Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40

II C

. (1937-2008) 280
(,
1986, 200). VI .
,
(. 1) ( 1986, 24-27). .

,
1. ,
(, 1986,
185-186). , (1909-1994) .
, 280
,
(Werner 1988, 260-262).

,
. , , -
,
, ,

(in ihrer heimatlichen Tracht),
80- . XX .
. .
(1929-1998),
, ( 1978),
. (1941-2004). .
, .
( 1985). ,

(, 1981; , ,
1983).

. 1. 280 :
, ,
( 1986).

,
(Werner 1988, 262)2. 1950 .
, ,

Tyragetia, s.n., vol. V [XX], nr. 1, 2011, 153-192.

,
,
86 . 80- . .,
(Werner 1971, 245). 1988 . ,
, .
, ,
, .
( 1999).
2

153

I. Studii

,
II C3. , .
,
(Petre
1965, 278; Papuc 1987; Teodor 1992, 134)4. ,
. 1950 . ,

, , . , , (Werner
1950, 162). ,
28, 86 154 () II C VI VII .,
II C VII .,

VI . (Werner 1950, 164).

, ,
,
II C 1950 . 17 : , , (5 .), , ,
28, 86 154 3
, ,
, 1917 . , , ( 53),
( 61
) .
, .
, II C
(Werner 1950, 171 170).
4
II C, II.2, .. , II B (, ,
) , , (, ,
), VI . , .. , . , (1999, 75) , II C ,
. V VI
. ( , ), Aquileia, II C .
,
(Hilberg 2009, 105-113).
3

154

5.
,
, , , (Werner 1960, 115).
1988 . ,
.


, II C
,
. ,
- , (Ss 1963,
315). .
,
, ,

(Teodor 1984, 80; Teodor 1992, 133134)6. , , ,
(Menke 1990,
191). ,
. 60
17 , 70 ,
29 ( 40%)
7.
, II C, . .
II C. ,
(Werner 1950, 164-165),

II
A. II C
, , ,
II C.
, , (Fiedler 1996, 205).
6
(1960 ., 1950 .), ,
II.2, , . , ,
. ,
. ,
II C (Teodor
1992, 134).
7
, 7 (10%).
5

. , II c

1A

1B

1D

1E

2A

1C

1F

1G

2B

2C

2D

2E

2F

2G

. 2. II C : (1 -G) (2
-G).

155

I. Studii

2I

2J

2K
2L

2H

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3I

3J

3K

3L

3M

3N

3O

3P

3Q

3R

3S

3T

4A

4B

4C

4G

4H

5A

4I

5B

4D

4J

4E

4F

4K

5C

. 3. II C : (2 -I),
(3 -), (4 -) / (5 -).

156

. , II c

, V VI . (, 1996, 38;
Katsougiannopoulou 1999, 70; Aquileia
. Khn 1965, 95-101).
.
, , ,
, () ,
II C,
. ,
, ,
,
8.

. 4. 46
II C .

II C : ,
;
(),
; ; ,
, (
) ;
.
II C 7 (1 A-G), 12
(2 A-L), 20 (3 -), 11 (4 -) 3 () (5 -) (. 2-3).
,
, , ,
II C , -


, ,
- .
, , , ,
-
, 9. ,
II C
near-neighbor clustering analysis
( )

(Jaccard) (Shennan 1990, 203-204 213-214)10.
8
. , II.2
, , ,
( I D ),
( II B) (Teodor 1992, 133).
R, ,
II C, I D (), II A
() IIB () (Vagalinski 1994, 285
287-289).
9

, - , ,
(Hines 1997; 1997).
10
,
, (Wilmink, Uytterschaut 1984).
,
. ,
,
. ,
. ,
.

157

I. Studii

9/19; 15/43). ,
(. 6/5; 7/57; 15/43,
50; 17/8), 4- (. 5/2; 6/3; 11/24, 25).

(,
),
(, )
(, , ).
, ,
-
,
. , ,
, ,
(. 6/6; 9/19; 10/20;
12/34; 13/35, 38)
. ,

. 5. II C .

( D. Teodor
1992; 1996).

4 .
5
, ,
(. 11/39; 16/62).
, , ,
(. 6/6; 10/22;
11/27; 12/32; 13/35, 39).
, ,
, ,
, (. 18).
, , (. 6/5;
11/24), (. 8/14; 14/48),
- (.
158

5
7

3
6
. 6. II C .

( D. Teodor
1992; , 1995; 1996;
Nagy 1998).

. , II c

, (..
- )
(,
).

II C (. 19)
.

1955 . , ,
(- 1958, 312-313). , .
.
, -,
,
II C .
- ,
-
(Uenze
1974 1992, 156; Jankovi 1980, 173; Curta 1992,
84). -
II C
. -

(Fiedler 1992, 100-101; .
1981; Dinchev 1997; 2001 2003; - 2004).

, II (565-578) (Iurukova 1969, 262; Morrison,
Popovi, Ivanievi 2006, 148-149).

VI . -.

,
(Kasteli 1960, pl. X/18; Bolta 1981, 32, pl. 5/3,
4; 33, pl. 8/8-9; 35, pl. 13/12,13).

VI . (Bolta 1981, 34, pl. 8/2; 36, pl. 15/3-4;
. Martin 2000, 194-196;
Eger 2001, 152).

600 . II C
. (. 20, ).
,
, (. 20,
; , 1996,
13-14, 200 . 25/1; 204 . 29/10-15). 13 ,
, .

,

(, , 1996, 87 .
8/10; 89 . 10 11/1; 91 . 14). ,
, (. 20,

59
15

57

55

56

58

. 7. II C .

( Ss 1963;
D. Teodor 1992; Haralambieva 1993b;
1996. 1965; hh 1988).

159

I. Studii

), ,
II C. IV-VI .,
( 1991,
178).
. ,
1.1, (. 21, ) , VII . ( 2006,
44, . 3).

. ,
(. 21,
) ,
I, 535 .
( 1979, 93-95; 92 . 1/37).
, (. 21,

41
19
53

42
21

67

. 9. II C .

(
1996; 1998;
1985; 1996).

17

14
13

54

26

. 8. II C .

( (14),
1990; 1996;
, 2001-2002.

160

),
(, ,
1996, 86 . 7/5; 87 . 8/8) (, 1996, 15; 204 . 29/6,
7), 34 ,
(
1958, 210; 215 . 5). , (. 21, , ),
180 (. 7)
-
( III b 6, ),
VI . ( 1997, 416; 475 . XIX/21)11.
11
I ,
( 2004, 111-112).
, Sucidava I-Kranj
( D 2 Schulze-Drrlamm), 600 . , ,
VI . (Vinski 1967, 37; Werner
1989-1990, 594; Varsik 1992, 80; Fiedler 1992, 73).

. , II c

20

330). ,
98
, II C
(. 23). ,
, 9 38
,
II C (, 1998, 114 3/12).
. 77
4 ,

(582-602) ( 1906, 23).
89 193
II B
II , VI
(Menghin 2007,

22

23

18

. 10. II C .

(
1996).

,
9 38 (. 22).
.. 460 ,

3 9 (Somogyi 1987; ,
1993, 113-114; 115 . 83/84). 9
VI .
, - (Balogh 2004, 262)12.
3
180/1904 ( 7)
-, ,
,
VI . (Kazanski 1996,

(), VI . (Blint 1992,
357).

12

25

24

27

30

28

. 11. II C .

(
1993; 1996; , 1998;
2000; Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009).

161

I. Studii

32

31

( 1906,
25; Zasetskaya 2004, 129-130). , , 154
,
( II C, II D),
II A , , VII
. ( 1996, 124; Zasetskaya 2004, 131).
6
257
(
II C), , 629/630
641 . (. 25; A 1982b, 184-187;
Zasetskaya 2004, 105 103 9)15.

