L o.C
159
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
A
L
L 0
Note: lure not drawn to scae.
4. ln the hure above, l A [[ LL, LL = 0L, and y = 4o,
then x =
/ 4o
B bC
C b/.o
0 Z.o
L 3o
49. How many nteers n are there such that
< on + o < Zo '
/ lve
B lour
C 1hree
0 1wo
L 0ne
oC. ll y s an nteer, then the east possbe vaue ol
[Z3  oy[ s
/
B Z
C 3
0 4
L o
o. =
/ 9
B 49
C Z
0 Z
L 4
oZ. ln a certan popuaton, there are 3 tmes as many
peope aed Z or under as there are peope over Z.
1he rato ol those Z or under to the tota popuaton s
/ to Z
B to 3
C to 4
0 Z to 3
L 3 to 4
(2x)
(3x)
(y 30)
o3. ln the hure above, the vaue ol y s
/ b
B Z
C Z4
0 3b
L 4Z
o4. C + Zo =
/ 9 o
B ZC o
C 4 o
0 ZCo
L CC
oo. bey and Chrs packed severa boxes wth books. ll
Chrs packed bC percent ol the tota number ol boxes,
what was the rato ol the number ol boxes bey
packed to the number ol boxes Chrs packed'
/ to b
B to 4
C Z to o
0 3 to o
L Z to 3
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
160
ob. 0l the loown, whch s the cosest approxmaton
ol
oC.Z C.49
99.
'
/
C
B
C
4
0
o
4
L
Zo
Z
o/. 1he averae arthmetc mean ol C, 3C, and oC s o
more than the averae ol ZC, 4C, and
/ o
B Zo
C 3o
0 4o
L oo
y = kx + 3
o. ln the equaton above, k s a constant. ll y = / when
x = Z, what s the vaue ol y when x = 4 '
/ 34
B 3
C 4
0
L /
o9. Lach week, Harry s pad x doars per hour lor the hrst
3C hours and .ox doars lor each addtona hour
worked that week. Lach week, James s pad x doars
per hour lor the hrst 4C hours and Zx doars lor each
addtona hour worked that week. last week James
worked a tota ol 4 hours. ll Harry and James were
pad the same amount ast week, how many hours dd
Harry work ast week'
/ 3o
B 3b
C 3/
0 3
L 39
bC. / ass was hed wth C ounces ol water, and
C.C ounce ol the water evaporated each day durn
a ZCday perod. what percent ol the orna amount
ol water evaporated durn ths perod'
/ C.CCZ
B C.CZ
C C.Z
0 Z
L ZC
b. / ucose souton contans o rams ol ucose
per CC cubc centmeters ol souton. ll 4o cubc
centmeters ol the souton were poured nto an empty
contaner, how many rams ol ucose woud be n the
contaner'
/ 3.CC
B o.CC
C o.oC
0 b.oC
L b./o
Q
F
S P
140
2y
bZ. ln the hure above, l lRS s a paraeoram,
then y  x =
/ 3C
B 3o
C 4C
0 /C
L CC
161
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
b3. ll kometer s approxmatey C.b me, whch ol the
loown best approxmates the number ol kometers
n Z mes'
/
C
3
B 3
C
b
o
0
3
L
3
C
b4. lucy nvested SC,CCC n a new mutua lund account
exacty three years ao. 1he vaue ol the account
ncreased by C percent durn the hrst year,
ncreased by o percent durn the second year, and
decreased by C percent durn the thrd year. what s
the vaue ol the account today'
/ SC,3oC
B SC,39o
C SC,oCC
0 S,oCC
L SZ,/Co
bo. / certan lrut stand sod appes lor SC./C each and
bananas lor SC.oC each. ll a customer purchased both
appes and bananas lrom the stand lor a tota ol
Sb.3C, what tota number ol appes and bananas dd
the customer purchase'
/ C
B
C Z
0 3
L 4
bb. /t a certan schoo, the rato ol the number ol second
raders to the number ol lourth raders s to o, and
the rato ol the number ol hrst raders to the number
ol second raders s 3 to 4. ll the rato ol the number
ol thrd raders to the number ol lourth raders s 3
to Z, what s the rato ol the number ol hrst raders to
the number ol thrd raders'
/ b to o
B 9 to o
C o to b
0 o to 4
L 4 to o
A = Z, 3, 4, o
= 4, o, b, /,
b/. 1wo nteers w be randomy seected lrom the sets
above, one nteer lrom set A and one nteer lrom
set . what s the probabty that the sum ol the two
nteers w equa 9 '
/ C.o
B C.ZC
C C.Zo
0 C.3C
L C.33
b. /t a certan nstant n tme, the number ol cars, N,
traven on a porton ol a certan hhway can be
estmated by the lormua
N =
where L s the number ol anes n the same drecton,
d s the enth ol the porton ol the hhway, n leet,
and s s the averae speed ol the cars, n mes per
hour. Based on the lormua, what s the estmated
number ol cars traven on a
Z
me porton ol the
hhway l the hhway has Z anes n the same
drecton and the averae speed ol the cars s
4C mes per hour' o,ZC leet = me
/ oo
B 9b
C C
0 4
L Z4
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
162
4CC,CCC
3CC,CCC
ZCC,CCC
CC,CCC
C
99C 99Z 994 99b 99 ZCCC
year
N0lBLb 0l 3HlllLN13 0l l/N0l/C10bL0 H0lL3
lN 1HL 0Nl1L0 31/1L3, 99CZCCC
b9. /ccordn to the chart shown, whch ol the loown s
cosest to the medan annua number ol shpments ol
manulactured homes n the 0nted 3tates lor the
years lrom 99C to ZCCC, ncusve'
/ ZoC,CCC
B ZC,CCC
C 3C,CCC
0 3Zo,CCC
L 34C,CCC
/C. ll y
x
y
3 o
Z
and y x =
/
Z
3
B
o
3
C
/
3
0
L 4
/. ll x + o > Z and x  3 < /, the vaue ol x must be
between whch ol the loown pars ol numbers'
/ 3 and C
B 3 and 4
C Z and /
0 3 and 4
L 3 and C
/Z. / ym cass can be dvded nto teams wth an equa
number ol payers on each team or nto Z teams wth
an equa number ol payers on each team. what s the
owest possbe number ol students n the cass'
/ ZC
B Z4
C 3b
0 4
L 9b
/3. ll r = C.34o, s = C.34o
Z
, and t = C 34o . , whch ol
the loown s the correct ordern ol r, s, and t '
/ r < s < t
B r < t < s
C s < t < r
0 s < r < t
L t < r < s
/4. / tota ol n trucks and cars are parked n a ot. ll the
number ol cars s
4
the number ol trucks, and
Z
3
ol
the trucks are pckups, how many pckups, n terms ol
n, are parked n the ot'
/
b
n
B
o
Z
n
C
n
0
o
n
L
Z
n
/o. /t east
Z
3
ol the 4C members ol a commttee must
vote n lavor ol a resouton lor t to pass. what s the
reatest number ol members who coud vote aanst
the resouton and st have t pass'
/ 9
B /
C b
0 4
L 3
163
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
/b. ln the Johnsons' monthy budet, the doar
amounts aocated to househod expenses, lood, and
msceaneous tems are n the rato o:Z:, respectvey.
ll the tota amount aocated to these three cateores
s S,CC, what s the amount aocated to lood'
/ S9CC
B S/ZC
C Sb/o
0 S4oC
L SZZo
//. 1here are 4 more women than men on Centerve's
board ol educaton. ll there are C members on the
board, how many are women'
/ 3
B 4
C b
0 /
L
/. leona bouht a year, SC,CCC certhcate ol depost
that pad nterest at an annua rate ol percent
compounded semannuay. what was the tota amount
ol nterest pad on ths certhcate at maturty'
/ SC,4b4
B S b4
C S b
0 S CC
L S 4C
/9.
C CC3b Z
C C4 C C CC3
. .
. . .
( )( )
( )( )( )
=
/ 4C.C
B 4.C
C .4
0 C.4
L C.C4
C. lachne / produces bots at a unlorm rate ol ZC
every 4C seconds, and lachne B produces bots at a
unlorm rate ol CC every ZC seconds. ll the two
machnes run smutaneousy, how many seconds w t
take lor them to produce a tota ol ZCC bots'
/ ZZ
B Zo
C Z
0 3Z
L ob
Amount o! acteria Present
1me /mount
:CC l.l. C.C rams
4:CC l.l. x rams
/:CC l.l. 4.4 rams
. 0ata lor a certan booy experment are ven n
the tabe above. ll the amount ol bactera present
ncreased by the same lactor durn each ol the two
3hour perods shown, how many rams ol bactera
were present at 4:CC l.l. '
/ Z.C
B Z.
C Z.Z
0 Z.3
L Z.4
Z. ll n s an nteer reater than b, whch ol the loown
must be dvsbe by 3 '
/ nn + n  4
B nn + Zn 
C nn + 3n  o
0 nn + 4n  Z
L nn + on  b
3. 1he tota cost lor Company / to produce a batch ol
toos s SC,CCC pus S3 per too. Lach too ses lor
S. 1he ross proht earned lrom producn and sen
these toos s the tota ncome lrom saes mnus the
tota producton cost. ll a batch ol ZC,CCC toos s
produced and sod, then Company /'s ross proht per
too s
/ S3.CC
B S3./o
C S4.oC
0 So.CC
L So.oC
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
164
4. / deaer ornay bouht CC dentca batteres at
a tota cost ol q doars. ll each battery was sod at
oC percent above the orna cost per battery,
then, n terms ol q, lor how many doars was each
battery sod'
/
3q
ZCC
B
3q
Z
C oCq
0
q
CC
+ oC
L
oC
q
o. ln an ncreasn sequence ol C consecutve nteers,
the sum ol the hrst o nteers s obC. what s the sum
ol the ast o nteers n the sequence'
/ oo
B oC
C o/o
0 o/C
L obo
b. lachne / produces CC parts twce as last as
lachne B does. lachne B produces CC parts n
4C mnutes. ll each machne produces parts at a
constant rate, how many parts does lachne /
produce n b mnutes'
/ 3C
B Zo
C ZC
0 o
L /.o
/. / neckace s made by strnn N ndvdua beads
toether n the repeatn pattern red bead, reen
bead, whte bead, bue bead, and yeow bead. ll the
neckace desn bens wth a red bead and ends wth
a whte bead, then N coud equa
/ b
B 3Z
C 4
0 o4
L b
. ln the xycoordnate system, l a,b and a + 3,b + k
are two ponts on the ne dehned by the equaton
x = 3y  /, then k =
/ 9
B 3
C
/
3
0
L
3
9. ll s s the product ol the nteers lrom CC to ZCC,
ncusve, and t s the product ol the nteers lrom CC
to ZC, ncusve, what s n terms ol t '
/
B
C
0
L
9C. ll Jake oses pounds, he w weh twce as much as
hs sster. 1oether they now weh Z/ pounds. what
s Jake's present weht, n pounds'
/ 3
B 3o
C 39
0 4/
L
165
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
9. / certan store ses a maps at one prce and a
books at another prce. 0n londay the store sod
Z maps and C books lor a tota ol S3.CC, and on
1uesday the store sod ZC maps and o books lor a
tota ol SbC.CC. /t ths store, how much ess does a
map se lor than a book'
/ S C.Zo
B S C.oC
C S C./o
0 S .CC
L S .Zo
9Z. / store reported tota saes ol S3o mon lor
lebruary ol ths year. ll the tota saes lor the same
month ast year was S3ZC mon, approxmatey what
was the percent ncrease n saes'
/ Z
B /
C ZC
0 bo
L 3
lst l: 3, b, , 9
lst ll: x, 3, b, , 9
93. ll the medan ol the numbers n st l above s equa to
the medan ol the numbers n st ll above, what s the
vaue ol x '
/ b
B /
C
0 9
L C
94. ln a certan cty, bC percent ol the restered voters
are 0emocrats and the rest are bepubcans. ln a
mayora race, l /o percent ol the restered voters
who are 0emocrats and ZC percent ol the restered
voters who are bepubcans are expected to vote lor
Canddate /, what percent ol the restered voters are
expected to vote lor Canddate / '
/ oC
B o3
C o4
0 oo
L o/
9o.
Z
Z
3
3
4
9
b
+
/
Z9
b
B
9
b
C
o
b
0
9
3
L C
9b. water conssts ol hydroen and oxyen, and the
approxmate rato, by mass, ol hydroen to oxyen s
Z:b. /pproxmatey how many rams ol oxyen are
there n 44 rams ol water'
/ b
B /Z
C Z
0 Z
L 4Z
9/. ll and ,
then
x x x x
x
 Z C
Z
Z 3 C + + ( )
/ 3
B 
Z
C C
0
Z
L
3
Z
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
166
9. 0n a scae that measures the ntensty ol a certan
phenomenon, a readn ol n + corresponds to an
ntensty that s C tmes the ntensty correspondn
to a readn ol n. 0n that scae, the ntensty
correspondn to a readn ol s how many tmes
as reat as the ntensty correspondn to a readn
ol 3 '
/ o
B oC
C C
o
0 o
C
L
C
 3
C
99. lor the postve numbers, n, n + , n + Z, n + 4, and
n + , the mean s how much reater than the medan'
/ C
B
C n +
0 n + Z
L n + 3
CC. ll ! =
o
9
r  3Z, and l ! = Z9C, then r =
/
,/3
9
B 3ZZ
C 49C
0 oo4
L
Z,9
o
C. 1he water lrom one outet, Nown at a constant rate,
can h a swmmn poo n 9 hours. 1he water lrom a
second outet, Nown at a constant rate, can h the
same poo n o hours. ll both outets are used at the
same tme, approxmatey what s the number ol hours
requred to h the poo'
/ C.ZZ
B C.3
C Z.oC
0 3.Z
L 4.ob
CZ. ll a square mrror has a ZCnch daona, what s the
approxmate permeter ol the mrror, n nches'
/ 4C
B bC
C C
0 CC
L ZC
C3. 1he present rato ol students to teachers at a certan
schoo s 3C to . ll the student enroment were to
ncrease by oC students and the number ol teachers
were to ncrease by o, the rato ol students to
teachers woud then be Zo to . what s the present
number ol teachers'
/ o
B
C C
0 Z
L o
C4. what s the smaest nteer n lor whch Zo
n
> o
Z
'
/ b
B /
C
0 9
L C
Co. 3xty percent ol the members ol a study roup are
women, and 4o percent ol those women are awyers.
ll one member ol the study roup s to be seected at
random, what s the probabty that the member
seected s a woman awyer'
/ C.C
B C.o
C C.Z/
0 C.33
L C.4o
167
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
Cb. when postve nteer x s dvded by postve nteer y,
the remander s 9. ll
x
y
= 9b.Z, what s the vaue ol y '
/ 9b
B /o
C 4
0 Zo
L Z
C/. ll x s the product ol the postve nteers lrom to ,
ncusve, and l i, k, m, and p are postve nteers
such that x = Z
i
3
k
o
m
/
p
, then i + k + m + p =
/ 4
B /
C
0
L Z
C. ll t =
Z o
9 3
s expressed as a termnatn decma,
how many zeros w t have between the decma pont
and the hrst nonzero dt to the rht ol the decma
pont'
/ 1hree
B lour
C lve
0 3x
L Nne
C9. / pharmaceutca company receved S3 mon n
royates on the hrst SZC mon n saes ol the enerc
equvaent ol one ol ts products and then S9 mon
n royates on the next SC mon n saes. By
approxmatey what percent dd the rato ol royates
to saes decrease lrom the hrst SZC mon n saes to
the next SC mon n saes'
/
B o
C 4o
0 oZ
L ob
C. ll p s the product ol the nteers lrom to 3C,
ncusve, what s the reatest nteer k lor whch 3
k
s
a lactor ol p '
/ C
B Z
C 4
0 b
L
. ll candy bars that reuary se lor SC.4C each are on
sae at two lor SC./o, what s the percent reducton n
the prce ol two such candy bars purchased at the
sae prce'
/ Z
Z
B b
4
C b
Z
3
0
L Z
Z
Z. ll and , what s n terms ol s
r
s
s r s > C '
/
s
B s
C s s
0 s
3
L s
Z
 s
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
168
6 lt.
8 lt.
3. 1he lront ol a blootbyloot rectanuar door has
brass rectanuar trm, as ndcated by the shadn n
the hure above. ll the trm s unlormy loot wde,
what lracton ol the door's lront surlace s covered by
the trm'
/
3
4
B
o
Z
C
Z
0
/
Z
L
o
4. ll a = C.3, whch ol the loown s true'
/ a < a
Z
< a
3
B a < a
3
< a
Z
C a
Z
< a < a
3
0 a
Z
< a
3
< a
L a
3
< a < a
Z
o. lary's ncome s bC percent more than 1m's ncome,
and 1m's ncome s 4C percent ess than Juan's
ncome. what percent ol Juan's ncome s lary's
ncome'
/ Z4
B ZC
C 9b
0 C
L b4
Cty / Cty B Cty C Cty 0 Cty L
Cty /
Cty B
Cty C
Cty 0
Cty L
b. Lach n the meae tabe above represents an entry
ndcatn the dstance between a par ol the hve
ctes. ll the tabe were extended to represent the
dstances between a pars ol 3C ctes and each
dstance were to be represented by ony one entry,
how many entres woud the tabe then have'
/ bC
B 43o
C 4oC
0 4bo
L 9CC
/. ll n s postve, whch ol the loown s equa to
n n +
'
/
B Z n +
C
n
n
+
0 n n +
L n n + +
. 1he rato ol the enth to the wdth ol a rectanuar
advertsn dspay s approxmatey 3.3 to Z. ll the
wdth ol the dspay s meters, what s the
approxmate enth ol the dspay, n meters'
/ /
B
C 3
0 b
L Zb
169
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
9. whch ol the loown s equvaent to the par ol
nequates x + b > C and x
x < b
x < 4
C Z < x
0 4 < x
x < b
ZC. 0avd has d books, whch s 3 tmes as many as Jell
and
Z
as many as laua. How many books do the
three ol them have atoether, n terms ol d '
/
o
b
d
B
/
3
d
C
C
3
d
0
/
Z
d
L
9
Z
d
Z. 1here are teams n a certan eaue and each team
pays each ol the other teams exacty once. ll each
ame s payed by Z teams, what s the tota number
ol ames payed'
/ o
B b
C Z
0 ob
L b4
ZZ. /n operaton s dehned by the equaton
a b =
a  b
a + b
, lor a numbers a and b such that
a b. ll a c and a c = C, then c =
/ a
B 
a
C C
0
a
L a
Z3. 1he prce ol unch lor o peope was SZC/.CC,
ncudn a o percent ratuty lor servce. what was
the averae prce per person, L/Cl00lN0 the
ratuty'
/ S./3
B SZ.CC
C S3.C
0 S4.CC
L So./
Z4. ln 1own /, b4 percent ol the popuaton are empoyed,
and 4 percent ol the popuaton are empoyed maes.
what percent ol the empoyed peope n 1own / are
lemaes'
/ b
B Zo
C 3Z
0 4C
L oZ
Zo. ll
p
q
< , and p and q are postve nteers, whch ol
the loown must be reater than '
/
p
q
B
p
q
Z
C
p
Zq
0
q
p
Z
L
q
p
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
170
Zb. lt woud take one machne 4 hours to compete a are
producton order and another machne 3 hours to
compete the same order. How many hours woud t
take both machnes, workn smutaneousy at ther
respectve constant rates, to compete the order'
/
/
Z
B
Z
C
o
/
0 3
Z
L /
Z/. 1o ma a packae, the rate s x cents lor the hrst
pound and y cents lor each addtona pound, where
x > y. 1wo packaes wehn 3 pounds and o pounds,
respectvey, can be maed separatey or combned as
one packae. whch method s cheaper, and how
much money s saved'
/ Combned, wth a savns ol x  y cents
B Combned, wth a savns ol y  x cents
C Combned, wth a savns ol x cents
0 3eparatey, wth a savns ol x  y cents
L 3eparatey, wth a savns ol y cents
Z. ll money s nvested at r percent nterest, compounded
annuay, the amount ol the nvestment w doube
n approxmatey
/C
r
years. ll lat's parents nvested
So,CCC n a onterm bond that pays percent
nterest, compounded annuay, what w be the
approxmate tota amount ol the nvestment years
ater, when lat s ready lor coee'
/ SZC,CCC
B S o,CCC
C S Z,CCC
0 S C,CCC
L S 9,CCC
Z9. 0n a recent trp, Cndy drove her car Z9C mes,
rounded to the nearest C mes, and used Z aons
ol asone, rounded to the nearest aon. 1he actua
number ol mes per aon that Cndy's car ot on ths
trp must have been between
/
Z9C
Z.o
and
Z9C
.o
B
Z9o
Z
and
Zo
.o
C
Zo
Z
and
Z9o
Z
0
Zo
Z.o
and
Z9o
.o
L
Z9o
Z.o
and
Zo
.o
x 1 2 3 4 1 2 4 5 3 5 0
3C. whch ol the loown nequates s an aebrac
expresson lor the shaded part ol the number ne
above'
/ [x
B [x
C [x  Z
0 [x  
L [x + 
3. / lactory has oCC workers, o percent ol whom are
women. ll oC addtona workers are to be hred and a
ol the present workers reman, how many ol the
addtona workers must be women n order to rase
the percent ol women empoyees to ZC percent'
/ 3
B C
C Zo
0 3C
L 3o
171
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
3Z. ln a sma snack shop, the averae arthmetc mean
revenue was S4CC per day over a Cday perod.
0urn ths perod, l the averae day revenue was
S3bC lor the hrst b days, what was the averae day
revenue lor the ast 4 days'
/ S4ZC
B S44C
C S4oC
0 S4bC
L S4C
33. / certan country had a tota annua expendture ol
S.Z C
Z
ast year. ll the popuaton ol the country
was Z4C mon ast year, what was the per capta
expendture'
/ S oCC
B S,CCC
C SZ,CCC
0 S3,CCC
L So,CCC
34. / certan rectanuar wndow s twce as on as t s
wde. ll ts permeter s C leet, then ts dmensons n
leet are
/
3
Z
by
/
Z
B
o
3
by
C
3
C Z by 4
0 3 by b
L
C
3
by
ZC
3
X
Y
3o. 1he daram above shows the varous paths aon
whch a mouse can trave lrom pont X, where t s
reeased, to pont Y, where t s rewarded wth a lood
peet. How many dllerent paths lrom X to Y can the
mouse take l t oes drecty lrom X to Y wthout
retracn any pont aon a path'
/ b
B /
C Z
0 4
L /
3b. ll the operaton s dehned by x y = xy lor a
postve numbers x and y, then o 4o bC =
/ 3C
B bC
C 9C
0 3C o
L bC o
3/. / bar over a sequence ol dts n a decma ndcates
that the sequence repeats ndehntey.
what s the vaue ol C
4
 C
Z
C.CCZ '
/ C
B C.Z
C .Z
0 C
L Z
3. /t a oadn dock, each worker on the nht crew
oaded
3
4
as many boxes as each worker on the day
crew. ll the nht crew has
4
o
as many workers as the
day crew, what lracton ol a the boxes oaded by the
two crews dd the day crew oad'
/
Z
B
Z
o
C
3
o
0
4
o
L
o
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
172
39. / restaurant mea cost S3o.oC and there was no tax.
ll the tp was more than C percent but ess than
o percent ol the cost ol the mea, then the tota
amount pad must have been between
/ S4C and S4Z
B S39 and S4
C S3 and S4C
0 S3/ and S39
L S3b and S3/
4C. ln a wehtltn competton, the tota weht ol
Joe's two lts was /oC pounds. ll twce the weht ol
hs hrst lt was 3CC pounds more than the weht ol
hs second lt, what was the weht, n pounds, ol hs
hrst lt'
/ ZZo
B Z/o
C 3Zo
0 3oC
L 4CC
4. / cub coected exacty So99 lrom ts members. ll
each member contrbuted at east SZ, what s the
reatest number ol members the cub coud have'
/ 43
B 44
C 49
0 oC
L o
4Z. ll y s the smaest postve nteer such that 3,oC
mutped by y s the square ol an nteer, then y
must be
/ Z
B o
C b
0 /
L 4
43. ll x} s the reatest nteer ess than or equa to x,
what s the vaue ol .b} + 3.4} + Z./} '
/ 3
B 4
C o
0 b
L /
44. ll
4  x
Z x
x , what s the vaue ol x
Z
3x  4 '
/ 4
B 
C C
0
L Z
5 lt.
B
2 lt.
4o. 1he trapezod shown n the hure above represents a
cross secton ol the rudder ol a shp. ll the dstance
lrom A to s 3 leet, what s the area ol the cross
secton ol the rudder n square leet'
/ 39
B 4C
C 4Z
0 4o
L 4b.o
4b. ln a certan sequence, the term x
n
s ven by the
lormua x
n
= Zx
n 

Z
x
n  Z
lor a n x
C
= 3 and
x
= Z, what s the vaue ol x
3
'
/ Z.o
B 3.Zo
C 4
0 o
L b./o
173
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
5 lt.
F
!
S
10 lt.
4/. ln the hure above, \ represents an observaton pont
at one end ol a poo. lrom \, an object that s actuay
ocated on the bottom ol the poo at pont R appears
to be at pont S. ll \R = C leet, what s the dstance
RS, n leet, between the actua poston and the
perceved poston ol the object'
/ C  o 3
B C  o Z
C Z
0 Z
Z
L 4
4. ll x, y, and k are postve numbers such that
and l x < y,
whch ol the loown coud be the vaue ol k '
/ C
B Z
C o
0
L 3C
49. 0urn a trp, lrancne traveed x percent ol the tota
dstance at an averae speed ol 4C mes per hour
and the rest ol the dstance at an averae speed ol
bC mes per hour. ln terms ol x, what was lrancne's
averae speed lor the entre trp'
/
C
Z
x
B
x + bC
4
C
3CC
o
x
0
bCC
o x
L
Z CCC
ZCC
,
x +
oC. ll x = , then
x
4
 x
3
+ x
Z
x 
=
/ 
3
Z
B 
Z
C C
0
Z
L
3
Z
o. / toy store reuary ses a stock at a dscount ol
ZC percent to 4C percent. ll an addtona Zo percent
were deducted lrom the dscount prce durn a
speca sae, what woud be the owest possbe prce
ol a toy costn Sb belore any dscount'
/ S o.bC
B S /.ZC
C S .C
0 S 9.bC
L So.ZC
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
174
y yd
z yd
x yd
oZ. 1he shaded porton ol the rectanuar ot shown
above represents a Nower bed. ll the area ol the bed
s Z4 square yards and x = y + Z, then z equas
/ 3
B Z 3
C b
0
L C
o3. Jack s now 4 years oder than B. ll n C years
Jack w be twce as od as B, how od w Jack be
n o years'
/ 9
B 9
C Z
0 Z3
L 33
o4. /n empty poo ben hed wth water at a constant
rate takes hours to h to
3
o
ol ts capacty. How
much more tme w t take to hnsh hn the poo'
/ o hr 3C mn
B o hr ZC mn
C 4 hr 4 mn
0 3 hr Z mn
L Z hr 4C mn
oo. / postve number x s mutped by Z, and ths product
s then dvded by 3. ll the postve square root ol the
resut ol these two operatons equas x, what s the
vaue ol x '
/
9
4
B
3
Z
C
4
3
0
Z
3
L
Z
ob. / tank contans C,CCC aons ol a souton that s
o percent sodum chorde by voume. ll Z,oCC aons
ol water evaporate lrom the tank, the remann
souton w be approxmatey what percent sodum
chorde'
/ .Zo
B 3./o
C b.Zo
0 b.b/
L ./
o/. lor any postve nteer n, the sum ol the hrst
n postve nteers equas
n n +
( )
Z
. what s the sum
ol a the even nteers between 99 and 3C '
/ C,CC
B ZC,ZCC
C ZZ,boC
0 4C,ZCC
L 4o,oC
o. / commttee s composed ol w women and m men. ll
3 women and Z men are added to the commttee, and
l one person s seected at random lrom the enared
commttee, then the probabty that a woman s
seected can be represented by
175
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
/
w
m
B
w
w m
C
w 3
m Z
0
w 3
w m 3
L
w 3
w m o
o9. How many prme numbers between and CC are
lactors ol /,oC '
/ 0ne
B 1wo
C 1hree
0 lour
L lve
8 lcct O
bC. 1he hure above shows a crcuar Nower bed, wth ts
center at U, surrounded by a crcuar path that s
3 leet wde. what s the area ol the path, n square leet'
/ Zo
B 3
C oo
0 o/
L b4
b. 1he postve nteer n s dvsbe by Zo. ll n s
reater than Zo, whch ol the loown coud be the
vaue ol
n
Zo
'
/ ZZ
B Z3
C Z4
0 Zo
L Zb
bZ. / lrutsaad mxture conssts ol appes, peaches,
and rapes n the rato b:o:Z, respectvey, by weht.
ll 39 pounds ol the mxture s prepared, the mxture
ncudes how many more pounds ol appes than
rapes'
/ o
B Z
C 9
0 b
L 4
b3. 1hs year Henry w save a certan amount ol hs
ncome, and he w spend the rest. Next year Henry
w have no ncome, but lor each doar that he saves
ths year, he w have + r doars avaabe to spend.
ln terms ol r, what lracton ol hs ncome shoud Henry
save ths year so that next year the amount he has
avaabe to spend w be equa to hal the amount that
he spends ths year'
/
Z r +
B
Z Z r +
C
3 Z r +
0
3 r +
L
Z 3 r +
b4. ll m

= 
3
, then m
Z
s equa to
/
9
B
3
C 
9
0
9
L 9
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
176
bo. los has x doars more than Jm has, and toether
they have a tota ol y doars. whch ol the loown
represents the number ol doars that Jm has'
/
y  x
Z
B y 
x
Z
C
y
2
 x
0 Zy  x
L y  Zx
bb. 0urn a certan season, a team won C percent ol ts
hrst CC ames and oC percent ol ts remann
ames. ll the team won /C percent ol ts ames lor
the entre season, what was the tota number ol
ames that the team payed'
/ C
B /C
C ob
0 oC
L Co
b/. 0l 3C appcants lor a job, 4 had at east 4 years'
experence, had derees, and 3 had ess than
4 years' experence and dd not have a deree. How
many ol the appcants had at east 4 years'
experence and a deree'
/ 4
B 3
C 9
0 /
L o
b. ll +
Z
Z
x x
, then x =
/ 
B
3
C
Z
3
0 Z
L 3
b9. last year, lor every CC mon vehces that traveed
on a certan hhway, 9b vehces were nvoved n
accdents. ll 3 bon vehces traveed on the hhway
ast year, how many ol those vehces were nvoved n
accdents'  bon = ,CCC,CCC,CCC
/ Z
B 3ZC
C Z,C
0 3,ZCC
L Z,CC
/C. 1hrty percent ol the members ol a swm cub have
passed the lesavn test. /mon the members
who have not passed the test, Z have taken the
preparatory course and 3C have not taken the course.
How many members are there n the swm cub'
/ bC
B C
C CC
0 ZC
L 4C
/. what s the dllerence between the sxth and the hlth
terms ol the sequence Z, 4, /, . whose nth term s
n + Z
n 
'
/ Z
B 3
C b
0 b
L /
/Z. ll x 
Z
= 4CC, whch ol the loown coud be the
vaue ol x  o '
/ o
B 4
C Z4
0 Zo
L Zb
/3. whch ol the loown descrbes a vaues ol x lor
whch  x
Z
C '
/ x
B x 
C C x
0 x  or x
L  x
177
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
/4. 1he probabty s
Z
that a certan con w turn up
heads on any ven toss. ll the con s to be tossed
three tmes, what s the probabty that on at east one
ol the tosses the con w turn up tas'
/
B
Z
C
3
4
0
/
L
o
b
/o. 0l the hna rades receved by the students n a
certan math course,
o
are /'s,
4
are B's,
Z
are C's,
and the remann C rades are 0's. what s the
number ol students n the course'
/ C
B C
C bC
0 ZCC
L 4CC
/b. /s x ncreases lrom bo to bb, whch ol the loown
must ncrease'
l. Zx  o
ll. 
x
lll.
x
Z
 x
/ l ony
B lll ony
C l and ll
0 l and lll
L ll and lll
//. / rectanuar box s C nches wde, C nches on,
and o nches hh. what s the reatest possbe
strahtne dstance, n nches, between any two
ponts on the box'
/ o
B ZC
C Zo
0 C Z
L C 3
Cub
Number ol
3tudents
Chess 4C
0rama 3C
lath Zo
/. 1he tabe above shows the number ol students n
three cubs at lc/ulle 3choo. /thouh no student s
n a three cubs, C students are n both Chess and
0rama, o students are n both Chess and lath, and
b students are n both 0rama and lath. How many
dllerent students are n the three cubs'
/ b
B b9
C /4
0 /9
L 4
/9. 1he rato ol two quanttes s 3 to 4. ll each ol the
quanttes s ncreased by o, what s the rato ol these
two new quanttes'
/
3
4
B
9
C
9
0
Z3
Z4
L lt cannot be determned lrom the nlormaton
ven.
C. ll the averae arthmetc mean ol x and y s bC and
the averae arthmetc mean ol y and z s C, what s
the vaue ol z  x '
/ /C
B 4C
C ZC
0 C
L lt cannot be determned lrom the nlormaton
ven.
. ll
Z
ol the ar n a tank s removed wth each stroke
ol a vacuum pump, what lracton ol the orna
amount ol ar has been removed alter 4 strokes'
/
o
b
B
/
C
4
0
L
b
Z. ll the twodt nteers M and N are postve and have
the same dts, but n reverse order, whch ol the
loown C/NN01 be the sum ol M and N '
/
B bo
C Z
0 99
L 44
3. Car / and Car Y traveed the same Cme route. ll Car /
took Z hours and Car Y traveed at an averae speed that
was oC percent laster than the averae speed ol Car /,
how many hours dd t take Car Y to trave the route'
/
Z
3
B
C
3
0
3
o
L 3
4. ll the averae arthmetc mean ol the lour numbers
r, Zr + 3, 3r  o, and or + s b3, what s the vaue
ol r '
/
B o
3
4
C ZZ
0 Z3
L Zo
3
C
o. ll p s an even nteer and q s an odd nteer, whch ol
the loown must be an odd nteer'
/
p
q
B pq
C Zp + q
0 Zp + q
L
3p
q
b. 0rum / s
Z
lu ol o and 0rum Y, whch has twce
the capacty ol 0rum /, s
Z
3
lu ol o. ll a ol the o
n 0rum / s poured nto 0rum Y, then 0rum Y w be
hed to what lracton ol ts capacty'
/
3
4
B
o
b
C
Z
0
/
b
L
b
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 11th Edition
178
/. ll x > C,
x
oC
+
x
Zo
s what percent ol x '
/ b
B Zo
C 3/
0 bC
L /o
. ll the operaton s dehned lor a a and b by the
equaton a b =
a
Z
b
3
, then Z 3  =
/ 4
B Z
C 
4
3
0  Z
L  4
9. 1he nsde dmensons ol a rectanuar wooden box
are b nches by nches by C nches. / cyndrca
canster s to be paced nsde the box so that t stands
uprht when the cosed box rests on one ol ts sx
laces. 0l a such cansters that coud be used, what s
the radus, n nches, ol the one that has maxmum
voume'
/ 3
B 4
C o
0 b
L
9C. what s the unts dt ol 3
4
/
Z
Z9
3
'
/ 9
B /
C o
0 3
L
4th Strcct
3rd Strcct
2nd Strcct
1st Strcct
X
Y
9. lat w wak lrom lntersecton X to lntersecton Y
aon a route that s conhned to the square rd ol
lour streets and three avenues shown n the map
above. How many routes lrom X to Y can lat take
that have the mnmum possbe enth'
/ b
B
C C
0 4
L b
9Z. 1he rato, by voume, ol soap to acoho to water n a
certan souton s Z:oC:CC. 1he souton w be
atered so that the rato ol soap to acoho s doubed
whe the rato ol soap to water s haved. ll the atered
souton w contan CC cubc centmeters ol acoho,
how many cubc centmeters ol water w t contan'
/ oC
B ZCC
C 4CC
0 bZo
L CC
93. ll /o percent ol a cass answered the hrst queston
on a certan test correcty, oo percent answered the
second queston on the test correcty, and ZC percent
answered nether ol the questons correcty, what
percent answered both correcty'
/ C
B ZC
C 3C
0 oC
L bo
179
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
180
O
y  x
y
x
94. ln the rectanuar coordnate system above, the ne
y = x s the perpendcuar bsector ol sement A not
shown, and the xaxs s the perpendcuar bsector ol
sement L not shown. ll the coordnates ol pont A
are Z,3, what are the coordnates ol pont L '
/ 3,Z
B 3,Z
C Z,3
0 3,Z
L Z,3
9o. / store currenty chares the same prce lor each
towe that t ses. ll the current prce ol each towe
were to be ncreased by S, C lewer ol the towes
coud be bouht lor SZC, excudn saes tax. what s
the current prce ol each towe'
/ S
B S Z
C S 3
0 S 4
L S Z
Number o! 5oIidCoIored MarbIes in Three 1ars
Jar
Number ol
red marbes
Number ol
reen marbes
1ota number
ol red and
reen marbes
l x y C
y z ZC
b x z bC
9b. ln the tabe above, what s the number ol reen
marbes n Jar b '
/ /C
B C
C 9C
0 CC
L C
9/. / pont on the ede ol a lan bade that s rotatn n a
pane s C centmeters lrom the center ol the lan.
what s the dstance traveed, n centmeters, by ths
pont n o seconds when the lan runs at the rate ol
3CC revoutons per mnute'
/ /oC
B ,oCC
C ,/o
0 3,CCC
L /,oCC
9. ll n = 4p, where p s a prme number reater than Z,
how many dllerent postve even dvsors does n have,
ncudn n '
/ 1wo
B 1hree
C lour
0 3x
L Lht
l. /Z, /3, /4, /o, /b
ll. /4, /4, /4, /4, /4
lll. bZ, /4, /4, /4, 9
99. 1he data sets l, ll, and lll above are ordered lrom
reatest standard devaton to east standard devaton
n whch ol the loown'
/ l, ll, lll
B l, lll, ll
C ll, lll, l
0 lll, l, ll
L lll, ll, l
181
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
ZCC. 0l the oC researchers n a workroup, 4C percent w
be assned to 1eam / and the remann bC percent
to 1eam B. However, /C percent ol the researchers
preler 1eam / and 3C percent preler 1eam B. what s
the owest possbe number ol researchers who w
N01 be assned to the team they preler'
/ o
B /
C ZC
0 Zo
L 3C
ZC. ll m s the averae arthmetc mean ol the hrst
C postve mutpes ol o and l M s the medan ol the
hrst C postve mutpes ol o, what s the vaue ol
M  m '
/ o
B C
C o
0 Zo
L Z /.o
ZCZ. ll m > C and x s m percent ol y, then, n terms ol m, y
s what percent ol x '
/ CCm
B
CCm
C
m
0
C
m
L
C,CCC
m
ZC3. what s the Zoth dt to the rht ol the decma pont
n the decma lorm ol
b
'
/ 3
B 4
C o
0 b
L /
ZC4. John and lary were each pad x doars n advance to
do a certan job toether. John worked on the job lor
C hours and lary worked Z hours ess than John. ll
lary ave John y doars ol her payment so that they
woud have receved the same houry wae, what was
the doar amount, n terms ol y, that John was pad n
advance'
/ 4y
B oy
C by
0 y
L 9y
y
x
P (4,0) O
ZCo. ln the rectanuar coordnate system above, l pont R
not shown es on the postve yaxs and the area ol
trane URl s Z, what s the ycoordnate ol pont R '
/ 3
B b
C 9
0 Z
L Z4
ZCb. Car / s ZC mes behnd Car B, whch s traven n
the same drecton aon the same route as Car /.
Car / s traven at a constant speed ol o mes
per hour and Car B s traven at a constant speed
ol oC mes per hour. How many hours w t take lor
Car / to overtake and drve mes ahead ol Car B '
/ .o
B Z.C
C Z.o
0 3.C
L 3.o
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
182
ZC/. lor the past n days, the averae arthmetc mean
day producton at a company was oC unts. ll today's
producton ol 9C unts rases the averae to oo unts
per day, what s the vaue ol n '
/ 3C
B
C C
0 9
L /
x
x
+
Z
ZC. ll x x x s repaced by
x
everywhere
n the expresson above, then the resutn expresson
s equvaent to
/
x
x
+
Z
B
x
x
Z
C
x
x
Z
Z
0
x
x
Z
Z
+
L
+
x
x
Z
y
z
x
ZC9. ln the hure above, l z = oC, then x + y =
/ Z3C
B ZoC
C ZbC
0 Z/C
L Z9C
O 1
y
x
1
ZC. ln the coordnate system above, whch ol the loown
s the equaton ol ne '
/ Zx  3y = b
B Zx + 3y = b
C 3x + Zy = b
0 Zx  3y = b
L 3x  Zy = b
Z. ll a twodt postve nteer has ts dts reversed,
the resutn nteer dllers lrom the orna by Z/.
By how much do the two dts dller'
/ 3
B 4
C o
0 b
L /
O
y
x
C
ZZ. 1he crce wth center L shown above s tanent to
both axes. ll the dstance lrom U to L s equa to k,
what s the radus ol the crce, n terms ol k '
/ k
B
k
Z
C
k
3
0
k
Z
L
k
3
183
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
Z3. ln an eectrc crcut, two resstors wth resstances x
and y are connected n parae. ln ths case, l r s the
combned resstance ol these two resstors, then the
recproca ol r s equa to the sum ol the recprocas ol
x and y. what s r n terms ol x and y '
/ xy
B x + y
C
x + y
0
xy
x + y
L
x + y
xy
Z4. /aver, Yvonne, and Zeda each try ndependenty to
sove a probem. ll ther ndvdua probabtes lor
success are
4
,
Z
, and
o
, respectvey, what s the
probabty that /aver and Yvonne, but not Zeda, w
sove the probem'
/
B
/
C
9
b4
0
o
b4
L
3
b4
Zo. ll
x

