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Blint 1981: Cs. Blint, Einige fragen des dirhem-verkehrs in Europa. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum
Hungaricae XXXIII, Budapest 1981, 105-131.
Dekwna 1979: M. Dekwna, Remarques sur la gense de certains types de bijoux dargent trouvs dans les
trsors polonais du Moyen ge. Rapports du IIIe Congrs International dArchologie Slave, Bratislava, 7-14
septembre 1975, 1, Bratislava 1979, 145164.
Gesta 2005: Gesta Hungarorum.
/ . . . . ( 2005).
Istoria 2001: Istoria romnilor. Genezele romneti, III (Bucureti 2001).
Istvnovits 2003: E. Istvnovits, A rtkz honfoglals s rpad-kori emlkanyaga (Nyregyhza 2003).
Lang 2007: P. Lang, Amit elrejt a fld A 10. szzadi magyarsg anyagi kultrjnak rgszeti kutatsa a Krpt-medencben (Budapest 2007).
Mesterhzy 1994: K. Mesterhzy, Az n. tokaji kincs revzija. Folia Archaeologica XLIII, 1994, 193-242.

Unele consideraii cu privire la distrugerea cetii de la Echimui


Rezumat
Dintre monumentele medievale din spaiul pruto-nistrean, dup gradul de cercetare, se evideniaz cetatea de la
Echimui. ns, unele divergene legate de data distrugerii ei (a doua jumtate a sec. X sau prima jumtate a sec.
XI) impun o revizuire a indicatorilor cronologici ai monumentului.
Cea mai precis informaie o ofer colecia numismatic reprezentat de 17 dirhemi de argint, care ne permite s
vorbim despre cucerirea i distrugerea cetii nu mai trziu de a doua jumtate a sec. X, sau mai precis al treilea
sfert al secolului.
Alte piese, utilizate n calitate de indicatori cronologici, sunt cerceii n form de struguri, descoperii n complexe
nchise mpreun cu dirhemii trzii.
Cartarea descoperirilor similare celor de la Echimui a scos n eviden o concentrare a lor n bazinul r. Tisa (fig.
1, 3). Spre deosebire de exemplarele descoperite n afara Arcului Carpatic, provenite de regul din tezaure, cerceii
de tip Echimui din spaiul intracarpatic au fost descoperii n nmormntri ale nomazilor. Armamentul atestat
n aceste nmormntri, la rndul su, se ntlnete i n cetatea de la Echimui. Aceste descoperiri, dar i alte
analogii n cultura material permit s presupunem c la distrugerea cetii de la Echimui au participat nomazii,
care plecaser din nordul Mrii Negre i se ndreptau spre Arcul Carpatic. Migraia pecenegilor n regiunea Tisei
Superioare a urmat dup distrugerea cetii Echimui, eveniment care a avut loc nu mai trziu de al treilea sfert
al sec. X.
Lista ilustraiilor:
Fig. 1. Harta rspndirii cerceilor de tip Echimui n Europa: 1 - Alcedar; 2 - Besob; 3 - Blandiana; 4 - Borschevka;
5 - Brneti; 6 - Vc-Htkpolna; 7 - Gmba; 8 - Gnezdovo; 9 - Denis; 10 - Dge; 11 - Echimui; 12 - Zavada
Lanskoronska; 13 - Ibrny; 14 - Kyiv; 15 - Kirovograd; 16 - Kistokaj; 17 - Cluj; 18 - Kopeevka; 19 - Cracovia;
20 - Lisovek; 21 - Nyregyhza; 22 - Nagykvesd; 23 - Olesnica; 24 - Osnica; 25 - Peremishl; 26 - Peresopnica;
27 - Prsha; 28 - Redukeny; 29 - Szabolcs-Vontatpart; 30 - Szentes-Szentlszl; 31 - Szob; 32 - Trkkanizsa;
33 - Tiszabercel; 34 - Tshinica; 35 - Uzhgorod (?); 36 - Csoma; 37 - Csongrd; 38 - Jurkovci.
Fig. 2. Cercei de tip Echimui din nmormntrile nomazilor din bazinul r. Tisa: 1-8 - Csoma; 9 - Dge; 10 - Tiszabercel; 1-12 - Ibrny. 9-12 (dup E. Istvanovits).
Fig. 3. Harta rspndirii dirhemilor arabi n Europa (dup Cs. Balint) cu concretizarea punctelor, legate de deplasarea pecenegilor din nordul Mrii Negre n Bazinul Carpatic n sec. X: 1 - Beregovo (Bcsu); 2 - Vcs; 3 - Glogovec; 4 - Dobra; 5 - Ibrny; 6 - Karos; 7 - Kenzl; 8 - Kecskemt; 9 - Kistokaj; 10 - Pap; 11 - Prsha; 12 - Szeged
13 - Szilas; 14 - Szolnok; 15 - Szomod; 16 - Tata; 17 - Tverdoshovce; 18 - Tiszasly; 19 - Hajddorog; 20 - Hust;
21 - Csoma; 22 - Srospatak; 23 - Eger; 24 - Alcedar; 25 - Echimui; 26 - Galich; 27 - Peremishl.