33

34

51

. 12. II C .

(
1996; 2000; Khn 1981).

37
35

322-323; 1909, 106-107; Zasetskaya


2004, 102, 104, 121 126)13.
II B ,
II C
28 (. 24). II
D (Zasetskaya 2004, 104, 117 121)14.
(II B )
86 , II C ,
, , 13
193 (African Red Slip) Hayes 10 A,
VI VII .
14
, II C , .
.
VI . (Lohe
1999, 45).

162

38

36

39

. 13. II C .

(
1996).
,
257 , , VI . (Bank 1985, 287, pl. 99),
, -. II,
641 646 . ( 1991, 32, 31
. 3/12).

15

. , II c

40
44

II C
, 11 ,

( III 2 ) (. 30).
-

46

47

4 ()
. ()
(Lrinczy 1998, 348-349; 367 . 11/1; 368
. 12/7; Tobias 2001, 171).
, ,
14 -,
VII . ,
616 625 .
() (Garam 2002,
163).

48

. 14. II C .

( (40),
1996).

VII .
II C, .
349
, , (. 570 . 630 .) (.
26; Vida 1995, 245-246).
2 ,
,
(. 27-28).
VII . (Psztor 1992-1995, 46). VII . 14 -
II C
, (. 29; Ormndy 1995,
159-161).
VII .

43
49

50
69
60
. 15. II C .

( Werner
1950, 1996; Nagy 1998;
Csallany 1961).

163

I. Studii

(, ),
, ,
VII VIII
. ( 2006b, 50 . 1; 54)16.
,
156 (),

, 600 . (Riemer 1995, 779; Riemer 2000,
149).
, , , ,
,
611/612 , , 613/614 . (Martini,
Steckner 1993, 125).

VII .

(Kiss 1996, 207; , 1996, 68; Garam 2001, 95)17.
20 ,
,
( 1972, 199-200; 33 . 3/2, 3). ,
20 , , , , VII .
17
, ,
, , , , ( 1982,
190).
600 .
, ,
Atlante X 1a, VI . (Greco,
Mammina 1993-1994, 1157; Maurici 2000, 515).
, VII .
, ,
II (641-668) (Pallas 1981, 298; Riemer
2000, 149).
, ,
,
. ,
600 650
. (Eger 1996, 345).

61
64
63

12

62

. 16. II C
.
(
1928; 1996;
2003; 1953;
2004).

16

164

,

. , ,
(Khardinova 2007,
21). , II C,
( 6 257 ; 9
38
28 ),
(. 22, 24 25).
II C, , , 18.
, 9 38
, ,
,

.
18

. , II c

70
8

11

10

.
,
, II B
(, , 1996, 79). ,
( 1996, 403
418).
, ,
II C ( 1). ,
, ,
, .
, ,
II C,
, .. ,
, .
II D ,
II C
II D, .

. -

. 17. II C .

( (11),
1928; 1996;
Garam 2004).

II D . 154 , ,

II ( 1907, 117).
II C II D , , (. 31).
,
,
II C,
, 19. II C , , -, , ,
, , , 87 II B ( 1906, 25-26)
I D (
1990, 135 111 . 31).
19

. 18.
46 II C
, .
7 ,
.

165

I. Studii

W
II C
6
4

W II W II

W II W I W I
1.1
1.2
B
D

A
D
C

6
5

1
1

1
2
2
3

2
2

2
4

1
2

3
11
2
2
11
5
4

P ; W

. 19. II C .
.

166

. , II c

. 20. : , ,
, , , , , ( 1996).

( II C, II D) 28
38 . 29 ,
20 9 ( 1906, 8-9, II/34, II/15, 21). 9 38 ,
. , au repouss

, 13 ,
, 4
6 .
( , ),
(. 21,
), (. 32),
( 1996, 657 . 67/1-8,
658 . 68/1-9; , 1996,
195 . 20/1-7; 198 . 23/21). , 167

I. Studii

. 21. : , ,
, , (
1996).

168

. , II c

. 22. , ,
9 38 ( Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009).

169

I. Studii

. 23. 98 :

( 1965).

, ,
, .
, ,
1996 . ,
,
38 .
II C,
116 , 6
4 .
,
(. 33,
)20.
,
VI .
(Csallny 1942; Schellhas 1997).
20

, . , ,
.

170

. 24.
28 ( 1906;
1996).

,

,
. ,
, , ,
(,
1996, 47-48; Garam 1991; ManireLevque 1997, 88 . 4). , ,

,
, ,

. , II c

. 25. , 6
257 ( 1982).

171

I. Studii

. 27. 2
. , ,
( Nagy 1998).

. 26. 349 :
, , ,
,
( Vida 1995).

.

,
(Schulze 1984). , ,
, ..
, .
, , ,
. ,
, ( 172

), IV V . (Hinz 1978, 348-349; 349 .


1; 350-352, 357-358, 364-365; Martin 1991, 671
. 4)21. ,
, , ,
.
(berg 1919,
73 . 72; Werner 1950, . 40/37)
( 1999, 411-412; 2010, 91
90 . 78; Curta 2007, 71 70, map 4/2).
38
, . ,

(
1894, . 20-3; 1901, . 1/12;
, , ,


, (Graudonis 2001, . 5;
Tautaviius 1984, 105 . 13, 106 . 14, 112 . 17).
21

. , II c

1960, 276 275 . 2/3; 1980, 127; 2004, 267-268;


1957, 101; 1963, 140;
. 1990). , , ,
,
( 2000,
1-2 . 1; 1948;
.: 2007). , ,
,
(Rolle, Mller-Wille, Schietzel 1991, 248).

II C , ,
,
?
,
(
1999, 142 . 57). ,
, .

,
()
II
C ()
, , (. 7/58; 12/51; 16/61,
12)22. , , ,
(
1994), II
C , ,
, 23.

, ( 1996,
638 . 48/4; 2004, 244-245; 251
. 8; Shablavina, Szmoniewski 2006). , II C 22

(. 15/60)
86 (. 14/47).
23
, (1996,
634 . 44/1, 2), , (. 2004, 251 . 7).
.

. 28.
: , , ,
( Csallny 1961).

, ,
,

.
, , ,
. ,

,
(. 1).

. ,

,
( 2004).
, , ,
, ,
,
. ,

173

I. Studii

. 29. 14 -: , , , , ,
, ( Nagy 1998).

174

. , II c

. ,
, ,
. ,
,
II C. ,

VI-VII .
,
. ,
, , .
, ,
, ()24.
(,
), II C,
VI-VII .
,
, , ,
.
, ,
, 25.
, ,
, , ,
, (Curta 2004, 72; . Cameron 1991).
24
,
IA I C (Werner 1950, 151
. 27/3; Coma 1961).
, VI-VII .
(Toropu, Ciuc, Voicu 1975, 97, . 6/5; Toropu 1976, 173,
214, . 17/9-10). (.
Winkler, Bloi 1973; Butnariu 1983-1985, 220-221.
25

, ,
,
,
. II C
,
,
( 1963, 197; 1969, 162;
1980, 130; 1998, 156, 142, . 74/9).

. 30.
11 :
( , 1995).

,
,
, II C
.

.
, , , ,
349 , ,
.
,
14 -
;
II C 11 ,
(Ss 1961, 38; ,
1955, 128).
( , - ,
-,
, ).
,
,
175

I. Studii

. 31.
: (
1996).

(Vida 2004, 438-439).