x +
=
x + 4
, then x coud be
/ C
B 
C Z
0 3
L 4
Zb.
b
3 Z
/
Z
4
B
Z
C
Z
b
0
L
b
Z/. ln a certan ame, a are contaner s hed wth red,
yeow, reen, and bue beads worth, respectvey, /,
o, 3, and Z ponts each. / number ol beads are then
removed lrom the contaner. ll the product ol the pont
vaues ol the removed beads s 4/,CCC, how many
red beads were removed'
/ o
B 4
C 3
0 Z
L C
Z. ll
Z
y
, then y =
/  Z
B 
Z
C
Z
0 Z
L 3
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
184
Z9. ll a, b, and c are consecutve postve nteers and
a < b < c, whch ol the loown must be true'
l. c  a = Z
ll. abc s an even nteer.
lll.
a + b + c
3
s an nteer.
/ l ony
B ll ony
C l and ll ony
0 ll and lll ony
L l, ll, and lll
ZZC. / parttme empoyee whose houry wae was
ncreased by Zo percent decded to reduce the
number ol hours worked per week so that the
empoyee's tota weeky ncome woud reman
unchaned. By what percent shoud the number ol
hours worked be reduced'
/ Z.o
B ZC
C Zo
0 oC
L /o
ZZ. 0l the ZCC students at Coee 1 majorn n one or
more ol the scences, 3C are majorn n chemstry
and oC are majorn n booy. ll at east 3C ol the
students are not majorn n ether chemstry or
booy, then the number ol students majorn n both
chemstry and booy coud be any number lrom
/ ZC to oC
B 4C to /C
C oC to 3C
0 C to 3C
L C to oC
ZZZ. ll o 
b
x
= x, then x has how many possbe vaues'
/ None
B 0ne
C 1wo
0 / hnte number reater than two
L /n nhnte number
ZZ3. 3eed mxture / s 4C percent ryerass and bC percent
buerass by weht; seed mxture Y s Zo percent
ryerass and /o percent lescue. ll a mxture ol / and
Y contans 3C percent ryerass, what percent ol the
weht ol the mxture s / '
/ C
B 33
C 4C
0 oC
L bb
Z
3
ZZ4. ll n s a postve nteer, then nn + n + Z s
/ even ony when n s even
B even ony when n s odd
C odd whenever n s odd
0 dvsbe by 3 ony when n s odd
L dvsbe by 4 whenever n s even
ZZo. / straht ppe yard n enth was marked oll n
lourths and aso n thrds. ll the ppe was then cut nto
separate peces at each ol these markns, whch ol
the loown ves a the dllerent enths ol the
peces, n lractons ol a yard'
/
b
and
4
ony
B
4
and
3
ony
C
b
,
4
, and
3
0
Z
,
b
, and
4
L
Z
,
b
, and
3
ZZb. ll
C.CCo C
m
C.C3 C
k
= o C
/
, then m  k =
/ 9
B
C /
0 b
L o
185
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe uestions
ZZ/. ll x + y = a and x  y = b, then Zxy =
/
a
Z
 b
Z
Z
B
b
Z
 a
Z
Z
C
a  b
Z
0
ab
Z
L
a
Z
+ b
Z
Z
p, r, s, t, u
ZZ. /n arthmetc sequence s a sequence n whch each
term alter the hrst s equa to the sum ol the
precedn term and a constant. ll the st ol etters
shown above s an arthmetc sequence, whch ol the
loown must aso be an arthmetc sequence'
l. Zp, Zr, Zs, Zt, Zu
ll. p  3, r  3, s  3, t  3, u  3
lll. p
Z
, r
Z
, s
Z
, t
Z
, u
Z
/ l ony
B ll ony
C lll ony
0 l and ll
L ll and lll
ZZ9. bht trane lR s to be constructed n the xypane
so that the rht ane s at l and lR s parae to the
xaxs. 1he x and ycoordnates ol l, , and R are to
be nteers that satsly the nequates 4 x o and
b y b. How many dllerent tranes wth these
propertes coud be constructed'
/ C
B ,CC
C 9,9CC
0 C,CCC
L Z,CC
Z3C. 1he vaue ol
s how many
tmes the vaue ol Z
/
'
/
3
Z
B
o
Z
C 3
0 4
L o
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
186
. /
Z. B
3. C
4. L
o. C
b. C
/. B
. L
9. L
C. 0
. L
Z. /
3. C
4. /
o. B
b. 0
/. 0
. L
9. L
ZC. /
Z. B
ZZ. /
Z3. B
Z4. 0
Zo. L
Zb. B
Z/. L
Z. B
Z9. C
3C. B
3. B
3Z. B
33. C
34. /
3o. B
3b. /
3/. /
3. B
39. B
4C. C
4. /
4Z. L
43. B
44. 0
4o. B
4b. C
4/. C
4. C
49. B
oC. B
o. C
oZ. L
o3. L
o4. /
oo. L
ob. B
o/. /
o. B
o9. 0
bC. 0
b. L
bZ. /
b3. /
b4. B
bo. B
bb. L
b/. B
b. 0
b9. C
/C. C
/. /
/Z. B
/3. 0
/4. 0
/o. L
/b. 0
//. 0
/. C
/9. /
C. B
. /
Z. /
3. C
4. /
o. /
b. /
/. L
. 0
9. 0
9C. L
9. B
9Z. C
93. B
94. B
9o. L
9b. 0
9/. B
9. C
99. B
CC. 0
C. 0
CZ. B
C3. L
C4. B
Co. C
Cb. B
C/. 0
C. B
C9. C
C. C
. B
Z. 0
3. 0
4. B
o. C
b. B
/. L
. C
9. 0
ZC. C
5.4 Ansver Key
187
5.4 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver Key
Z. C
ZZ. L
Z3. B
Z4. B
Zo. L
Zb. C
Z/. /
Z. /
Z9. 0
3C. L
3. L
3Z. 0
33. L
34. B
3o. C
3b. /
3/. L
3. L
39. B
4C. 0
4. C
4Z. L
43. /
44. C
4o. C
4b. C
4/. /
4. 0
49. L
oC. /
o. B
oZ. L
o3. 0
o4. B
oo. 0
ob. 0
o/. B
o. L
o9. 0
bC. 0
b. L
bZ. B
b3. L
b4. 0
bo. /
bb. 0
b/. L
b. L
b9. C
/C. /
/. L
/Z. C
/3. L
/4. 0
/o. 0
/b. C
//. /
/. C
/9. L
C. B
. /
Z. /
3. C
4. 0
o. C
b. C
/. /
. L
9. B
9C. L
9. C
9Z. L
93. 0
94. 0
9o. C
9b. 0
9/. B
9. C
99. 0
ZCC. /
ZC. B
ZCZ. L
ZC3. C
ZC4. L
ZCo. B
ZCb. L
ZC/. L
ZC. /
ZC9. 0
ZC. B
Z. /
ZZ. B
Z3. 0
Z4. L
Zo. C
Zb. B
Z/. 0
Z. 0
Z9. L
ZZC. B
ZZ. 0
ZZZ. C
ZZ3. B
ZZ4. L
ZZo. 0
ZZb. /
ZZ/. /
ZZ. 0
ZZ9. C
Z3C. C
188
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
. / project schedued to be carred out over a sne
hsca year has a budet ol SZ,bCC, dvded nto
Z equa monthy aocatons. /t the end ol the lourth
month ol that hsca year, the tota amount actuay
spent on the project was S4,oC. By how much was
the project over ts budet'
/ S 3C
B S o4C
C S,CoC
0 S,3C
L S,43C
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
c budgct lor lour months is
us, thc projcct was
84,580  84,200  8380 ovcr budgct lor thc nrst
lour months.
e correct answer is A.
Z. ll the sum ol o, , Z, and o s equa to the sum ol 3,
4, x, and x + 3, what s the vaue ol x '
/ 4
B o
C b
0 /
L
AIgebra firstdegree equations
Convcrt thc words into symbols and solvc thc
cquation:
5 8 12 15  3 4 x (x 3)
40  2x 10
30  2x
15  x
e correct answer is B.
3. lor whch ol the loown vaues ol n s
CC + n
n
N01 an nteer'
/
B Z
C 3
0 4
L o
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Substitutc thc valuc lor n givcn in cach answcr
choicc into thc cxprcssion, and thcn simplily to
dctcrminc whcthcr or not that valuc rcsults in an
intcgcr.
A
100 1
1
101
1
101
!ntcgcr
8
100 2
2
102
2
51
!ntcgcr
C
100 3
3
103
3
34 333
. ... NT an intcgcr
100 4
4
104
4
26
!ntcgcr
100 5
5
105
5
21
!ntcgcr
5.5 Ansver ExpIanations
The !oIIoving discussion is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!cient and e!!ective approaches
to the kinds o! probIems common to probIem soIving questions. The particuIar questions in this
chapter are generaIIy representative o! the kinds o! probIem soIving questions you viII encounter on
the GMAT. emember that it is the probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the specic detaiIs
o! a particuIar question.
189
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Anothcr mcthod is to rcwritc thc givcn
cxprcssion,
100+ n
n
, as
100 100
1
n
n
n n
+ = + .
is shows that thc givcn cxprcssion is an intcgcr
cxactly whcn
100
n
is an intcgcr. Sincc 100 is not
divisiblc by 3, but 100 is divisiblc by 1, 2, 4, and 5,
it lollows that n  3.
e correct answer is C.
4. bectanuar loors / and Y have equa area. ll loor /
s Z leet by leet and loor Y s 9 leet wde, what s
the enth ol loor Y, n leet'
/ 3
Z
B
C
3
4
0 Z
L Z4
Geometry Area
Sincc Floor X is a rcctanglc, its arca is
(width)(lcngth)  (12)(18). !t is givcn that this
is also thc arca ol Floor Y, so il L is thc lcngth
ol Floor Y, it lollows that 9L  (12)(18), or
L 
12 18
9
12 9 2
9
( )( )
=
( )( )( )
 (12)(2)  24.
e correct answer is E.
l/Yb0ll /1 C0ll/NY /
Number ol
Lmpoyees
3aary
o SZC,CCC
4 SZZ,CCC
SZo,CCC
3 S3C,CCC
o. 1he tabe above shows the number ol empoyees
at each ol lour saary eves at Company /. what
s the averae arthmetc mean saary lor the
ZC empoyees'
/ SZ3,oCC
B SZ3,/oC
C SZ3,9CC
0 SZ4,Zo
L SZ4,ZoC
Arithmetic 5tatistics
From thc tablc, thcrc arc 5 cmployccs cach with a
salary ol 820,000, 4 cmployccs cach with a salary
c avcragc (arithmctic
mcan) lor all 20 cmployccs is thcn
5 20 000 4 22 000 8 25 000 3 30 000
20
, , , , ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( )

100 000 88 000 200 000 90 000
20
, , , , + + +

478 000
20
,
 23,900
e correct answer is C.
b. / case contans c cartons. Lach carton contans
b boxes, and each box contans CC paper cps. How
many paper cps are contaned n Z cases'
/ CCbc
B
CCb
c
C ZCCbc
0
ZCCb
c
L
ZCC
bc
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
ach casc has bc boxcs, cach ol which has
c total numbcr ol papcr clips
in 2 cascs is thus 2(bc)(100)  200bc.
e correct answer is C.
190
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
/. 1he sum ol prme numbers that are reater than bC
but ess than /C s
/ b/
B Z
C 9
0 9/
L ZbC
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
A primc numbcr is a positivc intcgcr divisiblc
crcnt positivc divisors, 1 and
itscll. Notc that 62, 64, 66, and 68 arc also
divisiblc by 2, 63, 66, and 69 arc also divisiblc by
c only primc
numbcrs bctwccn 60 and 70 arc 61 and 67, and
61 67  128.
e correct answer is B.
. / ranstorm ncreased the amount ol water stored
n 3tate J reservors lrom Z4 bon aons to
3 bon aons. ll the storm ncreased the amount
ol water n the reservors to Z percent ol tota
capacty, approxmatey how many bon aons ol
water were the reservors short ol tota capacty pror
to the storm'
/ 9
B 4
C Zo
0 3C
L 44
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct t bc thc total capacity ol thc rcscrvoirs in
c inlormation that thc post
storm watcr amount ol 138 billion gallons
rcprcscntcd 82 pcrccnt ol total capacity can bc
cxprcsscd as 0.82t  138. Solvc lor t and thcn
cstimatc thc valuc ol t:
us, thc amount thc
rcscrvoirs wcrc short ol total capacity prior to thc
storm, in billions ol gallons, was approximatcly
175 124  51, so is thc bcst choicc. A morc
accuratc calculation givcs 168.3 124  44.3.
e correct answer is E.
y
2
2 x 2
O
2
9. 0n the raph above, when x =
Z
, y = Z; and when
x = , y = . 1he raph s symmetrc wth respect to
the vertca ne at x = Z. /ccordn to the raph, when
x = 3, y =
/ 
B 
Z
C C
0
Z
L
Arithmetic, AIgebra Interpretation o! graphs,
5econddegree equations
Sincc thc graph is symmctric with rcspcct to
x  2, thc y valuc whcn x  3 will bc thc samc as
thc y valuc whcn x  1, which is 1.
e correct answer is E.
C. when
C
percent ol o,CCC s subtracted lrom
C
ol
o,CCC the dllerence s
/ C
B oC
C 4oC
0 49o
L oCC
Arithmetic Percents
Sincc
1
10
pcrccnt is
1
1 000 ,
crcncc askcd
lor is 
500 5  495.
e correct answer is D.
191
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
. whch ol the loown s the vaue ol '
/ C.CC4
B C.CC
C C.CZ
0 C.C4
L C.Z
Arithmetic Operations on radicaI expressions
c squarc root and cubc root cvaluations arc
morc casily carricd out whcn 0.000064 is
rcwrittcn as 64 10
6
. Using this rcwrittcn lorm,
thc valuc askcd lor is




 2 10
1
 0.2
e correct answer is E.
Z. balNe tckets numbered consecutvey lrom C
throuh 3oC are paced n a box. what s the
probabty that a tcket seected at random w
have a number wth a hundreds dt ol Z '
/
B
C
0
L
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
crc arc 250 intcgcrs lrom 101 to 350 inclusivc,
100 ol which (that is, 200 through 299) havc a
crclorc, thc probability
that a tickct sclcctcd lrom thc box at random
will havc a hundrcds digit ol 2 can bc cxprcsscd
as
e correct answer is A.
3. when leo mported a certan tem, he pad a / percent
mport tax on the porton ol the tota vaue ol the tem
n excess ol S,CCC. ll the amount ol the mport tax
that leo pad was S/.oC, what was the tota vaue ol
the tem'
/ S,bCC
B S,oC
C SZ,ZoC
0 SZ,4CC
L SZ,/oC
AIgebra firstdegree equations
Lctting x rcprcscnt thc total valuc ol thc itcm,
convcrt thc words to symbols and solvc thc
cquation.
7 ol valuc in cxccss ol 81,000  87.50
0.07(x 1,000)  87.50
x 1,000  1,250
x  2,250
e correct answer is C.
4. 0n londay, a person maed packaes wehn an
averae arthmetc mean ol Z pounds, and on
1uesday, 4 packaes wehn an averae ol
o
4
pounds. what was the averae weht, n pounds,
ol a the packaes the person maed on both days'
/ 3
B 3
C o
0 o
L b
192
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Sincc avcragc
sum ol valucs
numbcr ol valucs
thc inlormatio
,
nn about thc two shipmcnts
ol packagcs can bc cxprcsscd as
avvcragc
8 12
3
8
4 15
1
4
12
8
99
8
4
61
4
12
99 61
12
160
12
13
11
3
.
e correct answer is A.
o. C. + C.
Z
+ C.
3
=
/ C.
B C.
C C.Z
0 C.Z34
L C.3
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Calculatc thc squarcd and thc cubcd tcrm, and
thcn add thc thrcc tcrms.
0.1 (0.1)
2
(0.1)
3
 0.1 0.01 0.001  0.111
e correct answer is B.
b. / carpenter constructed a rectanuar sandbox wth a
capacty ol C cubc leet. ll the carpenter were to
make a smar sandbox twce as on, twce as wde,
and twce as hh as the hrst sandbox, what woud be
the capacty, n cubc leet, ol the second sandbox'
/ ZC
B 4C
C bC
0 C
L CC
Geometry VoIume
Vhcn all thc dimcnsions ol a thrccdimcnsional
objcct arc changcd by a lactor ol 2, thc capacity,
or volumc, changcs by a lactor ol (2)(2)(2)  2
3

us thc capacity ol thc sccond sandbox is
10(8)  80 cubic lcct.
e correct answer is D.
/. / bakery opened yesterday wth ts day suppy ol
4C dozen ros. Hal ol the ros were sod by noon, and
C percent ol the remann ros were sod between
noon and cosn tme. How many dozen ros had not
been sod when the bakery cosed yesterday'
/
B Z
C 3
0 4
L o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers,
Percents
Sincc hall ol thc 40 dozcn rolls wcrc sold by
noon, thcn
1
2
(40)  20 dozcn rolls wcrc lclt to bc
sold altcr noon. 8ccausc 80 pcrccnt ol thosc 20
wcrc sold, 100 80  20 pcrccnt ol thcm or
20(0.20)  4 dozcn rolls had not bccn sold whcn
thc bakcry closcd.
e correct answer is D.
. ll the area ol a square reon havn sdes ol enth
b centmeters s equa to the area ol a rectanuar
reon havn wdth Z.o centmeters, then the enth
ol the rectane, n centmeters, s
/ .o
B 9.o
C 9.b
0 C.o
L 4.4
Geometry uadriIateraIs
c arca ol a squarc rcgion with sidc lcngth 6 is
36 and thc arca ol a rcctangular rcgion with
width 2.5 and lcngth x is 2.5x c two arcas arc
cqual, so
36  2.5x
36 
5
2
x
36  x
72
5
 x
14.4  x
e correct answer is E.
193
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
9. oC s what percent ol 3C '
/ o
B ZC
C oC
0 ZCC
L oCC
Arithmetic Percents
Lct x bc thc dcsircd pcrccnt in thc problcm.
c givcn inlormation can bc cxprcsscd by thc
lollowing cquation, which can thcn bc solvcd lor x.
150  30x
15 10
3 10
( )( )
( )( )
 x
5  x
cn, 5 cxprcsscd as a pcrccnt is 500.
e correct answer is E.
ZC. 1he rato Z to
3
s equa to the rato
/ b to
B o to
C 3 to Z
0 Z to 3
L to b
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c ratio 2 to is thc samc as  6,
which is
1
3
2
1
3
2
3
1
tthc samc as a ratio ol 6 to 1.
e correct answer is A.
Z. bunnn at the same constant rate, b dentca
machnes can produce a tota ol Z/C bottes per
mnute. /t ths rate, how many bottes coud C such
machnes produce n 4 mnutes'
/ b4
B ,CC
C Z,/CC
0 C,CC
L b4,CC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Sincc thcrc arc 6 machincs, cach machinc docs
1
6
ol thc work. ach machinc can producc
270
1
6
45 bottlcs pcr minutc, so 10 machincs
can producc 45(10)  450 bottlcs pcr minutc.
crclorc, thc 10 machincs can producc 450(4) 
1,800 bottlcs in 4 minutcs.
e correct answer is B.
1 2 1 2 0
B C D E
ZZ. 0l the hve coordnates assocated wth ponts A, , L,
0, and L on the number ne above, whch has the
reatest absoute vaue'
/ A
B
C L
0 0
L L
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c absolutc valuc ol a numbcr x is thc distancc
bctwccn x and 0 on thc numbcr linc. Point is
larthcst lrom 0 and thus its coordinatc has thc
grcatcst absolutc valuc.
e correct answer is A.
Z3. ll n s a prme number reater than 3, what s the
remander when n
Z
s dvded by Z '
/ C
B
C Z
0 3
L o
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c simplcst way to solvc this problcm is to
choosc a primc numbcr grcatcr than 3 and dividc
194
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
its squarc by 12 to scc what thc rcmaindcr is. For
cxamplc, il n  5, thcn n
2
 25, and thc rcmaindcr
is 1 whcn 25 is dividcd by 12. A sccond primc
numbcr can bc uscd to chcck thc rcsult. For
cxamplc, il n  7, thcn n
2
 49, and thc rcmaindcr
is 1 whcn 49 is dividcd by 12. 8ccausc only onc ol
thc answcr choiccs can bc corrcct, thc rcmaindcr
must bc 1.
For thc morc mathcmatically inclincd, considcr
thc rcmaindcr whcn cach primc numbcr n grcatcr
c rcmaindcr cannot bc 0
bccausc that would imply that n is divisiblc by 6,
which is impossiblc sincc n is a primc numbcr.
c rcmaindcr cannot bc 2 or 4 bccausc that
would imply that n is cvcn, which is impossiblc
sincc n c
rcmaindcr cannot bc 3 bccausc that would imply
that n is divisiblc by 3, which is impossiblc sincc
n crclorc,
thc only possiblc rcmaindcrs whcn a primc
numbcr n grcatcr than 3 is dividcd by 6 arc 1
us, n has thc lorm 6q 1 or 6q 5,
whcrc q is an intcgcr, and, thcrclorc, n
2
has thc
lorm 36q
2
12q 1  12(3q
2
q) 1 or
36q
2
60q 25  12(3q
2
5q 2) 1. !n cithcr
casc, n
2
has a rcmaindcr ol 1 whcn dividcd by 12.
e correct answer is B.
Z4.
3
+

Z
+
=
/ 
3
B 
b
C 
Z
0
Z
L
3
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Pcrlorm thc arithmctic calculations as lollows:





1
12
e correct answer is D.
y
x
5 O
5
!
Zo. ln the hure above, the coordnates ol pont \ are
/ /,o
B o,/
C o,/
0 /,o
L /,o
Geometry Coordinate geometry
c xcoordinatc ol ! is 7, and thc ycoordinatc
ol ! us, thc coordinatcs, (x,y), ol ! arc
(7,5).
e correct answer is E.
195
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Zb. / rope 4C leet on s cut nto two peces. ll one pece
s leet oner than the other, what s the enth, n
leet, ol the shorter pece'
/ 9
B
C
0 ZZ
L Z9
AIgebra firstdegree equations
8uild an cquation to cxprcss thc givcn
inlormation and solvc lor thc answcr.
Lct x  lcngth ol thc shortcr piccc ol ropc in lcct.
cn x 18  lcngth ol thc longcr piccc ol ropc
in lcct.
us x (x 18)  40 is thc cntirc lcngth ol thc
ropc in lcct.
2x 18  40 combinc likc tcrms
2x  22 subtract 18 lrom both sidcs
x  11 dividc both sidcs by 2
e correct answer is B.
Z/. / student's averae arthmetc mean test score on
4 tests s /. what must be the student's score on a
oth test lor the student's averae score on the o tests
to be C '
/ C
B Z
C 4
0 b
L
Arithmetic 5tatistics
c avcragc ol thc studcnt's nrst 4 tcst scorcs is
78, so thc sum ol thc nrst 4 tcst scorcs is 4(78) 
312. !l x rcprcscnts thc nlth tcst scorc, thcn thc
sum ol all 5 tcst scorcs is 312 x and thc avcragc
ol all 5 tcst scorcs is
312
5
+ x
. 8ut thc avcragc ol
all 5 tcst scorcs is 80 so
312
5
+ x
 80
312 x  400
x  88
e correct answer is E.
Z. 1he averae dstance between the 3un and a certan
panet s approxmatey Z.3 C
4
nches. whch ol the
loown s cosest to the averae dstance between
the 3un and the panet, n kometers'  kometer s
approxmatey 3.9 C
4
nches.
/ /. C
B o.9 C
9
C .b C
C
0 .b C
L o.9 C
Arithmetic Measurement conversion
Convcrt to kilomctcrs and thcn cstimatc.
(2.3 10
14
in)

km

2 3
3 9
.
.
10
14 4
km
2
4
10
10
 0.5 10
10
 5 10
9
e correct answer is B.
Z9. ll the quotent
a
b
s postve, whch ol the loown
must be true'
/ a > C
B b > C
C ab > C
0 a  b > C
L a + b > C
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
!l thc quoticnt
a
b
is positivc, thcn cithcr a and b
arc both positivc, or a and b arc both ncgativc.
196
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
A a  1 and b  1 show it N NT 8
TRU that a ~ 0.
8 a  1 and b  1 show it N NT 8
TRU that b ~ 0.
c condition that ab is positivc is cxactly
thc samc condition that
a
b
us,
it MUST 8 TRU that ab ~ 0.
a  1 and b  2 show it N NT 8
TRU that a b ~ 0.
a  1 and b  1 show it N NT 8
TRU that a b ~ 0.
e correct answer is C.
28
32
24
20
20 25 30
Vcight
(hundrcds ol pounds)
3C. 1he dots on the raph above ndcate the wehts and
lue elhcency ratns lor ZC cars. How many ol the
cars weh more than Z,oCC pounds and aso et
more than ZZ mes per aon'
/ 3
B o
C
0 C
L
Arithmetic Interpretation o! graphs and tabIes
28
32
24
20
20 25 30
Vcight
(hundrcds ol pounds)
c only dots on thc graph that mcct thc
conditions ol thc problcm arc thosc to thc right
ol 25 (that is, thc car has a wcight in cxccss ol
2,500 pounds) and abovc 22 (that is, thc car has a
lucl clncicncy ovcr 22 milcs pcr gallon) as shown.
e correct answer is B.
3. How many mnutes does t take John to type y words l
he types at the rate ol x words per mnute'
/
x
y
B
y
x
C xy
0
bCx
y
L
y
bCx
AIgebra firstdegree equations
Lct m rcprcscnt thc numbcr ol minutcs it takcs
John to typc y words. !n this ratc problcm, thc
numbcr ol words typcd  (typing ratc)(timc).
us, y  xm, or m 
y
x
.
e correct answer is B.
197
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
3Z.     b ZC 3Z
/ 4 ZC
B Z4
C Zo
0 4 ZC Z
L 3Z
Arithmetic Operations on radicaI expressions
c lollowing
is onc way to lcsscn thc amount ol arithmctic
computation.
16 20 8 32
( )( )
+
( )( )

16 20 16 16
( )( )
+
( )( )

16 20 16 ( ) + ( )
 16 20 16 +
 4 36
 (4)(6)
 24
e correct answer is B.
150
O
33. ll U s the center ol the crce above, what lracton ol
the crcuar reon s shaded'
/
Z
B
9
C
b
0
4
L
3
Geometry CircIes and area
\crtical anglcs arc congrucnt, so 150 150 
300 ol thc circlc is not shadcd. Sincc thcrc arc
360 in a circlc, this makcs 360 300  60 ol
c lraction ol thc circular
rcgion that is shadcd is thus 
60
360
1
6
.
e correct answer is C.
34. ll Juan takes seconds to run y yards, how many
seconds w t take hm to run x yards at the same
rate'
/
x
y
B
y
x
C
x
y
0
xy
L
xy
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Juan's running ratc can bc cxprcsscd as
y
11
yards
pcr sccond. Usc this valuc in thc lormula
distancc  (ratc)(timc), lctting t cqual thc timc in
scconds that it will takc Juan to run thc distancc
ol x yards:
x 
y
11
t distancc  (ratc)(timc)
11 x
y
 t solvc lor t by multiplying both sidcs
by
11
y
e correct answer is A.
3o. John has C pars ol matched socks. ll he oses
/ ndvdua socks, what s the reatest number ol
pars ol matched socks he can have elt'
/ /
B b
C o
0 4
L 3
198
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
ctcrminc nrst thc lowcst numbcr ol pairs ol
matchcd socks that can bc madc lrom thc 7
c lowcst numbcr ol pairs that
7 individual socks can comc lrom is 3 lull pairs
c grcatcst
numbcr ol pairs ol matchcd socks John can havc
lclt is thcrclorc 10 4  6 lully matchcd pairs.
e correct answer is B.
3b. what s the owest postve nteer that s dvsbe by
each ol the nteers throuh /, ncusve'
/ 4ZC
B 4C
C ,ZbC
0 Z,oZC
L o,C4C
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
A numbcr that is divisiblc by thc intcgcrs lrom 1
through 7 inclusivc must havc 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7
c lowcst positivc intcgcr will havc
c lowcst common
multiplc ol 2, 3, 4, and 6 is 12, and 5 and 7 arc
primc, so thc lowcst positivc intcgcr that is
divisiblc by cach ol thc intcgcrs 1 through 7
inclusivc is 12(5)(7)  420.
e correct answer is A.
3/.
=
/ 4
B C.Zo
C C.Zo
0 C./o
L 4
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Pcrlorm thc arithmctic calculations as lollows:


1
4
 4
e correct answer is A.
3. ll , then
o
C Z
o
.
.
x
x
/ 3./
B C.
C C.3
0 C.o
L Z.
AIgebra firstdegree equations
Vork thc problcm to solvc lor x.
1 5
0 2
5
.
.
x
1.5  1 5x multiply both sidcs by 0.2 x
0.5  5x subtract 1 lrom both sidcs
0.1  x dividc both sidcs by 5
e correct answer is B.
2 3
x
1
2
1
1 1
y
Q(3,2)
P
O
39. ln the hure above, the pont on sement l that s
twce as lar lrom l as lrom s
/ 3,
B Z,
C Z,
0 .o,C.o
L ,C
Geometry Coordinate geometry
n a scgmcnt, a point that is twicc as lar lrom
onc cnd as thc othcr is
1
3
thc distancc lrom onc
199
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
c points (0,1), (1,0), (2,1), and (3,2) arc
on scgmcnt PQ, and thcy dividc thc scgmcnt into
thrcc intcrvals ol cqual lcngth as shown in thc
ngurc bclow.
Q(3,2)
y
1
2
1
1
(1,0)
1 2 3 x
O
(2,1)
P(0,1)
Notc that thc point (2,1) is twicc as lar lrom
P (0,1) as lrom Q (3,2) and also that it is
1
3
thc
distancc lrom Q.
e correct answer is B.
4C. ll n s an nteer, whch ol the loown must be even'
/ n +
B n + Z
C Zn
0 Zn +
L n
Z
Arithmetic Properties o! integers
A quick look at thc answcr choiccs rcvcals thc
cxprcssion 2n in answcr choicc C. 2n is a multiplc
ol 2 and hcncc must bc cvcn.
Sincc only onc answcr choicc can bc corrcct, thc
othcr answcr choiccs nccd not bc chcckcd.
Howcvcr, lor complctcncss:
A n 1 is odd il n is cvcn and cvcn il n is odd.
crclorc, it is not truc that n 1 must bc
cvcn.
8 n 2 is cvcn il n is cvcn and odd il n is odd.
crclorc, it is not truc that n 2 must bc
cvcn.
2n 1 is odd whcthcr n is cvcn or odd.
crclorc, it is not truc that 2n 1 must bc
cvcn.
n
2
is cvcn il n is cvcn and odd il n is odd.
crclorc, it is not truc that n
2
must bc cvcn.
e correct answer is C.
4. ll 4 s one souton ol the equaton x
Z
+ 3x + k = C,
where k s a constant, what s the other souton'
/ /
B 4
C 3
0
L b
AIgebra 5econddegree equations
!l 4 is onc solution ol thc cquation, thcn substitutc
4 lor x and solvc lor k.
x
2
3x k  10
(4)
2
3(4) k  10
16 12 k  10
28 k  10
k  18
cn, substitutc 18 lor k and solvc lor x.
x
2
3x 18  10
x
2
3x 28  0
(x 7)(x 4)  0
x  7, x  4
e correct answer is A.
4Z. ll
a b
c d
= ad  bc lor a numbers a, b, c, and d,
then =
/ ZZ
B Z
C Z
0 /
L ZZ
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Using thc givcn pattcrn, with a  3, b  5, c  2,
and d  4, givcs
3 5
2 4
 (3)(4) (5)(2) 
12 10  22.
e correct answer is E.
200
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
43. 1he sum
/
9
s between
/
Z
and
3
4
B
3
4
and
C and
4
0
4
and
Z
L
Z
and Z
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Sincc
1
9
1
8
,
7
8
1
9
7
8
1
8
 1, and answcr
choiccs C, , and can bc climinatcd. Sincc
7
8
~
6
8

3
4
,
7
8
1
9
~
3
4
, and answcr choicc A
us,
3
4
7
8
1
9
1.
e correct answer is B.
44. ll x =  3t and y = Zt  , then lor what vaue ol t
does x = y '
/
o
Z
B
3
Z
C
Z
3
0
Z
o
L C
AIgebra 5imuItaneous equations
Sincc it is givcn that x  y, sct thc cxprcssions lor
x and y cqual to cach othcr and solvc lor t.
1  3t  2t  1
2  5t add 3t and 1 to both sidcs, thcn
2
5
 t dividc both sidcs by 5
e correct answer is D.
4o.  =
/
b
o
B
/
b
C
b
/
0
o
b
L C
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Pcrlorm thc arithmctic calculations as lollows:
1  1
 1
 1
1
6

7
6
e correct answer is B.
4b.
C.3
o
C.3
3
=
/ C.CC
B C.C
C C.C9
0 C.9
L .C
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Vork thc problcm.
( . )
( . )
( . ) ( . ) .
0 3
0 3
0 3 0 3 0 09
5
3
5 3 2
e correct answer is C.
4/. ln a hortcutura experment, ZCC seeds were panted
n pot l and 3CC were panted n pot ll. ll o/ percent
ol the seeds n pot l ermnated and 4Z percent ol the
seeds n pot ll ermnated, what percent ol the tota
number ol panted seeds ermnated'
201
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
/ 4o.o
B 4b.o
C 4.C
0 49.o
L o.C
Arithmetic Percents
c total numbcr ol sccds that gcrminatcd was
200 (0.57) 300 (0.42)  114 126  240.
8ccausc this was out ol 500 sccds plantcd, thc
pcrccnt ol thc total plantcd that gcrminatcd was
240
500
 0.48, or 48.0.
e correct answer is C.
A
L
L 0
Note: lure not drawn to scae.
4. ln the hure above, l A [[ LL, LL = 0L, and y = 4o,
then x =
/ 4o
B bC
C b/.o
0 Z.o
L 3o
Geometry AngIe measure in degrees,
TriangIes
A
L
L 0
Note: lure not drawn to scae.
Sincc B ]] CE, B and ECD arc
corrcsponding anglcs and, thcrclorc, havc thc
samc mcasurc. Sincc CE  DE, CED is isoscclcs
so D and ECD c
anglcs ol CED havc dcgrcc mcasurcs x, x, and y,
so 2x y  180. Sincc y  45,
2x y  180
2x 45  180
2x  135
x  67.5
e correct answer is C.
49. How many nteers n are there such that
< on + o < Zo '
/ lve
B lour
C 1hree
0 1wo
L 0ne
AIgebra InequaIities
!solatc thc variablc in thc incqualitics to
dctcrminc thc rangc within which n lics.
1 5n 5 25
4 5n 20 subtract 5 lrom all thrcc valucs