On the question of destruction of the hill-fort of Echimauti


Abstract
This hill-fort is one of the most researched among the medieval monuments of the country between the Prut and
Dniester. Contradictions in identification of the date of it destruction (second half of the 10th or the first half of the
11th century) make us to examine chronologic indicators of the monument.
The numismatic collection represented by 17 Arabic silver dirhams gives the most exact information. It allows us
to attribute the capture and destruction of the monument to the second half of the 10th century, and most likely to
the third quarter of this century.

298

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Earrings with pendant in the form of bunch of grapes can be used as one more category of objects which indicate
the time of destruction of the monument. They were found out in closed complexes of the hill-fort together with
later samples of dirhams.
Cartography of the finds of Echimauti type testifies about their particular concentration in the basin of the river
of Tisza. In contrast to samples which were found outside the Carpathian basin, famous as a rule by materials of
hoards, practically all earrings of Echimauti type inside the Carpathian arc are connected with nomadic burials.
Pieces of weapon similar to those from the nomadic necropolises were found in Echimauti. Together with other
evidences in the field of material culture, it allows us to suppose that nomads took part in destruction of the hill-fort
while moving from the Northern Black Sea region into the Carpathian lowlands.
Historic situation and the exact chronology of the Pechenegs movement from the Black sea to the Upper Tisza
region, during which the hill-fort of Echimauti was ruined, together with chronologic indicators of the monument,
allows us to date its destruction not later than the third quarter of the 10th century.
List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. The map of location of earrings of the Echimauti type in Europe: 1 - Alcedar; 2 - Besob; 3 - Blandiana;
4 - Borschevka; 5 - Brneti; 6 - Vc-Htkpolna; 7 - Gmba; 8 - Gnezdovo; 9 - Denis; 10 - Dge; 11 - Echimauti; 12 - Zavada Lanskoronska; 13 - Ibrny; 14 - Kyiv; 15 - Kirovograd; 16 - Kistokaj; 17 - Cluj; 18 - Kopeevka;
19 - Cracovia; 20 - Lisovek; 21 - Nyregyhza; 22 - Nagykvesd; 23 - Olesnica; 24 - Osnica; 25 Peremyshl;
26 - Peresopnica; 27 - Prsha; 28 - Redukeny; 29 - Szabolcs-Vontatpart; 30 - Szentes-Szentlszl; 31 - Szob;
32 - Trkkanizsa; 33 - Tiszabercel; 34 - Tshinica; 35 - Uzhgorod (?); 36 - Csoma; 37 - Csongrd; 38 - Jurkovci.
Fig. 2. Earrings of the Echimauti type from the burials of nomads in the basin of Tisza: 1-8 - Csoma; 9 - Dge;
10 - Tiszabercel; 1-12 - Ibrny. 9-12 (after E. Istvanovits).
Fig. 3. The map of location of the arabic dirhams in Europe (after Cs. Balint) with indication of the points associated
with the movement of Pechenegs from the Northern Black Sea region to the Carpathian basin in the second half
of the 10th century: 1 - Beregovo (Bcsu); 2 - Vcs; 3 - Glogovec; 4 - Dobra; 5 - Ibrny; 6 - Karos; 7 - Kenzl;
8 - Kecskemt; 9 - Kistokaj; 10 - Pap; 11 - Prsha; 12 - Szeged 13 - Szilas; 14 - Szolnok; 15 - Szomod; 16 - Tata;
17 - Tverdoshovce; 18 - Tiszasly; 19 - Hajddorog; 20 - Hust; 21 - Csoma; 22 - Srospatak; 23 - Eger; 24 - Alcedar; 25 - Echimauti; 26 - Galich; 27 Peremyshl.

17.05.2011
. , , . , 14, 88000 ,
, e-mail: arhlab@mail.ru

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