,
-
,
(Clauss 1987, 536-537).
, . ,
, II C

26.
.
, ..
, , , 27.
, II C
, , ,
, (, 1995, 128).
27
, ,

26

176

,
, ,
, .
, . , , .
,
,
,
, , . ,

, (. 349 , . 26, ),
, Toszeg
14 -, - , ,
, , , , , . , 1950
. .
, , . ,
. , ,
, .


(Corman 1998, 89),
II C ,
.
II C ,
, , (. 34)28.
II C . (. 1995 Nallbani 2002).
28
: - ( 1980,
138-139, . 44/11), ( 1990, 93)
- ( 1998, 1040, . 744). ,
,

. , II c

280.
1
VI
VII .
(,
1981, 128-131). ,
, 1 78 ,
, (, 1981, 130 . 5/13; ,
, 1983, 130).
,
280,
.
,
, ,

. 32.
: , ,
,
, ,
( 1996).


,

II C (. 33).
II C ,

VII .29 ,
1966 . .
( 1968, 60, . 3).
29
, ,
(Corman 1998, 95), .. .

. 33.
: ,
, , (
), , ,
,
( , 1998).

177

I. Studii

. 34. :
( 1996).

.

( ,
).
.
,
,
, - ,
, , , .
(Khardinova 2007, 22)30.
, , , ( )
II C. , ,
,
.

30

178

, , ,
(-
) , . II C (
), , ,
, , ,
, , .
,
(, , ),
,
, ( , ,
)
, (Samson 1987;
Cannon 1989). ,
,


. ,
,

,

()
280. ,
, ,
,
,
. , ,
,

.

38
,
280 , , 600 .

. , II c

31
1. ( , );
, ; ; . = 10,8; 1D2A3G4E5B; Papuc 1987, 207,
209-210, 208, . 1/-b; Teodor 1992, 138 (
. = 11,2), 150, . 9/1.
2. (, , ); ;
1D2H3A4C5A; 1906, . VI/8;
Werner 1950, 161, . 39/21.
3. ( -, , );
11;
;
1B2F3M4E5A; , 1995, 128,
227, . 22/1.
4. ( -,
., ); ;
( II C , II D ),
, 30 , 250
; 1D2E3E4E5B;
1901, 148-149, . I/9; 1953, 58 .
9/3; 1980, 127, 70, . 47/3; 1996, 374, 613, . 23/1.
5. , . ();
2, ; , ;
; 1D2G3J4A5A; Nagy 1998, 93, 95, .
82/4 158/4.
6. ( -, ., ); ; 1A2F3F4A5C; 1996,
402, 649, . 59/2.
7. ( , ); ; ; . = 15,8;
1C2B3C4B5A; Maxim-Alaiba 1981, 459-461; 1984, 262, 262, 263, . 1/3; Teodor 1992,
138, 151, . 10/1.
8-9. ( , );
212, ; II C ,

;
8. ; . = 12,8; 1C2G3A4E5B; Erdlyi,
Nemth 1969, 191, 193 . XXII/6; 9. ,

31

(.) .

; 1G4K5B; Erdlyi,
Nemth 1969, 191, 193, . XXII/5.
10. ( -,
., );
; , ;
2J3K4J; 1963, . 24/15;
1996, 421, 698, . 108/5.
11. ( , ); ; , ; . = 12,3; 1C2B4I5B; Teodor 1969a, 268,
. 9/5; Teodor 1969b, 201, . 15/1; Teodor
1973, 206, . 3/8; Teodor 1978, 41, . 14/3,
15/1; Teodor 1979, 817, 821, . 3/7; Coman
1980, 278, 368, . 158/7; Teodor 1980, 29, .
14/3, 51 nr. 155; Teodor 1992, 139, 151, . 10/4
( . = 12,2).
12. ( -, .,
); ; ; 1A5A; 2003, 296, 299, . 3.
13. ( -,
., ); ; ,
; 2I4D; 1996, 358, 676, . 86/3.
14. ( , ); ; ; . = 13,5;
1A2C3S4E5A; Ra 1965, 379-381, . 1; Teodor
1974, 107, . 4/5; Teodor 1978, 41, . 13/4,
15/5; Teodor 1979, 821, . 3/6; Punescu,
adurschi 1989, 346, 354, . 1; Teodor 1992,
139 ( = 13,4), 50, . 9/6; , 1996, 229, . 50/1.
15-16. ( -,
); 280, ;
; II C ,
, ; 15. ; .
= 14,3; 1D2G3A4I5A; 1986, 25-26,
. 14/1; Werner 1988, 260-262, 262, . 13/1;
Teodor 1992, 138, 151, . 10/3;
1997, 507, . 6/9; Corman 1998, 84-88, 273,
. 84/1; 16. ; . = 14,3; 1D2G3A4I5A;
1986, 25-26, . 14/2; Werner
1988, 260-262, 262, . 13/2; Teodor 1992, 138,
151, . 10/4; 1997 507 . 6/10;
Corman 1998, 84-88, 273, . 84/2.
17. ( -, ,
); 6 257;
179

I. Studii

, ,
, 629/30 641 .; ; .
= 12,9; 1F2J3H4C5B; 1982b, 184-187;
1990, 197, . 18/1.
18. ( -, ., ); ;
( II C
II D ), , , ,
;
1D2L3S4A5A; 1996, 397, 637, .
47/1; , 1996, 229, .
50/8.
19-23. ( -, ., ); ; II C
,
, ,

. 19. ; 1A2K3G4I5A; 1953, 66, 58 . 9/8, 65 . 12; 1961, 186-187, 185 . 87; 1996,
418, 689 . 99/1; 20. ; 1A2K3Q4I5A;
1953, 66, 65, . 12; 1961,
186-187, 185, . 87; Kudlaek 1964, 12, 13, .
9; 1996, 418, 689, . 99/2; 21.
, ; 1A2K4C5A;
1953, 66, 65 . 12; 1961,
186-187, 185 . 87; 1996, 418, 689
. 99/3; 22. ; 1C2F3B4J5C;
1953, 66, 65, . 12; 1961, 186-187,
185, . 87; 1996, 418, 690, .
100/1; 23. , ;
1C2B4B5C; 1953, 66, 65, . 12; 1961, 186-187, 185 . 87;
1996, 418, 690, . 100/2.

,
; . = 10,9; 1G2F3N4A5A; 1990,
196 . 17/5, 237 . 3/1; 1993, 165,
. 5/2.
26. ( -,
., ); ;
, ; 1G4A5A; , 2001-2002, 91 92, . 1.
27. ( ., );
(?);
; ; . = 17,0;
1G2D3O4C5A; , 1959, 98,
97, . 2/1; 1996, 408, 667, .
77/1.
28-29. ( -,
., ); ;
II C , , ,
, , ,
Cypraea; 28.
; . = 13,4; 1G2F3B4H5A; , 1998, 113, 114, . 3/1; 29. ; . =
13,4; 1G2F3B4H5A; , 1998, 113,
114, . 3/2.
30-31. ( ., ); ;
II C ; 30. ; . = 12.0;
1D2A3S4E5C; 1995, 163 . 3/2;
1997, 285, . 2/2; 2000, 38, . 4/2.
31. ; ; 2L3G;
1995, 163, . 3/2; 1997, 285, .
2/5; 2000, 38, . 4/3.

24. ( -, ,
); 9 38;
II D , ,
; ; . = 10,1; 1E2G3D4A5A;
1990, 22, 196, . 17/6; Aibabin,
Khairedinova 2009, 137, 141, . 142/1.

32-33. ( -,
., ); ;
II C ,
II B ,
; 32. ; 1D2G3A4E5A;
1928,. 37/59; Werner 1950,
161, . 39/24; 1996, 403, 651
. 61/2; , 1996, 229,
. 50/16; 33. ; 1E2A3N4G5A; 1996, 403, 651, . 61/3.