4
5
n 4 dividc all thrcc valucs by 5
crc arc lour intcgcrs bctwccn 
4
5
and 4, namcly
0, 1, 2, and 3.
e correct answer is B.
oC. ll y s an nteer, then the east possbe vaue ol
[Z3  oy[ s
/
B Z
C 3
0 4
L o
Arithmetic AbsoIute vaIue, Operations vith
integers
Sincc y is an intcgcr, 23 5y is also an intcgcr.
c task is to nnd thc intcgcr y lor which
]23 5y] is thc lcast. !l y y 0, and
202
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
23 5y 23. n thc othcr hand, il y 0, 5y
and 23 5y crclorc, thc lcast possiblc
valuc ol ]23 5y] occurs at a nonncgativc valuc ol
y. From thc chart bclow, it is clcar that thc lcast
possiblc intcgcr valuc ol ]23 5y] is 2, which
occurs whcn y  5.
y ]23 5y]
0 23
1 18
2 13
3 8
4 3
5 2
6 7
7 12
Altcrnativcly, sincc ]23 5 O, tHe minimum
possible real value oi 23  5 is O. THe integer
value oi ior wHicH 23  5 is least is tHe integer
closest to tHe solution oi tHe equation 23  5 = O.
THe solution is =
23
5
= 4.G and tHe integer
closest to 4.G is 5.
e correct answer is B.
o. / /
Z
=
/ 9
B 49
C Z
0 Z
L 4
Arithmetic Operations vith radicaI
expressions
Simplily thc cxprcssion.
e correct answer is C.
oZ. ln a certan popuaton, there are 3 tmes as many
peope aed Z or under as there are peope over Z.
1he rato ol those Z or under to the tota popuaton s
/ to Z
B to 3
C to 4
0 Z to 3
L 3 to 4
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct x cn 3x
rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol pcoplc 21 or undcr,
and x 3x  4x rcprcscnts thc total population.
us, thc ratio ol thosc 21 or undcr to thc total
population is
3
4
3
4
x
x
, or 3 to 4.
e correct answer is E.
(2x)
(3x)
(y 30)
o3. ln the hure above, the vaue ol y s
/ b
B Z
C Z4
0 3b
L 4Z
Geometry AngIe measure in degrees
c sum ol thc mcasurcs ol anglcs that lorm a
straight linc cquals 180. From this, 2x 3x  180
so 5x  180 and thus x cn, bccausc
vcrtical anglcs arc congrucnt, thcir mcasurcs in
is can bc cxprcsscd in thc
lollowing cquation and solvcd lor y:
2x  y 30
2(36)  y 30 substitutc 36 lor x
72  y 30 simplily
42  y subtract 30 lrom both sidcs
e correct answer is E.
203
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
o4. C + Zo =
/ 9 o
B ZC o
C 4 o
0 ZCo
L CC
Arithmetic Operations vith radicaI
expressions
Rcwritc cach radical in thc lorm a b , whcrc a
and b arc positivc intcgcrs and b is as small as
possiblc, and thcn add.
80 125  16 5 ( ) 25 5 ( )
 16 5
( )( )
25 5
( )( )
 4 5 5 5
 9 5
e correct answer is A.
oo. bey and Chrs packed severa boxes wth books.
ll Chrs packed bC percent ol the tota number ol
boxes, what was the rato ol the number ol boxes
bey packed to the number ol boxes Chrs packed'
/ to b
B to 4
C Z to o
0 3 to o
L Z to 3
Arithmetic Percents
!l Chris packcd 60 pcrccnt ol thc boxcs, thcn
Kclly packcd 100 60  40 pcrccnt ol thc boxcs.
c ratio ol thc numbcr ol boxcs Kclly packcd to
thc numbcr Chris packcd is
40
60
2
3
.
e correct answer is E.
ob. 0l the loown, whch s the cosest approxmaton
ol
oC.Z C.49
99.
'
/
C
B
C
4
0
o
4
L
Zo
Z
Arithmetic Estimation
Simplily thc cxprcssion using approximations.
e correct answer is B.
o/. 1he averae arthmetc mean ol C, 3C, and oC s
o more than the averae ol ZC, 4C, and
/ o
B Zo
C 3o
0 4o
L oo
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Using thc lormula
sum ol n valucs
n
 avcragc,
thc givcn inlormation about thc nrst sct ol
numbcrs can bc cxprcsscd in thc cquation
10 30 50
3
 30 . From thc givcn inlormation
thcn, thc avcragc ol thc sccond sct ol numbcrs
is 30 5  25. Lctting x rcprcscnt thc missing
numbcr, sct up thc cquation lor calculating thc
avcragc lor thc sccond sct ol numbcrs, and solvc
lor x.
204
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
20 40 x
3
 25
60 x
3
 25 simplily
60 x  75 multiply both sidcs by 3
x  15 subtract 60 lrom both sidcs
e correct answer is A.
y = kx + 3
o. ln the equaton above, k s a constant. ll y = / when
x = Z, what s the vaue ol y when x = 4 '
/ 34
B 3
C 4
0
L /
AIgebra firstdegree equations
!l y  kx 3 and y  17 whcn x  2, thcn
17  2k 3
14  2k
7  k
crclorc, y  7x 3. Vhcn x  4, y  7(4) 3  31.
e correct answer is B.
o9. Lach week, Harry s pad x doars per hour lor the hrst
3C hours and .ox doars lor each addtona hour
worked that week. Lach week, James s pad x doars
per hour lor the hrst 4C hours and Zx doars lor each
addtona hour worked that week. last week James
worked a tota ol 4 hours. ll Harry and James were
pad the same amount ast week, how many hours dd
Harry work ast week'
/ 3o
B 3b
C 3/
0 3
L 39
AIgebra 5ystems o! equations
Harry's pay, H, is givcn by
H 
and Jamcs's pay, J, is givcn by
J 
Jamcs workcd 41 hours, lor which his pay was
40x 2x(41 40)  42x. Harry was paid thc samc
amount as Jamcs, so Harry's pay was also 42x.
us,
42x  30x 1.5x(h 30)
12x  1.5x(h 30)
8  h 30
38  h
e correct answer is D.
bC. / ass was hed wth C ounces ol water, and
C.C ounce ol the water evaporated each day durn
a ZCday perod. what percent ol the orna amount
ol water evaporated durn ths perod'
/ C.CCZ
B C.CZ
C C.Z
0 Z
L ZC
Arithmetic Percents
Sincc 0.01 ouncc ol watcr cvaporatcd cach day
lor 20 days, a total ol 20(0.01)  0.2 ouncc
cn, to nnd thc pcrccnt ol thc
original amount ol watcr that cvaporatcd, dividc
thc amount that cvaporatcd by thc original
amount and multiply by 100 to convcrt thc
us,
0 2
10
.
100 
0.02 100 or 2.
e correct answer is D.
205
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
b. / ucose souton contans o rams ol ucose
per CC cubc centmeters ol souton. ll 4o cubc
centmeters ol the souton were poured nto an
empty contaner, how many rams ol ucose woud
be n the contaner'
/ 3.CC
B o.CC
C o.oC
0 b.oC
L b./o
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct x bc thc numbcr ol grams ol glucosc in thc
c proportion
comparing thc glucosc in thc 45 cubic ccntimctcrs
to thc givcn inlormation about thc 15 grams ol
glucosc in thc cntirc 100 cubic ccntimctcrs ol
solution can bc cxprcsscd as
x
45
15
100
, and thus
100x  675 or x  6.75.
e correct answer is E.
Q
F
S P
140
2y
bZ. ln the hure above, l lRS s a paraeoram,
then y  x =
/ 3C
B 3o
C 4C
0 /C
L CC
Geometry PoIygons
Sincc PQFS is a parallclogram, thc lollowing
must bc truc:
140  2y corrcsponding anglcs
arc congrucnt
2y x  180 consccutivc anglcs arc
supplcmcntary (sum  180)
Solving thc nrst cquation lor y givcs y  70.
Substituting this into thc sccond cquation givcs
2(70) x  180
140 x  180
x  40
us, y x  70 40  30.
e correct answer is A.
b3. ll kometer s approxmatey C.b me, whch ol the
loown best approxmates the number ol kometers
n Z mes'
/
C
3
B 3
C
b
o
0
3
L
3
C
Arithmetic AppIied probIems
3
5
mi, dividc to nnd that
5
3
crclorc,
2
10
3
e correct answer is A.
b4. lucy nvested SC,CCC n a new mutua lund account
exacty three years ao. 1he vaue ol the account
ncreased by C percent durn the hrst year,
ncreased by o percent durn the second year,
and decreased by C percent durn the thrd year.
what s the vaue ol the account today'
/ SC,3oC
B SC,39o
C SC,oCC
0 S,oCC
L SZ,/Co
206
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Arithmetic Percents
c nrst ycar's incrcasc ol 10 pcrccnt can bc
cxprcsscd as 1.10, thc sccond ycar's incrcasc ol
5 pcrccnt can bc cxprcsscd as 1.05, and thc third
ycar's dccrcasc ol 10 pcrccnt can bc cxprcsscd as
0.90. Multiply thc original valuc ol thc account by
cach ol thcsc ycarly changcs.
10,000(1.10)(1.05)(0.90)  10,395
e correct answer is B.
bo. / certan lrut stand sod appes lor SC./C each and
bananas lor SC.oC each. ll a customer purchased both
appes and bananas lrom the stand lor a tota ol
Sb.3C, what tota number ol appes and bananas dd
the customer purchase'
/ C
B
C Z
0 3
L 4
AIgebra firstdegree equations, Operations
vith integers
!l cach applc sold lor 80.70, cach banana sold lor
80.50, and thc total purchasc pricc was 86.30,
thcn 0.70x 0.50y  6.30, whcrc x and y arc
positivc intcgcrs rcprcscnting thc numbcr ol
applcs and bananas, rcspcctivcly, thc customcr
purchascd.
0.70x 0.50y  6.30
0.50y  6.30 0.70x
0.50y  0.70(9 x)
y 
7
5
(9 x)
Sincc y must bc an intcgcr, 9 x must bc divisiblc
by 5. Furthcrmorc, both x and y must bc positivc
intcgcrs. For x  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, thc
corrcsponding valucs ol 9 x arc 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2,
and 1. nly onc ol thcsc, 5, is divisiblc by 5.
crclorc, x  4 and y 
7
5
(9 4)  7 and thc
total numbcr ol applcs and bananas thc customcr
purchascd is 4 7  11.
e correct answer is B.
bb. /t a certan schoo, the rato ol the number ol second
raders to the number ol lourth raders s to o, and
the rato ol the number ol hrst raders to the number ol
second raders s 3 to 4. ll the rato ol the number ol
thrd raders to the number ol lourth raders s 3 to Z,
what s the rato ol the number ol hrst raders to the
number ol thrd raders'
/ b to o
B 9 to o
C o to b
0 o to 4
L 4 to o
Arithmetic atio and proportion
!l F, S, T, and F rcprcscnt thc numbcr ol nrst,
sccond, third, and lourth gradcrs, rcspcctivcly,
thcn thc givcn ratios arc: (i)
S
F
=
8
5
, (ii)
F
S
=
3
4
,
and (iii)
T
F
=
3
2
c dcsircd ratio is
F
T
. From
(i), S 
8
5
F, and lrom (ii), F 
3
4
S. Combining
thcsc rcsults, F 
3
4
S 
3
4

6
5
F. From (iii),
T 
3
2
F cn
F
T

6
5
3
2
F
F


4
5
. So, thc
ratio ol thc numbcr ol nrst gradcrs to thc numbcr
ol third gradcrs is 4 to 5.
e correct answer is E.
A = Z, 3, 4, o
= 4, o, b, /,
b/. 1wo nteers w be randomy seected lrom the sets
above, one nteer lrom set A and one nteer lrom set
. what s the probabty that the sum ol the two
nteers w equa 9 '
/ C.o
B C.ZC
C C.Zo
0 C.3C
L C.33
207
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Arithmetic, AIgebra ProbabiIity,
Concepts o! sets
crcnt pairs ol numbcrs,
onc lrom sct and onc lrom sct B is (4)(5)  20.
l thcsc 20 pairs ol numbcrs, thcrc arc 4 possiblc
pairs that sum to 9: 2 and 7, 3 and 6, 4 and 5, and
us, thc probability that thc sum ol thc
two intcgcrs will bc 9 is cqual to
e correct answer is B.
b. /t a certan nstant n tme, the number ol cars, N,
traven on a porton ol a certan hhway can be
estmated by the lormua
N =
where L s the number ol anes n the same drecton,
d s the enth ol the porton ol the hhway, n leet,
and s s the averae speed ol the cars, n mes per
hour. Based on the lormua, what s the estmated
number ol cars traven on a me porton ol the
hhway l the hhway has Z anes n the same
drecton and the averae speed ol the cars s 4C
mes per hour' o,ZC leet = me
/ oo
B 9b
C C
0 4
L Z4
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Substitutc L  2, d  (5,280), and s  40 into thc
givcn lormula and calculatc thc valuc lor N.
N 




 48
e correct answer is D.
4CC,CCC
3CC,CCC
ZCC,CCC
CC,CCC
C
99C 99Z 994 99b 99 ZCCC
year
N0lBLb 0l 3HlllLN13 0l l/N0l/C10bL0 H0lL3
lN 1HL 0Nl1L0 31/1L3, 99CZCCC
b9. /ccordn to the chart shown, whch ol the loown s
cosest to the medan annua number ol shpments ol
manulactured homes n the 0nted 3tates lor the
years lrom 99C to ZCCC, ncusve'
/ ZoC,CCC
B ZC,CCC
C 3C,CCC
0 3Zo,CCC
L 34C,CCC
Arithmetic Interpretation o! graphs and
tabIes, 5tatistics
From thc chart, thc approximatc numbcrs ol
shipmcnts arc as lollows:
Ycar Numbcr ol shipmcnts
1990 190,000
1991 180,000
1992 210,000
1993 270,000
1994 310,000
1995 350,000
1996 380,000
1997 370,000
1998 390,000
1999 360,000
2000 270,000
Since tHere are 11 entries in tHe table and 11 is
an odd number, tHe median oi tHe numbers oi
208
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
sHipments is tHe GtH entry wHen tHe numbers oi
sHipments are arranged in order irom least to
greatest. In order, irom least to greatest, tHe rst
G entries are:
Numbcr ol shipmcnts
180,000
190,000
210,000
270,000
270,000
310,000
THe GtH entry is 31O,OOO.
e correct answer is C.
/C. ll and y x =
/
Z
3
B
o
3
C
/
3
0
L 4
AIgebra firstdegree equations
Sincc y
and solvc lor x as lollows:
dividc both sidcs by y
3x  5  2 multiply both sidcs by 2
3x  7 solvc lor x
x 
7
3
e correct answer is C.
/. ll x + o > Z and x  3 < /, the vaue ol x must be
between whch ol the loown pars ol numbers'
/ 3 and C
B 3 and 4
C Z and /
0 3 and 4
L 3 and C
AIgebra InequaIities
!solatc x in cach givcn incquality. Sincc x 5 2,
thcn x 3. Sincc x 3 7, thcn x us,
3 x 10, which mcans thc valuc ol x must bc
bctwccn 3 and 10.
e correct answer is A.
/Z. / ym cass can be dvded nto teams wth an equa
number ol payers on each team or nto Z teams wth
an equa number ol payers on each team. what s the
owest possbe number ol students n the cass'
/ ZC
B Z4
C 3b
0 4
L 9b
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c lowcst valuc that can bc dividcd cvcnly by
8 and 12 is thcir lcast common multiplc (LCM).
Sincc 8 2
3
and 12 2
2
(3), thc LCM is
2
3
(3) 24.
e correct answer is B.
/3. ll r = C.34o, s = C.34o
Z
, and t = C 34o . , whch ol
the loown s the correct ordern ol r, s, and t '
/ r < s < t
B r < t < s
C s < t < r
0 s < r < t
L t < r < s
Arithmetic Order
Givcn that r  0.345, s  (0.345)
2
, and t  0 345 . ,
s and t can bc cxprcsscd in tcrms ol r as r
2
and
r
1
2
, rcspcctivcly. 8ccausc 0 r 1, thc valuc ol
209
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
r
x
dccrcascs as x incrcascs. For cxamplc, 1 2, but
1
4
~ crclorc, sincc
1
2
1 2, r
1
2
~ r ~ r
2
,
and so t ~ r ~ s or s r t.
e correct answer is D.
/4. / tota ol n trucks and cars are parked n a ot. ll the
number ol cars s
4
the number ol trucks, and
Z
3
ol
the trucks are pckups, how many pckups, n terms ol
n, are parked n the ot'
/
b
n
B
o
Z
n
C
Z
n
0
o
n
L
Z
n
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
!t is givcn that n is thc numbcr ol trucks and cars
parkcd in thc lot and thc numbcr ol cars is
1
4
thc
numbcr ol trucks, so il t rcprcscnts thc numbcr
ol trucks and c rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol cars,
n  c t and c 
1
4
t. Combining thcsc two
cquations givcs n 
1
4
t t 
5
4
t. !l p rcprcscnts
thc numbcr ol pickups parkcd in thc lot, thcn
p 
2
3
t. Sincc n 
5
4
t, or cquivalcntly t 
4
5
n,
thcn p 
2
3
t 
2
3

8
15
n.
e correct answer is D.
/o. /t east
Z
3
ol the 4C members ol a commttee must
vote n lavor ol a resouton lor t to pass. what s the
reatest number ol members who coud vote aanst
the resouton and st have t pass'
/ 9
B /
C b
0 4
L 3
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
!l at lcast
2
3
ol thc mcmbcrs must votc in lavor ol
a rcsolution, thcn no morc than
1
3
ol thc mcmbcrs
can bc voting against it. n this 40mcmbcr
committcc,
1
3
(40)  13
1
3
, which mcans that
no morc than 13 mcmbcrs can votc against thc
rcsolution and still havc it pass.
e correct answer is E.
/b. ln the Johnsons' monthy budet, the doar amounts
aocated to househod expenses, lood, and
msceaneous tems are n the rato o:Z:, respectvey.
ll the tota amount aocated to these three cateores
s S,CC, what s the amount aocated to lood'
/ S9CC
B S/ZC
C Sb/o
0 S4oC
L SZZo
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Sincc thc ratio is 5:2:1, lct 5x bc thc moncy
allocatcd to houschold cxpcnscs, 2x bc thc moncy
allocatcd to lood, and 1x bc thc moncy allocatcd
c givcn inlormation can
thcn bc cxprcsscd in thc lollowing cquation and
solvcd lor x.
5x 2x 1x  81,800
8x  81,800 combinc likc tcrms
x  8225 dividc both sidcs by 8
c moncy allocatcd to lood is
2x  2(8225)  8450.
e correct answer is D.
210
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
//. 1here are 4 more women than men on Centerve's
board ol educaton. ll there are C members on the
board, how many are women'
/ 3
B 4
C b
0 /
L
AIgebra 5imuItaneous equations,
AppIied probIems
Lct m bc thc numbcr ol mcn on thc board and .
bc thc numbcr ol womcn on thc board. According
to thc problcm,
.  m 4 bccausc thcrc arc 4 morc womcn
than mcn and
. m  10 bccausc thc board has a total ol
10 mcmbcrs.
Substituting m 4 lor . in thc sccond cquation
givcs:
m m 4  10
2m 4  10 combinc likc tcrms
2m  6 subtract 4 lrom both sidcs
m  3 dividc both sidcs by 2
Using thc nrst cquation, .  m 4  3 4  7
womcn on thc board.
is problcm can also bc solvcd without algcbra
by listing thc (m,.) possibilitics lor .  m 4.
csc possibilitics arc (0,4), (1,5), (2,6), (3,7), ctc.,
and hcncc thc pair in which m .  10 is (3,7).
e correct answer is D.
/. leona bouht a year, SC,CCC certhcate ol depost
that pad nterest at an annua rate ol percent
compounded semannuay. what was the tota amount
ol nterest pad on ths certhcate at maturty'
/ SC,4b4
B S b4
C S b
0 S CC
L S 4C
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Using thc lormula P
r
n
nt
( ) , 1 whcrc is
thc amount ol moncy altcr t (1 ycar), P is thc
principal amount invcstcd (810,000), r is thc
annual intcrcst ratc (0.08), and n is thc numbcr
ol timcs compounding occurs annually (2), thc
givcn inlormation can bc cxprcsscd as lollows
and solvcd lor :
( , )
.
( )( )
10 000 1
0 08
2
2 1
(10,000)(1.04)
2
(10,000)(1.0816)
10,816
us, sincc is thc nnal valuc ol thc ccrtincatc,
thc amount ol intcrcst paid at maturity is
810,816 810,000  8816.
e correct answer is C.
/9.
C CC3b Z
C C4 C C CC3
. .
. . .
( )( )
( )( )( )
=
/ 4C.C
B 4.C
C .4
0 C.4
L C.C4
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
To makc thc calculations lcss tcdious, convcrt thc
dccimals to wholc numbcrs timcs powcrs ol 10 as
lollows:
0 0036 2 8
0 04 0 1 0 003
. .
. . .
( )( )
( )( )( )



211
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations


 (12)(7) 10
1
 84 10
 840
e correct answer is A.
C. lachne / produces bots at a unlorm rate ol ZC
every 4C seconds, and lachne B produces bots at
a unlorm rate ol CC every ZC seconds. ll the two
machnes run smutaneousy, how many seconds w
t take lor them to produce a tota ol ZCC bots'
/ ZZ
B Zo
C Z
0 3Z
L ob
AIgebra AppIied probIems
ctcrminc thc production ratcs lor cach machinc
scparatcly, and thcn calculatc thcir production
ratc togcthcr.
Ratc ol Machinc A bolts pcr sccond
Ratc ol Machinc
120
40
3
88 bolts pcr sccond
100
20
5
Combincd ratc  3 5  8 bolts pcr sccond
8uild an cquation with s  thc numbcr ol scconds
it takcs to producc 200 bolts.
8s  200 (ratc)(timc)  amount produccd
s  25 solvc lor s
e correct answer is B.
Amount o! acteria Present
1me /mount
:CC l.l. C.C rams
4:CC l.l. x rams
/:CC l.l. 4.4 rams
. 0ata lor a certan booy experment are ven n
the tabe above. ll the amount ol bactera present
ncreased by the same lactor durn each ol the two
3hour perods shown, how many rams ol bactera
were present at 4:CC l.l. '
/ Z.C
B Z.
C Z.Z
0 Z.3
L Z.4
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers,
5econddegree equations
Lct f bc thc lactor by which thc amount ol
bactcria prcscnt incrcascd cvcry 3 hours.
cn, lrom thc tablc, 10.0f  x and xf  14.4.
Substituting 10.0f lor x in thc sccond cquation
givcs
(10.0f )f  14.4
10.0f
2
 14.4
f
2
 1.44
f  1.2
and thcn x  10.0(1.2)  12.0.
e correct answer is A.
Z. ll n s an nteer reater than b, whch ol the loown
must be dvsbe by 3 '
/ nn + n  4
B nn + Zn 
C nn + 3n  o
0 nn + 4n  Z
L nn + on  b
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c casicst and quickcst way to do this problcm is
to choosc an intcgcr grcatcr than 6, such as 7, and
212
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
climinatc answcr choiccs in which thc valuc ol thc
cxprcssion is not divisiblc by 3:
A 7(7 1)(7 4)  (7)(8)(3), which is divisiblc
by 3, so A cannot bc climinatcd.
8 7(7 2)(7 1)  (7)(9)(6), which is divisiblc
by 3, so 8 cannot bc climinatcd.
C 7(7 3)(7 5)  (7)(10)(2), which is not
divisiblc by 3, so C can bc climinatcd.
7(7 4)(7 2)  (7)(11)(5), which is not
divisiblc by 3, so can bc climinatcd.
7(7 5)(7 6)  (7)(12)(1), which is divisiblc
by 3, so cannot bc climinatcd.
Choosc anothcr intcgcr grcatcr than 6, such as 8,
and tcst thc rcmaining answcr choiccs:
A 8(8 1)(8 4)  (8)(9)(4), which is divisiblc
by 3, so A cannot bc climinatcd.
8 8(8 2)(8 1)  (8)(10)(7), which is not
divisiblc by 3, so 8 can bc climinatcd.
8(8 5)(8 6)  (8)(13)(2), which is not
divisiblc by 3, so can bc climinatcd.
us, A is thc only answcr choicc that has not
bccn climinatcd.
For thc morc mathcmatically inclincd, il n is
divisiblc by 3, thcn thc cxprcssion in cach answcr
choicc is divisiblc by 3. Assumc, thcn, that n is
not divisiblc by 3. !l thc rcmaindcr whcn n is
dividcd by 3 is 1, thcn n  3q 1 lor somc intcgcr
q. All ol thc cxprcssions n 4, n 1, n 2, and
n 5 arc divisiblc by 3 i.c., n 4  3q 3 
3(q 1), n 1  3q, n 2  3q 3  3(q 1),
n 5  3q 6  3(q 2), and nonc ol thc
cxprcssions n 6, n 5, n 2, n 1, n 3, and
n
whcn n is dividcd by 3 is 1, only thc cxprcssions
in answcr choiccs A, 8, and arc divisiblc by 3.
n thc othcr hand, il thc rcmaindcr whcn n is
dividcd by 3 is 2, thcn n  3q 2 lor somc intcgcr
q. All ol thc cxprcssions n 5, n 2, n 1, and
n 4 arc divisiblc by 3 i.c., n 5  3q 3 
3(q 1), n 2  3q, n 1  3q 3  3(q 1),
n 4  3q 6  3(q 2), and nonc ol thc
cxprcssions n 6, n 4, n 1, n 2, n 3, and
n
whcn n is dividcd by 3 is 2, only thc cxprcssions
in answcr choiccs A, C, and arc divisiblc by 3.
nly thc cxprcssion in answcr choicc A is
divisiblc by 3 rcgardlcss ol whcthcr n is divisiblc
by 3, has a rcmaindcr ol 1 whcn dividcd by 3, or
has a rcmaindcr ol 2 whcn dividcd by 3.
e correct answer is A.
3. 1he tota cost lor Company / to produce a batch ol
toos s SC,CCC pus S3 per too. Lach too ses lor
S. 1he ross proht earned lrom producn and sen
these toos s the tota ncome lrom saes mnus the
tota producton cost. ll a batch ol ZC,CCC toos s
produced and sod, then Company /'s ross proht per
too s
/ S3.CC
B S3./o
C S4.oC
0 So.CC
L So.oC
Arithmetic AppIied probIems
c total cost to producc 20,000 tools is
c rcvcnuc
rcsulting lrom thc salc ol 20,000 tools is
c gross pront is
8160,000 870,000  890,000, and thc gross
pront pcr tool is
890 000
20 000
,
,
 84.50.
e correct answer is C.
4. / deaer ornay bouht CC dentca batteres at
a tota cost ol q doars. ll each battery was sod at
oC percent above the orna cost per battery, then,
n terms ol q, lor how many doars was each battery
sod'
/
3q
ZCC
B
3q
Z
C oCq
0
q
CC
+ oC
L
oC
q
213
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
AIgebra factoring and 5impIi!ying aIgebraic
expressions
Sincc 100 battcrics cost q dollars, division by 100
shows that 1 battcry costs
q
100
cn, sincc
thc sclling pricc is 50 pcrccnt abovc thc original
cost pcr battcry, thc sclling pricc ol cach battcry
can bc cxprcsscd as
e correct answer is A.
o. ln an ncreasn sequence ol C consecutve nteers,
the sum ol the hrst o nteers s obC. what s the sum
ol the ast o nteers n the sequence'
/ oo
B oC
C o/o
0 o/C
L obo
AIgebra firstdegree equations
Lct thc nrst 5 consccutivc intcgcrs bc rcprcscntcd
by x, x 1, x 2, x 3, and x cn,
sincc thc sum ol thc intcgcrs is 560,
x (x 1) (x 2) (x 3) (x us,
5x 10  560
5x  550 solvc lor x
x  110
c nrst intcgcr in thc scqucncc is 110, so thc ncxt
intcgcrs arc 111, 112, 113, and 114. From this, thc
last 5 intcgcrs in thc scqucncc, and thus thcir sum,
c sum ol thc 6th, 7th, 8th,
9th, and 10th intcgcrs is
115 116 117 118 119  585.
is problcm can also bc solvcd without algcbra:
c sum ol thc last 5 intcgcrs cxcccds thc sum
ol thc nrst 5 intcgcrs by 1 3 5 7 9  25
bccausc thc 6th intcgcr cxcccds thc 5th intcgcr by
1, thc 7th intcgcr cxcccds thc 4th intcgcr by 3, ctc.
e correct answer is A.
b. lachne / produces CC parts twce as last as
lachne B does. lachne B produces CC parts n
4C mnutes. ll each machne produces parts at a
constant rate, how many parts does lachne /
produce n b mnutes'
/ 3C
B Zo
C ZC
0 o
L /.o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
!l Machinc A produccs thc parts twicc as last as
Machinc 8 docs, thcn Machinc A rcquircs hall
as much timc as Machinc 8 docs to producc
100 parts. So, il Machinc 8 takcs 40 minutcs lor
thc job, Machinc A takcs 20 minutcs lor thc job.
is is a ratc ol
100 parts
20 minutcs
 5 parts pcr minutc.
At this ratc, in 6 minutcs Machinc A will producc
5(6)  30 parts.
e correct answer is A.
/. / neckace s made by strnn N ndvdua beads
toether n the repeatn pattern red bead, reen
bead, whte bead, bue bead, and yeow bead. ll the
neckace desn bens wth a red bead and ends wth
a whte bead, then N coud equa
/ b
B 3Z
C 4
0 o4
L b
AIgebra AppIied probIems
c bcad pattcrn rcpcats altcr cvcry nlth bcad.
Sincc thc nrst bcad in this dcsign (or thc nrst in
thc pattcrn) is rcd and thc last bcad in this dcsign
(or third in thc pattcrn) is whitc, thc numbcr ol
bcads in this dcsign is 3 morc than somc multiplc
is can bc cxprcsscd as 5n 3, whcrc n is
an intcgcr. Tcst cach ol thc answcr choiccs to
dctcrminc which is a multiplc ol 5 plus a valuc
ol 3. l thc options, only 68  5(13) 3 can bc
writtcn in thc lorm 5n 3.
e correct answer is E.
214
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
. ln the xycoordnate system, l a,b and a + 3,b + k
are two ponts on the ne dehned by the equaton
x = 3y  /, then k =
/ 9
B 3
C
/
3
0
L
3
Geometry 5impIe coordinate geometry
Substituting thc givcn coordinatcs lor x and y in
thc cquation x  3y 7 yiclds
a  3b  7
a 3  3(b k)  7
cn substitutc 3b 7 lor a in sccond cquation,
and solvc lor k
3b  7 3  3b 3k  7
3b 4  3b 3k 7 combinc likc tcrms
3  3k subtract 3b lrom and
add 7 to both sidcs
1  k dividc both sidcs by 3
e correct answer is D.
9. ll s s the product ol the nteers lrom CC to ZCC,
ncusve, and t s the product ol the nteers lrom CC
to ZC, ncusve, what s n terms ol t '
/
B
C
0
L
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Sincc s  (100)(101)(102) . . . (200) and
t  (100)(101)(102) . . . (200)(201), t  201s or
s  cn,




e correct answer is D.
9C. ll Jake oses pounds, he w weh twce as much as
hs sster. 1oether they now weh Z/ pounds. what
s Jake's present weht, n pounds'
/ 3
B 3o
C 39
0 4/
L
AIgebra 5ystems o! equations
Lct J rcprcscnt Jakc's wcight and S rcprcscnt his
cn J 8  2S and J S  278.
Solvc thc sccond cquation lor S and gct
S  278 J. Substituting thc cxprcssion lor
S into thc nrst cquation givcs
J 8  2(278 J)
J 8
 556 2J
J 2J  556 8
3J  564
J  188
e correct answer is E.
215
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
9. / certan store ses a maps at one prce and a
books at another prce. 0n londay the store sod
Z maps and C books lor a tota ol S3.CC, and on
1uesday the store sod ZC maps and o books lor a
tota ol SbC.CC. /t ths store, how much ess does a
map se lor than a book'
/ SC.Zo
B SC.oC
C SC./o
0 S.CC
L S.Zo
AIgebra 5ystems o! equations
Lct m rcprcscnt thc pricc ol cach map and b
cn thc givcn
inlormation can bc rcprcscntcd by thc systcm
. Multiplying thc top cquation
by
3
2
givcs , and adding
thc two cquations givcs 2m  3 or m  1.5.
cn,
12(1.50) 10b  38
18 10b
 38
10b  20
b  2
So, cach book sclls lor 82.00 and cach map sclls
lor 81.50, which is 82.00 81.50  80.50 lcss than
cach book.
e correct answer is B.
9Z. / store reported tota saes ol S3o mon lor
lebruary ol ths year. ll the tota saes lor the same
month ast year was S3ZC mon, approxmatey what
was the percent ncrease n saes'
/ Z
B /
C ZC
0 bo
L 3
Arithmetic Percents
c pcrccnt incrcasc in salcs lrom last ycar to this
crcncc in
salcs lor thc two ycars dividcd by thc salcs last
us, thc pcrccnt incrcasc is
385 320
320
100

65
320
100


 20
e correct answer is C.
lst l: 3, b, , 9
lst ll: x, 3, b, , 9
93. ll the medan ol the numbers n st l above s equa to
the medan ol the numbers n st ll above, what s the
vaue ol x '
/ b
B /
C
0 9
L C
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Sincc list ! has an cvcn numbcr ol numbcrs, thc
mcdian ol list ! is thc avcragc ol thc middlc two
numbcrs, so
6 8
2
 7 is thc mcdian ol list !.
Sincc list !! has an odd numbcr ol numbcrs,
thc mcdian ol list !! will bc thc middlc numbcr
whcn thc nvc numbcrs arc put in asccnding ordcr.
Sincc thc mcdian ol list !! must bc 7 (thc mcdian
ol list !) and sincc 7 is not in list !!, thcn x  7.
e correct answer is B.
216
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
94. ln a certan cty, bC percent ol the restered voters
are 0emocrats and the rest are bepubcans. ln a
mayora race, l /o percent ol the restered voters
who are 0emocrats and ZC percent ol the restered
voters who are bepubcans are expected to vote lor
Canddate /, what percent ol the restered voters are
expected to vote lor Canddate / '
/ oC
B o3
C o4
0 oo
L o/
Arithmetic, AIgebra Percents,
AppIied probIems
Lctting . bc thc numbcr ol rcgistcrcd votcrs in
thc city, thcn thc inlormation that 60 ol thc
rcgistcrcd votcrs arc cmocrats can bc cxprcsscd
as 0.60.. From this, it can bc statcd that
1.00. 0.60.  0.40. c
pcrccntagc ol cmocrats and thc pcrccntagc
ol Rcpublicans who arc cxpcctcd to votc
lor Candidatc A can thcn bc cxprcsscd as
(0.75)(0.60.) (0.20)(0.40.). Simplily thc
cxprcssion to dctcrminc thc total pcrccntagc
ol votcrs cxpcctcd to votc lor Candidatc A.
(0.75)(0.60.) (0.20)(0.40.)
 0.45. 0.08.
 0.53.
e correct answer is B.
9o.
/
Z9
b
B
9
b
C
o
b
0
9
3
L C
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Pcrlorm thc opcrations in thc corrcct ordcr, using
lcast common dcnominators whcn adding or
subtracting lractions:






0
16
 0
e correct answer is E.
9b. water conssts ol hydroen and oxyen, and the
approxmate rato, by mass, ol hydroen to oxyen s
Z:b. /pproxmatey how many rams ol oxyen are
there n 44 rams ol water'
/ b
B /Z
C Z
0 Z
L 4Z
AIgebra AppIied probIems
c mass ratio ol oxygcn to watcr is

16
16 2 +

8
9
crclorc, il
x is thc numbcr ol grams ol oxygcn in 144 grams
ol watcr, it lollows that
x
144

8
9
. Now solvc
lor x:
x   (8)(4)(4)  128.
e correct answer is D.
217
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
9/.
x x x x
x
/ 3
B 
Z
C C
0
Z
L
3
Z
AIgebra 5econddegree equations,
5imuItaneous equations
Sctting cach lactor cqual to 0, it can bc sccn that
thc solution sct to thc nrst cquation is
and thc solution sct to thc sccond cquation is
crclorc,
1
2
is thc solution to both
cquations.
e correct answer is B.
9. 0n a scae that measures the ntensty ol a certan
phenomenon, a readn ol n + corresponds to an
ntensty that s C tmes the ntensty correspondn
to a readn ol n. 0n that scae, the ntensty
correspondn to a readn ol s how many tmes
as reat as the ntensty correspondn to a readn
ol 3 '
/ o
B oC
C C
o
0 o
C
L
C
 3
C
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Sincc 8 can bc obtaincd lrom 3 by "adding 1" nvc
timcs, thc intcnsity rcading is grcatcr by a lactor
ol (10)(10)(10)(10)(10)  10
5
.
e correct answer is C.
99. lor the postve numbers, n, n + , n + Z, n + 4, and
n + , the mean s how much reater than the medan'
/ C
B
C n +
0 n + Z
L n + 3
AIgebra 5tatistics
Sincc thc nvc positivc numbcrs n, n 1, n 2,
n 4, and n 8 arc in asccnding ordcr, thc
mcdian is thc third numbcr, which is n c
mcan ol thc nvc numbcrs is
n n n n n + +
( )
+ +
( )
+ +
( )
+ +
( )
1 2 4 8
5