25. ( -, ,
); 20 54;
,
, -

34-39. ( -,
., ); ; II C , ; 34.

180

. , II c

1G2F3I4A5C; 1996, 395, 634, .


44/1; 35. 1G2F3I4A5C; 1996, 395,
634, . 44/2; 36. 1B2J3Q4J5A;
1996, 395, 634, . 44/3; 37. 1D2B3J4C5B;
1996, 395, 635, . 45/1; 38.
1E2F3P4K5C; 1996, 395, 635, .
45/2; 39. 1A2F3I4B5B; 1996, 395,
635, . 45/3.
40. ( , ); ; ; . = 7,0; 1B2J3P4A5A; Nestor
1961, 438, n. 19, 445, . 4/1; Tudor 1978, 456,
460, . 149/4; Teodor 1992, 139, 150, .
9/4.
41. ( -,
., ); ; ,
; 1;
1998, 147, 134, . 63/2.
42. . ( , );
; ,
; 1985, 289, .
VI/4; ausidis 1992, 90, . 9/1.
43. - (
, ); 14, ; (
), ,
; ; 1A2B3I4I5A; Ss
1961, 151,40 . 11/1; Ss 1963, 315, 316 .
6/1; Nagy 1998, 150, . 102/9, 171/5.
44-45. ( -, ., ); (?) II C ,
( II B,
II D ) ; 44. 1A2L3R4E5C;
1953, 57, n. 1, 59, . 10/3; 1990, 199; 1996, 402, 650, .
60/12; 45. 1A2L3R4E5C; 1996, 402,
650, . 60/13.
46. (, , ); 28, ; , 30 , ; ; 1C2A3S4E5C; 1906, 8-9, . 7/3;
1996, 424, 701, . 111/2.
47. (, , ); 86, ;
, , , -

; ; 1C2G3B4E5B; 1906, 25 . 6/1; Werner 1950, 160, .


39/20; Kudlaek 1964, 16, . 4/2;
1996, 424, 702, . 112/1.
48. (, , ); 154, ;
II D ; ; . = 8,7; 1A2J3S4E5A;
1990, 197, . 18/2; 1996,
424, 701, . 111/5.
49. (, , ); ; ; . = 17; 1AF3L4C5C; 1906, . 7/7; 1953, 59, .
10/7; 1996, 424, 703, . 113/2.
50. ( , );
;
; ; . =
10,5; 1B2L3B4J5A; Csallny 1961, . 196/2.
51. (. , ,
); ; ,
; 2J3N; Khn 1981, 102-103,
. 24/150.
52. ( ., ); ; 1996, 421, 698, .
108/11.
53. ( -,
., ); ; ;
1B2H3ACB5B; 1928, . 37/56;
Werner 1950, 161, . 39/22; 1953,
58, . 1/4; 1996, 357, 676, .
86/4.
54. ( -,
., ); ; ,
; 1E2B4I5A; 1996, 358, 676 . 86/5; ,
1996, 229, . 50/7.
55. ( , ); IX/2; ; ; 1C2G3K4F5A;
Fiedler 1992, 100-101; Kharalambieva 1993, 25,
26, . 1/1.
56. ( , ); ; ,
,
; ; 1E2I3A4D5C;
- 1958, 312-313, 327, . 39; Vinski

181

I. Studii

1958, 28, . 18/4; Popovi 1984, 175, 176, .


188; -, 1988, 47.
57. ( , );
349, ; ; 1C2F3B4F5B;
Ss 1963, 315, 314, . 5/; Vida 1995, 246, 248,
. 21/7.
58. ( -,
., ); ; ;
1B23B4E5A; 1996, 368, 672, .
82/4.
59. ( -, ,
); 98;
; , ; 2F; 1965, 110,
111, . 44/7.
60. ; , ; 2G3S; Werner
1950, 161, . 39/23.
61. . (); ; 1A2J3T4E5A; 1996, 421, 698, . 108/9.

62.
. (); 1C2A3B4C5B;
1928, . 37/62.
63.
. (); 1B2E3K4I5B; 1953,
58, . 9/9.
64. .
(); 1A2K3M4A5C; ; Kazanski
1999, 111; 2004, 244 247, . 1.
65. .
(); ; ;
1D4C5A; Werner 1950, 161, . 39/29.
66. .
(); ; ;
15A; Werner 1950, 161, . 39/30.
67. .
(); ; ;
15; 1996, 411 673, . 83/3.
68. .
(); ; ;
1996, 410.
69. .
(); ; ;
1D4H5B; 1996, 395, 668 . 78/1.

1982a: A.. , . 3,
1982, 190-198.
1982b: A.. , VII VIII . . .: (. .
.. , I. Erdlyi) V-VIII . - ( 1982), 65-192.
1990: A.. ,
. .: , , 1 ( 1990), 5-68.
1991: A.. , . 2, 1991, 28-35.
1999: A.. , ( 1999).
, 1995: A.. , .. , ( 1992-1993 .). .: (. . .. , .. )
. ( 1995), 125-135, 206-235.
, 1998: .. , .. , VI-VII .. . 3,
1998, 111-121.
1995: . , VII VIII
. : , II ( 1995), 153-182.
1963: .. , . . .: (. . .. ) ( 1963), 145-208.
1894: .. , , I (- 1894).
1901: .. , , III (- 1901).

182

. , II c

1960: .. , . 1, 1960, 274277.


2007: . , . , . 4, 2, 2007, 331-338.
, 1993: .. , .. , ( 1993)
, 1959: .. , .. , . .: , 9 ( 1959),
96-98.
1994: .. , . .: (. . . . , .. , .. , O.M. ) -. ( 1994), 23-27.
2003: .. , . .: (. . .. , .. ) . . . . , I (
2003) 294-300.
, 1996: .. , A.M. , ( 1996).
, 2001-2002: .. , .. , . plus 5, 2001-2002, 91-99.
, , 1983: .. , .. , .. , 1980 . I. .: (. . .. ) 1979-1980 . ( 1983), 112-136.
2001: . , , . .: (. .
. , . , . ) .
( 2001), 225-257.
2003: . , , . .: (.
. . , . , . ) - ( 2003), 384429.
- 2004: . -,
. .: (. . . , . , . ) .
. , 1974-2004 (
2004), 7-34.
1991: .. , . 2, 1991, 171-181.
-, 1988: . -, . , ( 1988).
1997: .. ,
. .: , , 6 ( 1997), 394-478.
1968: .. , I . . . .: (. . .. , .. , .. , .. , .. )
. . . .. ( 1968), 55-60.
1928: A. , .
Seminarium Kondakovianum 2, 1928, 277-308.
1999: M. , . 6, 1999, 404-419.
2010: M. , . plus 4, 2010, 1-111.
1996: .. ,
. . .: , , 5
( 1996), 352-435, 586-705.
1948: . , . 2, 1948, 179-181.
1958: .. , (
). 28, 1958, 198-218.
1965: .. , . .:
, 100 ( 1965), 108-115.

183

I. Studii

1961: .. , ( 1961).
1985: . , . .: (.
. M. ) , I ( 1985), 269-315.
- 1958: . -, . Starinar 7-8, 1958, 311-328.
2000: .. , .
, 6, 7, 2000 (http://archaeology.kiev.ua/journal/061100/
panchenko.htm).
1990: .. , ( ) ( 1990).
1980: .. , VI-IX . . . (
1980).
1985: .. , - V-VII . ( ). , ( 1985).
1990: .. , .
.: (. . .. , .. ) . (
1990), 75-108.
1997: .. , . .:
, , 6 ( 1997), 499-522.
1998: .. , : - ( 1998).
2004: .. , . .: (. . .. , O.A. )
. , 60- E. A.
(-, 14-17 2000 .) (- 2004), 265-281.
, , 1996: .. , .. , .. , . .: (. . I. Erdlyi, .. , .. , E. Szimonova) I
. .. ( 1996), 79-102.
1972: .. , VI-IX ( 1972).
1986: .A. , . III-IV . .. (
1986).
, 1981: .A. , .. , V-VII . I. .: 1974-1976 . ( 1981), 125-140.
1906: .. , . 19, 1906, 1-80.
1907: .. , . 27, 1907, 101-148.
1909: .. ,
1907 . 30, 1909, 99-126.
2006a: .. ,
( ). 3, 2006, 41-51.
2006b: .. ,
( ). 4, 2006, 50-63.
1978: .. , . 2, 1978,
114-118.
1953: .. , .
.. . 17, 1953, 23-104.
1979: .A. , I . .:
, 158 ( 1979), 91-96.
1995: .. , (). Slavia Antiqua 36, 1995, 159-164.
1997: .. , . .:
(. . . . ) ( 1997), 279-289.
2000: .. , I- ..
. .: . ( 2000), 31-43.

184

. , II c

1999: E.. , . Vita antiqua 2,


98-110.
1981: . , . .: . ( 1981), 159-174.
1969: A.T. , . 22, 2, 1969, 161-179.
1984: .. , - VI-VII . .. .:
(. . P. alkovsk) Interaktionen der mitteleuropischen Slawen und anderer Ethnika im 6.-10. Jahrhundert. Symposium Nov Vozokany 3.-7. Oktober 1983 (Nitra 1984), 261-266.
2004: E.A. , E.A. . .: (. . ..
, O.A. ) . , 60 E.A. (-, 14-17 2000 .) (- 2004),
244-253.
1990: .. , V-VII . . 1, 1990, 120121.
1957: A.M. , . .:
, 7 ( 1957), 100-103.
1963: A.M. , . .: (. .
. . ) ( 1963), 138-144.
1990: .. , . .: ( 1990), 162-204.
, 1986: .. , T.A. , . .: (.
. .A. ) . III-IV . .. ( 1986), 177214.
berg 1919: N. berg, Ostpreuen in der Vlkerwanderungszeit (Uppsala/Leipzig 1919).
Aibabin 1993: A.I. Aibabin, La fabrication des garnitures de ceintures et des fibules Chersonse, au Bosphore
Cimmrien et dans la Gothie de Crime aux VIe-VIIIe sicles. In: (ed. C. Eulre) Outils et ateliers dorfvres des
temps anciens (Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1993), 163-170.
Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009: A.I. Aibabin, E.A. Khairedinova, Das Grberfeld beim Dorf Luistoe 1.
Ausgrabungen der Jahre 1977, 1982-1984 (Mainz 2009).
Blint 1992: Cs. Blint, Kontakte zwischen Iran, Byzanz und der Steppe. Das Grab von Tepe (Sowj. Azerbajdan)
und der beschlagverzierte Grtel im 6. und 7. Jahrhundert. In: (ed. F. Daim) Awarenforschungen, I (Wien
1992), 309-496.
Balogh 2004: Cs. Balogh, Martinovka-tpus vgarnitra Kecelrl. A Krpt-medencei maszkos veretek
tipokronolgija. Mra Ferenc Mzeum Evknyve. Studia Archaeologica, 10, 2004, 241-304.
Bank 1985: A.V. Bank, Byzantine Art in the Collections of Soviet Museums (Leningrad 1985).
Bolta 1981: L. Bolta, Rifnik pri entjurju. Poznoantina naselbina in grobie (Ljubljana 1981).
Butnariu 1983-1985: V.M. Butnariu, Rspndirea monedelor bizantine din secolele VI-VII n teritoriile carpatodunrene. Buletinul Societii Numismatice Romne 77-79, 1983-1985, 199-235.
Cameron 1991: C. Cameron, Structure abandonment in villages. Archaeological Method and Theory 3, 1991,
155-194.
Cannon 1989: A. Cannon, The historical dimension in mortuary expressions of status and sentiment. Current
Anthropology 30, 1989, 437-458.
ausidis 1992: N. ausidis, Nakit Komani-kulutre, njegova ikonografija, simbolika i obredni karakter. Glasnik
odjeljenja umjetnosti 11, 1992, 41-105.
Clauss 1987: G. Clauss, Die Tragsitte von Bgelfibeln. Eine Untersuchung zur Frauentracht im frhen Mittelalter.
Jahrbuch des Rmisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums 34, 1987, 491-603.
Coman 1980: Gh. Coman, Statornicie, continuitate. Repertoriul arheologic al judeului Vaslui (Bucureti 1980).
Coma 1961: M. Coma, Dou fibule digitate descoperite n Oltenia. SCIV 1, 12, 1961, 105-107.
Corman 1998: I. Corman, Contribuii la istoria spaiului pruto-nistrian n epoca Evului Mediu timpuriu (Chiinu
1998).
Csallny 1942: D. Csallny, Gyngycsngdszes gepida fibulk. Archaeologiai rtesit, 3, 1942, 329-333.
Csallny 1961: D. Csallny, Archologische Denkmler der Gepiden im Mitteldonaubecken (Budapest 1961).