5 15
5
n+
 n 3
Sincc (n 3) (n 2)  1, thc mcan is 1 grcatcr
than thc mcdian.
e correct answer is B.
CC. ll ! =
o
9
r  3Z, and l ! = Z9C, then r =
/
,/3
9
B 3ZZ
C 49C
0 oo4
L
Z,9
o
218
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
AIgebra firstdegree equations
Substitutc 290 lor T in thc cquation, and solvc
lor K.
 K 32
 K 32
 K 32
522  K 32
554  K
e correct answer is D.
C. 1he water lrom one outet, Nown at a constant rate,
can h a swmmn poo n 9 hours. 1he water lrom a
second outet, Nown at a constant rate, can h the
same poo n o hours. ll both outets are used at the
same tme, approxmatey what s the number ol hours
requred to h the poo'
/ C.ZZ
B C.3
C Z.oC
0 3.Z
L 4.ob
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c nrst outlct can nll thc pool at a ratc ol
1
9
ol thc pool pcr hour, and thc sccond can nll
thc pool at a ratc ol
1
5
ol thc pool pcr hour.
Togcthcr, thcy can nll thc pool at a ratc ol
ol thc pool pcr hour.
us, whcn both outlcts arc uscd at thc samc
timc, thcy nll thc pool in hours.
e correct answer is D.
CZ. ll a square mrror has a ZCnch daona, what s the
approxmate permeter ol the mrror, n nches'
/ 4C
B bC
C C
0 CC
L ZC
Geometry Perimeter, Pythagorean theorem
Lct x bc thc lcngth ol onc ol thc sidcs ol thc
squarc mirror.
c trianglcs crcatcd by thc diagonal arc isoscclcs
right trianglcs lor which thc Pythagorcan
thcorcm yiclds thc lollowing cquation that can
bc solvcd lor x.
crclorc, thc pcrimctcr is 4x  . To avoid
cstimating a valuc lor , notc that
 (16)(200)  3,200, (40)
2
 1,600,
(60)
2
 3,600, and (80)
2
c pcrimctcr is
closcst to 60 bccausc 3,200 is closcr to 3,600 than
it is to 1,600 or 6,400.
e correct answer is B.
C3. 1he present rato ol students to teachers at a certan
schoo s 3C to . ll the student enroment were to
ncrease by oC students and the number ol teachers
were to ncrease by o, the rato ol students to
219
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
teachers woud then be Zo to . what s the present
number ol teachers'
/ o
B
C C
0 Z
L o
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct s bc thc prcscnt numbcr ol studcnts, and lct t
bc thc prcscnt numbcr ol tcachcrs. According to
thc problcm, thc lollowing two cquations apply:
Currcnt studcnt to tcachcr ratio
s
t
50
5
25
1
Futurc studcnt to tcachcr ratio
Solving thc nrst cquation lor s givcs s  30t.
Substitutc this valuc ol s into thc sccond cquation,
and solvc lor t.
30 50
5
25
1
t
t
30t 50  25t 125 multiply both sidcs by t 5
5t  75 simplily by subtraction
t  15
e correct answer is E.
C4. what s the smaest nteer n lor whch Zo
n
> o
Z
'
/ b
B /
C
0 9
L C
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
8ccausc 5
2
 25, a common basc is 5. Rcwritc thc
lclt sidc with 5 as a basc: 25
n
 (5
2
)
n
 5
2n
. !t
lollows that thc dcsircd intcgcr is thc lcast intcgcr
n lor which 5
2n
~ 5
12
is will bc thc lcast intcgcr
n lor which 2n ~ 12, or thc lcast intcgcr n lor
which n ~ 6, which is 7.
e correct answer is B.
Co. 3xty percent ol the members ol a study roup are
women, and 4o percent ol those women are awyers.
ll one member ol the study roup s to be seected at
random, what s the probabty that the member
seected s a woman awyer'
/ C.C
B C.o
C C.Z/
0 C.33
L C.4o
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
For simplicity, supposc thcrc arc 100 mcmbcrs in
thc study group. Sincc 60 pcrccnt ol thc mcmbcrs
arc womcn, thcrc arc 60 womcn in thc group.
Also, 45 pcrccnt ol thc womcn arc lawycrs so
thcrc arc 0.45(60)  27 womcn lawycrs in thc
crclorc thc probability ol sclccting
a woman lawycr is
27
100
 0.27.
e correct answer is C.
Cb. when postve nteer x s dvded by postve nteer y,
the remander s 9. ll
x
y
= 9b.Z, what s the vaue ol y '
/ 9b
B /o
C 4
0 Zo
L Z
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c rcmaindcr is 9 whcn x is dividcd by y, so
x  yq 9 lor somc positivc intcgcr q. ividing
both sidcs by y givcs
x
y
 q
9
y
. 8ut,
x
y
 96.12  96 0.12. quating thc two
cxprcssions lor
x
y
givcs q
9
y
 96 0.12.
us, q  96 and
9
y
 0.12
9
 0.12y
y 
9
0 12 .
y  75
e correct answer is B.
220
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
C/. ll x s the product ol the postve nteers lrom to ,
ncusve, and l i, k, m, and p are postve nteers
such that x = Z
i
3
k
o
m
/
p
, then i + k + m + p =
/ 4
B /
C
0
L Z
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c product ol thc positivc intcgcrs lrom 1 to 8,
inclusivc, is
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)  (2
1
)(3
1
)(2
2
)(5
1
)(2
1
)(3
1
)(7
1
)(2
3
)
 (2
1 2 1 3
)(3
1 1
)(5
1
)(7
1
)
 (2
7
)(3
2
)(5
1
)(7
1
)
So, i  7, k  2, m  1, p  1, and
i k m p  7 2 1 1  11.
e correct answer is D.
C. ll t = s expressed as a termnatn decma,
how many zeros w t have between the decma pont
and the hrst nonzero dt to the rht ol the decma
pont'
/ 1hree
B lour
C lve
0 3x
L Nne
Arithmetic Exponents, Operations vith
rationaI numbers
Usc propcrtics ol positivc intcgcr cxponcnts to gct





 10
3
 10
3
So, t  10
3
.
Sincc 10
3
10
3
10
3
, thcn
0.00001 10
3
0.0001,
so 0.00001 t 0.0001 and t has 4 zcros bctwccn
thc dccimal point and thc nrst nonzcro digit to
thc right ol thc dccimal point.
e correct answer is B.
C9. / pharmaceutca company receved S3 mon n
royates on the hrst SZC mon n saes ol the enerc
equvaent ol one ol ts products and then S9 mon
n royates on the next SC mon n saes. By
approxmatey what percent dd the rato ol royates
to saes decrease lrom the hrst SZC mon n saes to
the next SC mon n saes'
/
B o
C 4o
0 oZ
L ob
Arithmetic Percents
c ratio ol royaltics to salcs lor thc nrst
820 million in salcs is
3
20
, and thc ratio ol
royaltics to salcs lor thc ncxt 8108 million in salcs
is
9
108

1
12
c pcrccnt dccrcasc in thc
royaltics to salcs ratios is 100 timcs thc quoticnt
crcncc in thc ratios dividcd by thc ratio
ol royaltics to salcs lor thc nrst 820 million in
salcs or


221
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations


e correct answer is C.
C. ll p s the product ol the nteers lrom to 3C,
ncusve, what s the reatest nteer k lor whch 3
k
s
a lactor ol p '
/ C
B Z
C 4
0 b
L
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c tablc bclow shows thc numbcrs lrom 1 to 30,
inclusivc, that havc at lcast onc lactor ol 3 and
how many lactors ol 3 cach has.
Multiplcs ol 3
bctwccn 1 and 30
Numbcr ol lactors ol 3
3 1
6  2 3 1
9  3 3 2
12  2 2 3 1
15  3 5 1
18  2 3 3 2
21  3 7 1
24  2 2 2 3 1
27  3 3 3 3
30  2 3 5 1
THe sum oi tHe numbers in tHe rigHt column is
14. THereiore, 3
14
is tHe greatest power oi 3 tHat is
a iactor oi tHe product oi tHe rst 3O positive
integers.
e correct answer is C.
. ll candy bars that reuary se lor SC.4C each are on
sae at two lor SC./o, what s the percent reducton n
the prce ol two such candy bars purchased at the
sae prce'
/ Z
Z
B b
4
C b
Z
3
0
L Z
Z
Arithmetic Percents
Two candy bars at thc rcgular pricc cost
2 c two candy bars at thc
c
pcrccnt ol thc rcduction lrom thc rcgular pricc
can thcrclorc bc cstablishcd as
8 .
8 .
. . .
0 05
0 80
0 0625 6 25 6
1
4
e correct answer is B.
Z. ll and , what s n terms ol s
r
s
s r s C '
/
s
B s
C s s
0 s
3
L s
Z
 s
AIgebra Equations
Solvc thc cquation lor r as lollows:
r
s
s
r
s
 s
2
squarc both sidcs ol thc cquation
r  s
3
multiply both sidcs by s
e correct answer is D.
222
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
6 lt.
8 lt.
3. 1he lront ol a blootbyloot rectanuar door has
brass rectanuar trm, as ndcated by the shadn n
the hure above. ll the trm s unlormy loot wde,
what lracton ol the door's lront surlace s covered
by the trm'
/
3
4
B
o
Z
C
Z
0
/
Z
L
o
Geometry Area
To dctcrminc thc arca ol thc trim, nnd thc arca
ol thc unshadcd portions ol thc door and subtract
unshadcd rcctanglc is thc width ol thc door minus
c amount ol
hcight availablc lor both unshadcd rcctanglcs is
thc hcight ol thc door minus thrcc trim strips, or
us, thc arca ol thc unshadcd
c arca ol thc
cntirc door is 6 8  48 squarc lcct, so thc arca ol
crclorc, thc
lraction ol thc door's lront surlacc that is covcrcd
by thc trim is
28
48
7
12
.
e correct answer is D.
4. ll a = C.3, whch ol the loown s true'
/ a < a
Z
< a
3
B a < a
3
< a
Z
C a
Z
< a < a
3
0 a
Z
< a
3
< a
L a
3
< a < a
Z
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
First, dctcrminc thc rclativc valucs ol a, a
2
, and a
3
,
rcmcmbcring that (ncgativc)(ncgativc)  positivc.
!l a  0.3 thcn a
2
 (0.3)
2
 (0.3)(0.3)  0.09,
and a
3
 (0.3)
3
 (0.3)(0.3)(0.3)  0.027.
Sincc 0.3 0.027 0.09, thcn a a
3
a
2
.
e correct answer is B.
o. lary's ncome s bC percent more than 1m's ncome,
and 1m's ncome s 4C percent ess than Juan's
ncome. what percent ol Juan's ncome s lary's
ncome'
/ Z4
B ZC
C 9b
0 C
L b4
AIgebra, Arithmetic AppIied probIems,
Percents
Lct M bc Mary's incomc, T bc Tim's incomc, and
J bc Juan's incomc. Mary's incomc is 60 pcrccnt
morc than Tim's, so M  T 0.60T  1.60T.
Sincc Tim's incomc is 40 pcrccnt lcss than
Juan's incomc, Tim's incomc cquals
100 40  60 pcrccnt ol Juan's incomc, or
T  0.6 J. Substituting 0.6 J lor T in thc nrst
cquation givcs M  1.6(0.6 J) or M  0.96 J.
us Mary's incomc is 96 pcrccnt ol Juan's
incomc.
e correct answer is C.
223
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Cty / Cty B Cty C Cty 0 Cty L
Cty /
Cty B
Cty C
Cty 0
Cty L
b. Lach n the meae tabe above represents an entry
ndcatn the dstance between a par ol the hve
ctes. ll the tabe were extended to represent the
dstances between a pars ol 3C ctes and each
dstance were to be represented by ony one entry,
how many entres woud the tabe then have'
/ bC
B 43o
C 4oC
0 4bo
L 9CC
Arithmetic Interpretation o! tabIes
!n a tablc with 30 citics, thcrc arc 30(30)  900
boxcs lor cntrics. Howcvcr, sincc a city docs not
nccd to havc any cntry lor a distancc to and lrom
itscll, 30 cntrics arc not nccdcd on thc diagonal
us, thc ncccssary numbcr ol
cn,
it is givcn that cach pair ol citics only nccds onc
tablc cntry, not two as thc tablc allows, thcrclorc,
thc tablc only nccds to havc
870
2
 435 cntrics.
e correct answer is B.
/. ll n s postve, whch ol the loown s equa to
'
/
B
C
0
L
AIgebra Computation vith radicaI expressions
To rationalizc thc dcnominator, multiply thc
givcn cxprcssion by 1 using , which
is cquivalcnt to 1.





e correct answer is E.
. 1he rato ol the enth to the wdth ol a rectanuar
advertsn dspay s approxmatey 3.3 to Z. ll the
wdth ol the dspay s meters, what s the
approxmate enth ol the dspay, n meters'
/ /
B
C 3
0 b
L Zb
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lctting l bc thc lcngth ol thc advcrtising display,
thc proportion lor thc ratio ol thc lcngth to thc
width can bc cxprcsscd in thc lollowing cquation,
which can bc solvcd lor l :
13.2  l multiply both sidcs by 8
e correct answer is C.
224
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
9. whch ol the loown s equvaent to the par ol
nequates x + b > C and x
x < b
x < 4
C Z < x
0 4 < x
x < b
AIgebra InequaIities
Solvc thc incqualitics scparatcly and combinc thc
rcsults.
x 6 ~ 10
x ~ 4
x 3 5
x 8
Sincc x ~ 4, thcn 4 x. Combining 4 x and
x 8 givcs 4 x 8.
e correct answer is D.
ZC. 0avd has d books, whch s 3 tmes as many as Jell
and
Z
as many as laua. How many books do the
three ol them have atoether, n terms ol d '
/
o
b
d
B
/
3
d
C
C
3
d
0
/
Z
d
L
9
Z
d
AIgebra AppIied probIems, 5imuItaneous
equations
Lct J has, and
lct P cn, thc
givcn inlormation about avid's books can bc
cxprcsscd as d  3J and d 
1
2
P. Solving thcsc
two cquations lor J and P givcs
d
3
 J and 2d  P.
us, d J P d
d
d d d
3
2 3
1
3
10
3
.
e correct answer is C.
Z. 1here are teams n a certan eaue and each team
pays each ol the other teams exacty once. ll each
ame s payed by Z teams, what s the tota number
ol ames payed'
/ o
B b
C Z
0 ob
L b4
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Sincc no tcam nccds to play itscll, cach tcam
nccds to play 7 othcr tcams. !n addition, cach
gamc nccds to bc countcd only oncc, rathcr than
oncc lor cach tcam that plays that gamc. Sincc
two tcams play cach gamc,
8 7
2
 28 gamcs
arc nccdcd.
e correct answer is C.
ZZ. /n operaton s dehned by the equaton
a b =
a  b
a + b
, lor a numbers a and b such that
a b. ll a c and a c = C, then c =
/ a
B 
a
C C
0
a
L a
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Substitutc c lor b and 0 lor a c in thc givcn
cquation, and solvc lor c.
225
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
0 
a c
a c
0  a c multiply both sidcs by a c
c  a add c to both sidcs
e correct answer is E.
Z3. 1he prce ol unch lor o peope was SZC/.CC,
ncudn a o percent ratuty lor servce. what was
the averae prce per person, L/Cl00lN0 the
ratuty'
/ S./3
B SZ.CC
C S3.C
0 S4.CC
L So./
Arithmetic, AIgebra 5tatistics, AppIied
probIems
Lct c bc thc total pricc ol lunch lor cvcryonc
cxcluding thc gratuity. Sincc 8207.00 is givcn as
thc total pricc including thc 15 gratuity, thc
total pricc lor thc group lunch cxcluding thc
gratuity can bc cxprcsscd as 8207  1.15c,
or
8
.
8 .
207
1 15
180 c c avcragc pricc pcr
pcrson, or
sum ol valucs
avcragc
.
.
, was thus
8
8 .
180
15
12 00 lor cach ol thc 15 individuals.
e correct answer is B.
Z4. ln 1own /, b4 percent ol the popuaton are empoyed,
and 4 percent ol the popuaton are empoyed maes.
what percent ol the empoyed peope n 1own / are
lemaes'
/ b
B Zo
C 3Z
0 4C
L oZ
Arithmetic Percents
For simplicity, supposc that thc population ol
Town X is 100. !l 64 ol thc population arc
cmploycd, thcn 64 pcoplc arc cmploycd. !l 48 ol
thc population arc cmploycd malcs, thcn 48 ol thc
cn, thcrc arc
c
pcrccnt ol thc cmploycd pcoplc who arc lcmalcs is
thcn
16
64
100  25.
e correct answer is B.
Zo. ll
p
q
< , and p and q are postve nteers, whch ol
the loown must be reater than '
/
p
q
B
p
q
Z
C
p
Zq
0
q
p
Z
L
q
p
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Sincc p and q arc positivc intcgcrs, 0 1
p
q
.
A Sincc
p
q
1, thcn q p. Taking thc
squarc root ol both sidcs ol thc incquality
givcs q p cn,
p
q
p
q
, so hcrc
thc dcnominator will still bc largcr than thc
numcrator. CANNT bc grcatcr than 1
8 Squaring thc dcnominator incrcascs thc
dcnominator, which dccrcascs thc valuc ol
thc lraction. CANNT bc grcatcr than 1
C Multiplying thc dcnominator by 2 incrcascs
thc dcnominator, which dccrcascs thc valuc
ol thc lraction. CANNT bc grcatcr than 1
226
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Sincc
p
q
1, thcn q p. Vhcn p
2
q, this
cxprcssion will bc grcatcr than 1, but
p
2
nccd not bc lcss than q. For cxamplc,
il p  2 and q
p
q
100
2
100
, and
q
p
2 2
100
2
100
4
25 1 .
Howcvcr, il p 3 and q 4, thcn
p
q
3
4
and
q
p
2 2
4
3
4
9
1 . N NT bc grcatcr
than 1
Again, sincc
p
q
1, thcn q p us, thc
rcciprocal,
q
p
, always has a valuc grcatcr
than 1 bccausc thc numcrator will always
bc a largcr positivc intcgcr than thc
dcnominator. MUST bc grcatcr than 1
e correct answer is E.
Zb. lt woud take one machne 4 hours to compete a are
producton order and another machne 3 hours to
compete the same order. How many hours woud t
take both machnes, workn smutaneousy at ther
respectve constant rates, to compete the order'
/
/
Z
B
Z
C
o
/
0 3
Z
L /
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c nrst machinc can complctc
1
4
ol thc
production ordcr in onc hour, and thc sccond
machinc can complctc
1
3
ol thc samc ordcr in
us, working togcthcr thcy can
complctc
1
4
1
3
3
12
4
12
7
12
ol thc ordcr in
crclorc, it will takc
12
7
1
5
7
hours
lor thc two machincs working simultancously to
complctc thc production ordcr.
e correct answer is C.
Z/. 1o ma a packae, the rate s x cents lor the hrst
pound and y cents lor each addtona pound, where
x > y. 1wo packaes wehn 3 pounds and o pounds,
respectvey, can be maed separatey or combned as
one packae. whch method s cheaper, and how
much money s saved'
/ Combned, wth a savns ol x  y cents
B Combned, wth a savns ol y  x cents
C Combned, wth a savns ol x cents
0 3eparatey, wth a savns ol x  y cents
L 3eparatey, wth a savns ol y cents
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Shipping thc two packagcs scparatcly would cost
1x 2y lor thc 3pound packagc and 1x 4y lor
thc 5pound packagc. Shipping thcm togcthcr
(as a singlc 8pound packagc) would cost 1x 7y.
8y calculating thc sum ol thc costs lor shipping
thc two packagcs scparatcly minus thc cost lor
shipping thc onc combincd packagc, it is possiblc
crcncc in cost, as shown.
((1x 2y) (1x 4 y))  (1x 7 y) (cost lor 3 lb.
cost lor 5 lb.)
cost lor 8 lb.
 (2x 6y)  (1x 7 y) combinc likc
tcrms
 2x 6y  1x  7 y distributc thc
ncgativc
 x  y combinc likc
tcrms
Sincc x ~ y, this valuc is positivc, which mcans it
us
it is chcapcr to mail onc combincd packagc at a
cost savings ol x y ccnts.
e correct answer is A.
227
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Z. ll money s nvested at r percent nterest, compounded
annuay, the amount ol the nvestment w doube n
approxmatey
/C
r
years. ll lat's parents nvested
So,CCC n a onterm bond that pays percent
nterest, compounded annuay, what w be the
approxmate tota amount ol the nvestment years
ater, when lat s ready lor coee'
/ SZC,CCC
B So,CCC
C SZ,CCC
0 SC,CCC
L S 9,CCC
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Sincc thc invcstmcnt will doublc in
70 70
8 r
= 
18 ycars can bc approximatcd by doubling its
crclorc, thc approximatc
valuc will bc (85,000)(2)(2)  820,000.
e correct answer is A.
Z9. 0n a recent trp, Cndy drove her car Z9C mes,
rounded to the nearest C mes, and used Z aons
ol asone, rounded to the nearest aon. 1he actua
number ol mes per aon that Cndy's car ot on ths
trp must have been between
/
Z9C
Z o .
and
Z9C
o .
B
Z9o
Z
and
Zo
o .
C
Zo
Z
and
Z9o
Z
0
Zo
Z o .
and
Z9o
o .
L
Z9o
Z o .
and
Zo
o .
Arithmetic Estimation
c lowcst numbcr ol milcs pcr gallon can bc
calculatcd using thc lowcst possiblc milcs and thc
highcst amount ol gasolinc. Also, thc highcst
numbcr ol milcs pcr gallon can bc calculatcd
using thc highcst possiblc milcs and thc lowcst
amount ol gasolinc.
Sincc thc milcs arc roundcd to thc ncarcst
10 milcs, thc numbcr ol milcs is bctwccn 285 and
295. Sincc thc gallons arc roundcd to thc ncarcst
gallon, thc numbcr ol gallons is bctwccn 11.5
crclorc, thc lowcst numbcr ol milcs
pcr gallon is
lowcst milcs
highcst gallons
=
285
12 5 .
and thc
highcst numbcr ol milcs pcr gallon is
highcst milcs
lowcst gallons
=
295
11 5 .
.
e correct answer is D.
x 1 2 3 4 1 2 4 5 3 5 0
3C. whch ol the loown nequates s an aebrac
expresson lor the shaded part ol the number ne
above'
/ [x
B [x
C [x  Z
0 [x  
L [x + 
AIgebra InequaIities
c numbcr linc abovc shows 5 x 3. To turn
this into absolutc valuc notation, as all thc choiccs
arc writtcn, thc numbcrs nccd to bc oppositc
signs ol thc samc valuc.
Sincc thc distancc bctwccn 5 and 3 is 8
(3 (5) 8), that distancc nccds to bc split in
hall with 4 to onc sidc and 4 to thc othcr. ach
ol thcsc two valucs is 1 morc than thc valucs in
thc incquality abovc, so adding 1 to all tcrms in
thc incquality givcs 4 x 1 4, which is thc
samc as ]x 1] 4.
e correct answer is E.
3. / lactory has oCC workers, o percent ol whom are
women. ll oC addtona workers are to be hred and
a ol the present workers reman, how many ol the
addtona workers must be women n order to rase
the percent ol women empoyees to ZC percent'
228
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
/ 3
B C
C Zo
0 3C
L 3o
Arithmetic, AIgebra Percents,
AppIied probIems
Lct . bc thc numbcr ol additional workcrs who
must bc womcn to satisly thc problcm. !t can
bc statcd that, initially, 500(0.15) 75 ol thc
workcrs wcrc womcn. Sincc 50 morc workcrs arc
to bc hircd, thc total worklorcc will incrcasc to
500 50 c inlormation that
thc pcrccntagc ol womcn cmployccs will bc
20 pcrccnt altcr this incrcasc can bc cxprcsscd in
thc lollowing cquation and solvcd lor ..
75
550
0 20
75 110
35
.
.
.
.
multiply both sidcs by 550
subtract 75 lrom both sidcs
e correct answer is E.
3Z. ln a sma snack shop, the averae arthmetc mean
revenue was S4CC per day over a Cday perod.
0urn ths perod, l the averae day revenue was
S3bC lor the hrst b days, what was the averae day
revenue lor the ast 4 days'
/ S4ZC
B S44C
C S4oC
0 S4bC
L S4C
Arithmetic, AIgebra 5tatistics,
AppIied probIems
Lct x bc thc avcragc daily rcvcnuc lor
thc last 4 days. Using thc lormula
avcragc
sum ol valucs
numbcr ol valucs
thc inlormation ,
rcgarding thc avcragc rcvcnucs lor thc 10day
and 6day pcriods can bc cxprcsscd as lollows and
solvcd lor x:
8
(8 )
8 , 8 ,
8
400
6 360 4
10
4 000 2 160 4
x
x multiply both sidcs by 10
11 840 4
460
,
8
x
x
subtract 82,160 lrom
both sidcs
dividc both s sidcs by 4
e correct answer is D.
33. / certan country had a tota annua expendture ol
S.Z C
Z
ast year. ll the popuaton ol the country
was Z4C mon ast year, what was the per capta
expendture'
/ S oCC
B S,CCC
C SZ,CCC
0 S3,CCC
L So,CCC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c pcr capita cxpcnditurc can bc calculatcd as
lollows:



 80.5 10
4
 85,000
e correct answer is E.
34. / certan rectanuar wndow s twce as on as t s
wde. ll ts permeter s C leet, then ts dmensons n
leet are
/
3
Z
/
Z
by
B
o
3
C
3
by
C Z by 4
0 3 by b
L
C
3
ZC
3
by
229
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Geometry Perimeter
Lct l and . bc thc lcngth and width in lcct,
cn thc inlormation
in thc problcm can bc cxprcsscd in thc lollowing
two cquations: l  2. sincc thc lcngth is twicc thc
width and 2l 2.  10 sincc thc pcrimctcr is 10.
Substitutc l lor 2. in thc sccond cquation to gct
2l l crclorc, 3l  10, or l 
10
3
.
cn
10
3
 2. so . 
5
3
.
e correct answer is B.
X
Y
3o. 1he daram above shows the varous paths aon
whch a mouse can trave lrom pont X, where t s
reeased, to pont Y, where t s rewarded wth a lood
peet. How many dllerent paths lrom X to Y can the
mouse take l t oes drecty lrom X to Y wthout
retracn any pont aon a path'
/ b
B /
C Z
0 4
L /
Arithmetic EIementary combinatorics
crcnt paths can bc lound
by multiplying thc numbcr ol possiblc routcs that
can bc takcn lrom cach intcrscction point ol thc
paths to thcir ncxt point ol intcrscction. Rclcr to
thc ngurc bclow.
X
Y
B
c total numbcr ol ways to gct lrom X to is 2,
crc
arc also only 2 ways to gct lrom to B. To gct
lrom B to Y us, thc
crcnt paths is (2)(2)(3)  12.
e correct answer is C.
3b. ll the operaton s dehned by x y = xy lor a
postve numbers x and y, then o 4o bC =
/ 3C
B bC
C 9C
0 3C o
L bC o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Substitutc thc valucs into thc lormula and
simplily:
(5 45) 60  5 45 60 ( )( )
 5 5 9 60 ( )( )( )
 (5)(3) 60
 15 60
 15 60
( )( )
 15 15 4 ( )( )( )
 (15)(2)
 30
e correct answer is A.
3/. / bar over a sequence ol dts n a decma ndcates
that the sequence repeats ndehntey.
what s the vaue ol   . C C C CCZ
4 Z
'
/ C
B C.Z
C .Z
0 C
L Z
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
istributc and simplily.
230
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
 10,000(0.0012) 100(0.0012)
 12.12 0.12 multiply by
multiplcs ol 10
to movc thc
dccimals
distributc thc
(0.0012)
10  100
 12
e correct answer is E.
3. /t a oadn dock, each worker on the nht crew
oaded
3
4
as many boxes as each worker on the day
crew. ll the nht crew has
4
o
as many workers as the
day crew, what lracton ol a the boxes oaded by the
two crews dd the day crew oad'
/
Z
B
Z
o
C
3
o
0
4
o
L
o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
From this, thc workcrs on thc night crcw will
load as many boxcs as thc day crcw.
c total loadcd by both thc day and night crcws
is thus 1
3
5
5
5
3
5
8
5
ol thc day crcw's work.
crclorc, thc lraction ol all thc boxcs loadcd by
thc two crcws that was donc by thc day crcw was
e correct answer is E.
39. / restaurant mea cost S3o.oC and there was no tax.
ll the tp was more than C percent but ess than
o percent ol the cost ol the mea, then the tota
amount pad must have been between
/ S4C and S4Z
B S39 and S4
C S3 and S4C
0 S3/ and S39
L S3b and S3/
Arithmetic Estimation and percent
First calculatc thc actual total amount lor thc
mcal with a 10 pcrccnt tip and a 15 pcrccnt tip.
To calculatc cach, multiply thc cost ol thc mcal by
(1 thc pcrccnt as a dccimal).
10 pcrccnt tip: 15 pcrccnt tip:
835.50(1.10) 835.50(1.15)
839.05 840.825
c only answcr choicc that includcs all valucs
bctwccn 839.05 and 840.83 is 8.
e correct answer is B.
4C. ln a wehtltn competton, the tota weht ol
Joe's two lts was /oC pounds. ll twce the weht ol
hs hrst lt was 3CC pounds more than the weht ol
hs second lt, what was the weht, n pounds, ol hs
hrst lt'
/ ZZo
B Z/o
C 3Zo
0 3oC
L 4CC
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct F and S bc thc wcights, in pounds, ol Joc's
nrst and sccond lilts, rcspcctivcly. Usc thcsc
variablcs to sct up two cquations and thcn solvc
thcm.
F S  750 wcight ol two lilts was
750 pounds
2F  S 300 twicc thc wcight ol nrst
lilt was 300 pounds morc
than thc wcight ol sccond
231
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
F  750 S solvc thc nrst cquation
lor F
2(750 S)  S 300 substitutc 750 S lor F
in thc sccond cquation
1,500 2S  S 300
1,200  3S solvc lor S
400  S
Substituting this valuc ol S back into thc nrst
cquation givcs F 400  750, or F  350.
e correct answer is D.
4. / cub coected exacty So99 lrom ts members. ll
each member contrbuted at east SZ, what s the
reatest number ol members the cub coud have'
/ 43
B 44
C 49
0 oC
L o
AIgebra AppIied probIems
To dctcrminc thc grcatcst possiblc numbcr ol
mcmbcrs, nrst rccognizc that cach mcmbcr had to
contributc thc lowcst amount givcn. Vritc an
incquality lor thc individual contributions and thc
total amount collcctcd, with n rcprcscnting thc
cn solvc lor n.
12n 599 (lcast contribution)(numbcr ol
mcmbcrs) total collcctcd
solvc lor n
Sincc n rcprcscnts individual pcoplc, it must bc a
wholc numbcr, thc grcatcst possiblc valuc ol n is
thus 49.
c
incquality 12n 599, whcrc n is rcstrictcd to thc
sct ol positivc intcgcrs, is cquivalcnt to 12n 600.
crclorc, n
600
12
12 5 10
12
=
( )( )( )
 (5)(10)  50,
and thc grcatcst such valuc that is an intcgcr is 49.
e correct answer is C.
4Z. ll y s the smaest postve nteer such that 3,oC
mutped by y s the square ol an nteer, then y
must be
/ Z
B o
C b
0 /
L 4
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
To nnd thc smallcst positivc intcgcr y such that
3,150y is thc squarc ol an intcgcr, nrst nnd thc
primc lactorization ol 3,150 by a mcthod similar
to thc lollowing:
3,150  10 315
 (2 5) (3 105)
 2 5 3 (5 21)
 2 5 3 5 (3 7)
 2 3
2
5
2
7
To bc a pcrlcct squarc, 3,150y must havc an
cvcn numbcr ol cach ol its primc lactors. At a
minimum, y must havc onc lactor ol 2 and onc
lactor ol 7 so that 3,150y has two lactors ol cach
c smallcst positivc
intcgcr valuc ol y is thcn (2)(7)  14.
e correct answer is E.
43. ll x} s the reatest nteer ess than or equa to x,
what s the vaue ol .b} + 3.4} + Z./} '
/ 3
B 4
C o
0 b
L /
Arithmetic Computation vith integers
c grcatcst intcgcr that is lcss than or cqual to
1.6 is 2. !t cannot bc 1 bccausc 1 is grcatcr
c grcatcst intcgcr that is lcss than
or cqual to 3.4 is 3. !t cannot bc 4 bccausc 4 is
c grcatcst intcgcr that is lcss
232
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
than or cqual to 2.7 is 2. !t cannot bc 3 bccausc 3
crclorc, 1.6 3.4 2.7
 2 3 2  3.
e correct answer is A.
44. ll
4  x
Z x
x , what s the vaue ol x
Z
3x  4 '
/ 4
B 
C C
0
L Z
AIgebra 5econddegree equations
Vork thc problcm.
4  x
2 x
 x
4  x  x (2 x) multiply both sidcs by (2 x)
4  x  2x x
2
distributc thc x
0  x
2
3x  4 movc all tcrms to right sidc
e correct answer is C.
5 lt.
B
2 lt.
4o. 1he trapezod shown n the hure above represents a
cross secton ol the rudder ol a shp. ll the dstance
lrom A to s 3 leet, what s the area ol the cross
secton ol the rudder n square leet'
/ 39
B 4C
C 4Z
0 4o
L 4b.o
Geometry TriangIes and the Pythagorean
theorem
c lormula lor calculating thc arca ol a
trapczoid is
Arca 
1
2
(basc 1 basc 2)(hcight).
5 lt.
B
2 lt.
Q
P
c bascs ol thc trapczoid arc givcn as 2 lcct and
5 lcct, so only thc hcight (Q) nccds to bc lound.
Sincc thc dashcd linc B  13 lcct, and trianglc
BQ is a right trianglc, usc thc Pythagorcan
thcorcm to calculatc Q us,
Q Q 13 5 144 12
2 2
, or lcct.
Substituting thc valucs into thc lormula lor
calculating thc arca ol a trapczoid:
Arca 
1
2
(2 5)(12)
Arca  42 squarc lcct.
e correct answer is C.
4b. ln a certan sequence, the term x
n
s ven by the
lormua x
n
= Zx
n 

Z
x
n  Z
lor a n Z. ll x
C
= 3 and
x
= Z, what s the vaue ol x
3
'
/ Z.o
B 3.Zo
C 4
0 o
L b./o
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Givcn thc lormula x
n
 2x
n 1
1
2
x
n 2
with x
0
 3
and x
1
 2, thcn
x
2
 2x
1
1
2
x
0
 2(2)
1
2
(3)

5
2
233
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
x
3
 2x
2
1
2
x
1
 2
1
2
(2)
 5 1
 4
e correct answer is C.
5 lt.
F
!
S
10 lt.
4/. ln the hure above, \ represents an observaton pont
at one end ol a poo. lrom \, an object that s actuay
ocated on the bottom ol the poo at pont R appears
to be at pont S. ll \R = C leet, what s the dstance
RS, n leet, between the actua poston and the
perceved poston ol the object'
/ C  o 3
B C  o Z
C Z
0 Z
Z
L 4
Geometry Pythagorean theorem
Lct P bc thc point 5 lcct dircctly bclow !. !PF
is thus a right trianglc.
!P
2
+ PF
2
 !F
2
Pythagorcan thcorcm applicd
to !PF.
5
2
+ PF
2
 10
2
substitutc known quantitics
25 PF
2
 100 solvc lor PF
PF
2
 75
PF  5 3
e correct answer is A.
4. ll x, y, and k are postve numbers such that
and l x < y,
whch ol the loown coud be the vaue ol k '
/ C
B Z
C o
0
L 3C
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Simplily thc cxprcssion lor k as lollows:
k 

10 20 x y
x y

10 10 x y y
x y

10
10
x y
x y
y
x y
 10
10y
x y
cn sincc 0 x y,
0 y x y y y
y x y 2y
1
2y
1
x y +
1
y
2y
10y
x y
10y
y
10y
5
10y
x y
10
15 10
10y
x y
20
15 k 20
234
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
c only answcr choicc bctwccn 15 and 20 is 18,
so 18 is thc only answcr choicc that could bc thc
valuc ol k.
e correct answer is D.
49. 0urn a trp, lrancne traveed x percent ol the tota
dstance at an averae speed ol 4C mes per hour
and the rest ol the dstance at an averae speed ol
bC mes per hour. ln terms ol x, what was lrancne's
averae speed lor the entre trp'
/
C
Z
x
B
x + bC
4
C
3CC
o
x
0
bCC
o x
L
Z CCC
ZCC
,
x +
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Assumc lor simplicity that thc total distancc ol
cn thc tablc bclow
givcs all ol thc pcrtincnt inlormation.
istancc Ratc Timc 
istancc
Ratc
x 40
x
40
100 x 60
100 x
60
THe total time ior Francines trip is
x
40
100 x
60

3x
120
2 100 ( ) x
120

3 2 100 x x + ( )
120

3 200 2 x x +
120

x + 200
120
Francinc's avcragc spccd ovcr thc cntirc trip is
total distancc
total timc

1 0 0
200
120
x +

12,000
x + 200
.
e correct answer is E.
oC. ll x = , then
x
4
 x
3
+ x
Z
x 
=
/ 
3
Z
B 
Z
C C
0
Z
L
3
Z
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Substituting thc valuc ol 1 lor x in thc
cxprcssion rcsults in
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1
2
3
2
4 3 2
e correct answer is A.
o. / toy store reuary ses a stock at a dscount ol
ZC percent to 4C percent. ll an addtona Zo percent
were deducted lrom the dscount prce durn a
speca sae, what woud be the owest possbe prce
ol a toy costn Sb belore any dscount'
/ S o.bC
B S /.ZC
C S .C
0 S 9.bC
L So.ZC
Arithmetic Percents
c lowcst possiblc pricc is paid whcn thc
maximum initial discount ol 40 is rcccivcd.
235
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
816(0.6)  89.60 calculatc thc nrst
40 discount
89.60(0.75)  87.20 calculatc thc sccond
25 discount
e correct answer is B.
y yd
z yd
x yd
oZ. 1he shaded porton ol the rectanuar ot shown
above represents a Nower bed. ll the area ol the bed
s Z4 square yards and x = y + Z, then z equas
/ 3
B Z 3
C b
0
L C
Geometry Area and the Pythagorean theorem
Using thc known arca ol thc triangular owcr
bcd and thc known lcngth ol sidc x ol thc
trianglc, dctcrminc thc lcngth ol sidc z ol thc
trianglc by applying thc lormula lor calculating
thc arca ol a trianglc:
Arca ol a trianglc 
1
2
(basc)(hcight)