185

I. Studii

Curta 1992: F. Curta, Die Fibeln der Sammlung V. Culic. Dacia 36, 1992, 37-97.
Curta 2004: F. Curta, Werners class I H of Slavic bow fibulae revisited. Archaeologia Bulgarica 8, 1, 2004, 5978.
Curta 2007: F. Curta, The Amber Trail in early medieval Eastern Europe. In: (ed. F. Lifshitz, C. Chazelle)
Paradigms and Methods in Early Medieval Studies (New York, 2007), 61-79.
Dinchev 1997: V. Dinchev, Zikideva - an example of Early Byzantine urbanism in the Balkans. Archaeologia
Bulgarica 1, 3, 1997, 54-77.
Eger 1996: Chr. Eger, Eine byzantinische Grtelschnalle von der Krim in der Sammlung des Hamburger Museum
fr Archologie. In: , , 5 ( 1996),
343-348, 584-585.
Eger 2001: Chr. Eger, Byzantinische Heiligenfibeln. Bayerische Vorgeschichtsbltter 66, 2001, 149-155.
Erdlyi, Nmeth 1969: I. Erdlyi, P. Nmeth, A Vrpalota-gimnziumi avar temet (a Bakonyi Mzeum avarkori
leletanyagnak ismertetse, 1.). Vszpremi Megyei Muzeumok Kzlemnyei 8, 1969, 167-198.
Fiedler 1992: U. Fiedler, Studien zu Grberfeldern des 6. bis 9. Jahrhunderts an der unteren Donau (Bonn
1992).
Fiedler 1996: U. Fiedler, Die Slawen im Bulgarenreich und im Awarenkhaganat. Versuch eines Vergleichs. In:
(ed. D. Bialekov, J. Zbojnk) Ethnische und kulturelle Verhltnisse an der mittleren Donau vom 6. bis zum 11.
Jahrhundert. Symposium Nitra 6. bis 10. November 1994 (Bratislava 1996), 195-214.
Garam 1991: . Garam, ber Halsketten, Halsschmucke mit Anhngern und Juwelenkragen byzantinischen
Ursprungs aus der Awarenzeit. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 43, 1991, 151-179.
Garam 2001: . Garam, Funde byzantinischer Herkunft in der Awarenzeit vom Ende des 6. bis zum Ende des 7.
Jahrhunderts (Budapest 2001).
Garam 2002: . Garam, Ketten und Schlssel in frhawarenzeitlichen Frauengrber. Communicationes
Archaeologicae Hungariae, 2002, 153-176.
Graudonis 2001: J. Graudonis, The finery of the ancient Semigallians. Lietuvos archeologija 21, 2001, 55-62.
Greco, Mammina 1993-1994: C. Greco, G. Mammina, Un sito tardoromano sulla via Agrigentum-Panormus:
scavi nella necropola in contrada S. Agata (Piana degli Albanesi). Kokalos 39-40, 1993-1994, 1143-1163.
Hilberg 2009: V. Hilberg, Masurische Bgelfibeln. Studien zu den Fernbeziehungen der vlkerwanderungszeitli
chen Brandgrberfelder von Daumen und Kellaren (Neumnster 2009).
Hines 1997: J. Hines, A New Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Great Square-Headed Brooches (Woodbridge/Rochester
1997).
Hinz 1978: H. Hermann, Zur Frauentracht der Vlkerwanderungs- und Vendelzeit im Norden. Bonner Jahrbcher
178, 1978, 347-365.
Iurukova 1969: I. Iurukova, Les invasions slaves au sud du Danube daprs les trsors montaires.
Byzantinobulgarica 3, 1991, 255-263.
Jankovi 1980: . Jankovi, VI-VII . In: (ed. B. Chropovsk)
Rapports du III-e Congrs international darchologie slave. Bratislava, 7-14 septembre 1975, II (Bratislava
1980), 171-181.
Kasteli 1960: J. Kasteli, Slovanska nekropola na Bledu. Poroilo o iskopavanjih leta 1949 in 1951 (Ljubljana
1960).
Katsougiannopoulou 1999: C. Katsougiannopoulou, Studien zu ost- und sdosteuropischen Bgelfibeln. Diss.
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelm Universitt (Bonn 1999).
Kazanski 1996: M. Kazanski, Les Germains orientaux au nord de la Mer Noire pendant la seconde moiti du Ve
s. et au VIe s. In: , , 5 ( 1996), 324337, 567-581.
Kazanski 1999: M. Kazanski, Les Slaves. Les origines, Ier-VIIe sicle aprs J.-C. (Paris 1999).
Khardinova 2007: E.A. Khardinova, Le costume des barbares aux confins septentrionaux de Byzance (VIeVIIe sicle). In: (ed. A.I. Aibabin, G.I. Ivakin) Kiev-Cherson-Constantinople. Ukrainian Papers at the XXth
International Congress of Byzantine Studies (Paris, 19-25 August 2001) (Kiev/Simferopol/Paris 2007), 11-44.
Kharalambieva 1993: A. Kharalambieva, Bgelfibeln aus dem 7. Jh. sdlich der unteren Donau. In: (ed. J.
Pavuj) Actes du XII-e Congrs international des sciences prhistoriques et protohistoriques, Bratislava, 1-7
septembre 1991, IV (Bratislava 1993), 25-32.
Kiss 1996: A. Kiss, Das awarenzeitlich-gepidische Grberfeld von Klked-Feketekapu A (Innsbruck 1996).
Kudlaek 1964: J. Kudlaek, Zur Frage des Reiches der Goten und ihres Aufenthaltes im mittleren Dneprgebiet
(ber die Genesis der Bgelfibeln der Anten). tudijn zvesti 14, 1964, 5-43.

186

. , II c

Khn 1965: H. Khn, Die germanischen Bgelfibeln der Vlkerwanderungszeit in der Rheinprovinz (Graz
1965).
Khn 1981: H. Khn, Die germanischen Bgelfibeln der Vlkerwanderungszeit im Mitteldeutschland (Graz
1981).
Lohe 1999: K. v. der Lohe, Das Grberfeld von Skalistoje auf der Krim und die Ethnogenese der Krimgoten.
Die Frhphase (Ende 4. bis Anfang 6. Jahrhundert). In: Die Sntana de Mure-ernjachov-Kultur. Akten des
internationalen Kolloquiums in Caputh vom 20. bis 24. Oktober 1995 (Bonn 1999), 33-58.
Lrinczy 1998: G. Lrinczy, Kelet-eurpai steppei npessg a 6-7. szzadi Krpt-medencben. Rgszeti adatok
a Tiszntl kora avar kori beteleplshez. Mra Ferenc Mzeum Evknyve. Studia Archaeologica 4, 1998,
343-372.
Manire-Lvque 1997: A.-M. Manire-Levque, Lvolution des bijoux aristocratiques fminins travers les
trsors proto-byzantins dorfvrerie. Revue archologique 1, 1997, 79-106.
Martin 1991: M. Martin, Tradition und Wandel der fibelgeschmckten frhmittelalterlichen Frauenkleidung.
Jahrbuch des Rmisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums 38, 629-680.
Martin 2000: M. Martin, Mit Sax und Grtel ausgestattete Mnnergrber des 6. Jahrhunderts in der Nekropole
von Kranj (Slowenien). In: (ed. P. Kos) Slovenija in sosednje deele med antiko in karolinko dobo. Zaetki
slovenske etnogeneze, I (Ljubljana 2000), 141-198.
Martini, Steckner 1993: W. Martini, C. Steckner, Das Gymnasium von Samos. Das frhbyzantinische Klostergut
(Bonn 1993).
Maurici 2000: F. Maurici, Ancora sulle fibbie da cintura di et bizantina in Sicilia. In: (ed. R. M. C. Boncasa),
Byzantino-Sicula IV. Atti del I Congresso internazionale di archeologia della Sicilia bizantina (Corleone, 28
luglio-2 agosto 1998) (Palermo 2000), 513-557.
Maxim-Alaiba 1981: R. Maxim-Alaiba, O fibul digitat la Blteni-Vaslui. SCIVA 3, 32, 1981, 459-461.
Menghin 2007: W. Menghin (ed.), Merowingerzeit: Europa ohne Grenzen. Archologie und Geschichte des 5. bis
8. Jahrhunderts (Berlin/Wolfratshausen 2007).
Menke 1990: M. Menke, Zu den Fibeln der Awarenzeit aus Keszthely. A Wosinszky Mr Mzeum Evknyve 15,
1990, 187-214.
Morrisson, Popovi, Ivanievi 2006: C. Morrisson, V. Popovi, V. Ivanievi. Les trsors montaires byzantins des Balkans et dAsie Mineure (491-713) (Paris 2006).
Nagy 1998: M. Nagy, Awarenzeitliche Grberfelder im Stadtgebiet von Budapest (Budapest 1998).
Nallbani 2002: E. Nallbani, La civilisation de Komani de lAntiquit tardive au Haut Moyen Age. Thse de
doctorat, Universit de Paris-I Sorbonne (Paris 2002).
Nestor 1961: I. Nestor, Ltablissement des Slaves en Roumanie la lumire de quelques dcouvertes
archologiques rcentes. Dacia n.s. 5, 1961, 429-448.
Ormndy 1995: J. Ormndy, Granulcis dsztes avar kori trgyakon. Gla- s lemezgmbcsngs arany
flbevalk. Mra Ferenc Mzeum Evknyve. Studia Archaeologica 1, 1995, 151-181.
Pallas 1981: D. I. Pallas, Donnes nouvelles sur quelques boucles et fibules consideres comme avares et slaves et
sur Corinthe entre le VI-e et le IX-e sicles. Byzantinobulgarica 7, 1981, 295-318.
Papuc 1987: Gh. Papuc, O fibul digitat de la Tropaeum Traiani i cteva consideraii asupra fibulelor de acest
tip. Pontica 20, 1987, 207-215.
Psztor 1992-1995: A. Psztor, A Cskberny-orondpusztai avar kori temet gyngyleleteinek tipokronolgiai
vizsglata. Savaria. A Vas megye mzeumok rtesitje 22, 3, 1992-1995, 37-83.
Punescu, adurschi 1989: A. Punescu, P. adurschi, Repertoriul arheologic al Romniei. Judeul Botoani.
III: comuna Blueni. Hierasus 7-8, 1989, 344-361.
Petre 1965: A. Petre, Fibulele digitate de la Histria. SCIV 2, 16, 1965, 275-289.
Popovi 1984: V. Popovi, Un tui de peigne en os de type mrovingien et les objets dorigine ethnique trangre
Cariin Grad. In: (ed. N. Duval, V. Popovi) Cariin Grad I. Les basiliques B et J de Cariin Grad, quatre objets
remarquables de Cariin Grad, le trsor de Hajduka Vodenica (Beograd/Roma 1984), 160-178.
Ra 1965: S. Ra, Fibul digitat de bronz de la Drcini. SCIV 2, 16, 1965, 379-382.
Riemer 1995: E. Riemer, Byzantinische Grtelschnallen aus der Sammlung Diergardt im Rmisch-Germanischen
Museum Kln. Klner Jahrbuch fr Vor- und Frhgeschichte 28, 1995, 777-809.
Riemer 2000: E. Riemer, Romanische Grabfunde des 5.-8. Jahrhunderts in Italien (Rahden 2000).
Rolle, Mller-Wille, Schietzel 1991: R. Rolle, M. Mller-Wille, K. Schietzel (ed.), Gold der Steppe. Archologie
der Ukraine (Neumnster 1991).

187

I. Studii

Samson 1987: R. Samson, Social structures from Reihengrber: mirror or mirage? Scottish Archaeological
Review 4, 1987, 116-126.
Schellhas 1997: U. Schellhas, Perlen als Fibelanhnger - die merowingische Interpretation eines mediterranen
Vorbildes. In: (Ed. U. v. Freeden, A. Wieczorek) Perlen. Archologie, Techniken, Analysen. Akten des
Internationalen Perlensymposiums in Mannheim vom 11. bis 14. November 1994 (Bonn 1997), 339-348.
Schulze 1984: M. Schulze, Frhmittelalterliche Kettenohrringe. Archologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 14, 1984,
325-335.
Shablavina, Szmoniewski 2006: E.A. Shablavina, B.S. Szmoniewski, The forming model of the Kertch type
finger-shaped fibula. Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 58, 2006, 519-526.
Shennan 1990: S. Shennan, Quantifying Archaeology (Edinburgh 1990).
Somogyi 1987: P. Somogyi, Typologie, Chronologie und Herkunft der Maskenbeschlge: zu den archologischen
Hinterlassenschaften osteuropischer Reiterhirten aus der pontischen Steppe im 6. Jahrhundert. Archaeologia
Austriaca 71, 1987, 121-154.
Ss 1961: A. Cs. Ss, Ujabb avar kori leletek Csepel-szigetrl. Archaeologiai rtesit 88, 1961, 32-51.
Ss 1963: A. Cs. Ss, Bemerkungen zur Frage des archologischen Nachlasses der awarenzeitlichen Slawen in
Ungarn. Slavia Antiqua 10, 1963, 301-329.
Tautaviius 1984: A. Tautaviius, Poers ploktinis kapinynas. Lietuvos archeologija 3, 1984, 93-118.
Teodor 1969a: D.Gh. Teodor, Regiunile rsritene ale Romniei n sec. VI-VII. Memoria Antiquitatis 1, 1969,
181-206.
Teodor 1969b: D.Gh. Teodor, Unele probleme privind evoluia culturii materiale din Moldova n sec. VI-X.
Carpica 2, 1969, 253-307.
Teodor 1973: D.Gh. Teodor, Les plus anciens Slaves dans lest de la Roumanie (Moldavie). In: (ed. J. Herrmann
and K.-H. Otto) Berichte ber den II. internationalen Kongre fr slawische Archologie. Berlin, 24.-28. August
1970, III (Berlin 1973), 201-211.
Teodor 1974: D.Gh. Teodor, Descoperiri arheologice din secolele VI-XI e.n. n judeul Botoani. In: Din trecutul
judeului Botoani, I (Botoani 1974), 101-114.
Teodor 1978: D.Gh. Teodor, Teritoriul est-carpatic n veacurile V-XI e.n. Contribuii arheologice i istorice la
problema formrii poporului romn (Iai 1978).
Teodor 1979: D.Gh. Teodor, Les Slaves des rgions est-carpathiques de la Roumanie durant les VI-e-XI-e sicles.
In: (ed. B. Chropovsk) Rapports du III-e Congrs international darchologie slave. Bratislava, 7-14 septembre
1975, I (Bratislava 1979), 817-831.
Teodor 1980: D.Gh. Teodor, The East-Carpathian Area of Romania in the V-XI Centuries A.D. (Oxford 1980).
Teodor 1984: D.Gh. Teodor, Civilizaia romanic la est de Carpai n secolele V-VII (aezarea de la BotoanaSuceava) (Bucureti 1984).
Teodor 1992: D.Gh. Teodor, Fibule digitate din secolele VI-VII n spaiul carpato-dunreano-pontic. ArhMold
15, 1992, 119-152.
Tobias 2001: B. Tobias, Die awarenzeitlichen Sieblffel im Karpathenbecken. Communicationes Archaeologicae
Hungariae, 2001, 161-182.
Toropu 1976: O. Toropu, Romanitatea trzie i strromnii n Dacia traian subcarpatic (Craiova 1976).
Toropu, Ciuc, Voicu 1976: O. Toropu, V. Ciuc, C. Voicu, Noi descoperiri arheologice n Oltenia. Drobeta, 2,
1976, 93-111.
Tudor 1978: D. Tudor, Oltenia roman (Bucureti 1978).
Uenze 1974: S. Uenze, Gegossene Fibeln mit Scheinumwicklung des Bgels in den stlichen Balkanprovinzen.
In: (ed. G. Kossack, G. Ulbert), Studien zur vor- und frgeschichtlichen Archologie: Festschrift fr Joachim
Werner zum 65. Geburtstag, II (Mnchen, 1974), 483-494.
Uenze 1992: S. Uenze, Die sptantiken Befestigungen von Sadovec. Ergebnisse der deutsch-bulgarischsterreichischen Ausgrabungen 1934-1937 (Mnchen 1992).
Vagalinski 1994: L. Vagalinski, Zur Frage der ethnischen Herkunft der spten Strahlenfibeln (Finger- oder
Bgelfibeln) aus dem Donau-Karpaten-Becken (M. 6.-7. Jh.). Zeitschrift fr Archologie 28, 1994, 261-305.
Varsik 1992: V. Varsik, Byzantinische Grtelschnallen im mittleren und unteren Donauraum im 6. und 7.
Jahrhundert. Slovensk Archeolgia 40, 1, 1992, 77-103.
Vida 1995: T. Vida, Frhmittelalterliche scheiben- und kugelfrmige Amulettkapseln zwischen Kaukasus,
Kastilien und Picardie. Bericht der Rmisch-Germanischen Kommission 76, 1995, 219-290.
Vida 2004: T. Vida, Reconstruction of a Germanic noble womans costume (Klked-Feketekapu B, grave 85). In:
(ed. G. Fusek) Zbornik na poest Dariny Bialekovej (Nitra 2004), 435-442.