1
2
xy
24 
1
2
(y 2)(y) substitutc 24 lor arca and
y 2 lor x
48  y
2
2y solvc lor y
0  y
2
2y 48
0  (y 8)(y 6)
y 8  0 y 6 0
y  8 y  6 climinatc y  8 sincc it has
to bc a positivc lcngth
x  6 2  8
Sincc thc lcgs y and x ol thc right trianglc arc 6
and 8 yards long, rcspcctivcly, thc hypotcnusc, z,
must bc 10 yards bccausc 6810 is a Pythagorcan
triplc. Altcrnativcly, thc Pythagorcan thcorcm
can also bc uscd to solvc lor z, whcrc x
2
+ y
2
 z
2
.
us, 8
2
6 64 36 100 100 10
2 2
z , and .
e correct answer is E.
o3. Jack s now 4 years oder than B. ll n C years Jack
w be twce as od as B, how od w Jack be n
o years'
/ 9
B 9
C Z
0 Z3
L 33
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct J and B cn
thc inlormation lrom thc problcm can bc
cxprcsscd in thc lollowing two cquations:
J  B 14, or cquivalcntly B  J 14 and
J 10  2(B 10).
Sincc Jack's agc is to bc dctcrmincd, rcplacc B in
thc sccond cquation with J 14 to gct an cquation
that can bc solvcd lor J:
J 10  2(J 14 10)
J 10  2J 8
18  J
crclorc, Jack's currcnt agc is 18, and hcncc
Jack's agc in 5 ycars will bc 18 5  23.
e correct answer is D.
o4. /n empty poo ben hed wth water at a constant
rate takes hours to h to
3
o
ol ts capacty. How
much more tme w t take to hnsh hn the poo'
/ o hr 3C mn
B o hr ZC mn
C 4 hr 4 mn
0 3 hr Z mn
L Z hr 4C mn
236
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
AIgebra AppIied probIems
8uild an cquation to cxprcss thc givcn
inlormation and solvc lor thc answcr.
Lct t  thc total timc nccdcd to nll thc pool.
Sincc it is givcn that it takcs 8 hours to nll
3
5
ol
thc pool:
3
5
t  8
t 
40
3
solvc lor t
t  13
1
3
us, to calculatc thc timc it will takc to nnish
nlling thc pool:
e correct answer is B.
oo. / postve number x s mutped by Z, and ths product
s then dvded by 3. ll the postve square root ol the
resut ol these two operatons equas x, what s the
vaue ol x '
/
9
4
B
3
Z
C
4
3
0
Z
3
L
Z
AIgebra 5econddegree equations
Sct up an cquation according to thc givcn
inlormation, and thcn solvc lor x.
First, multiply x by 2, dividc that by 3, and sct thc
squarc root ol that cqual to x:
2
3
x
x
To solvc this cquation:
2x
3
 x
2
squarc both sidcs
2x  3x
2
0  3x
2
2x solvc lor possiblc valucs ol x
0  x (3x  2)
x  0, 3x  2  0
sincc x ~ 0, usc 3x 2  0 to solvc lor x:
3x 2  0
3x  2
x 
2
3
e correct answer is D.
ob. / tank contans C,CCC aons ol a souton that s
o percent sodum chorde by voume. ll Z,oCC aons
ol water evaporate lrom the tank, the remann
souton w be approxmatey what percent sodum
chorde'
/ .Zo
B 3./o
C b.Zo
0 b.b/
L ./
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers,
Percents
8clorc thc cvaporation occurs, thc tank contains
10,000 (0.05)  500 gallons ol sodium chloridc.
Altcr thc cvaporation occurs, thc tank contains
10,000 2,500  7,500 gallons ol solution, ol
which 500 gallons arc known to bc sodium
chloridc. Calculatc thc pcrccntagc bascd on thcsc
postcvaporation amounts:
e correct answer is D.
o/. lor any postve nteer n, the sum ol the hrst
n postve nteers equas
n n + ( )
Z
. what s the sum
ol a the even nteers between 99 and 3C '
237
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
/ C,CC
B ZC,ZCC
C ZZ,boC
0 4C,ZCC
L 4o,oC
AIgebra 5impIi!ying expressions, Arithmetic
Computation vith integers
c givcn lormula translatcs into 1 2 . n 
.
c sum ol thc cvcn intcgcrs
bctwccn 99 and 301 is thc sum ol thc cvcn
intcgcrs lrom 100 through 300, or thc sum ol thc
50th cvcn intcgcr through thc 150th cvcn intcgcr.
To gct this sum, nnd thc sum ol thc nrst 150 cvcn
intcgcrs and subtract thc sum ol thc nrst 49 cvcn
intcgcrs. !n symbols,


 150(151) 49(50)
 503(151) 49
 50(453 49)
 50(404)
 20,200
e correct answer is B.
o. / commttee s composed ol w women and m men. ll
3 women and Z men are added to the commttee, and
l one person s seected at random lrom the enared
commttee, then the probabty that a woman s
seected can be represented by
/
w
m
B
w
w m
C
w 3
m Z
0
w 3
w m 3
L
w 3
w m o
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
Sct up an cquation according to thc givcn
inlormation rcgarding thc valucs ol . and m.
c total numbcr ol womcn on thc cnlargcd
committcc can bc cxprcsscd as . c total
numbcr ol mcmbcrs on thc cnlargcd committcc
can bc cxprcsscd as . m 3 2 or thus
. m cn, thc probability that thc onc
pcrson sclcctcd at random lrom thc cnlargcd
committcc is a woman is cqual to
e correct answer is E.
o9. How many prme numbers between and CC are
lactors ol /,oC '
/ 0ne
B 1wo
C 1hree
0 lour
L lve
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
To nnd thc numbcr ol primc numbcrs bctwccn 1
and 100 that arc lactors ol 7,150, nnd thc primc
lactorization ol 7,150 using a mcthod similar to
thc lollowing:
7,150  10 715
 (2 5) (5 143)
 2 5 5 (11 13)
us, 7,150 has lour primc lactors: 2, 5, 11, and 13.
e correct answer is D.
238
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
8 lcct O
bC. 1he hure above shows a crcuar Nower bed, wth ts
center at U, surrounded by a crcuar path that s 3 leet
wde. what s the area ol the path, n square leet'
/ Zo
B 3
C oo
0 o/
L b4
Geometry Area (CircIes)
c owcr bcd and thc path lorm two conccntric
circlcs. Sincc thc path is 3 lcct widc, thc radius
ol thc outcr circlc is 8 lcct 3 lcct  11 lcct.
c arca ol a circlc can bc dctcrmincd using thc
lormula: arca  (radius)
2
.
c arca ol thc path can thus bc lound by
subtracting thc arca ol thc inncr circlc,
1
,
lrom thc arca ol thc outcr circlc,
2
.
2

1
 (11)
2
 (8)
2
 121  64  57
e correct answer is D.
b. 1he postve nteer n s dvsbe by Zo. ll s
reater than Zo, whch ol the loown coud be the
vaue ol
'
/ ZZ
B Z3
C Z4
0 Zo
L Zb
Arithmetic Operations on radicaI expressions
!l ~ 25, thcn n ~ 25
2
crclorc, ~ 
25 and thc only answcr choicc that is grcatcr than
25 is 26.
e correct answer is E.
bZ. / lrutsaad mxture conssts ol appes, peaches,
and rapes n the rato b:o:Z, respectvey, by weht.
ll 39 pounds ol the mxture s prepared, the mxture
ncudes how many more pounds ol appes than
rapes'
/ o
B Z
C 9
0 b
L 4
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Using thc givcn ratios, thc inlormation about
thc lruits in thc mixturc can bc cxprcsscd as
6x 5x 2x  39, or 13x  39 and thus x  3.
crc arc 6x or 6(3)  18 pounds ol applcs and
2x crclorc, thcrc
arc 18 6  12 morc pounds ol applcs than
pounds ol grapcs in 39 pounds ol thc mixturc.
e correct answer is B.
b3. 1hs year Henry w save a certan amount ol hs
ncome, and he w spend the rest. Next year Henry
w have no ncome, but lor each doar that he saves
ths year, he w have + r doars avaabe to spend.
ln terms ol r, what lracton ol hs ncome shoud Henry
save ths year so that next year the amount he has
avaabe to spend w be equa to hal the amount that
he spends ths year'
/
B
C
0
L
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Lct s bc thc amount Hcnry will savc this ycar and
lct I cn, I s is
thc amount hc will spcnd this ycar. For cach ol
thc s dollars hc savcs this ycar, hc will havc (1 r)
us, hc will havc
239
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
s(1 r is amount is
to bc
1
2
c task
is to nnd
s
I
, whcrc I and s satisly thc
condition s(1 r) 
1
2
(I s). Solvc lor I as lollows:
s(1 r) 
1
2
(I s)
2s(1 r)  I s
2s 2rs  I s
3s 2rs  I
s(3 2r)  I
cn,
s
I

s
s r 3 2 + ( )

1
2 3 r +
.
e correct answer is E.
b4. ll m

= 
3
, then m
Z
s equa to
/
9
B
3
C 
9
0
9
L 9
Arithmetic Negative exponents
Using rulcs ol cxponcnts, m
2
 m
1 2
 (m
1
)
2
,
and sincc m
1

3
, m
2
 
1
9
.
e correct answer is D.
bo. los has x doars more than Jm has, and toether
they have a tota ol y doars. whch ol the loown
represents the number ol doars that Jm has'
/
y  x
Z
B y 
x
Z
C
y
Z
 x
0 Zy  x
L y  Zx
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Lct J bc thc numbcr ol dollars that Jim has.
cn, thc amount that Lois has can bc cxprcsscd
as J x dollars. !l Lois and Jim togcthcr havc a
total ol y dollars, thcn:
y  J + ( J + x) total dollars 
Jim's dollars Lois's dollars
Solvc this lor J to dctcrminc thc numbcr ol dollars
that Jim has:
y  2 J x
y  x  2 J
y  x
2
 J
e correct answer is A.
bb. 0urn a certan season, a team won C percent ol
ts hrst CC ames and oC percent ol ts remann
ames. ll the team won /C percent ol ts ames lor
the entre season, what was the tota number ol
ames that the team payed'
/ C
B /C
C ob
0 oC
L Co
Arithmetic, AIgebra Percents, AppIied probIems
Lct G cqual thc numbcr ol gamcs playcd by thc
c givcn inlormation can bc
cxprcsscd as (0.80)(100) 0.50(G  100)  0.70G,
that is, 80 pcrccnt ol thc nrst 100 gamcs plus
50 pcrccnt ol thc rcmaining gamcs cquals
70 pcrccnt ol thc total numbcr ol gamcs playcd.
is cquation can bc solvcd lor G to dctcrminc
thc answcr to thc problcm:
(0.80)(100) 0.50(G  100)  0.70G
80 0.50G  50  0.70G simplily and distributc
30  0.20G simplily and subtract
0.05G lrom both sidcs
150  G multiply by 5
e correct answer is D.
240
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
b/. 0l 3C appcants lor a job, 4 had at east 4 years'
experence, had derees, and 3 had ess than
4 years' experence and dd not have a deree.
How many ol the appcants had at east 4 years'
experence and a deree'
/ 4
B 3
C 9
0 /
L o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c problcm classincd thc job applicants into two
catcgorics: whcthcr thcy had morc or lcss than
4 ycars' cxpcricncc, and whcthcr thcy had a
c givcn inlormation can bc summarizcd
in thc lollowing tablc:
At lcast 4 ycars'
cxpcricncc
Lcss than 4 ycars'
cxpcricncc Total
cgrcc 18
No dcgrcc 3
Total 14 30
us, according to thc givcn inlormation,
30 14  16 applicants had lcss than 4 ycars'
cn, ol thosc applicants with
lcss than 4 ycars' cxpcricncc, it is givcn that
3 applicants did not havc a dcgrcc, so 16 3 
13 applicants had lcss than 4 ycars' cxpcricncc
crclorc, out ol thc givcn 18
applicants that had dcgrccs, 13 applicants had lcss
than 4 ycars' cxpcricncc, so 18 13  5 applicants
had at lcast 4 ycars' cxpcricncc with a dcgrcc.
csc rcsults arc shown in thc lollowing tablc.
At lcast 4 ycars'
cxpcricncc
Lcss than 4 ycars'
cxpcricncc Total
cgrcc 5 13 18
No dcgrcc 3
Total 14 16 30
e correct answer is E.
b.
/ 
B
3
C
Z
3
0 Z
L 3
AIgebra firstdegree equations
Vork thc problcm to solvc thc cquation lor x.
x 1  2x  2 multiply through by x
3  x solvc lor x by adding 2 to
and subtracting x lrom
both sidcs
e correct answer is E.
b9. last year, lor every CC mon vehces that traveed
on a certan hhway, 9b vehces were nvoved n
accdents. ll 3 bon vehces traveed on the hhway
ast year, how many ol those vehces were nvoved n
accdents'  bon = ,CCC,CCC,CCC
/ Z
B 3ZC
C Z,C
0 3,ZCC
L Z,CC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
According to thc givcn inlormation, 96 out ol
cvcry 100 million vchiclcs wcrc in an accidcnt
us, ol thc 3 billion vchiclcs on thc
highway last ycar, thc numbcr ol vchiclcs involvcd
in accidcnts was:
e correct answer is C.
241
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
/C. 1hrty percent ol the members ol a swm cub have
passed the lesavn test. /mon the members
who have not passed the test, Z have taken the
preparatory course and 3C have not taken the course.
How many members are there n the swm cub'
/ bC
B C
C CC
0 ZC
L 4C
AIgebra AppIied probIems
!l 30 pcrccnt ol thc club mcmbcrs havc passcd
thc tcst, thcn 70 pcrccnt havc not. Among thc
mcmbcrs who havc not passcd thc tcst, 12 havc
takcn thc coursc and 30 havc not, lor a total ol
12 30  42 mcmbcrs who havc not passcd thc
tcst. Lctting x rcprcscnt thc total numbcr ol
mcmbcrs in thc swim club, this inlormation can
bc cxprcsscd as 0.70x  42, and so x  60.
e correct answer is A.
/. what s the dllerence between the sxth and the hlth
terms ol the sequence Z, 4, /, . whose nth term s
n + Z
n 
'
/ Z
B 3
C b
0 b
L /
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
According to thc givcn lormula, thc sixth tcrm
ol thc scqucncc is 6 2
6 1
 6 2
5
and thc nlth
tcrm is 5 2
5 1
 5 2
4
cn,
(6 2
5
) (5 2
4
)  (6 5) (2
5
2
4
)
 1 2
4
(2 1)
 1 2
4
 1 16
 17
e correct answer is E.
/Z. ll x 
Z
= 4CC, whch ol the loown coud be the
vaue ol x  o '
/ o
B 4
C Z4
0 Zo
L Zb
AIgebra 5econddegree equations
Vork thc problcm by taking thc squarc root ol
both sidcs and solving lor x.
(x  1)
2
 400
x  1  20
x  1  20, or x  1  20
x  19, or x  21
us, x  5  24 or 16.
e correct answer is C.
/3. whch ol the loown descrbes a vaues ol x lor
whch  x
Z
C '
/ x
B x
x
0 x x
x
AIgebra InequaIities
c cxprcssion 1 x
2
can bc lactorcd as
(1 x)(1 x c product is positivc whcn both
x and
x x 1) or both
lactors arc ncgativc (this happcns il 1 x and
x 1, which cannot happcn), and thcrclorc thc
solution is 1 x 1.
e correct answer is E.
/4. 1he probabty s
Z
that a certan con w turn up
heads on any ven toss. ll the con s to be tossed
three tmes, what s the probabty that on at east
one ol the tosses the con w turn up tas'
242
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
/
B
Z
C
3
4
0
/
L
o
b
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
Anothcr way ol stating that a coin toss will turn
up tails at lcast oncc is to say that it will not turn
c probability that on at
lcast onc ol thc tosscs thc coin will not turn up
hcads is 1 minus thc probability that thc coin
will turn up hcads on all thrcc tosscs. ach toss
is an indcpcndcnt cvcnt, and so thc probability
ol gctting hcads all thrcc timcs is
1
2
1
8
3
.
us, thc probability ol not gctting hcads all
thrcc timcs (that is, gctting tails at lcast oncc) is
1
1
8
7
8
.
e correct answer is D.
/o. 0l the hna rades receved by the students n a
certan math course,
o
are /'s,
4
are B's,
Z
are C's,
and the remann C rades are 0's. what s the
number ol students n the course'
/ C
B C
C bC
0 ZCC
L 4CC
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct x bc thc numbcr ol studcnts in thc coursc.
or or
19
20
o
1
5
1
4
1
2
4
20
5
20
10
20
x x x
ll thc studcnts rcccivcd gradcs ol A, 8, or C.
is mcans thc 10 rcmaining gradcs rcprcscnt
1
20
ol thc studcnts in thc coursc.
us,
1
20
x  10, and x  200.
e correct answer is D.
/b. /s x ncreases lrom bo to bb, whch ol the loown
must ncrease'
l. Zx  o
ll. 
x
lll.
x
Z
 x
/ l ony
B lll ony
C l and ll
0 l and lll
L ll and lll
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
!nvcstigatc cach ol thc lunctions to dctcrminc il
thcy incrcasc lrom x  165 to x  166.
!. Graphically, this rcprcscnts a linc with
crclorc, thc lunction
incrcascs bctwccn any two valucs ol x.
A dircct computation can also bc uscd:
2(166) 5 2(165) 5  2(166 165) 
2, which is positivc, and thus thc lunction
incrcascs lrom x  165 to x  166.
!!. 8ctwccn any two positivc valucs ol x,
1
x
dccrcascs, and hcncc both
1
x
and 1
1
x
incrcasc. A dircct computation can also bc
uscd:

1
165
1
166
166 165
165 166
1
165 166
=
( )( )
=
( )( )
,
which is positivc, and thus thc lunction
incrcascs lrom x  165 to x  166.
!!!. For x  165, thc dcnominator is 165
2
165 
(165)(165 1)  (165)(164), and lor
x  166, thc dcnominator is 166
2
166 
crclorc,
243
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
166
2
166 ~ 165
2
165, and hcncc
,
which shows that dccrcascs lrom
x  165 to x  166.
e correct answer is C.
//. / rectanuar box s C nches wde, C nches on,
and o nches hh. what s the reatest possbe
strahtne dstance, n nches, between any two
ponts on the box'
/ o
B ZC
C Zo
0 C
L C
Geometry Pythagorean theorem
c grcatcst possiblc distancc bctwccn any two
points in a rcctangular solid is thc spacc diagonal
(D) ol thc rcctangular solid as shown bclow.
B
C
D
10
10
5
To computc thc lcngth ol D, thc Pythagorcan
thcorcm must bc uscd twicc as lollows:
For BC:
For CD:
e correct answer is A.
Cub
Number ol
3tudents
Chess 4C
0rama 3C
lath Zo
/. 1he tabe above shows the number ol students n
three cubs at lc/ulle 3choo. /thouh no student s
n a three cubs, C students are n both Chess and
0rama, o students are n both Chess and lath, and
b students are n both 0rama and lath. How many
dllerent students are n the three cubs'
/ b
B b9
C /4
0 /9
L 4
Arithmetic Interpretation o! graphs and tabIes
A good way to solvc this problcm is to crcatc a
\cnn diagram. To dctcrminc how many studcnts
to put in cach scction, bcgin by putting thc givcn
sharcdstudcnt data in thc ovcrlapping scctions.
Put 0 in thc intcrscction ol all thrcc clubs, 10 in thc
Chcss and rama intcrscction, 5 in thc Chcss and
Math intcrscction, and 6 in thc rama and Math
intcrscction, as shown in thc \cnn diagram bclow.
Zo 4
4
C
C
o b
0rama Chess
lath
Subtracting thc sharcd studcnts lrom thc totals in
cach club that arc listcd in thc tablc cstablishcs thc
rough
this proccss, it can bc dctcrmincd that thc Chcss
club has 25 such mcmbcrs (40 10 5  25), thc
rama club has 14 such mcmbcrs (30 10 6 
14), and thc Math club has 14 such mcmbcrs
(25 5 6  14). Putting thc numbcr ol unsharcd
club mcmbcrs into thc \cnn diagram and thcn
adding up all thc scctions ol thc diagram givcs
25 14 14 10 5 6  74 studcnts.
e correct answer is C.
244
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
/9. 1he rato ol two quanttes s 3 to 4. ll each ol the
quanttes s ncreased by o, what s the rato ol these
two new quanttes'
/
3
4
B
9
C
9
0
Z3
Z4
L lt cannot be determned lrom the nlormaton
ven.
AIgebra AppIied probIems
8oth 3 to 4 and 6 to 8 arc cxamplcs ol two
quantitics in thc ratio 3 to 4. !ncrcasing both
numbcrs in cach ol thcsc cxamplcs by 5 givcs
8 to 9 and 11 to 13. Sincc
8
9
11
13
, thc ratio ol
thc two ncw quantitics cannot bc dctcrmincd
lrom thc inlormation givcn.
e correct answer is E.
C. ll the averae arthmetc mean ol x and y s bC and
the averae arthmetc mean ol y and z s C, what s
the vaue ol z  x '
/ /C
B 4C
C ZC
0 C
L lt cannot be determned lrom the nlormaton
ven.
Arithmetic, AIgebra 5tatistics, AppIied
probIems
c givcn inlormation givcs thc lollowing two
cquations:
x y
2
60
sincc thc avcragc ol x and y is 60 and
y z
2
80
sincc thc avcragc ol y and z is 80.
c two cquations can bc rcwrittcn as x y  120
and y z  160. Subtracting thc nrst cquation
lrom thc sccond cquation givcs (y z) (x y) 
160 120, or z x  40.
e correct answer is B.
. ll
Z
ol the ar n a tank s removed wth each stroke
ol a vacuum pump, what lracton ol the orna
amount ol ar has been removed alter 4 strokes'
/
o
b
B
/
C
4
0
L
b
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Vith cach strokc's rcmoval ol
1
2
ol thc tank's
air, thc amount ol air bcing rcmovcd lrom thc
tank on that strokc is cqual to thc amount ol air
rcmaining in thc tank altcr that strokc. Vith thc
nrst strokc ol thc pump,
1
2
ol thc air is rcmovcd,
with thc sccond strokc, ol thc air is
rcmovcd, lcaving
1
4
ol thc air. Vith thc third
strokc, ol thc air is rcmovcd, lcaving
1
8
ol thc air, and with thc lourth strokc,
crclorc, with lour strokcs,
ol thc
air has bccn rcmovcd.
e correct answer is A.
245
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Z. ll the twodt nteers M and N are postve and have
the same dts, but n reverse order, whch ol the
loown C/NN01 be the sum ol M and N '
/
B bo
C Z
0 99
L 44
AIgebra AppIied probIems
!t is givcn that M and N havc thc samc digits in
rcvcrsc ordcr. Lct M  10t u and N  10u t,
whcrc t and u cn, M N 
(10t u) (10u t )  11t 11u  11(t u is
mcans that any sum ol thc two intcgcrs M and
N must also bc a multiplc ol 11. l thc answcr
choiccs, only 181 is not a multiplc ol 11 and thus
cannot bc thc sum ol M and N.
e correct answer is A.
3. Car / and Car Y traveed the same Cme route. ll
Car / took Z hours and Car Y traveed at an averae
speed that was oC percent laster than the averae
speed ol Car /, how many hours dd t take Car Y to
trave the route'
/
Z
3
B
C
3
0
3
o
L 3
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Substituting thc givcn inlormation in thc lormula
ratc 
distancc
timc
, it can bc dctcrmincd that Car X
travclcd at a ratc ol
80 milcs
2 hours
, or 40 milcs pcr
us, Car Y travclcd at 1.50(40)  60 milcs
pcr hour. At this spccd, Car Y would travcl thc
80milc routc in hours.
80
60
4
3
1
1
3
e correct answer is C.
4. ll the averae arthmetc mean ol the lour numbers
r, Zr + 3, 3r  o, and or + s b3, what s the vaue
ol r '
/
B o
3
4
C ZZ
0 Z3
L Zo
3
C
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Using thc lormula
sum ol n valucs
n
 avcragc,
thc givcn inlormation can bc cxprcsscd in thc
lollowing cquation and solvcd lor K.
K K K K
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 3 3 5 5 1
4
63
K K K K
2 3 5 3 5 1
4
63
K
11 1
4
63
K 11 1 252
11 253 K
23 K
e correct answer is D.
o. ll p s an even nteer and q s an odd nteer, whch ol
the loown must be an odd nteer'
/
p
q
B pq
C Zp + q
0 Zp + q
L
3p
q
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Sincc it is givcn that p is cvcn and q is odd, usc
thcsc propcrtics to tcst thc outcomc ol cach answcr
choicc to dctcrminc which onc must bc odd.
246
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
A
cvcn
odd
 cvcn must bc cvcn
8 (cvcn)(odd)  cvcn must bc cvcn
C 2(cvcn) odd
 cvcn odd  odd must bc odd
2(cvcn odd)
 2(odd)  cvcn must bc cvcn
3(cvcn)
odd

cvcn
odd
 cvcn must bc cvcn
e correct answer is C.
b. 0rum / s
Z
lu ol o and 0rum Y, whch has twce
the capacty ol 0rum /, s
Z
3
lu ol o. ll a ol the o
n 0rum / s poured nto 0rum Y, then 0rum Y w be
hed to what lracton ol ts capacty'
/
3
4
B
o
b
C
Z
0
/
b
L
b
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct y rcprcscnt thc capacity ol rum Y. Sincc Y
has twicc thc capacity ol rum X, rum X has
hall thc capacity ol rum Y, and thus thc
capacity ol rum X can bc cxprcsscd as
1
2
y.
Sincc rum X is hall lull, thc amount ol oil in
rum X is cqual to According
to thc givcn inlormation, thc initial amount ol
oil in rum Y is
2
3
y. Vhcn thc oil in rum X is
pourcd into rum Y, rum Y thus contains
e correct answer is C.
/. ll x > C, s what percent ol x '
/ b
B Zo
C 3/
0 bC
L /o
AIgebra, Arithmetic 5impIi!ying aIgebraic
expressions, Percents
8ccausc thc qucstion asks lor a pcrccnt, usc a
common dcnominator ol 100 to combinc thc two
tcrms.
, which
is 6 pcrccnt ol x.
e correct answer is A.
. ll the operaton s dehned lor a a and b by the
equaton a b =
a
Z
b
3
, then Z 3  =
/ 4
B Z
C 
4
3
0  Z
L  4
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
8ccausc 3 1 is within thc parcnthcscs, its valuc
is computcd nrst:
3 1 


 3
247
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
cn, 2 (3 1)  2 3, which has thc
lollowing valuc:
2 (3 1)  2 3


 4(1)
 4
e correct answer is E.
9. 1he nsde dmensons ol a rectanuar wooden box
are b nches by nches by C nches. / cyndrca
canster s to be paced nsde the box so that t stands
uprht when the cosed box rests on one ol ts sx
laces. 0l a such cansters that coud be used, what s
the radus, n nches, ol the one that has maxmum
voume'
/ 3
B 4
C o
0 b
L
Geometry VoIume
c largcst cylindcr that can nt in a rcctangular
box will havc thc samc hcight as thc box and a
diamctcr cqual to thc smallcr dimcnsion ol thc
top ol thc box. 8y dcnnition, thc diamctcr ol thc
canistcr is twicc its radius. nc possible canistcr
placcmcnt in thc box is illustratcd bclow.
Howcvcr, sincc thc box can rcst on any ol thrcc
crcntly sizcd laccs, it is ncccssary to considcr
c lormula lor
calculating volumc is volumc  (radius)
2
(hcight),
or .  r
2
h, thc possiblc volumcs lor thc canistcr
arc thosc shown in thc lollowing tablc:
imcnsions
ol thc box top r h .
6 by 8 3 10 90
6 by 10 3 8 72
8 by 10 4 6 96
us, thc radius, in inchcs, ol thc canistcr having
thc maximum volumc is 4.
e correct answer is B.
9C. what s the unts dt ol 3
4
/
Z
Z9
3
'
/ 9
B /
C o
0 3
L
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c units digit ol 13
4
is 1, sincc 3 3 3 3  81,
thc units digit ol 17
2
is 9, sincc 7 7  49, and
thc units digit ol 29
3
is 9, sincc 9 9 9  729.
crclorc, thc units digit ol (13)
4
(17)
2
(29)
3
is 1,
sincc 1 9 9  81.
e correct answer is E.
4th Strcct
3rd Strcct
2nd Strcct
1st Strcct
X
Y
9. lat w wak lrom lntersecton X to lntersecton Y
aon a route that s conhned to the square rd ol
lour streets and three avenues shown n the map
above. How many routes lrom X to Y can lat take
that have the mnmum possbe enth'
248
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
/ b
B
C C
0 4
L b
Arithmetic EIementary combinatorics
!n ordcr to walk lrom !ntcrscction X to
!ntcrscction Y by onc ol thc routcs ol minimum
possiblc lcngth, Pat must travcl only upward or
rightward bctwccn thc intcrscctions on thc map.
Lct U rcprcscnt upward movcmcnts and F
rcprcscnt rightward movcmcnts. !t takcs 3 upward
and 2 rightward movcmcnts to complctc thc routc.
c lollowing 10 routcs arc possiblc:
U U U F F U F F U U
U U F U F F F U U U
U U F F U F U U U F
U F U U F F U U F U
U F U F U F U F U U
e correct answer is C.
9Z. 1he rato, by voume, ol soap to acoho to water n
a certan souton s Z:oC:CC. 1he souton w be
atered so that the rato ol soap to acoho s doubed
whe the rato ol soap to water s haved. ll the atered
souton w contan CC cubc centmeters ol acoho,
how many cubc centmeters ol water w t contan'
/ oC
B ZCC
C 4CC
0 bZo
L CC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
From
wc gct
,
and lrom
wc gct
.
crclorc, thc amount ol soap in thc altcrcd
solution can bc lound by solving ,
which givcs , and now
thc amount ol watcr in thc altcrcd solution can bc
lound by solving , which givcs
.
e correct answer is E.
93. ll /o percent ol a cass answered the hrst queston
on a certan test correcty, oo percent answered the
second queston on the test correcty, and ZC percent
answered nether ol the questons correcty, what
percent answered both correcty'
/ C
B ZC
C 3C
0 oC
L bo
Arithmetic Percents
For qucstions ol this typc, it is convcnicnt to draw
a \cnn diagram to rcprcscnt thc conditions in thc
problcm. For cxamplc, thc givcn inlormation can
bc dcpictcd:
20
Q1
75
Q2
55
!n thc diagram it can bc sccn that thc 80 ol thc
class answcring a qucstion corrcctly is rcprcscntcd
by thc two circlcs. Lct x rcprcscnt thc pcrccnt ol
thc class that answcrcd both qucstions corrcctly,
that is, thc shadcd rcgion abovc. Sincc thc sum ol
thc circlcs minus thcir ovcrlap cquals 80 ol thc
class, thc inlormation givcn in thc problcm can
thcn bc cxprcsscd as 75 55 x is
cquation can bc solvcd lor x as lollows:
249
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
75 55 x  80
130 x  80
x  50
x  50
e correct answer is D.
O
y  x
y
x
94. ln the rectanuar coordnate system above, the ne
y = x s the perpendcuar bsector ol sement A not
shown, and the xaxs s the perpendcuar bsector ol
sement L not shown. ll the coordnates ol pont A
are Z,3, what are the coordnates ol pont L '
/ 3,Z
B 3,Z
C Z,3
0 3,Z
L Z,3
Geometry 5impIe coordinate geometry
Sincc thc linc y  x is thc pcrpcndicular biscctor
ol B , B is thc rccction ol through this linc.
!n any rccction through thc linc y  x, thc
x coordinatc and thc ycoordinatc ol a point
us, il thc coordinatcs ol
arc (2,3), thc coordinatcs ol B arc (3,2).
O
y  x
y
x
3
2
1
1 2 3
B
Sincc thc xaxis is thc pcrpcndicular biscctor ol
BC , C is thc rccction ol B through thc xaxis. !n
any rccction through thc xaxis, thc xcoordinatc
rcmains thc samc, and thc sign ol thc ycoordinatc
changcs.
O
y  x
y
x
3
2
1
1
2
1 2
B
C
Sincc thc coordinatcs ol B arc (3,2), thc
coordinatcs ol C arc thcrclorc (3,2).
e correct answer is D.
9o. / store currenty chares the same prce lor each
towe that t ses. ll the current prce ol each towe
were to be ncreased by S, C lewer ol the towes
coud be bouht lor SZC, excudn saes tax. what s
the current prce ol each towe'
/ S
B S Z
C S 3
0 S 4
L SZ
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct p bc thc currcnt pricc pcr towcl, and lct n bc
thc numbcr ol towcls that can bc bought lor 8120.
cn thc inlormation in thc problcm can bc
cxprcsscd in thc lollowing cquations:
(i) pn  120
(ii) (p 1)(n 10)  120 or cquivalcntly
(iii) pn n 10p 10  120.
250
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
cn rcplacc pn in (iii) with 120 to gct:
120 n 10p 10  120
n 10p 10  0
n 10(p 1)  0
n  10(p 1)
np  10p(p 1)
120  10p(p 1)
12  p(p 1)
0  p
2
p 12
0  (p 4)(p 3)
p  3
e correct answer is C.
Number o! 5oIidCoIored MarbIes in Three 1ars
Jar
Number ol
red marbes
Number ol
reen marbes
1ota number
ol red and
reen marbes
l x y C
y z ZC
b x z bC
9b. ln the tabe above, what s the number ol reen
marbes n Jar b '
/ /C
B C
C 9C
0 CC
L C
Arithmetic, AIgebra Interpretation o! tabIes,
AppIied probIems
First, sct up an cquation to nnd thc total numbcr
ol marblcs in thc thrcc jars as lollows:
x y y z x z  80 120 160
2x 2y 2z  360 combinc thc likc tcrms
x y z  180 dividc both sidcs by 2
cn, sincc it can bc sccn lrom thc tablc that thc
numbcr ol grccn marblcs in Jar R is z, solvc lor z
to answcr thc problcm. To do this most clncicntly,
usc thc inlormation lrom thc tablc lor Jar P, which
is that x y  80.
x y z  180
80 z  180 substitutc 80 lor x y
z  100
e correct answer is D.
9/. / pont on the ede ol a lan bade that s rotatn n a
pane s C centmeters lrom the center ol the lan.
what s the dstance traveed, n centmeters, by ths
pont n o seconds when the lan runs at the rate ol
3CC revoutons per mnute'
/ /oC
B ,oCC
C ,/o
0 3,CCC
L /,oCC
Geometry CircIes, Circum!erence,
AppIied probIems
Sincc 15 scconds is
15
60

1
4
minutc, il thc lan
bladc is rotating at thc ratc ol 300 rcvolutions
pcr minutc, thcn in
1
4
minutc it rotatcs
300
4
c distancc thc point on
thc cdgc ol thc lan bladc rotatcs in 75 rcvolutions
is 75 timcs thc circumlcrcncc ol a circlc with
c circumlcrcncc C ol a
circlc with radius r is C r us thc distancc
e correct answer is B.
9. ll n = 4p, where p s a prme number reater than Z,
how many dllerent postve even dvsors does n have,
ncudn n '
/ 1wo
B 1hree
C lour
0 3x
L Lht
251
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Sincc p is a primc grcatcr than 2, p must bc odd.
crclorc, thc possiblc cvcn divisors ol n  4p arc
2, 4, 2p, and 4p. Altcrnativcly, choosc such a
primc, lor cxamplc p  3, and dctcrminc thc
numbcr ol positivc cvcn divisors that n  4p 
12 has.
e correct answer is C.
l. /Z, /3, /4, /o, /b
ll. /4, /4, /4, /4, /4
lll. bZ, /4, /4, /4, 9
99. 1he data sets l, ll, and lll above are ordered lrom
reatest standard devaton to east standard devaton
n whch ol the loown'
/ l, ll, lll
B l, lll, ll
C ll, lll, l
0 lll, l, ll
L lll, ll, l
Arithmetic 5tatistics
c data sct with thc lcast standard dcviation will
bc thc data sct with clcmcnts most closcly
clustcrcd around thc mcan ol thc data sct, and thc
data sct with thc grcatcst standard dcviation will
bc thc data sct with clcmcnts that arc sprcad out
larthcst lrom thc mcan ol thc data sct.
8ccausc sct ! is symmctric about 74 (73 is 1 lcss
than 74 and 75 is 1 morc than 74, 72 is 2 lcss
than 74 and 76 is 2 morc than 74), thc mcan ol
sct ! is 74. 8ccausc cvcry numbcr in sct !! is 74,
c mcan ol sct !!! is
62
5
+ ( ) +
= =
3 74 89
373
5
74 6 . .
c clcmcnts ol sct !! do not dcviatc at all lrom
c
crs lrom 74 is 2,
cr lrom
crclorc, sct !!! has a
grcatcr standard dcviation than sct !, which has a
grcatcr standard dcviation than sct !!.
e correct answer is D.
ZCC. 0l the oC researchers n a workroup, 4C percent w
be assned to 1eam / and the remann bC percent
to 1eam B. However, /C percent ol the researchers
preler 1eam / and 3C percent preler 1eam B. what s
the owest possbe number ol researchers who w
N01 be assned to the team they preler'
/ o
B /
C ZC
0 Zo
L 3C
Arithmetic Percents
c numbcr ol rcscarchcrs assigncd to Tcam A
will bc (0.40)(50)  20, and so 30 will bc assigncd
c numbcr ol rcscarchcrs who prclcr
Tcam A is (0.70)(50)  35, and thc rcst, 15, prclcr
Tcam 8.
!l all 15 who prclcr Tcam 8 arc assigncd to
Tcam 8, which is to havc 30 rcscarchcrs, thcn
15 who prclcr Tcam A will nccd to bc assigncd
to Tcam 8. Altcrnativcly, sincc thcrc arc only
20 spots on Tcam A, 35 20  15 who prclcr
Tcam A but will havc to go to Tcam 8 instcad.
e correct answer is A.
ZC. ll m s the averae arthmetc mean ol the hrst
C postve mutpes ol o and l M s the medan
ol the hrst C postve mutpes ol o, what s the
vaue ol M  m '
/ o
B C
C o
0 Zo
L Z/.o
Arithmetic 5tatistics
c nrst 10 positivc multiplcs ol 5 arc 5, 10, 15,
20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50. From this, thc
avcragc (arithmctic mcan) ol thc 10 multiplcs,
that is,
sum ol valucs
numbcr ol valucs
, can bc calculatcd:
m
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
10
275
10
27 5 . ..
252
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Sincc thcrc is an cvcn numbcr ol multiplcs, thc
mcdian, M, is thc avcragc ol thc middlc two
numbcrs, 25 and 30:
M 
25 30
2
 27.5.
crclorc, thc mcdian minus thc avcragc is:
M m  27.5 27.5  0.
is problcm can also bc solvcd as lollows. Sincc
thc valucs can bc groupcd in pairs (i.c., 5 and 50,
10 and 45, 15 and 40, ctc.), cach ol which is
symmctric with rcspcct to thc mcdian, it lollows
that thc avcragc and mcdian arc cqual.
e correct answer is B.
ZCZ. ll m > C and x s m percent ol y, then, n terms ol m, y
s what percent ol x '
/ CCm
B
CCm
C
m
0
C
m
L
C,CCC
m
Arithmetic Percents
c inlormation that x is m pcrccnt ol y can bc
cxprcsscd as x
m
y
100
and solvcd lor y as lollows:
x
m
y
100
100
m
x y
cn, to convcrt thc lraction
100
m
to an cquivalcnt
pcrccnt, multiply by 100, thus obtaining thc valuc
10,000
m
.
e correct answer is E.
ZC3. what s the Zoth dt to the rht ol the decma pont
n the decma lorm ol
b
'
/ 3
B 4
C o
0 b
L /
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c lraction in its dccimal lorm is
6
11
 0.545454.. vcry oddnumbcrcd digit to
thc right ol thc dccimal point is 5, so thc 25th
digit must bc 5.
e correct answer is C.
ZC4. John and lary were each pad x doars n advance to
do a certan job toether. John worked on the job lor
C hours and lary worked Z hours ess than John. ll
lary ave John y doars ol her payment so that they
woud have receved the same houry wae, what was
the doar amount, n terms ol y, that John was pad n
advance'
/ 4y
B oy
C by
0 y
L 9y
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct . bc thc amount ol Mary and John's samc
hourly wagc. To sct thcir hourly pay cqual, John,
who workcd 10 hours, nccds to bc paid 10., and
Mary, who workcd 8 hours, nccds to bc paid 8..
Sincc Mary gavc John y dollars, Mary now has
x y dollars and John now has x y dollars.
cir pay can thus bc cxprcsscd as lollows:
x y  8. Mary's pay
x y  10. John's pay
Subtract thc nrst cquation lrom thc sccond and
solvc lor ..
2y  2.
y  .
253
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Substitutc y lor . in thc sccond cquation, and
solvc lor x, thc amount cach was paid in advancc.
x y  10 y
x  9 y
e correct answer is E.
y
x
P (4,0) O
ZCo. ln the rectanuar coordnate system above, l pont R
not shown es on the postve yaxs and the area ol
trane URl s Z, what s the ycoordnate ol pont R '
/ 3
B b
C 9
0 Z
L Z4
Geometry 5impIe coordinate geometry, Area
Sincc O and P ol trianglc OFP arc alrcady drawn
and F has to bc on thc positivc yaxis, thc trianglc
is a right trianglc with its basc lcngth thc distancc
lrom thc origin O (0,0) to P (4,0), which is 4.
Sincc thc arca ol a trianglc 
(basc)(hcight)
2
,
thc inlormation about thc arca and basc can bc
cxprcsscd as lollows and solvcd lor thc hcight ol
trianglc OPF:
12 
(4)(hcight)
2
12  2(hcight) simplily thc right sidc
6  hcight solvc lor thc hcight
n thc yaxis, thc xcoordinatc is 0 and thc
ycoordinatc is thc distancc abovc thc axis that
thc point is locatcd. !n this casc, thc ycoordinatc
is thc hcight ol thc trianglc.
e correct answer is B.
ZCb. Car / s ZC mes behnd Car B, whch s traven n
the same drecton aon the same route as Car /.
Car / s traven at a constant speed ol o mes
per hour and Car B s traven at a constant speed
ol oC mes per hour. How many hours w t take lor
Car / to overtake and drve mes ahead ol Car B '
/ .o
B Z.C
C Z.o
0 3.C
L 3.o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Undcrstand that Car A nrst has to travcl 20 milcs
to catch up to Car 8 and thcn has to travcl an
additional 8 milcs ahcad ol Car 8, lor a total ol
28 cxtra milcs to travcl rclativc to Car 8. !t can
bc statcd that Car A is travcling 58 50  8 milcs
pcr hour lastcr than Car 8. Solving thc
distancc  (ratc)(timc) lormula lor timc yiclds
distancc
ratc
 timc.
8y substitution into this lormula, it will takc
Car A
28 milcs
8 milcs pcr hour
 3.5 hours to ovcrtakc
and drivc 8 milcs ahcad ol Car 8.
e correct answer is E.
ZC/. lor the past n days, the averae arthmetc mean
day producton at a company was oC unts. ll today's
producton ol 9C unts rases the averae to oo unts
per day, what s the vaue ol n '
/ 3C
B
C C
0 9
L /
Arithmetic, AIgebra 5tatistics, AppIied
probIems, 5imuItaneous equations
Lct x bc thc total production ol thc past n days.
Using thc lormula avcragc 
sum ol valucs
numbcr ol valucs
,
thc inlormation in thc problcm can bc cxprcsscd
in thc lollowing two cquations:
254
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
50
x
n
daily avcragc ol 50 units
ovcr thc past n days
55
90
1
x
n
incrcascd daily avcragc
whcn including today's
90 units
Solving thc nrst cquation lor x givcs x  50n.
cn substituting 50n lor x in thc sccond
cquation givcs thc lollowing that can bc solvcd
lor n:
55
50 90
1
n
n
55(n 1)  50n 90 multiply both sidcs
by (n 1)
55n 55  50n 90 distributc thc 55
5n  35 subtract 50n and 55 lrom
both sidcs
n  7 dividc both sidcs by 5
e correct answer is E.
x
x
Z
ZC. ll x x x s repaced by
x
everywhere
n the expresson above, then the resutn expresson
s equvaent to
/
x
x
Z
B
x
x
Z
C
x
x
Z
Z
0
x
x
Z
Z
L
x
x
Z
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Substitutc
1
x
lor x in thc cxprcssion and simplily.
1
1
1
1
2
x
x
Multiply thc numcrator and dcnominator insidc
thc parcnthcscs by x to climinatc thc compound
lractions.
x
x
x
x
1
1
1
1
2
istributc thc x's.
1
1
2
x
x
Sincc this is not onc ol thc answcr choiccs,
it is ncccssary to simplily lurthcr. Vith thc
knowlcdgc that 1 x  x 1 and 1 x  (x 1),
it can bc statcd that
bccausc thc ncgativc, whcn squarcd, is positivc.
e correct answer is A.
y
z
x
ZC9. ln the hure above, l z = oC, then x + y =
/ Z3C
B ZoC
C ZbC
0 Z/C
L Z9C
Geometry AngIes, Measures o! angIes
Rclcr to thc ngurc bclow.
255
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
E
B D C
y
z
x
Trianglc BC is a right trianglc, and scgmcnt
B is parallcl to scgmcnt ED sincc thcy arc
both pcrpcndicular to thc samc scgmcnt (BC ).
crclorc, m DEC  m BC  z  50. So,
sincc DEC and ED lorm a straight linc
at E, y 50  180, or y  130.
c mcasurc ol an cxtcrior anglc ol a trianglc is
thc sum ol thc mcasurcs ol thc nonadjaccnt
us,
m x  m z 90, or
m x  50 90 140
us, x y  140 130  270.
e correct answer is D.
O 1
y
x
1
ZC. ln the coordnate system above, whch ol the loown
s the equaton ol ne '
/ Zx  3y = b
B Zx + 3y = b
C 3x + Zy = b
0 Zx  3y = b
L 3x  Zy = b
Geometry 5impIe coordinate geometry
c linc is shown going through thc points (0,2)
c slopc ol thc linc can bc lound with
thc lormula slopc 
changc in
changc in
y
x
y y
x x
2 1
2 1
,
lor two points (x
1
,y
1
) and (x
2
,y
2
us, thc slopc
ol this linc cquals . Using thc lormula
lor a linc ol y  mx b, whcrc m is thc slopc and
b is thc yintcrccpt (in this casc, 2), an cquation lor
this linc is x
2
3
2. Sincc this cquation must
bc comparcd to thc availablc answcr choiccs, thc
lollowing lurthcr stcps should bc takcn:
y x
2
3
2
3y  2x 6 multiply both sidcs by 3
2x 3y  6 add 2x to both sidcs
is problcm can also bc solvcd as lollows. From
thc graph, whcn x  0, y is positivc, whcn y  0,
x is climinatcs all but 8 and C. l
thcsc, 8 is thc only linc containing (0,2). Still
anothcr way is to usc (0,2) to climinatc A, C, and
, and thcn usc (3,0) to climinatc .
e correct answer is B.
Z. ll a twodt postve nteer has ts dts reversed,
the resutn nteer dllers lrom the orna by Z/.
By how much do the two dts dller'
/ 3
B 4
C o
0 b
L /
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct thc onc twodigit intcgcr bc rcprcscntcd by
10t s, whcrc s and t arc digits, and lct thc othcr
intcgcr with thc rcvcrscd digits bc rcprcscntcd
by 10s t crcncc
bctwccn thc intcgcrs is 27 can bc cxprcsscd in
thc lollowing cquation, which can bc solvcd lor
thc answcr.
256
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
(10s t )  (10t s)  27
10s t  10t  s  27 distributc thc ncgativc
9s  9t  27 combinc likc tcrms
s  t  3 dividc both sidcs by 9
us, it is sccn that thc two digits s and t cr
by 3.
e correct answer is A.
O
y
x
C
ZZ. 1he crce wth center L shown above s tanent to
both axes. ll the dstance lrom U to L s equa to k,
what s the radus ol the crce, n terms ol k '
/ k
B
k
Z
C
k
3
0
k
Z
L
k
3
Geometry CircIes, 5impIe coordinate
geometry
!n a circlc, all distanccs lrom thc circlc to thc
ccntcr arc thc samc and callcd thc radius, r.
O
y
x
C
r
k
r
Sincc thc horizontal distancc lrom C to thc yaxis
is also a radius, thc basc ol thc trianglc drawn will
bc r is crcatcs a right trianglc, and so
thc Pythagorcan thcorcm (or a
2
b
2
 c
2
) applics.
r
2
+ r
2
 k
2
substitutc valucs into
Pythagorcan thcorcm,
2r
2
 k
2
combinc likc tcrms
r
k
2
2
2
dividc both sidcs by 2
r
k
2
2
takc thc squarc root ol
both sidcs
r
k
2
simplily thc squarc root
e correct answer is B.
Z3. ln an eectrc crcut, two resstors wth resstances x
and y are connected n parae. ln ths case, l r s the
combned resstance ol these two resstors, then the
recproca ol r s equa to the sum ol the recprocas ol
x and y. what s r n terms ol x and y '
/ xy
B x + y
C
x + y
0
xy
x + y
L
x + y
xy
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Notc that two numbcrs arc rcciprocals ol cach
us thc
rcciprocals ol r, x, and y arc
1 1 1
r x y
, , and ,
rcspcctivcly. So, according to thc problcm,
1 1 1
r x y
. To solvc this cquation lor r, bcgin by
crcating a common dcnominator on thc right sidc
by multiplying thc nrst lraction by
y
y
and thc
sccond lraction by
x
x
:
257
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
1 1 1
r x y
1
r
y
xy
x
xy
1
r
x y
xy
combinc thc lractions on thc
right sidc
r
xy
x y
invcrt thc lractions on both sidcs
e correct answer is D.
Z4. /aver, Yvonne, and Zeda each try ndependenty to
sove a probem. ll ther ndvdua probabtes lor
success are
4
,
Z
, and
o
, respectvey, what s the
probabty that /aver and Yvonne, but not Zeda, w
sove the probem'
/
B
/
C
9
b4
0
o
b4
L
3
b4
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
Sincc thc individuals' probabilitics arc
indcpcndcnt, thcy can bc multiplicd to ngurc out
c probability ol
Xavicr's succcss is givcn as
1
4
, and thc probability
ol Yvonnc's succcss is givcn as
1
2
. Sincc thc
probability ol Zclda's succcss is givcn as
5
8
, thcn
thc probability ol hcr NT solving thc problcm
is us, thc combincd probability is
e correct answer is E.
Zo. ll
x +
x + 4
 = , then x coud be
/ C
B 
C Z
0 3
L 4
AIgebra 5econddegree equations
Solvc thc cquation lor x. 8cgin by multiplying all
thc tcrms by x(x 1)(x 4) to climinatc thc
dcnominators.
(x 1)(x 4) x(x 4)  x(x 1)
(x 4)(x 1 x)  x(x 1) lactor thc (x 4) out
lront on thc lclt sidc
(x 4)(1)  x(x 1) simplily
x 4  x
2
x distributc thc x on
thc right sidc
4  x
2
subtract x lrom both
sidcs
2  x takc thc squarc root
ol both sidcs
8oth 2 and 2 arc squarc roots ol 4 sincc (2)
2
 4
and (2)
2
us, x could bc 2.
is problcm can also bc solvcd as lollows.
Rcwritc thc lclt sidc as ,
thcn sct cqual to thc right sidc to gct
1
1
1
4 x x x +
( )
=
+
. Ncxt, cross multiply:
(1)(x 4)  x(x crclorc, x 4  x
2
x,
or x
2
 4, so x  2.
e correct answer is C.
258
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Zb.
b
3 Z
/
Z
4
B
Z
C
Z
b
0
L
b
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
!t is clcar lrom thc answcr choiccs that all thrcc
lactors nccd to bc writtcn with a common
dcnominator, and thcy thus bccomc
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
2
3 3
2 2
2
4
1 4
1
4
3
1
16
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
So,
44
1
16
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
3 4 4
3 4 4 11
1
2
.
e correct answer is B.
Z/. ln a certan ame, a are contaner s hed wth red,
yeow, reen, and bue beads worth, respectvey, /,
o, 3, and Z ponts each. / number ol beads are then
removed lrom the contaner. ll the product ol the pont
vaues ol the removed beads s 4/,CCC, how many
red beads were removed'
/ o
B 4
C 3
0 Z
L C
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
From this, thc rcd bcads rcprcscnt lactors ol 7 in
thc total point valuc ol 147,000. Sincc 147,000 
147(1,000), and 1,000  10
3
, thcn 147 is all that
nccds to bc lactorcd to dctcrminc thc lactors ol 7.
Factoring 147 yiclds 147  (3)(49)  (3)(7
2
is
mcans thcrc arc 2 lactors ol 7, or 2 rcd bcads.
e correct answer is D.
Z.
ll , then
Z
y
y
/  Z
B 
Z
C
Z
0 Z
L 3
AIgebra firstdegree equations
Solvc lor y.
2
1
2
1
y
1
2
2
y
multiply both sidcs by 1
2
y
2
1
y
subtract 1 lrom cach sidc
y  2 solvc lor y
e correct answer is D.
Z9. ll a, b, and c are consecutve postve nteers and
a < b < c, whch ol the loown must be true'
l. c  a = Z
ll. abc s an even nteer.
lll.
a + b + c
3
s an nteer.
259
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
/ l ony
B ll ony
C l and ll ony
0 ll and lll ony
L l, ll, and lll
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Sincc a, b, and c arc consccutivc positivc intcgcrs
and a b c, thcn b  a 1 and c  a 2.
!. c a  (a 2) a  2 MUST bc truc
!!. (odd)(cvcn)(odd)  cvcn MUST bc truc
(cvcn)(odd)(cvcn)  cvcn MUST bc truc
!!!.
a b c a a a
3
1 2
3
3 3 a
a b
3
1
b is an intcgcr MUST bc truc
e correct answer is E.
ZZC. / parttme empoyee whose houry wae was
ncreased by Zo percent decded to reduce the
number ol hours worked per week so that the
empoyee's tota weeky ncome woud reman
unchaned. By what percent shoud the number ol
hours worked be reduced'
/ Z.o
B ZC
C Zo
0 oC
L /o
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct . rcprcscnt thc original hourly wagc.
Lctting h bc thc original numbcr ol hours thc
cmploycc workcd pcr wcck, thc original wcckly
incomc can bc cxprcsscd as .h. Givcn a 25
incrcasc in hourly wagc, thc cmploycc's ncw wagc
is thus 1.25.. Lctting H bc thc rcduccd numbcr
ol hours, thc problcm can thcn bc cxprcsscd as:
1.25.H  .h (ncw wagc)(ncw hours) 
(original wagc)(original hours)
8y dividing both sidcs by ., this cquation can bc
solvcd lor H:
1.25H  h
H  0.8h
Sincc thc ncw hours should bc 0.8  80 ol thc
original hours, thc numbcr ol hours workcd
should bc rcduccd by 20 pcrccnt.
e correct answer is B.
ZZ. 0l the ZCC students at Coee 1 majorn n one or
more ol the scences, 3C are majorn n chemstry
and oC are majorn n booy. ll at east 3C ol the
students are not majorn n ether chemstry or
booy, then the number ol students majorn n both
chemstry and booy coud be any number lrom
/ ZC to oC
B 4C to /C
C oC to 3C
0 C to 3C
L C to oC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
A \cnn diagram will hclp with this problcm.
crc arc two cxtrcmcs that nccd to bc
considcrcd: (1) having thc lcast numbcr ol
studcnts majoring in both chcmistry and biology
and (2) having thc grcatcst numbcr ol studcnts
majoring in both chcmistry and biology.
(1) !l at lcast 30 scicncc majors arc not majoring
in cithcr chcmistry or biology, thcn at most
200 30  170 studcnts can bc majoring in
cithcr or both. Sincc thcrc arc 130 150 
280 biology and chcmistry majors (somc ol
whom arc individual studcnts majoring in both
arcas), thcn thcrc arc at lcast 280 170  110
c diagram lollowing shows
this rclationship.
260
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
ZC C 4C
Chemstry Booy
/C 101/l 3100LN13
l0b CHLll31bY /N0 Bl0l00Y l/J0b3
c maximum numbcr ol studcnts who can
bc majoring in both chcmistry and biology is 130,
sincc 130 is thc numbcr givcn as majoring in
chcmistry, thc smallcr ol thc two subjcct arcas.
Logically, thcrc cannot bc morc doublc majors
c
diagram bclow shows this rclationship in tcrms ol
thc givcn numbcrs ol majors in cach subjcct arca.
C 3C ZC
Chemstry Booy
Additionally, lrom this diagram it can bc sccn
that thc total numbcr ol studcnts who arc
majoring in chcmistry, or in biology, or in both
us, thcrc arc 200 150 
50 studcnts who arc ncithcr chcmistry nor biology
is numbcr is not in conict with thc
condition that 30 is thc minimum numbcr ol
nonchcmistry and nonbiology majors.
us, thc numbcr ol studcnts majoring in both
chcmistry and biology could bc any numbcr lrom
a minimum ol 110 to a maximum ol 130.
e correct answer is D.
ZZZ. ll o 
b
x
= x, then x has how many possbe vaues'
/ None
B 0ne
C 1wo
0 / hnte number reater than two
L /n nhnte number
AIgebra 5econddegree equations
Solvc thc cquation to dctcrminc how many valucs
arc possiblc lor x.
5
6
x
 x
5x 6  x
2
0  x
2
5x 6
0  (x 3)(x 2)
x  3 or 2
e correct answer is C.
ZZ3. 3eed mxture / s 4C percent ryerass and bC percent
buerass by weht; seed mxture Y s Zo percent
ryerass and /o percent lescue. ll a mxture ol / and
Y contans 3C percent ryerass, what percent ol the
weht ol the mxture s / '
/ C
B 33
C 4C
0 oC
L bb
Z
3
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct X bc thc amount ol sccd mixturc X in thc
nnal mixturc, and lct Y bc thc amount ol sccd
c nnal
mixturc ol X and Y nccds to contain 30 pcrccnt
rycgrass sccd, so any othcr kinds ol grass sccd arc
c
inlormation about thc rycgrass pcrccntagcs lor X,
Y, and thc nnal mixturc can bc cxprcsscd in thc
lollowing cquation and solvcd lor X.
261
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
0.40X 0.25Y  0.30(X Y)
0.40X 0.25Y  0.30X 0.30Y distributc thc
0.30 on thc
right sidc
0.10X  0.05Y subtract 0.30X
and 0.25Y lrom
both sidcs
X  0.5Y dividc both
sidcs by 0.10
Using this, thc pcrccnt ol thc wcight ol thc
combincd mixturc (X Y) that is X is
X
X Y
Y
Y Y
Y
Y
0 5
0 5
0 5
1 5
0 5
1 5
0 333 33
1
3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
e correct answer is B.
ZZ4. ll n s a postve nteer, then nn + n + Z s
/ even ony when n s even
B even ony when n s odd
C odd whenever n s odd
0 dvsbe by 3 ony when n s odd
L dvsbe by 4 whenever n s even
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c numbcrs n, n + 1, and n 2 arc consccutivc
crclorc, cithcr thcir product is
(odd)(cvcn)(odd)  cvcn, or thcir product is
(cvcn)(odd)(cvcn)  cvcn. !n cithcr casc, thc
product ol n(n + 1)(n + us, cach
ol answcr choiccs A, 8, and C is lalsc.
A statcmcnt is lalsc il a countcrcxamplc can bc
shown. Tcst thc statcmcnt using an cvcn multiplc
ol 3 as thc valuc ol n in thc cquation. Vhcn
n  6, n(n 1)(n 2)  6(7)(8)  336. Sincc in this
countcrcxamplc n is cvcn but 336 is still divisiblc
by 3, answcr choicc is shown to bc lalsc.
Vhcn n is cvcn (mcaning divisiblc by 2), n 2
is also cvcn (and also divisiblc by 2). So
n(n + 1)(n + 2) is always divisiblc by 4.
e correct answer is E.
ZZo. / straht ppe yard n enth was marked oll n
lourths and aso n thrds. ll the ppe was then cut nto
separate peces at each ol these markns, whch ol
the loown ves a the dllerent enths ol the
peces, n lractons ol a yard'
/
b
and
4
ony
B
4
and
3
ony
C
b
,
4
, and
3
0
Z
,
b
, and
4
L
Z
,
b
, and
3
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
8 C F
0
11
1
4
1
3
1
2
2
3
3
4
A
c numbcr linc abovc illustratcs thc markings
on thc pipc. Sincc thc pipc is cut at thc nvc
markings, six picccs ol pipc arc produccd.
c lcngth ol cach piccc, as a lraction ol a yard,
is givcn in thc lollowing tablc.
Pe ece Length
A
8
C
F
e correct answer is D.
262
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
ZZb. ll = o C
/
, then m  k =
/ 9
B
C /
0 b
L o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c lclt sidc is casicr to work with whcn thc
cxprcssions arc rcwrittcn so that intcgcrs arc
involvcd:
 5 10
7
 5 10
7
 5 10
7
5  5 10
7
 10
7
10
m 4 (k 2)
 10
7
m 4 (k 2)  7
m k 2  7
m k  9
e correct answer is A.
ZZ/. ll x + y = a and x  y = b, then Zxy =
/
B
C
0
L
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
8cgin by adding thc two givcn cquations to
cstablish a valuc lor x. Adding x y  a and
x y  b givcs 2x  a b and thus x  .
cn, substitutc this valuc ol x into thc nrst
cquation and solvc lor y:
Finally, solvc thc cquation, substituting thc valucs
now cstablishcd lor x and y:
is problcm can also bc solvcd as lollows: Sincc
thc squarcs ol x y and x y, whcn cxpandcd,
cach includc thc cxprcssion x
2
y
2
along with a
multiplc ol xy, wc can obtain a multiplc ol xy by
subtracting thcsc squarcs:
a
2
b
2
 (x y)
2
(x y)
2
 x
2
2xy + y
2
(x
2
2xy + y
2
)
 4xy
 2(2xy)
 2xy
e correct answer is A.
263
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
p, r, s, t, u
ZZ. /n arthmetc sequence s a sequence n whch
each term alter the hrst s equa to the sum ol the
precedn term and a constant. ll the st ol etters
shown above s an arthmetc sequence, whch ol the
loown must aso be an arthmetc sequence'
l. Zp, Zr, Zs, Zt, Zu
ll. p  3, r  3, s  3, t  3, u  3
lll. p
Z
, r
Z
, s
Z
, t
Z
, u
Z
/ l ony
B ll ony
C lll ony
0 l and ll
L ll and lll
AIgebra Concepts o! sets, functions
!t lollows lrom thc dcnnition ol arithmctic
scqucncc givcn in thc nrst scntcncc that thcrc is a
constant c such that r p  s r  t s  u t  c.
To tcst a scqucncc to dctcrminc whcthcr it is
crcncc ol cach pair
ol consccutivc tcrms in that scqucncc to scc il a
crcncc is lound.
!. 2r 2p  2(r p)  2c
2s 2r  2(s r)  2c
2t 2s  2(t s)  2c
2u 2t  2(u t)  2c MUST bc
arithmctic
!!. (r 3) (p 3)  r p  c MUST bc
arithmctic
Sincc all valucs arc just thrcc lcss than thc
crcncc applics.
!!!. r
2
 p
2
 (r  p)(r p)  c(r p)
s
2
 r
2
 (s  r)(s r)  c(s r) N NT
bc arithmctic
Sincc p, r, s, t, and u arc an arithmctic scqucncc,
r p s r, bccausc p s unlcss c  0.
e correct answer is D.
ZZ9. bht trane lR s to be constructed n the xypane
so that the rht ane s at l and lR s parae to the
xaxs. 1he x and ycoordnates ol l, , and R are to
be nteers that satsly the nequates 4 x o and
b y b. How many dllerent tranes wth these
propertes coud be constructed'
/ C
B ,CC
C 9,9CC
0 C,CCC
L Z,CC
Geometry, Arithmetic 5impIe coordinate
geometry, EIementary combinatorics
!n thc xyplanc, right trianglc PQF is locatcd in
thc rcctangular rcgion dctcrmincd by 4 x 5
and 6 y 16 (scc lollowing illustration).
y
x
P
6
5 4
16
Sincc thc coordinatcs ol points P, Q, and F arc
intcgcrs, thcrc arc 10 possiblc x valucs and 11
possiblc y valucs, so point P can bc any onc ol
10(11)  110 points in thc rcctangular arca.
Sincc PF
has to bc horizontal, F has thc samc
y valuc as P and can havc 9 othcr x valucs. PQ
has to bc vcrtical, so Q has thc samc x valuc as
P and can havc 10 othcr y is givcs
110(9)(10)  9,900 possiblc trianglcs.
e correct answer is C.
264
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Z3C. 1he vaue ol s how many
tmes the vaue ol Z
/
'
/
B
C 3
0 4
L o
Arithmetic Negative exponents
!l thc valuc ol is x timcs
thc valuc ol 2
17
, thcn
x(2
17
) 
x 
 2
17




 3
e correct answer is C.
265
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
To register !or the GMAT test go to vvv.mba.com
266
6.0 Data 5u!ciency
6.0 Data 5u!ciency
267
6.0 Data 5u!ciency
ata sulncicncy qucstions appcar in thc Quantitativc scction ol thc GMAT tcst. Multiplcchoicc
data sulncicncy qucstions arc intcrminglcd with problcm solving qucstions throughout thc scction.
You will havc 75 minutcs to complctc thc Quantitativc scction ol thc GMAT tcst, or about 2
csc qucstions rcquirc knowlcdgc ol thc lollowing topics:
Arithmctic
lcmcntary algcbra
Commonly known conccpts ol gcomctry
ata sulncicncy qucstions arc dcsigncd to mcasurc your ability to analyzc a quantitativc problcm,
rccognizc which givcn inlormation is rclcvant, and dctcrminc at what point thcrc is sulncicnt
inlormation to solvc a problcm. !n thcsc qucstions, you arc to classily cach problcm according to
thc nvc nxcd answcr choiccs, rathcr than nnd a solution to thc problcm.
ach data sulncicncy qucstion consists ol a qucstion, oltcn accompanicd by somc initial
inlormation, and two statcmcnts, labclcd (1) and (2), which contain additional inlormation. You
must dccidc whcthcr thc inlormation in cach statcmcnt is sulncicnt to answcr thc qucstion or
il ncithcr statcmcnt providcs cnough inlormationwhcthcr thc inlormation in thc two statcmcnts
togcthcr is sulncicnt. !t is also possiblc that thc statcmcnts in combination do not givc cnough
inlormation to answcr thc qucstion.
8cgin by rcading thc initial inlormation and thc qucstion carclully. Ncxt, considcr thc nrst statcmcnt.
ocs thc inlormation providcd by thc nrst statcmcnt cnablc you to answcr thc qucstion: Go on to
thc sccond statcmcnt. Try to ignorc thc inlormation givcn in thc nrst statcmcnt whcn you considcr
whcthcr thc sccond statcmcnt providcs inlormation that, by itscll, allows you to answcr thc qucstion.
Now you should bc ablc to say, lor cach statcmcnt, whcthcr it is sulncicnt to dctcrminc thc answcr.
Ncxt, considcr thc two statcmcnts in tandcm. o thcy, togcthcr, cnablc you to answcr thc qucstion:
Look again at your answcr choiccs. Sclcct thc onc that most accuratcly rcccts whcthcr thc
statcmcnts providc thc inlormation rcquircd to answcr thc qucstion.
268
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
6.1 TestTaking 5trategies
1. Do not vaste vaIuabIe time soIving a probIem.
You only nccd to dctcrminc whcthcr sulncicnt inlormation is givcn to solvc it.
2. Consider each statement separateIy.
First, dccidc whcthcr cach statcmcnt alonc givcs sulncicnt inlormation to solvc thc problcm. 8c
surc to disrcgard thc inlormation givcn in statcmcnt (1) whcn you cvaluatc thc inlormation givcn
in statcmcnt (2). !l cithcr, or both, ol thc statcmcnts givc(s) sulncicnt inlormation to solvc thc
problcm, sclcct thc answcr corrcsponding to thc dcscription ol which statcmcnt(s) givc(s)
sulncicnt inlormation to solvc thc problcm.
3. 1udge the statements in tandem i! neither statement is su!cient by itseI!.
!t is possiblc that thc two statcmcnts togcthcr do not providc sulncicnt inlormation. ncc you
dccidc, sclcct thc answcr corrcsponding to thc dcscription ol whcthcr thc statcmcnts togcthcr givc
sulncicnt inlormation to solvc thc problcm.
4. Ansver the question asked.
For cxamplc, il thc qucstion asks, "Vhat is thc valuc ol y :" lor an answcr statcmcnt to bc
sulncicnt, you must bc ablc to nnd onc and only onc valuc lor y. 8cing ablc to dctcrminc
minimum or maximum valucs lor an answcr (c.g., y  x 2) is not sulncicnt, bccausc such
answcrs constitutc a rangc ol valucs rathcr than thc spccinc valuc ol y.
5. e very care!uI not to make unvarranted assumptions based on the
images represented.
Figurcs arc not ncccssarily drawn to scalc, thcy arc gcncralizcd ngurcs showing littlc morc than
intcrsccting linc scgmcnts and thc rclationships ol points, anglcs, and rcgions. So, lor cxamplc, il a
ngurc dcscribcd as a rcctanglc looks likc a squarc, do not concludc that it is, in lact, a squarc just by
looking at thc ngurc.
269
f statement 1 is sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc A or D.
f statement 2 is not sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc A.
f statement 2 is sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc D.
f statement 1 is not sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc B, C, or E.
f statement 2 is sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc B.
f statement 2 is not sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc C or E.
f both statements together are sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc C.
f both statements together are still not sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc E.
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes No
No
No
No
ls 3tatement 3ulhcent /one'
ls 3tatement Z 3ulhcent /one' ls 3tatement Z 3ulhcent /one'
/re 3tatements & Z
3ulhcent 1oether'
Correct
/nswer
s 0
Correct
/nswer
s /
Correct
/nswer
s B
Correct
/nswer
s C
Correct
/nswer
s L
6.1 Data 5u!ciency TestTaking 5trategies
270
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
6.2 The Directions
csc dircctions arc similar to thosc you will scc lor data sulncicncy qucstions whcn you takc thc
GMAT tcst. !l you rcad thc dircctions carclully and undcrstand thcm clcarly bclorc going to sit lor
thc tcst, you will not nccd to spcnd much timc rcvicwing thcm whcn you takc thc GMAT tcst.
ach data sulncicncy problcm consists ol a qucstion and two statcmcnts, labclcd (1) and (2), that
givc data. You havc to dccidc whcthcr thc data givcn in thc statcmcnts arc sufcient lor answcring
thc qucstion. Using thc data givcn in thc statcmcnts plus your knowlcdgc ol mathcmatics and
cvcryday lacts (such as thc numbcr ol days in July or thc mcaning ol counterclock.ise), you must
indicatc whcthcr thc data givcn in thc statcmcnts arc sulncicnt lor answcring thc qucstions and thcn
indicatc onc ol thc lollowing answcr choiccs:
(A) Statcmcnt (1) ALN is sulncicnt, but statcmcnt (2) alonc is not sulncicnt to answcr
thc qucstion askcd,
(8) Statcmcnt (2) ALN is sulncicnt, but statcmcnt (1) alonc is not sulncicnt to answcr
thc qucstion askcd,
(C) 8TH statcmcnts (1) and (2) TGTHR arc sulncicnt to answcr thc qucstion
askcd, but N!THR statcmcnt ALN is sulncicnt,
() ACH statcmcnt ALN is sulncicnt to answcr thc qucstion askcd,
() Statcmcnts (1) and (2) TGTHR arc NT sulncicnt to answcr thc qucstion
askcd, and additional data arc nccdcd.
NT: !n data sulncicncy problcms that ask lor thc valuc ol a quantity, thc data givcn in thc
statcmcnts arc sulncicnt only whcn it is possiblc to dctcrminc cxactly onc numcrical valuc lor
thc quantity.
Numbers All numbcrs uscd arc rcal numbcrs.
Iigures A ngurc accompanying a data sulncicncy problcm will conlorm to thc inlormation givcn
in thc qucstion but will not ncccssarily conlorm to thc additional inlormation givcn in statcmcnts
(1) and (2).
Lincs shown as straight can bc assumcd to bc straight and lincs that appcar jaggcd can also bc
assumcd to bc straight.
You may assumc that thc positions ol points, anglcs, rcgions, and so lorth cxist in thc ordcr shown
and that anglc mcasurcs arc grcatcr than zcro dcgrccs.
All ngurcs lic in a planc unlcss othcrwisc indicatcd.
271
To register !or the GMAT test go to vvv.mba.com
6.2 Data 5u!ciency The Directions
272
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
6.3 5ampIe uestions
Each data su!ciency probIem consists o! a question and tvo statements, IabeIed (1) and (2), vhich
contain certain data. Using these data and your knovIedge o! mathematics and everyday !acts (such as
the number o! days in 1uIy or the meaning o! the vord counterclockwise), decide vhether the data
given are su!cient !or ansvering the question and then indicate one o! the !oIIoving ansver choices.
A 5tatement (1) ALONE is su!cient, but statement (2) aIone is not su!cient.
5tatement (2) ALONE is su!cient, but statement (1) aIone is not su!cient.
C OTH statements TOGETHE are su!cient, but NEITHE statement ALONE is su!cient.
D EACH statement ALONE is su!cient.
E 5tatements (1) and (2) TOGETHE are not su!cient.
Note. In data su!ciency probIems that ask !or the vaIue o! a quantity, the data given in the statements
are su!cient onIy vhen it is possibIe to determine exactIy one numericaI vaIue !or quantity.
ExampIe.
x
P
Q F
ln lR, what s the vaue ol x '
 l = lR
Z y = 4C
ExpIanation. According to statement (1) PQ = PR, there!ore, PQR is isosceIes and y = z. 5ince x + y + z =
180, it !oIIovs that x + 2y = 180. 5ince statement (1) does not give a vaIue !or y, you cannot ansver the
question using statement (1) aIone. According to statement (2), y = 40, there!ore, x + z = 140. 5ince
statement (2) does not give a vaIue !or z, you cannot ansver the question using statement (2) aIone.
Using both statements together, since x + 2y = 180 and the vaIue o! y is given, you can nd the vaIue
o! x. There!ore, OTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHE are su!cient to ansver the questions, but
NEITHE statement ALONE is su!cient.
Numbers. AII numbers used are reaI numbers.
figures.
figures con!orm to the in!ormation given in the question, but viII not necessariIy con!orm to the
additionaI in!ormation given in statements (1) and (2).
Lines shovn as straight are straight, and Iines that appear jagged are aIso straight.
The positions o! points, angIes, regions, etc., exist in the order shovn, and angIe measures are
greater than zero.
AII gures Iie in a pIane unIess othervise indicated.
273
6.3 Data 5u!ciency 5ampIe uestions
. what s the vaue ol [x[ '
 x = [x[
Z x
Z
= 4
Z. what percent ol a roup ol peope are women wth
red har'
 0l the women n the roup, o percent have
red har.
Z 0l the men n the roup, C percent have
red har.
3. ln a certan cass, one student s to be seected at
random to read. what s the probabty that a boy
w read'
 1wothrds ol the students n the cass are boys.
Z 1en ol the students n the cass are rs.
4. ln Coee / the number ol students enroed n both a
chemstry course and a booy course s how much
ess than the number ol students enroed n nether'
 ln Coee / there are bC students enroed n a
chemstry course.
Z ln Coee / there are o students enroed n a
booy course.
o. / certan expressway has Lxts J, b, l, and l, n that
order. what s the road dstance lrom Lxt b to Lxt l '
 1he road dstance lrom Lxt J to Lxt l s
Z kometers.
Z 1he road dstance lrom Lxt b to Lxt l s
Zb kometers.
b. ll n s an nteer, s n + odd '
 n + Z s an even nteer.
Z n  s an odd nteer.
/. lor whch type ol nvestment, J or b, s the annua rate
ol return reater'
 1ype J returns So per S,CCC nvested lor any
oneyear perod and type b returns S3CC per
SZ,oCC nvested lor any oneyear perod.
Z 1he annua rate ol return lor an nvestment ol
type b s Z percent.
. / ctrus lrut rower receves So lor each crate ol
oranes shpped and S lor each crate ol rapelrut
shpped. How many crates ol oranes dd the rower
shp ast week'
 last week the number ol crates ol oranes that
the rower shpped was ZC more than twce the
number ol crates ol rapelrut shpped.
Z last week the rower receved a tota ol
S3,/CC lrom the crates ol oranes and
rapelrut shpped.
9. ll lat saved SbCC ol hs earnns ast month, how
much dd lat earn ast month'
 lat spent ol hs earnns ast month lor vn
expenses and saved ol the remander.
Z 0l hs earnns ast month, lat pad twce as
much n taxes as he saved.
C. water s pumped nto a partay hed tank at a
constant rate throuh an net ppe. /t the same tme,
water s pumped out ol the tank at a constant rate
throuh an outet ppe. /t what rate, n aons per
mnute, s the amount ol water n the tank ncreasn'
 1he amount ol water ntay n the tank s
ZCC aons.
Z water s pumped nto the tank at a rate ol
C aons per mnute and out ol the tank at a
rate ol C aons every Z
Z
mnutes.
. ls x a neatve number'
 9x > Cx
Z x + 3 s postve.
Z. ll i and j are nteers, s i + j an even nteer'
 i < C
Z i = j
3. 1he chare lor a teephone ca between Cty b and
Cty 3 s SC.4Z lor each ol the hrst 3 mnutes and
SC. lor each addtona mnute. / certan ca
between these two ctes asted lor x mnutes, where
x s an nteer. How many mnutes on was the ca'
 1he chare lor the hrst 3 mnutes ol the ca was
SC.3b ess than the chare lor the remander ol
the ca.
Z 1he tota chare lor the ca was SZ..
274
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
4. ll Car / loowed Car Y across a certan brde that s
Z
me on, how many seconds dd t take Car / to
trave across the brde'
 Car / drove onto the brde exacty 3 seconds
alter Car Y drove onto the brde and drove oll
the brde exacty Z seconds alter Car Y drove
oll the brde.
Z Car Y traveed across the brde at a constant
speed ol 3C mes per hour.
o. ll n + k = m, what s the vaue ol k '
 n = C
Z m + C = n
b. ls x an nteer'

x
Z
s an nteer.
Z Zx s an nteer.
/. ls the nteer l odd'
 1he sum ol l, l + 4, and l + s even.
Z 1he sum ol l  3, l, and l + s odd.
. what s the maxmum number ol rectanuar bocks,
each wth dmensons Z centmeters by b centmeters
by 4 centmeters, that w ht nsde rectanuar Box / '
 when Box / s hed wth the bocks and rests
on a certan sde, there are Zo bocks n the
bottom ayer.
Z 1he nsde dmensons ol Box / are
bC centmeters by 3C centmeters by
ZC centmeters.
9. ll sequence S has ZCC terms, what s the 9Znd term
ol S '
 1he hrst term ol S s 4C.
Z Lach term ol S alter the hrst term s 3 ess than
the precedn term.
ZC. ln lR, l l = x, R = x + Z, and lR = y, whch ol
the three anes ol lR has the reatest deree
measure'
 y = x + 3
Z x = Z
Z. what percent ol the drama cub members enroed at a
certan schoo are lemae students'
 0l the lemae students enroed at the schoo,
4C percent are members ol the drama cub.
Z 0l the mae students enroed at the schoo,
Zo percent are members ol the drama cub.
ZZ. / lamysze box ol cerea contans more cerea and
costs more than the reuarsze box ol cerea. what s
the cost per ounce ol the lamysze box ol cerea'
 1he lamysze box ol cerea contans C ounces
more than the reuarsze box ol cerea.
Z 1he lamysze box ol cerea costs So.4C.
Z3. 1he proht lrom the sae ol a certan appance
ncreases, thouh not proportonay, wth the number
ol unts sod. 0d the proht exceed S4 mon on saes
ol 3C,CCC unts'
 1he proht exceeded SZ mon on saes ol
ZCC,CCC unts.
Z 1he proht exceeded So mon on saes ol
3oC,CCC unts.
Z4. ll n s an nteer, s n even'
 n
Z
 s an odd nteer.
Z 3n + 4 s an even nteer.
Zo. Carmen currenty works 3C hours per week at her
parttme job. ll her ross houry wae were to
ncrease by S.oC, how many lewer hours coud she
work per week and st earn the same ross weeky
pay as belore the ncrease'
 Her ross weeky pay s currenty SZZo.CC.
Z /n ncrease ol S.oC woud represent an ncrease
ol ZC percent ol her current ross houry wae.
Zb. 1he number n ol unts ol ts product that Company / s
schedued to produce n month t ol ts next hsca year
s ven by the lormua n = , where c s a
constant and t s a postve nteer between and b,
ncusve. what s the number ol unts ol ts product
that Company / s schedued to produce n month b ol
ts next hsca year'
 Company / s schedued to produce C unts ol
ts product n month ol ts next hsca year.
Z Company / s schedued to produce 3CC unts ol
ts product n month Z ol ts next hsca year.
275
6.3 Data 5u!ciency 5ampIe uestions
Z/. when ZCC aons ol o were removed lrom a tank,
the voume ol o elt n the tank was
ol the tank's
capacty. what was the tank's capacty'
 Belore the ZCC aons were removed, the
voume ol o n the tank was
Z
ol the tank's
capacty.
Z /lter the ZCC aons were removed, the voume
ol the o elt n the tank was ,bCC aons ess
than the tank's capacty.
Z. 0vson b ol Company has ,CCC empoyees. what
s the averae arthmetc mean annua saary ol the
empoyees at Company '
 1he averae annua saary ol the empoyees n
0vson b s S3C,CCC.
Z 1he averae annua saary ol the empoyees
at Company who are not n 0vson b s
S3o,CCC.
x mctcrs
Z9. / crcuar tub has a band panted around ts
crcumlerence, as shown above. what s the surlace
area ol ths panted band'
 x = C.o
Z 1he heht ol the tub s meter.
3C. what s the vaue ol nteer n '
 n  n + = b
Z Z
Zn
= b
d = C.43t
/
3. ll t denotes the thousandths dt n the decma
representaton ol d above, what dt s t '
 ll d were rounded to the nearest hundredth,
the resut woud be C.44.
Z ll d were rounded to the nearest thousandth,
the resut woud be C.43b.
3Z. Jerry bouht / cothn tems, ncudn a coat, and
the sum ol the prces ol these tems was S3bo. ll
there was no saes tax on any cothn tem wth a
prce ol ess than SCC and a / percent saes tax on
a other cothn tems, what was the tota saes tax
on the / tems that Jerry bouht'
 1he prce ol the coat was SZo.
Z 1he averae arthmetc mean prce lor the
b tems other than the coat was S4C.
33. what was the prce at whch a merchant sod a certan
appance'
 1he merchant's ross proht on the appance
was ZC percent ol the prce at whch the
merchant sod the appance.
Z 1he prce at whch the merchant sod the
appance was SoC more than the merchant's
cost ol the appance.
34. 1he nsde ol a rectanuar carton s 4 centmeters
on, 3Z centmeters wde, and o centmeters hh.
1he carton s hed to capacty wth k dentca
cyndrca cans ol lrut that stand uprht n rows and
coumns, as ndcated n the hure above. ll the cans
are o centmeters hh, what s the vaue ol k '
 Lach ol the cans has a radus ol 4 centmeters.
Z 3x ol the cans ht exacty aon the enth ol
the carton.
x z
y x
z t
4
3o. lor the system ol equatons ven, what s the vaue
ol z '
 x = /
Z t = o
276
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
3b. lor a nteers n, the luncton s dehned by n = a
n
,
where a s a constant. what s the vaue ol  '
 Z = CC
Z 3 = ,CCC
3/. 1he sen prce ol an artce s equa to the cost ol
the artce pus the markup. 1he markup on a certan
teevson set s what percent ol the sen prce'
 1he markup on the teevson set s Zo percent
ol the cost.
Z 1he sen prce ol the teevson set s SZoC.
3. ll p
and p
Z
are the popuatons and r
and r
Z
are the
numbers ol representatves ol 0strct and 0strct Z,
respectvey, the rato ol the popuaton to the number
ol representatves s reater lor whch ol the two
dstrcts'
 p
> p
Z
Z r
Z
> r
39. ln a random sampe ol C aduts, how many are
coee raduates'
 ln the sampe, the number ol aduts who are not
coee raduates s 3 tmes the number who
are coee raduates.
Z ln the sampe, the number ol aduts who are not
coee raduates s 4C more than the number
who are coee raduates.
F S T U
F 0 y x 62
S y 0 56 75
T x 56 0 69
U 62 75 69 0
4C. 1he tabe above shows the dstance, n kometers,
by the most drect route, between any two ol the lour
ctes, b, 3, 1, and 0. lor exampe, the dstance
between Cty b and Cty 0 s bZ kometers. what s
the vaue ol x '
 By the most drect route, the dstance between
3 and 1 s twce the dstance between 3 and b.
Z By the most drect route, the dstance between
1 and 0 s .o tmes the dstance between b
and 1.
4. what s the vaue ol the twodt nteer x '
 1he sum ol the two dts s 3.
Z x s dvsbe by 3.
r
t
4Z. 1he hure above shows the crcuar cross secton ol a
concrete water ppe. ll the nsde radus ol the ppe s
r leet and the outsde radus ol the ppe s t leet, what
s the vaue ol r '
 1he rato ol t  r to r s C.o and t  r s equa to
C.3 loot.
Z 1he area ol the concrete n the cross secton s
43. what s the tenths dt n the decma representaton
ol a certan number'
 1he number s ess than
3
.
Z 1he number s reater than
4
.
44. bobots /, Y, and Z each assembe components at ther
respectve constant rates. ll r
x
s the rato ol bobot /'s
constant rate to bobot Z's constant rate and r
y
s the
rato ol bobot Y's constant rate to bobot Z's constant
rate, s bobot Z's constant rate the reatest ol the
three'
 r
x
< r
y
Z r
y
<
4o. ll r s a constant and a
n
= rn lor a postve nteers n,
lor how many vaues ol n s a
n
< CC '
 a
oC
= oCC
Z a
CC
+ a
Co
= Z,CoC
277
6.3 Data 5u!ciency 5ampIe uestions
4b. ll r s represented by the decma C.to, what s the
dt t '
 r <
Z r <
4/. ll the two Noors n a certan budn are 9 leet apart,
how many steps are there n a set ol stars that
extends lrom the hrst Noor to the second Noor ol
the budn'
 Lach step s
3
4
loot hh.
Z Lach step s loot wde.
4. ln June 99, what was the rato ol the number ol
saes transactons made by 3aesperson / to the
number ol saes transactons made by 3aesperson Y '
 ln June 99, 3aesperson / made oC percent
more saes transactons than 3aesperson Y dd
n lay 99.
Z ln June 99, 3aesperson Y made Zo percent
more saes transactons than n lay 99.
49. ll a < x < b and c < y < d, s x < y '
 a < c
Z b < c
oC. How many peope are drectors ol both Company b
and Company b '
 1here were / drectors present at a jont
meetn ol the drectors ol Company b and
Company b, and no drectors were absent.
Z Company b has Z drectors and Company b
has drectors.
o. ll x and y are postve, s
x
y
reater than '
 xy >
Z x  y > C
oZ. / cothn store acqured an tem at a cost ol x doars
and sod the tem lor y doars. 1he store's ross proht
lrom the tem was what percent ol ts cost lor the
tem'
 y  x = ZC
Z
n  x + n  y + n  z + n  k
o3. what s the vaue ol the expresson above'
 1he averae arthmetc mean ol x, y, z, and k
s n.
Z x, y, z, and k are consecutve nteers.
o4. / tax company chares cents lor the hrst me ol the
tax rde and m cents lor each addtona me. How
much does the company chare lor a Cme tax rde'
 1he company chares SC.9C lor a Zme rde.
Z 1he company chares S.ZC lor a 4me rde.
oo. 0uy's net ncome equas hs ross ncome mnus hs
deductons. By what percent dd 0uy's net ncome
chane on January , 99, when both hs ross
ncome and hs deductons ncreased'
 0uy's ross ncome ncreased by 4 percent on
January , 99.
Z 0uy's deductons ncreased by o percent on
January , 99.
x
y
z
ob. what s the vaue ol z n the trane above'
 x + y = 39
Z y + z = C
o/. lax has SZo consstn ol bs each worth ether So
or SZC. How many bs worth So does lax have'
 lax has lewer than o bs worth So each.
Z lax has more than o bs worth SZC each.
o. ll the rato ol the number ol teachers to the number ol
students s the same n 3choo 0strct l and 3choo
0strct l, what s the rato ol the number ol students
n 3choo 0strct l to the number ol students n
3choo 0strct l '
 1here are C,CCC more students n 3choo
0strct l than there are n 3choo 0strct l.
Z 1he rato ol the number ol teachers to the
number ol students n 3choo 0strct l s
to ZC.
278
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
o9. ll a tota ol 4 students are enroed n two sectons ol
a cacuus course, how many ol the 4 students are
lemae'

Z
3
ol the students n 3ecton are lemae.
Z
Z
ol the students n 3ecton Z are mae.
bC. what s the vaue ol n n the equaton Zo + 9 + n = s '
 s = Z
Z
n
s
= 4
b. /t a certan pcnc, each ol the uests was served
ether a sne scoop or a doube scoop ol ce cream.
How many ol the uests were served a doube scoop
ol ce cream'
 /t the pcnc, bC percent ol the uests were
served a doube scoop ol ce cream.
Z / tota ol ZC scoops ol ce cream were served
to a the uests at the pcnc.
bZ. lor a conventon, a hote chares a day room rate ol
SZC lor person and x doars lor each addtona
person. what s the chare lor each addtona person'
 1he day cost per person lor 4 peope sharn
the cost ol a room equay s S4o.
Z 1he day cost per person lor Z peope sharn
the cost ol a room equay s SZo more than the
correspondn cost lor 4 peope.
b3. 3tores l and l each se a certan product at a
dllerent reuar prce. ll both stores dscount ther
reuar prce ol the product, s the dscount prce at
3tore l ess than the dscount prce at 3tore l '
 /t 3tore l the dscount prce s C percent ess
than the reuar prce; at 3tore l the dscount
prce s o percent ess than the reuar prce.
Z /t 3tore l the dscount prce s So ess than the
reuar store prce; at 3tore l the dscount
prce s Sb ess than the reuar prce.
b4. ll d denotes a decma, s d C.o '
 when d s rounded to the nearest tenth, the
resut s C.o.
Z when d s rounded to the nearest nteer,
the resut s .
bo. How many nteers are there between, but not
ncudn, nteers r and s '
 s  r = C
Z 1here are 9 nteers between, but not ncudn,
r + and s + .
bb. ll n and t are postve nteers, s n a lactor ol t '
 n = 3
n  Z
Z t = 3
n
b/. ln a survey ol ZCC coee raduates, 3C percent sad
they had receved student oans durn ther coee
careers, and 4C percent sad they had receved
schoarshps. what percent ol those surveyed sad
that they had receved nether student oans nor
schoarshps durn ther coee careers'
 Zo percent ol those surveyed sad that they had
receved schoarshps but no oans.
Z oC percent ol those surveyed who sad that they
had receved oans aso sad that they had
receved schoarshps.
b. 1hree machnes, b, l, and l, workn smutaneousy
and ndependenty at ther respectve constant rates,
can compete a certan task n Z4 mnutes. How on
does t take lachne b, workn aone at ts constant
rate, to compete the task'
 lachnes l and l, workn smutaneousy and
ndependenty at ther respectve constant rates,
can compete the task n 3b mnutes.
Z lachnes b and l, workn smutaneousy and
ndependenty at ther respectve constant rates,
can compete the task n 4 mnutes.
q r s t
b9. 0l the lour numbers represented on the number ne
above, s r cosest to zero'
 q = s
Z t < q
279
6.3 Data 5u!ciency 5ampIe uestions
/C. lary persuaded n lrends to donate SoCC each to her
eecton campan, and then each ol these n lrends
persuaded n more peope to donate SoCC each to
lary's campan. ll no one donated more than once
and l there were no other donatons, what was the
vaue ol n '
 1he hrst n peope donated
b
ol the tota
amount donated.
Z 1he tota amount donated was SZC,CCC.
/. Carotta can drve lrom her home to her olhce by
one ol two possbe routes. ll she must aso return
by one ol these routes, what s the dstance ol the
shorter route'
 when she drves lrom her home to her olhce
by the shorter route and returns by the oner
route, she drves a tota ol 4Z kometers.
Z when she drves both ways, lrom her home to
her olhce and back, by the oner route, she
drves a tota ol 4b kometers.
/Z. ls x > y '
 x = y + Z
Z
x
Z
= y 
/3. ll m s an nteer, s m odd'

m
Z
s not an even nteer.
Z m  3 s an even nteer.
D
C
B
x
/4. what s the area ol tranuar reon A L above'
 1he product ol 0 and AL s ZC.
Z x = 4o
/o. ln the xypane, the ne wth equaton ax + by + c = C,
where abc
Z
3
. what s the vaue ol b '
 a = 4
Z c = b
/b. ll m, p, and t are postve nteers and m < p < t, s
the product mpt an even nteer'
 t  p = p  m
Z t  m = b
//. Lach week a certan saesman s pad a hxed amount
equa to S3CC, pus a commsson equa to o percent
ol the amount ol hs saes that week over S,CCC.
what s the tota amount the saesman was pad ast
week'
 1he tota amount the saesman was pad ast
week s equa to C percent ol the amount ol hs
saes ast week.
Z 1he saesman's saes ast week totaed So,CCC.
/. / tota ol SbC,CCC was nvested lor one year. lart ol
ths amount earned smpe annua nterest at the rate
ol x percent per year, and the rest earned smpe
annua nterest at the rate ol y percent per year. ll the
tota nterest earned by the SbC,CCC lor that year was
S4,CC, what s the vaue ol x '
 x =
3y
4
Z 1he rato ol the amount that earned nterest at
the rate ol x percent per year to the amount that
earned nterest at the rate ol y percent per year
was 3 to Z.
/9. leo can buy a certan computer lor p
doars n 3tate
/, where the saes tax s t
percent, or he can buy the
same computer lor p
Z
doars n 3tate B, where the
saes tax s t
Z
percent. ls the tota cost ol the
computer reater n 3tate / than n 3tate B '
 t
> t
Z
Z p
> p
Z
t
Z
C. ll r > C and s > C, s
r
s
<
s
r
'

r
s 3
=
4
Z s = r + 4
k, n, Z, b, /
. what s the vaue ol n n the st above'
 k < n
Z 1he medan ol the numbers n the st s C.
280
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Z. ll postve nteer x s a mutpe ol b and postve
nteer y s a mutpe ol 4, s xy a mutpe ol Co '
 x s a mutpe ol 9.
Z y s a mutpe ol Zo.
3. what s the vaue ol b + c '
 ab + cd + ac + bd = b
Z a + d = 4
4. what s the averae arthmetc mean ol j and k '
 1he averae arthmetc mean ol j + Z and k + 4
s .
Z 1he averae arthmetc mean ol j, k, and 4
s C.
o. laua and 3andy were amon those peope who sod
ralNe tckets to rase money lor Cub /. ll laua and
3andy sod a tota ol CC ol the tckets, how many ol
the tckets dd laua se'
 3andy sod
Z
3
as many ol the ralNe tckets
as laua dd.
Z 3andy sod percent ol a the ralNe tckets sod
lor Cub /.
b. / number ol peope each wrote down one ol the hrst
3C postve nteers. were any ol the nteers wrtten
down by more than one ol the peope'
 1he number ol peope who wrote down an
nteer was reater than 4C.
Z 1he number ol peope who wrote down an
nteer was ess than /C.
/. ls the number ol seconds requred to trave d
leet at
r
leet per second reater than the number ol seconds
requred to trave d
Z
leet at r
Z
leet per second'
 d
s 3C reater than d
Z
.
Z r
s 3C reater than r
Z
.
. last year, l /rturo spent a tota ol SZ,CCC on hs
mortae payments, rea estate taxes, and home
nsurance, how much dd he spend on hs rea estate
taxes'
 last year, the tota amount that /rturo spent on
hs rea estate taxes and home nsurance was
33 percent ol the amount that he spent on hs
mortae payments.
Z last year, the amount that /rturo spent on hs
rea estate taxes was ZC percent ol the tota
amount he spent on hs mortae payments and
home nsurance.
9. ls the number ol members ol Cub / reater than the
number ol members ol Cub Y '
 0l the members ol Cub /, ZC percent are aso
members ol Cub Y.
Z 0l the members ol Cub Y, 3C percent are aso
members ol Cub /.
9C. ll k, m, and t are postve nteers and
k
b
m t
4 Z
,
do t and Z have a common lactor reater than '
 k s a mutpe ol 3.
Z m s a mutpe ol 3.
B C
D
9. ln the hure above, s L0 > L '
 A0 = ZC
Z A = L0
9Z. ln a certan olhce, oC percent ol the empoyees are
coee raduates and bC percent ol the empoyees
are over 4C years od. ll 3C percent ol those over 4C
have master's derees, how many ol the empoyees
over 4C have master's derees'
 Lxacty CC ol the empoyees are coee
raduates.
Z 0l the empoyees 4C years od or ess,
Zo percent have master's derees.
q p r s t
93. 0n the number ne above, p, q, r, s, and t are hve
consecutve even nteers n ncreasn order. what s
the averae arthmetc mean ol these hve nteers'
 q + s = Z4
Z 1he averae arthmetc mean ol q and r s .
281
6.3 Data 5u!ciency 5ampIe uestions
94. ll ne k n the xypane has equaton y = mx + b, where
m and b are constants, what s the sope ol k '
 k s parae to the ne wth equaton
y =   mx + b + .
Z k ntersects the ne wth equaton y = Zx + 3 at
the pont Z,/.
9o. ls rst = '
 rs =
Z st =
TTAL XPNSS FR TH
F!\ !\!S!NS F CMPANY H
Q
F
P
T
S
O
x
9b. 1he hure above represents a crce raph ol
Company H's tota expenses broken down by the
expenses lor each ol ts hve dvsons. ll U s the
center ol the crce and l Company H's tota expenses
are So,4CC,CCC, what are the expenses lor 0vson b '
 x = 94
Z 1he tota expenses lor 0vsons 3 and 1 are
twce as much as the expenses lor 0vson b.
9/. ll x s neatve, s x < 3 '
 x
Z
> 9
Z x
3
< 9
9. 3even dllerent numbers are seected lrom the
nteers to CC, and each number s dvded by /.
what s the sum ol the remanders'
 1he rane ol the seven remanders s b.
Z 1he seven numbers seected are consecutve
nteers.
r s t
u v w
x y z
99. Lach ol the etters n the tabe above represents one
ol the numbers , Z, or 3, and each ol these numbers
occurs exacty once n each row and exacty once n
each coumn. what s the vaue ol r '
 v + z = b
Z s + t + u + x = b
CC. ll x} denotes the reatest nteer ess than or equa to
x, s x} = C '
 ox + = 3 + Zx
Z C < x <
C. latera / costs S3 per koram, and latera B
costs So per koram. ll C korams ol latera b
conssts ol x korams ol latera / and y korams
ol latera B, s x > y '
 y > 4
Z 1he cost ol the C korams ol latera b s
ess than S4C.
CZ. whe on a straht road, Car / and Car Y are traven
at dllerent constant rates. ll Car / s now me
ahead ol Car Y, how many mnutes lrom now w
Car / be Z mes ahead ol Car Y '
 Car / s traven at oC mes per hour and Car Y
s traven at 4C mes per hour.
Z 1hree mnutes ao Car / was
Z
me ahead ol
Car Y.
C3. ll a certan anmated cartoon conssts ol a tota ol
/,ZC lrames on hm, how many mnutes w t take
to run the cartoon'
 1he cartoon runs wthout nterrupton at the rate
ol Z4 lrames per second.
Z lt takes b tmes as on to run the cartoon as t
takes to rewnd the hm, and t takes a tota ol
4 mnutes to do both.
282
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
C4. /t what speed was a tran traven on a trp when t
had competed hal ol the tota dstance ol the trp'
 1he trp was 4bC mes on and took 4 hours to
compete.
Z 1he tran traveed at an averae rate ol
o mes per hour on the trp.
Co. 1om, Jane, and 3ue each purchased a new house. 1he
averae arthmetc mean prce ol the three houses
was SZC,CCC. what was the medan prce ol the
three houses'
 1he prce ol 1om's house was SC,CCC.
Z 1he prce ol Jane's house was SZC,CCC.
Cb. ll x and y are nteers, s xy even'
 x = y +
Z
x
y
s an even nteer.
C/. / box contans ony red chps, whte chps, and bue
chps. ll a chp s randomy seected lrom the box,
what s the probabty that the chp w be ether
whte or bue'
 1he probabty that the chp w be bue s
o
.
Z 1he probabty that the chp w be red s
3
.
x y
0
C. ll the successve tck marks shown on the number
ne above are equay spaced and l x and y are the
numbers desnatn the end ponts ol ntervas as
shown, what s the vaue ol y '
 x =
Z
Z y  x =
Z
3
C9. ln trane AL, pont X s the mdpont ol sde AL and
pont Y s the mdpont ol sde L. ll pont R s the
mdpont ol ne sement XL and l pont S s the
mdpont ol ne sement YL, what s the area ol
tranuar reon RLS '
 1he area ol tranuar reon AX s 3Z.
Z 1he enth ol one ol the attudes ol trane AL
s .
C. 1he product ol the unts dt, the tens dt, and the
hundreds dt ol the postve nteer m s 9b. what s
the unts dt ol m '
 m s odd.
Z 1he hundreds dt ol m s .
. / department manaer dstrbuted a number ol pens,
pencs, and pads amon the stall n the department,
wth each stall member recevn x pens, y pencs,
and z pads. How many stall members were n the
department'
 1he numbers ol pens, pencs, and pads that
each stall member receved were n the rato
Z:3:4, respectvey.
Z 1he manaer dstrbuted a tota ol pens,
Z/ pencs, and 3b pads.
Z. lachnes / and Y produced dentca bottes at
dllerent constant rates. lachne /, operatn aone lor
4 hours, hed part ol a producton ot; then lachne Y,
operatn aone lor 3 hours, hed the rest ol ths ot.
How many hours woud t have taken lachne /
operatn aone to h the entre producton ot'
 lachne / produced 3C bottes per mnute.
Z lachne / produced twce as many bottes n
4 hours as lachne Y produced n 3 hours.
3. 0n a companysponsored cruse,
Z
3
ol the
passeners were company empoyees and the
remann passeners were ther uests. ll
3
4
ol the
companyempoyee passeners were manaers, what
was the number ol companyempoyee passeners
who were N01 manaers'
 1here were b9C passeners on the cruse.
Z 1here were Z3C passeners who were uests ol
the company empoyees.
283
6.3 Data 5u!ciency 5ampIe uestions
4. 1he enth ol the edn that surrounds crcuar
arden r s
Z
the enth ol the edn that surrounds
crcuar arden U. what s the area ol arden r '
/ssume that the edn has nebe wdth.
 1he area ol U s Zo square meters.
Z 1he edn around U s C meters on.
o. lor any nteers x and y, mnx, y and maxx, y denote
the mnmum and the maxmum ol x and y, respectvey.
lor exampe, mno, Z = Z and maxo, Z = o. lor the
nteer w, what s the vaue ol mnC, w '
 w = maxZC, z lor some nteer z.
Z w = maxC, w
b. 0urn a bday oca trade show, the east number ol
peope restered n a sne day was C. was the
averae arthmetc mean number ol peope
restered per day lor the b days reater than 9C '
 lor the 4 days wth the reatest number ol
peope restered, the averae arthmetc mean
number restered per day was CC.
Z lor the 3 days wth the smaest number ol
peope restered, the averae arthmetc mean
number restered per day was o.
A
L 0
L
/. ln the hure above, ponts A, , L, 0, and L e on a
ne. A s on both crces, s the center ol the smaer
crce, L s the center ol the arer crce, 0 s on the
smaer crce, and L s on the arer crce. what s the
area ol the reon nsde the arer crce and outsde
the smaer crce'
 A = 3 and L = Z
Z L0 = and 0L = 4
. /n empoyee s pad .o tmes the reuar houry rate
lor each hour worked n excess ol 4C hours per week,
excudn 3unday, and Z tmes the reuar houry rate
lor each hour worked on 3unday. How much was the
empoyee pad ast week'
 1he empoyee's reuar houry rate s SC.
Z last week the empoyee worked a tota ol
o4 hours but dd not work more than hours
on any day.
9. what was the revenue that a theater receved lrom the
sae ol 4CC tckets, some ol whch were sod at the
lu prce and the remander ol whch were sod at a
reduced prce'
 1he number ol tckets sod at the lu prce
was
4
ol the tota number ol tckets sod.
Z 1he lu prce ol a tcket was SZo.
ZC. 1he annua rent coected by a corporaton lrom a
certan budn was x percent more n 99 than n
99/ and y percent ess n 999 than n 99. was
the annua rent coected by the corporaton lrom the
budn more n 999 than n 99/ '
 x > y
Z
xy
CC
< x  y
Z. ln the xypane, reon R conssts ol a the ponts x,y
such that Zx + 3y r,s n reon R '
 3r + Zs = b
Z r s
ZZ. what s the voume ol a certan rectanuar sod'
 1wo adjacent laces ol the sod have areas o
and Z4, respectvey.
Z Lach ol two opposte laces ol the sod has
area 4C.
Z3. Joanna bouht ony SC.o stamps and SC.Z9 stamps.
How many SC.o stamps dd she buy'
 3he bouht S4.4C worth ol stamps.
Z 3he bouht an equa number ol SC.o stamps
and SC.Z9 stamps.
284
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
lavorabe 0nlavorabe Not 3ure
Canddate l 4C ZC 4C
Canddate N 3C 3o 3o
Z4. 1he tabe above shows the resuts ol a survey ol
CC voters who each responded "lavorabe' or
"0nlavorabe' or "Not 3ure' when asked about ther
mpressons ol Canddate l and ol Canddate N. what
was the number ol voters who responded "lavorabe'
lor both canddates'
 1he number ol voters who dd not respond
"lavorabe' lor ether canddate was 4C.
Z 1he number ol voters who responded
"0nlavorabe' lor both canddates was C.
Zo. ll represents one ol the operatons +, , and ,
s k  + m = k + k m lor a numbers k, ,
and m '
 k s not equa to k lor some numbers k.
Z represents subtracton.
Zb. How many ol the bC cars sod ast month by a certan
deaer had nether power wndows nor a stereo'
 0l the bC cars sod, ZC had a stereo but not
power wndows.
Z 0l the bC cars sod, 3C had both power wndows
and a stereo.
Z/. ln Jellerson 3choo, 3CC students study lrench or
3pansh or both. ll CC ol these students do not study
lrench, how many ol these students study both lrench
and 3pansh'
 0l the 3CC students, bC do not study 3pansh.
Z / tota ol Z4C ol the students study 3pansh.
Z. / schoo admnstrator w assn each student n
a roup ol n students to one ol m cassrooms. ll
3 < m < 3 < n, s t possbe to assn each ol the
n students to one ol the m cassrooms so that each
cassroom has the same number ol students assned
to t'
 lt s possbe to assn each ol 3n students to
one ol m cassrooms so that each cassroom
has the same number ol students assned to t.
Z lt s possbe to assn each ol 3n students to
one ol m cassrooms so that each cassroom
has the same number ol students assned to t.
Z9. what s the medan number ol empoyees assned
per project lor the projects at Company Z '
 Zo percent ol the projects at Company Z have 4
or more empoyees assned to each project.
Z 3o percent ol the projects at Company Z have Z
or lewer empoyees assned to each project.
3C. ll Juan had a doctor's appontment on a certan day,
was the appontment on a wednesday'
 Lxacty bC hours belore the appontment,
t was londay.
Z 1he appontment was between :CC p.m.
and 9:CC p.m.
3. when a payer n a certan ame tossed a con a
number ol tmes, 4 more heads than tas resuted.
Heads or tas resuted each tme the payer tossed the
con. How many tmes dd heads resut'
 1he payer tossed the con Z4 tmes.
Z 1he payer receved 3 ponts each tme heads
resuted and pont each tme tas resuted, lor
a tota ol oZ ponts.
3Z. what s the vaue ol x + y n the hure above'
 w = 9o
Z z = Zo
33. /re a ol the numbers n a certan st ol o numbers
equa'
 1he sum ol a the numbers n the st s bC.
Z 1he sum ol any 3 numbers n the st s Z.
34. / scentst recorded the number ol es n each ol
C brds' nests. what was the standard devaton ol
the numbers ol es n the C nests'
 1he averae arthmetc mean number ol es
lor the C nests was 4.
Z Lach ol the C nests contaned the same
number ol es.
285
6.3 Data 5u!ciency 5ampIe uestions
F
!
U
T S
60 m
15 m
45 m
3o. uadratera RS!U shown above s a ste pan lor a
parkn ot n whch sde RU s parae to sde S!
and RU s oner than S!. what s the area ol the
parkn ot'
 RU = C meters
Z !U = ZC C meters
3b. ll the averae arthmetc mean ol sx numbers s /o,
how many ol the numbers are equa to /o '
 None ol the sx numbers s ess than /o.
Z None ol the sx numbers s reater than /o.
3/. /t a bakery, a donuts are prced equay and a
baes are prced equay. what s the tota prce ol
o donuts and 3 baes at the bakery'
 /t the bakery, the tota prce ol C donuts and
b baes s SZ.9C.
Z /t the bakery, the prce ol a donut s SC.o ess
than the prce ol a bae.
3. what was the tota amount ol revenue that a theater
receved lrom the sae ol 4CC tckets, some ol whch
were sod at x percent ol lu prce and the rest ol
whch were sod at lu prce'
 x = oC
Z luprce tckets sod lor SZC each.
39. /ny decma that has ony a hnte number ol nonzero
dts s a termnatn decma. lor exampe, Z4, C.Z,
and o.C9b are three termnatn decmas. ll r and s
are postve nteers and the rato
r
s
s expressed
as a decma, s
r
s
a termnatn decma '
 9C < r < CC
Z s = 4
B
C
D
x
y
4C. ln the hure above, what s the vaue ol x + y '
 x = /C
Z AL and A0L are both soscees tranes.
4. Commttee / and Commttee Y, whch have no
common members, w combne to lorm Commttee Z.
0oes Commttee / have more members than
Commttee Y '
 1he averae arthmetc mean ae ol the
members ol Commttee / s Zo./ years and the
averae ae ol the members ol Commttee Y s
Z9.3 years.
Z 1he averae arthmetc mean ae ol the
members ol Commttee Z w be Zb.b years.
4Z. what amount dd Jean earn lrom the commsson on
her saes n the hrst hal ol 9 '
 ln 9 Jean's commsson was o percent ol the
tota amount ol her saes.
Z 1he amount ol Jean's saes n the second hal ol
9 averaed SC,CCC per month more than n
the hrst hal.
43. 1he prce per share ol 3tock / ncreased by
C percent over the same tme perod that the
prce per share ol 3tock Y decreased by C percent.
1he reduced prce per share ol 3tock Y was what
percent ol the orna prce per share ol 3tock / '
 1he ncreased prce per share ol 3tock / was
equa to the orna prce per share ol 3tock Y.
Z 1he ncrease n the prce per share ol 3tock /
was
C
the decrease n the prce per share ol
3tock Y.
286
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
D
B
C
44. ln the hure above, l the area ol tranuar reon 0 s
4, what s the enth ol a sde ol square reon A '
 1he area ol square reon s 9.
Z 1he area ol square reon L s
b4
9
.
4o. ll 3ara's ae s exacty twce B's ae, what s
3ara's ae'
 lour years ao, 3ara's ae was exacty 3 tmes
B's ae.
Z Lht years lrom now, 3ara's ae w be exacty
.o tmes B's ae.
4b. / report consstn ol Z,bCC words s dvded nto
Z3 pararaphs. / Zpararaph prelace s then added
to the report. ls the averae arthmetc mean number
ol words per pararaph lor a Zo pararaphs ess
than ZC '
 Lach pararaph ol the prelace has more than
CC words.
Z Lach pararaph ol the prelace has lewer than
oC words.
4/. / certan bookcase has Z sheves ol books. 0n the
upper shel, the book wth the reatest number ol
paes has 4CC paes. 0n the ower shel, the book
wth the east number ol paes has 4/o paes. what
s the medan number ol paes lor a ol the books on
the Z sheves'
 1here are Zo books on the upper shel.
Z 1here are Z4 books on the ower shel.
x + bC
3x
x
x
4. 1he hure above shows the number ol meters n the
enths ol the lour sdes ol a jon path. what s the
tota dstance around the path'
 0ne ol the sdes ol the path s ZC meters on.
Z 0ne ol the sdes ol the path s twce as on as
each ol the two shortest sdes.
y
x
Q
P
O
49. ln the rectanuar coordnate system above, l
Ul < l, s the area ol reon Ul reater than 4 '
 1he coordnates ol pont l are b,.
Z 1he coordnates ol pont are 3,C.
S
n
x x
Z
Z
3
oC. ln the expresson above, l xn
ol S '
 x = Zn
Z n =
Z
o. ll n s a postve nteer and k = o. C
n
, what s the
vaue ol k '
 b,CCC < k < oCC,CCC
Z k
Z
= Z.bC C
9
287
6.3 Data 5u!ciency 5ampIe uestions
oZ. ll Carmen had Z more tapes, she woud have twce
as many tapes as balae. 0oes Carmen have lewer
tapes than balae'
 balae has more than o tapes.
Z Carmen has lewer than Z tapes.
o3. ll x s an nteer, s x [x[ < Z
x
'
 x < C
Z x = C
o4. ll n s a postve nteer, s the vaue ol b  a at east
twce the vaue ol 3
n
 Z
n
'
 a = Z
n +
and b = 3
n +
Z n = 3
oo. 1he nNaton ndex lor the year 99 reatve to the year
9/C was 3.ob, ndcatn that, on the averae, lor each
doar spent n 9/C lor oods, S3.ob had to be spent
lor the same oods n 99. ll the prce ol a lode b
mxer ncreased precsey accordn to the nNaton
ndex, what was the prce ol the mxer n 9/C '
 1he prce ol the lode b mxer was SCZ.4C
more n 99 than n 9/C.
Z 1he prce ol the lode b mxer was S4Z.4C n
99.
ob. ls o
k
ess than ,CCC '
 o
k +
> 3,CCC
Z o
k 
= o
k
 oCC
o/. 1he hypotenuse ol a rht trane s C cm. what s
the permeter, n centmeters, ol the trane'
 1he area ol the trane s Zo square
centmeters.
Z 1he Z es ol the trane are ol equa enth.
o. Lvery member ol a certan cub vounteers to
contrbute equay to the purchase ol a SbC lt
certhcate. How many members does the cub have'
 Lach member's contrbuton s to be S4.
Z ll o cub members la to contrbute, the share ol
each contrbutn member w ncrease by SZ.
o9. ll x < C, s y > C '

x
y
< C
Z y  x > C
X
Y
Z
O
bC. what s the crcumlerence ol the crce above wth
center U '
 1he permeter ol UXZ s ZC C Z .
Z 1he enth ol arc XYZ s o .
b. Bennn n January ol ast year, Car made deposts
ol SZC nto hs account on the oth ol each month
lor severa consecutve months and then made
wthdrawas ol SoC lrom the account on the oth ol
each ol the remann months ol ast year. 1here were
no other transactons n the account ast year. ll the
cosn baance ol Car's account lor lay ol ast year
was SZ,bCC, what was the rane ol the monthy
cosn baances ol Car's account ast year'
 last year the cosn baance ol Car's account
lor /pr was ess than SZ,bZo.
Z last year the cosn baance ol Car's account
lor June was ess than SZ,b/o.
bZ. ll n and k are postve nteers, s n k > Z n '
 k > 3n
Z n + k > 3n
b3. ln a certan busness, producton ndex p s drecty
proportona to elhcency ndex e, whch s n turn
drecty proportona to nvestment ndex i. what s p l
i = /C '
 e = C.o whenever i = bC.
Z p = Z.C whenever i = oC.
288
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
b4. ln the rectanuar coordnate system, are the ponts
r,s and u,v equdstant lrom the orn'
 r + s =
Z u =  r and v =  s
bo. ll x s an nteer, s 9
x
+ 9
x
= b '
 3
x
+ 3
x
= b Z
Z x > C
bb. ll n s a postve nteer, s
 n > Z
Z
b/. ll n s a postve nteer, what s the tens dt ol n '
 1he hundreds dt ol Cn s b.
Z 1he tens dt ol n + s /.
b. what s the vaue ol
Zt t x
t x
'

Zt
t x
= 3
Z t  x = o
b9. ls n an nteer'
 n
Z
s an nteer.
Z n s an nteer.
/C. ll n s a postve nteer, s n
3
 n dvsbe by 4 '
 n = Zk + , where k s an nteer.
Z n
Z
+ n s dvsbe by b.
/. what s the tens dt ol postve nteer x '
 x dvded by CC has a remander ol 3C.
Z x dvded by C has a remander ol 3C.
/Z. ll x, y, and z are postve nteers, s x  y odd'
 x = z
Z
Z y = z 
Z
a b
P
F
Q
2
/3. ll arc lR above s a semcrce, what s the enth ol
dameter lR '
 a = 4
Z b =
/4. larca's bucket can hod a maxmum ol how many
ters ol water'
 1he bucket currenty contans 9 ters ol water.
Z ll 3 ters ol water are added to the bucket when
t s hal lu ol water, the amount ol water n the
bucket w ncrease by
3
.
289
6.4 Data 5u!ciency Ansver Key
. B
Z. L
3. /
4. L
o. L
b. 0
/. /
. C
9. /
C. B
. /
Z. B
3. 0
4. C
o. B
b. /
/. 0
. B
9. C
ZC. /
Z. L
ZZ. L
Z3. B
Z4. 0
Zo. 0
Zb. 0
Z/. 0
Z. L
Z9. L
3C. B
3. B
3Z. L
33. C
34. 0
3o. 0
3b. B
3/. /
3. C
39. 0
4C. B
4. L
4Z. /
43. L
44. C
4o. 0
4b. B
4/. /
4. C
49. B
oC. C
o. B
oZ. B
o3. /
o4. C
oo. L
ob. /
o/. 0
o. L
o9. L
bC. 0
b. C
bZ. 0
b3. C
b4. B
bo. 0
bb. C
b/. 0
b. /
b9. /
/C. 0
/. C
/Z. /
/3. B
/4. /
/o. /
/b. L
//. 0
/. C
/9. L
C. 0
. C
Z. B
3. C
4. 0
o. /
b. /
/. L
. B
9. C
9C. /
9. L
9Z. /
93. 0
94. /
9o. L
9b. /
9/. /
9. B
99. 0
CC. 0
C. B
CZ. 0
C3. 0
C4. L
Co. B
Cb. 0
C/. B
C. 0
C9. /
C. /
. L
Z. B
3. 0
4. 0
o. 0
b. /
/. 0
. L
9. L
ZC. B
Z. L
ZZ. C
Z3. /
Z4. /
Zo. 0
Zb. L
Z/. 0
Z. B
Z9. C
3C. C
3. 0
3Z. C
33. B
34. B
3o. 0
3b. 0
3/. /
3. L
39. B
4C. L
4. C
4Z. L
43. 0
44. 0
4o. 0
4b. B
4/. C
4. B
49. /
oC. /
o. 0
oZ. B
o3. 0
o4. /
oo. 0
ob. B
o/. 0
o. 0
o9. /
bC. 0
b. C
bZ. /
b3. B
b4. C
bo. /
bb. 0
b/. /
b. /
b9. B
/C. /
/. /
/Z. C
/3. 0
/4. B
6.4 Ansver Key
290
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
6.5 Ansver ExpIanations
The !oIIoving discussion o! data su!ciency is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!cient and
e!!ective approaches to the kinds o! probIems common to data su!ciency. The particuIar questions in
this chapter are generaIIy representative o! the kinds o! data su!ciency questions you viII encounter
on the GMAT. emember that it is the probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the specic
detaiIs o! a particuIar question.
. what s the vaue ol [x[ '
 x = [x[
Z x
Z
= 4
Arithmetic AbsoIute vaIue
c absolutc valuc ol x, ]x], is always
positivc or 0, so this only dctcrmincs that x
cicnt.
(2) xactly two valucs ol x (x  2) arc possiblc,
cach ol which givcs thc valuc 2 lor ]x],
SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
cient.
Z. what percent ol a roup ol peope are women wth
red har'
 0l the women n the roup, o percent have
red har.
Z 0l the men n the roup, C percent have
red har.
Arithmetic Percents
!n ordcr to solvc this problcm, it is ncccssary to
know thc total numbcr ol pcoplc in thc group and
thc numbcr ol womcn with rcd hair.
is indicatcs that 5 pcrccnt ol thc womcn
havc rcd hair, but ncithcr thc total numbcr
ol womcn nor thc total numbcr ol pcoplc in
crclorc, lurthcr
cicnt.
is indicatcs thc pcrccnt ol mcn who havc
rcd hair, a lact that is irrclcvant. !t docs not
givc inlormation as to thc total numbcr in
thc group or thc numbcr ol womcn with rcd
cicnt.
Vith (1) and (2) takcn togcthcr, thc pcrccnt ol
mcn with rcd hair is known and thc pcrccnt ol
thc womcn with rcd hair is known, but not thc
pcrccnt ol thc group who arc womcn with rcd
hair. For cxamplc: il thcrc arc 100 womcn,
including 5 rcdhaircd womcn, and 100 mcn,
including 10 rcdhaircd mcn, thcn
5
200
 2.5
pcrccnt ol thc group arc womcn with rcd hair. n
thc othcr hand, il thcrc arc 300 womcn, including
15 rcdhaircd womcn and 100 mcn, including 10
rcdhaircd mcn, thcn
15
400
 3.75 pcrccnt ol thc
group arc womcn with rcd hair.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
3. ln a certan cass, one student s to be seected at
random to read. what s the probabty that a boy
w read'
 1wothrds ol the students n the cass are boys.
Z 1en ol the students n the cass are rs.
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
(1) Sincc
2
3
ol thc studcnts in thc class arc
boys, thc probability that onc studcnt
sclcctcd at random will bc a boy is
2
3
,
SUFF!C!NT.
crcnt lor a class
with 10 girls and 20 boys than it is lor a
class with 10 girls and 10 boys, NT
cicnt.
e correct answer is A,
cient.
291
6.5 Data 5u!ciency Ansver ExpIanations
4. ln Coee / the number ol students enroed n both a
chemstry course and a booy course s how much
ess than the number ol students enroed n nether'
 ln Coee / there are bC students enroed n a
chemstry course.
Z ln Coee / there are o students enroed n a
booy course.
Arithmetic 5ets (Venn diagrams)
x y z
w
Chemstry Booy
Considcr thc \cnn diagram abovc, in which x
rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol studcnts in chcmistry
only, y rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol studcnts in both
chcmistry and biology, z rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol
studcnts in biology only, and . rcprcscnts thc
numbcr ol studcnts in ncithcr chcmistry nor
biology. Find thc valuc lor . y.
(1) Sincc thcrc arc 60 studcnts cnrollcd in
chcmistry, x y  60, but thcrc is no way
to dctcrminc thc valuc ol y. Also, no
inlormation is givcn lor dctcrmining ..
For cxamplc, il x  y  30 and .  30,
thcn . y  0. Howcvcr, il x  y  30 and
.  40, thcn . y cicnt.
(2) Sincc thcrc arc 85 studcnts cnrollcd in
biology, y z  85, but thcrc is no way
to dctcrminc thc valuc ol y. Also, no
inlormation is givcn lor dctcrmining .. For
cxamplc, il x  y  30, z  55, and .  30,
thcn . y  0. Howcvcr, il x  y  30,
z  55, and .  40, thcn . y  10,
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr and subtracting thc
cquation in (1) lrom thc cquation in (2) givcs
z x cn, adding thc cquations givcs
x 2y z  145, but ncithcr givcs inlormation lor
nnding thc valuc ol .. For cxamplc, il x  y  30,
z  55, and .  30, thcn . y  0. Howcvcr, il
x  y  30, z  55, and .  40, thcn . y  10.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
o. / certan expressway has Lxts J, b, l, and l, n that
order. what s the road dstance lrom Lxt b to Lxt l '
 1he road dstance lrom Lxt J to Lxt l s
Z kometers.
Z 1he road dstance lrom Lxt b to Lxt l s
Zb kometers.
Geometry Lines
Lct JK, KL, and LM bc thc distanccs bctwccn
adjaccnt cxits.
(1) !t can only bc dctcrmincd that
KL  21 JK cicnt.
(2) !t can only bc dctcrmincd that
KL  26 LM cicnt.
Statcmcnts (1) and (2) takcn togcthcr do not
providc any ol thc distanccs JK, LM, or JM,
which would givc thc nccdcd inlormation to nnd
KL. For cxamplc, KL  1 il JK  20 and LM  25,
whilc KL  2 il JK  19 and LM  24.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
b. ll n s an nteer, s n + odd'
 n + Z s an even nteer.
Z n  s an odd nteer.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
(1) Sincc n 2 is cvcn, n is an cvcn intcgcr, and
thcrclorc n 1 would bc an odd intcgcr,
SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Sincc n 1 is an odd intcgcr, n is an cvcn
crclorc n 1 would bc an odd
intcgcr, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
292
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
/. lor whch type ol nvestment, J or b, s the annua rate
ol return reater'
 1ype J returns So per S,CCC nvested lor any
oneyear perod and type b returns S3CC per
SZ,oCC nvested lor any oneyear perod.
Z 1he annua rate ol return lor an nvestment ol
type b s Z percent.
Arithmetic Percents
Comparc thc annual ratcs ol rcturn lor
!nvcstmcnts J and K.
(1) For !nvcstmcnt J, thc annual ratc ol rcturn
is 8115 pcr 81,000 lor any oncycar pcriod,
which can bc convcrtcd to a pcrccnt. For
!nvcstmcnt K, thc annual ratc ol rcturn is
8300 pcr 82,500 lor any oncycar pcriod,
which can also bc convcrtcd to a pcrccnt.
csc two pcrccnts can bc comparcd to
dctcrminc which is largcr, SUFF!C!NT.
(2) !nvcstmcnt K has an annual ratc ol rcturn
ol 12 pcrccnt, but no inlormation is givcn
about thc annual ratc ol rcturn lor
cicnt.
e correct answer is A,
cient.
. / ctrus lrut rower receves So lor each crate ol
oranes shpped and S lor each crate ol rapelrut
shpped. How many crates ol oranes dd the rower
shp ast week'
 last week the number ol crates ol oranes that
the rower shpped was ZC more than twce the
number ol crates ol rapelrut shpped.
Z last week the rower receved a tota ol
S3,/CC lrom the crates ol oranes and
rapelrut shpped.
AIgebra 5imuItaneous equations
!l x rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol cratcs ol orangcs
and y rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol cratcs ol
grapclruit, nnd a uniquc valuc lor x.
(1) Translating lrom words into symbols givcs
x  2y 20, but thcrc is no inlormation
about y and no way to nnd a uniquc valuc
lor x lrom this cquation. For cxamplc, il
y  10, thcn x  40, but il y  100, thcn
x cicnt.
(2) Translating lrom words to symbols givcs
15x 18y  38,700, but thcrc is no way to
nnd a uniquc valuc lor x lrom this cquation.
For cxamplc, il y  2,150, thcn x  0 and il
y  0, thcn x cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr givcs a systcm ol two
cquations in two unknowns. Substituting thc
cquation lrom (1) into thc cquation lrom (2) givcs
a singlc cquation in thc variablc y is cquation
can bc solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol y lrom which a
uniquc valuc ol x can bc dctcrmincd.
e correct answer is C,
cient.
9. ll lat saved SbCC ol hs earnns ast month, how
much dd lat earn ast month'
 lat spent
Z
ol hs earnns ast month lor vn
expenses and saved ol the remander.
Z 0l hs earnns ast month, lat pad twce as
much n taxes as he saved.
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Lct E bc Pat's carnings last month. Find a uniquc
valuc lor E.
(1) Pat spcnt
1
2
E lor living cxpcnscs and so
E
1
2
E 
1
2
E rcmaincd. Pat savcd ol what
rcmaincd, so Pat savcd
1
3
1
2
E

1
6
E
.
8ut Pat savcd 8600, so 600 
1
6
E
and this givcs a uniquc valuc lor E,
SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Pat savcd 8600 last month and paid 2(8600)
in taxcs, but thcrc is no way to dctcrminc
cicnt.
e correct answer is A,
cient.
C. water s pumped nto a partay hed tank at a
constant rate throuh an net ppe. /t the same tme,
water s pumped out ol the tank at a constant rate
throuh an outet ppe. /t what rate, n aons per
mnute, s the amount ol water n the tank ncreasn'
293
6.5 Data 5u!ciency Ansver ExpIanations
 1he amount ol water ntay n the tank s
ZCC aons.
Z water s pumped nto the tank at a rate ol
C aons per mnute and out ol the tank at a
rate ol C aons every Z
Z
mnutes.
Arithmetic Work ProbIem
!l both thc ratc ol thc watcr bcing pumpcd into
thc tank and thc ratc ol thc watcr bcing pumpcd
out ol thc tank arc known, thcn thc ratc at which
thc total amount ol watcr in thc tank is changing
can bc dctcrmincd, but not il only onc ol thcsc
quantitics is known.
is only givcs thc amount ol watcr in thc
cicnt.
is inlormation providcs both thc nccdcd
ratcs. Sincc thc watcr is bcing pumpcd out
ol thc tank at thc ratc ol 10 gallons cvcry 2
1
2
minutcs, that is, 4 gallons cvcry minutc, and
sincc 10 gallons arc pumpcd into thc tank
cvcry minutc, thc ratc at which thc watcr is
incrcasing in thc tank is 10 4  6 gallons
pcr minutc, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
cient.
. ls x a neatve number'
 9x > Cx
Z x + 3 s postve.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
(1) Subtracting 9x lrom both sidcs ol 9x ~ 10x
givcs 0 ~ x, which cxprcsscs thc condition
that x is ncgativc, SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Subtracting 3 lrom both sidcs ol x 3 ~ 0
givcs x ~ 3, and x ~ 3 is truc lor somc
ncgativc numbcrs (such as 2 and 1) and
lor somc numbcrs that arcn't ncgativc (such
cicnt.
e correct answer is A,
cient.
Z. ll i and j are nteers, s i + j an even nteer'
 i < C
Z i = j
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
(1) Although i 10, i could bc an cvcn numbcr
crc is no
inlormation about j, so j could bc an cvcn
numbcr or an odd numbcr. !l i and j arc
both cvcn intcgcrs, thcn i j is an cvcn
intcgcr, and il i and j arc both odd intcgcrs,
thcn i j is an cvcn intcgcr. !l, howcvcr,
cithcr i or j is an cvcn intcgcr and thc othcr
is an odd intcgcr, thcn i j is an odd intcgcr,
NT sulncicnt.
(2) !l i  j, thcn i j can also bc rcprcscntcd
as i i whcn i is substitutcd lor j in thc
is can bc simplincd as 2i,
and sincc 2 timcs any intcgcr produccs an
cvcn intcgcr, thcn i j must bc an cvcn
intcgcr, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
3. 1he chare lor a teephone ca between Cty b and
Cty 3 s SC.4Z lor each ol the hrst 3 mnutes and
SC. lor each addtona mnute. / certan ca
between these two ctes asted lor x mnutes, where x
s an nteer. How many mnutes on was the ca'
 1he chare lor the hrst 3 mnutes ol the ca was
SC.3b ess than the chare lor the remander ol
the ca.
Z 1he tota chare lor the ca was SZ..
AIgebra firstdegree equations
Lct C bc thc chargc lor a phonc call that lasts
x cn C  0.42(3) 0.18(x 3), whcrc
x x.
c chargc, in dollars, lor thc nrst 3 minutcs
ol thc call is 3(0.42)  1.26 and thc chargc
lor thc rcmaindcr ol thc call is 0.18(x 3).
cn, 1.26  0.18(x 3) 0.36, which can
bc solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol x,
SUFF!C!NT.
c chargc, in dollars, lor thc call was 2.88,
so 2.88  0.42(3) 0.18(x 3), which can bc
solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol x,
SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
294
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
4. ll Car / loowed Car Y across a certan brde that s
Z
me on, how many seconds dd t take Car / to
trave across the brde'
 Car / drove onto the brde exacty 3 seconds
alter Car Y drove onto the brde and drove oll
the brde exacty Z seconds alter Car Y drove
oll the brde.
Z Car Y traveed across the brde at a constant
speed ol 3C mes per hour.
Arithmetic ate probIem
Find thc numbcr ol scconds that it took Car X to
cross thc
1
2
milc bridgc.
(1) !l Car X drovc onto thc bridgc 3 scconds
thc bridgc
2 scconds altcr Car Y, thcn Car X took
1 sccond lcss to cross thc bridgc than Car Y.
Sincc thcrc is no inlormation on how long
Car Y took to cross thc bridgc, thcrc is no
way to dctcrminc how long Car X took to
cicnt.
(2) !l thc spccd ol Car Y was 30 milcs pcr hour,
it took Car Y
1
60
hour  1 minutc 
60 scconds to cross thc bridgc. Howcvcr,
thcrc is no inlormation on how long Car X
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, Car X took 1 sccond
lcss than Car Y to cross thc bridgc and Car Y
took 60 scconds to cross thc bridgc, so Car X took
60 1  59 scconds to cross thc bridgc.
e correct answer is C,
cient.
o. ll n + k = m, what s the vaue ol k '
 n = C
Z m + C = n
AIgebra first and seconddegree equations
!t is givcn that n + k  m, so k  m n. us, thc
qucstion can bc rcphrascd as: Vhat is thc valuc
ol m n :
(1) !l n  10, thcn m n  m 10, and thc valuc
ol m 10 can vary. For cxamplc, m 10  0
il m  10 and m 10  1 il m  11, NT
cicnt.
(2) Subtracting both n and 10 lrom cach sidc ol
m 10  n givcs m n  10, and hcncc thc
valuc ol m n can bc dctcrmincd,
SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
cient.
b. ls x an nteer'

x
Z
s an nteer.
Z Zx s an nteer.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
(1) !l
x
2
is an intcgcr, it mcans that x can
bc dividcd by 2 without a rcmaindcr.
is implics that x is an cvcn intcgcr,
SUFF!C!NT.
(2) !l 2x is an intcgcr, thcn x could also bc
an intcgcr. Howcvcr, x could also bc an
odd numbcr dividcd by 2, such as
1
2
or
1
2
3
2
or , nonc ol which is an intcgcr,
NT sulncicnt.
e correct answer is A,
statement 1 alone is sufhcient.
/. ls the nteer l odd'
 1he sum ol l, l + 4, and l + s even.
Z 1he sum ol l  3, l, and l + s odd.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
ctcrminc il thc intcgcr P is odd.
(1) !l thc sum ol P, P 4, and P 11 is cvcn,
thcn P P 4 P 11  3P 15 is cvcn.
Sincc 15 is odd, 3P must bc odd in ordcr lor
3P cn, il 3P is odd, P is
odd bccausc, il P wcrc cvcn, thcn 3P would
bc cvcn, SUFF!C!NT.
295
6.5 Data 5u!ciency Ansver ExpIanations
(2) !l thc sum ol P 3, P, and P 11 is odd,
thcn P 3 P P 11  3P 8 is odd.
Sincc 8 is cvcn, 3P must bc odd in ordcr lor
3P cn, as in (1), P is odd,
SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
. what s the maxmum number ol rectanuar bocks,
each wth dmensons Z centmeters by b centmeters
by 4 centmeters, that w ht nsde rectanuar Box / '
 when Box / s hed wth the bocks and rests
on a certan sde, there are Zo bocks n the
bottom ayer.
Z 1he nsde dmensons ol Box / are
bC centmeters by 3C centmeters by
ZC centmeters.
Geometry VoIume
ctcrminc how many rcctangular blocks will nt
in a rcctangular box.
c sidc on which thc box is rcsting could
bc 30 cm by 20 cm. !l thc blocks arc rcsting
on thc sidc that is 6 cm by 4 cm, thcrc
would bc
30
6
20
4
 5 5  25 blocks on
thc bottom laycr. !l thc box is 12 cm tall, a
maximum ol 25 blocks would nt insidc thc
box. Howcvcr, il thc box is 48 cm tall, a
maximum ol 100 blocks would nt insidc thc
cicnt.
(2) !l thc box is rcsting on a sidc that is 30 cm
by 20 cm, thcn
30
6
20
4
 5 5  25 blocks
will nt on thc bottom laycr. !n this casc, thc
hcight ol thc box is 60 cm and
60
12
 5 laycrs
will nt insidc thc box. !l thc box is rcsting
on a sidc that is 60 cm by 30 cm, thcn
60
12
30
6
 5 5  25 blocks will nt on thc
bottom laycr. !n this casc, thc hcight ol thc
box is 20 cm and
20
4
 5 laycrs will nt
insidc thc box. !l thc box is rcsting on a sidc
that is 60 cm by 20 cm, thcn
60
12
20
4

5 5  25 blocks will nt on thc bottom
laycr. !n this casc, thc hcight ol thc box is
30 cm and
30
6
 5 laycrs will nt insidc thc
box. !n all cascs, thc maximum numbcr ol
blocks that will nt insidc thc box is 5 25 
125, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
cient.
9. ll sequence S has ZCC terms, what s the 9Znd term
ol S '
 1he hrst term ol S s 4C.
Z Lach term ol S alter the hrst term s 3 ess than
the precedn term.
Arithmetic 5eries and sequences
ctcrminc thc 192nd tcrm ol thc 200tcrm
scqucncc S.
c nrst tcrm ol S is 40, but thcrc is no
way to dctcrminc any ol thc subscqucnt
tcrms ol S cicnt.
(2) ach tcrm altcr thc nrst tcrm is 3 lcss than
thc prcccding tcrm, but thcrc is no
inlormation on what thc nrst tcrm is and,
thcrclorc, no way to dctcrminc thc 192nd
tcrm. For cxamplc, il thc nrst tcrm is 60,
thc 192nd tcrm is 60 191(3)  513, but
il thc nrst tcrm is 600, thc 192nd tcrm is
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, thc nrst tcrm is
40 and cach tcrm altcr thc nrst is 3 lcss than
cn, thc sccond tcrm is
40 3  43, thc third tcrm is 43 3 
40 2(3)  46, and thc 192nd tcrm is
40 191(3)  613.
e correct answer is C,
cient.
ZC. ln lR, l l = x, R = x + Z, and lR = y, whch ol
the three anes ol lR has the reatest deree
measure'
 y = x + 3
Z x = Z
296
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Geometry TriangIes
!n any trianglc, thc largcst anglc is oppositc thc
longcst sidc.
(1) Sincc x 2 ~ x, thc longcst sidc is cithcr
x 2 or y, thcrclorc, it is sulncicnt to
dctcrminc whcthcr y ~ x 2. !l y  x 3
and sincc x 3 ~ x 2, it lollows by
substitution that y ~ x 2, SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Substituting 2 lor x yiclds that PQ  2 and
QF  4, but no inlormation is givcn as to
thc rclationship ol thcsc sidcs with thc valuc
ol y givcn lor sidc PF, NT sulncicnt.
e correct answer is A,
statement 1 alone is sufhcient.
Z. what percent ol the drama cub members enroed at a
certan schoo are lemae students'
 0l the lemae students enroed at the schoo,
4C percent are members ol the drama cub.
Z 0l the mae students enroed at the schoo,
Zo percent are members ol the drama cub.
Arithmetic Percents
ctcrminc what pcrccnt ol drama club mcmbcrs
arc lcmalc.
(1) Knowing that 40 pcrccnt ol thc lcmalcs
cnrollcd at thc school arc in thc drama club
providcs no inlormation about thc malc/
lcmalc brcakdown ol thc drama club, NT
cicnt.
(2) Knowing that 25 pcrccnt ol thc malcs
cnrollcd at thc school arc in thc drama club
providcs no inlormation about thc malc/
lcmalc brcakdown ol thc drama club, NT
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr docs not givc cnough
inlormation to dctcrminc what pcrccnt ol drama
club mcmbcrs arc lcmalc. For cxamplc, il thc
school has 100 lcmalc studcnts and 100 malc
studcnts, thcn thc drama club would havc
0.40(100) 0.25(100)  40 25  65 mcmbcrs,
40
65
othcr hand, il thc school had 40 lcmalc studcnts
and 160 malc studcnts, thc drama club would
havc 0.40(40) 0.25(160)  16 40 
56 mcmbcrs,
16
56
e correct answer is E,
cient.
ZZ. / lamysze box ol cerea contans more cerea and
costs more than the reuarsze box ol cerea. what s
the cost per ounce ol the lamysze box ol cerea'
 1he lamysze box ol cerea contans C ounces
more than the reuarsze box ol cerea.
Z 1he lamysze box ol cerea costs So.4C.
Arithmetic ate probIem
ctcrminc thc cost pcr ouncc ol ccrcal in thc
lamilysizc box.
(1) A lamilysizc box contains 10 ounccs morc
ccrcal than a rcgularsizc box, but thcrc is
no inlormation about how many ounccs arc
containcd in a rcgularsizc box and no
inlormation about thc cost ol cithcr sizc box,
so thcrc is no way to dctcrminc thc cost pcr
ouncc ol ccrcal in thc lamilysizc box, NT
cicnt.
(2) A lamilysizc box costs 85.40, but thcrc is
no inlormation about how many ounccs ol
ccrcal a lamilysizc box contains, so thcrc is
no way to dctcrminc thc cost pcr ouncc ol
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, a lamilysizc box costs
85.40 and contains 10 ounccs morc ccrcal than a
rcgularsizc box. Howcvcr, thcrc is no inlormation
about how much ccrcal a rcgularsizc box contains
and, thcrclorc, no way to dctcrminc thc cost pcr
ouncc ol thc ccrcal in a lamilysizc box.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
Z3. 1he proht lrom the sae ol a certan appance
ncreases, thouh not proportonay, wth the number
ol unts sod. 0d the proht exceed S4 mon on saes
ol 3C,CCC unts'
 1he proht exceeded SZ mon on saes ol
ZCC,CCC unts.
Z 1he proht exceeded So mon on saes ol
3oC,CCC unts.
297
6.5 Data 5u!ciency Ansver ExpIanations
Arithmetic Arithmetic operations, Proportions
(1) !l thc pronts did incrcasc proportionally,
it might bc rcasonablc to cxpcct a pront
ol 84 million on salcs ol 400,000 units.
Howcvcr, it is givcn that thc pronts do not
incrcasc proportionally. Vithout knowing
how thc pronts incrcasc, it is impossiblc to
tcll thc pronts on salcs ol 380,000 units,
NT sulncicnt.
(2) !t is givcn that thc pronts do incrcasc with
crclorc, sincc
thc pront on salcs ol just 350,000 units
wcll cxcccdcd 84 million, thcn salcs ol
350,000 30,000  380,000 units would
also havc a pront cxcccding 84 million,
SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
Z4. ll n s an nteer, s n even'
 n
Z
 s an odd nteer.
Z 3n + 4 s an even nteer.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
ctcrminc il thc intcgcr n is cvcn.
(1) Sincc n
2
1 is odd, n
2
is cvcn and so n is
cvcn, SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Sincc 3n 4 is cvcn, 3n is cvcn and so n is
cvcn, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
Zo. Carmen currenty works 3C hours per week at her
parttme job. ll her ross houry wae were to
ncrease by S.oC, how many lewer hours coud she
work per week and st earn the same ross weeky
pay as belore the ncrease'
 Her ross weeky pay s currenty SZZo.CC.
Z /n ncrease ol S.oC woud represent an ncrease
ol ZC percent ol her current ross houry wae.
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Lct . bc Carmcn's gross hourly wagc and lct n bc
thc numbcr ol hours lcwcr Carmcn will nccd to
work. Find a uniquc valuc lor n such that
30.  (30 n)(. 1.50).
(1) Sincc Carmcn's gross wcckly pay is currcntly
8225.00, thcn 30.  225 and .  7.50.
Substituting 7.50 lor . givcs 30(7.50) 
(30 n)(7.50 1.50), which can bc solvcd
lor a uniquc valuc ol n, SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Sincc 1.50 is 20 pcrccnt ol Carmcn's currcnt
gross hourly pay, 1.50  0.20. and .  7.50.
is is thc samc inlormation that was
gaincd lrom statcmcnt (1) and will lcad to
thc samc rcsult, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
Zb. 1he number n ol unts ol ts product that Company / s
schedued to produce n month t ol ts next hsca year
s ven by the lormua n = , where c s a
constant and t s a postve nteer between and b,
ncusve. what s the number ol unts ol ts product
that Company / s schedued to produce n month b ol
ts next hsca year'
 Company / s schedued to produce C unts ol
ts product n month ol ts next hsca year.
Z Company / s schedued to produce 3CC unts ol
ts product n month Z ol ts next hsca year.
AIgebra formuIas
Givcn thc lormula n  , dctcrminc thc
valuc ol n whcn t  6.
(1) Givcn that n  180 whcn t  1, thcn
180  is cquation can bc
solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol c cn, by
substituting this valuc lor c and 6 lor t into
n  , thc valuc ol n can bc
dctcrmincd, SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Givcn that n  300 whcn t  2, thcn
300  is cquation can bc solvcd
lor a uniquc valuc ol c cn, by substituting
this valuc lor c and 6 lor t into n  ,
thc valuc ol n can bc dctcrmincd,
SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
298
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
Z/. when ZCC aons ol o were removed lrom a tank,
the voume ol o elt n the tank was
ol the tank's
capacty. what was the tank's capacty'
 Belore the ZCC aons were removed, the
voume ol o n the tank was
Z
ol the tank's
capacty.
Z /lter the ZCC aons were removed, the voume
ol the o elt n the tank was ,bCC aons ess
than the tank's capacty.
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Lct C bc thc capacity, in gallons, ol thc tank and
lct ! bc thc volumc ol oil in thc tank initially.
cn ! 200 
3
7
C. Find a uniquc valuc lor C.
(1) Sincc thc volumc ol oil in thc tank initially
was
1
2
thc tank's capacity, ! 
1
2
C cn,
substituting
1
2
C lor ! givcs
1
2
C 200 
3
7
C,
which can bc solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol C,
SUFF!C!NT.
(2) Altcr thc 200 gallons wcrc rcmovcd, thc
volumc ol oil lclt in thc tank was 1,600
gallons lcss than thc tank's capacity.
crclorc, sincc ! 200 
3
7
C,
3
7
C 
C is cquation can bc solvcd lor a
uniquc valuc ol C, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
Z. 0vson b ol Company has ,CCC empoyees. what
s the averae arthmetc mean annua saary ol the
empoyees at Company '
 1he averae annua saary ol the empoyees n
0vson b s S3C,CCC.
Z 1he averae annua saary ol the empoyees at
Company who are not n 0vson b s S3o,CCC.
Arithmetic 5tatistics
ctcrminc thc avcragc (arithmctic mcan) annual
salary ol thc cmployccs at Company Q , givcn
that ivision R within Company Q has
1,000 cmployccs.
(1) Although thc avcragc annual salary ol thc
1,000 cmployccs in ivision R is givcn,
thcrc is no inlormation about thc numbcr
ol Company Q cmployccs who arc not in
ivision R or about thcir annual salarics.
crclorc, it is impossiblc to dctcrminc thc
avcragc annual salary ol thc cmployccs at
cicnt.
(2) Although thc avcragc annual salary ol thc
cmployccs NT in ivision R is givcn,
thcrc is no inlormation about thc numbcr
ol cmployccs who arc not in ivision R.
crclorc, it is impossiblc to dctcrminc thc
avcragc annual salary ol thc cmployccs at
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr docs not givc thc
numbcr ol cmployccs who arc NT in ivision
R, which is ncccssary to dctcrminc thc avcragc
annual salary ol thc cmployccs ol Company Q .
e correct answer is E,
cient.
x mctcrs
Z9. / crcuar tub has a band panted around ts
crcumlerence, as shown above. what s the surlace
area ol ths panted band'
 x = C.o
Z 1he heht ol the tub s meter.
Geometry 5ur!ace area
c surlacc arca ol thc band is thc product ol thc
circumlcrcncc ol thc band and thc width ol thc
band. !l both lactors arc known, thcn thc arca can
bc dctcrmincd, but not il only onc ol thcsc lactors
is known.
(1) nly onc lactor, thc width ol thc band, is
cicnt.
c circumlcrcncc or thc mcans to nnd thc
cicnt.
Vith (1) and (2) takcn togcthcr, thcrc still is no
inlormation about thc circumlcrcncc ol thc tub.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
299
6.5 Data 5u!ciency Ansver ExpIanations
3C. what s the vaue ol nteer n '
 n  n + = b
Z Z
Zn
= b
Arithmetic, AIgebra Arithmetic operations,
first and seconddegree equations
(1) !l (n 1) is multiplicd by n, thc rcsult is
n
2
n  6. !l 6 is subtractcd lrom both sidcs,
thc cquation bccomcs n
2
n is in
turn can bc lactorcd as (n 3)(n 2)  0.
crclorc, n could bc cithcr 3 or 2, but
thcrc is no lurthcr inlormation lor dcciding
bctwccn thcsc two valucs, NT sulncicnt.
(2) From 2
2n
 16, 2
2n
must cqual 2
4
(sincc
crclorc, 2n  4 and
n  2, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
d = C.43t
/
3. ll t denotes the thousandths dt n the decma
representaton ol d above, what dt s t '
 ll d were rounded to the nearest hundredth, the
resut woud be C.44.
Z ll d were rounded to the nearest thousandth, the
resut woud be C.43b.
Arithmetic PIace vaIue, ounding
0etermne t, the thousandths dt ol d = C.43t
/.
(1) Sincc d roundcd to thc ncarcst hundrcdth is
0.44, t can bc 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 bccausc cach ol
0.4357, 0.4367, 0.4377, 0.4387, and 0.4397
roundcd to thc ncarcst hundrcdth is 0.44,
cicnt.
(2) Sincc d roundcd to thc ncarcst thousandth is
0.436 and thc digit in tcnthousandths placc
ol d is 7, thc digit in thousandths placc gcts
incrcascd by 1 in thc rounding proccss.
us, t 1  6 and t  5, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is B,
cient.
3Z. Jerry bouht / cothn tems, ncudn a coat, and
the sum ol the prces ol these tems was S3bo. ll
there was no saes tax on any cothn tem wth a
prce ol ess than SCC and a / percent saes tax on
a other cothn tems, what was the tota saes tax
on the / tems that Jerry bouht'
 1he prce ol the coat was SZo.
Z 1he averae arthmetc mean prce lor the
b tems other than the coat was S4C.
Arithmetic AppIied probIems
ctcrminc thc amount ol salcs tax Jcrry paid on
thc purchasc ol 7 itcms ol clothing that includcd a
coat and totalcd 8365, whcrc thcrc was no tax on
any itcm with a pricc lcss than 8100 and 7 pcrccnt
tax on all othcr itcms.
(1) Although Jcrry paid salcs tax on thc pricc
ol thc coat, which was 8125, and thc total
pricc ol thc othcr 6 itcms was 8365 8125 
8240, no inlormation is givcn on thc
individual priccs ol thc othcr 6 itcms, which
may or may not havc bccn lcss than 8100
cicnt.
(2) Although thc avcragc pricc ol thc othcr
6 itcms was 840, no inlormation is givcn on
thc individual priccs ol thc othcr 6 itcms,
which may or may not havc bccn ovcr 8100,
and thcrclorc may or may not havc bccn
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, Jcrry paid at lcast
0.07(125)  88.75 in salcs tax, but no inlormation
is givcn about whcthcr any ol thc othcr 6 priccs
wcrc subjcct to salcs tax. !l thc pricc ol cach ol
thc othcr 6 itcms was 840, thcn Jcrry would havc
paid only 88.75 in salcs tax. Howcvcr, il thc pricc
ol cach ol 2 itcms was 8100 and thc othcr 4 itcms
wcrc 810 cach, Jcrry would havc paid a total ol
0.07(125 100 100)  822.75 in salcs tax.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
300
The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition The O!ciaI Guide !or GMAT
eviev 12th Edition
33. what was the prce at whch a merchant sod a certan
appance'
 1he merchant's ross proht on the appance
was ZC percent ol the prce at whch the
merchant sod the appance.
Z 1he prce at whch the merchant sod the
appance was SoC more than the merchant's
cost ol the appance.
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct F, C, and P bc thc appliancc's sclling pricc,
thc mcrchant's cost, and thc gross pront,
rcspcctivcly. ctcrminc thc valuc ol F.
(1) Sincc F C  P and P  0.20F, thcn F C 
0.2F and 0.8F  C. No inlormation is givcn
about thc valuc ol C, so thc valuc ol F
cicnt.
(2) Although F  C 50, no inlormation is
givcn about thc valuc ol C, so thc valuc ol F
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr and combining thc
two cquations givcs F  0.8F 50, which can bc
solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol F.
e correct answer is C,
cient.
34. 1he nsde ol a rectanuar carton s 4 centmeters
on, 3Z centmeters wde, and o centmeters hh.
1he carton s hed to capacty wth k dentca
cyndrca cans ol lrut that stand uprht n rows and
coumns, as ndcated n the hure above. ll the cans
are o centmeters hh, what s the vaue ol k '
 Lach ol the cans has a radus ol 4 centmeters.
Z 3x ol the cans ht exacty aon the enth ol
the carton.
Geometry CircIes
(1) !l thc radius ol cach can is 4 ccntimctcrs,
thc diamctcr ol cach can is 8 ccntimctcrs.
Along thc 48ccntimctcr lcngth ol thc
carton, 6 cans (48 8) can bc placcd, along
thc 32ccntimctcr width ol thc carton,
4 cans (32 8) can bc placcd. Hcncc,
k  6 4  24, SUFF!C!NT.
(2) !l 6 cans nt along thc 48ccntimctcr lcngth
ol thc carton, this implics that thc diamctcr
ol cach can is 8 ccntimctcrs (48 6). Along
thc 32 ccntimctcr width, 4 cans can bc placcd,
and again k  6 4  24, SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
x z
y x
z t
4
3o. lor the system ol equatons ven, what s the vaue
ol z '
 x = /
Z t = o
AIgebra first and seconddegree equations
(1) Sincc x  7, thcn 7 can bc substitutcd lor x
in thc cquation x 4  z, yiclding z  3,
SUFF!C!NT.
(2) !l t  5, thcn thc cquation 8 z  t can bc
uscd to solvc this qucstion:
8 z  5 substitutc lor t
3 z  0 subtract 5 lrom both sidcs
3  z add z to both sidcs,
SUFF!C!NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
3b. lor a nteers n, the luncton s dehned by n = a
n
,
where a s a constant. what s the vaue ol  '
 Z = CC
Z 3 = ,CCC