188

. , II c

Vinski 1958: Z. Vinski, O nalazima 6. i 7. stoljea u Jugoslaviji s posebnim obzirom na arheoloku ostavtinu iz
vremena prvog avarskoga kaganata. Opuscula Archaeologica 3, 1958, 16-67.
Vinski 1967: Z.Vinski, Kasnoantiki starosjedioci u Salintanskoj regiji prema arheolokoj ostavtini predslavenskog
supstrata. Vjesnik za arheologiju i historiju Dalmatinsku 69, 1967, 5-98.
Werner 1950: J. Werner, Slawische Bgelfibeln des 7. Jahrhunderts. In: (ed. G. Behrens) Reinecke Festschrift
zum 75. Geburtstag von Paul Reinecke am 25. September 1947 (Mainz 1950), 150-172.
Werner 1960: J. Werner, Neues zur Frage der slawischen Bgelfibeln aus sd-osteuropischen Lndern.
Germania 38, 1960, 114-120.
Werner 1971: J. Werner, Zur Herkunft und Ausbreitung der Anten und Sklawenen. In: (ed. G. Novak) Actes du
VIII-e Congrs international des sciences prhistoriques et protohistoriques. Beograd, 9-15 septembre 1971, I
(Beograd 1971), 243-252.
Werner 1988: J. Werner, Daneny und Brangstrup. Untersuchungen zur ernjachov-Kultur zwischen Sereth
und Dnestr und zu den Reichtumszentren auf Fnen. Bonner Jahrbcher 188, 1988, 241-286.
Werner 1989-1990: J. Werner, Byzantinisches Trachtzubehr des 6. Jahrhunderts aus Heraclea Lyncestis und
Cariin Grad. Starinar 40-41, 1989-1990, 273-277.
Wilmink, Uytterschaut 1984: F.W. Wilmink, H. T. Uytterschaut, Cluster analysis, history, theory and
application. In: (ed. G.N. v. Vark, W.W. Howells) Multivariate Statistical Methods in Physical Anthropology. A
Review of Recent Advances and Current Developments (Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster 1984), 135-175.
Winkler, Bloi 1973: I. Winkler, C. Bloi, Circulaa monetar n aezrile antice de pe teritoriul comunei Orlea.
Acta Musei Napocensis 10, 1973, 181-212.
Zasetskaya 2004: I.P. Zasetskaya, On the chronology of eagle-head buckles from the necropolis of Bosporus and
South-Crimean burial-grounds of the early medieval period (6th-early 7th centuries AD). Ancient Civilizations
from Scythia to Siberia 10, 2004, 1-2, 77-138.

O femeie din Dnceni sau despre fibulele de tip II C dup Werner


Rezumat
Ideile arheologului german Joachim Werner despre fibulele digitate din grupa II C au avut o influen considerabil asupra arheologilor din Europa central-rsritean i de rsrit. O reluare a subiectului este cu att mai necesar
cu ct numrul de exemplare cunoscute din aceast grup a crescut n ultima jumtate de secol. Un studiu bazat pe
near-neighbor clustering analysis scoate n eviden cteva observaii interesante. Mai nti, foarte puine fibule
descoperite n localiti nvecinate se aseamn una cu alta, i aceasta numai n regiunea cursului mijlociu al Niprului. Cel mai adesea, fibule asemntoare se gsesc la mare distan una de alta, n Crimeea, regiunea Niprului
Mijlociu, ori n bazinul carpatic. Cu excepia perechii de fibule de la Dnceni, toate fibulele aproape identice au
fost gsite n regiunea de la est de Nipru aflat astzi n graniele Ucrainei. Contextul arheologic al unora dintre
exemplarele grupei II C dup Werner arat c cele mai vechi exemplare sunt cele de la Cariin Grad i de la areve,
care au fost gsite dimpreun cu fibule cu picior ntors pe dedesubt turnate din cea de a doua jumtate sau de la
sfritul secolului al VI-lea. Nici o fibul de tip II C dup Werner nu poate fi datat cu siguran mai trziu de prima
jumtate a secolului al VII-lea, ceea ce nseamn c tipul va fi fost la mod n jurul anului 600. n Crimeea, fibule
de acest tip apar laolalt cu fibule de tip II D dup Werner, o combinaie ce se regsete n tezaurele de bronz i de
argint din regiunea Niprului Mijlociu. n morminte din acea regiune, dar i din Crimeea, dou fibule digitate purtate pe umeri erau adesea legate cu un irag de mrgele i pandantiv metalic, o mod de sorginte nord-european,
probabil scandinav. Studii traseologice ale fibulelor din regiunea Niprului Mijlociu au artat c ele au fost produse
n acea regiune i nu aduse din afar, chiar dac pn n prezent lipsesc descoperirile de tipare de fibule. n bazinul
carpatic, fibulele de tip II C erau purtate n cte un singur exemplar, dar aceasta nu reprezint nicidecum o mod
slav, aa cum credea Joachim Werner. Perechea de fibule de la Dnceni reprezint o referin clar la moda din
rndurile aristocraiei din regiunea Niprului Mijlociu, pe care elitele locale din Moldova de la sfritul secolului al
VI-lea i nceputul secolului al VII-lea se grbeau s o imite.
Lista ilustraiilor:
Fig. 1. Mormntul 280 de la Dnceni: fibule digitate, brar, ceramic lucrat cu mna i irag de mrgele (dup
1986).
Fig. 2. Pri componente ale fibulelor de tip II C dup Werner: variante de plac circular (1 A-G) i de plac a
piciorului (2 A-G).
Fig. 3. Pri componente ale fibulelor de tip II C dup Werner: variante de plac a piciorului (2 H-l), lob terminal
(3 A-T), arc (4 A-K) i butoni (5 A-C).
Fig. 4. Near-neighbor cluster analysis a 46 de fibule digitate de tip II C dup Werner.

189

I. Studii

Fig. 5. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene dup Teodor
1992; 1996).
Fig. 6. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene dup Teodor
1992; , 1995; 1996; Nagy 1998).
Fig. 7. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene dup Ss 1963;
Teodor 1992; Haralambieva 1993; 1996. Fotografii dup 1965; -,
1988).
Fig. 8. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene executate de
autor (14), celelalte dup 1990; 1996; , 2001-2002).
Fig. 9. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene dup
1996; 1998. Fotografii dup 1985; 1996).
Fig. 10. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene i fotografii
dup 1996).
Fig. 11. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene dup
1993; 1996; , 1998; 2000; Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009).
Fig. 12. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene dup
1996; 2000. Fotografie dup Khn 1981).
Fig. 13. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene dup
1996).
Fig. 14. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene executate de
ctre autor (40), celelalte dup 1996).
Fig. 15. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene dup Werner
1950; 1996; Nagy 1998. Fotografie dup Csallny 1961).
Fig. 16. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene dup
1928; 1996; 2003. Fotografii dup 1953; 2004).
Fig. 17. Fibule digitate de tip II C Werner. Numerele trimit la lista de descoperiri din catalog (desene executate de
autor (11), restul dup 1928; 1996; Garam 2004).
Fig. 18. Proiecia pe harta Europei rsritene i central-rsritene a relaiilor de asemnare dintre 46 de fibule de
tip II C dup Werner stabilite pe baza near-neighbor cluster analysis. Liniile cele mai groase indic apte vecini i apoi, n ordine descresctoare, pn la cele mai subiri linii pentru cte trei vecini.
Fig. 19. Rspndirea fibulelor digitate de tip II C dup Werner. Numerele trimit la catalogul descoperirilor.
Fig. 20. O selecie de obiecte din tezaurul de la Koloskovo: fibul cu picior ntors pe dedesubt, plac de curea,
vrf de lance, cataram, fibul digitat, pandantiv dublu spiralat n form de ochelari, colan i brar (dup
1996).
Fig. 21. O selecie de obiecte din tezaurul de la Kozievka: fibule digitate, plci de curea i cataram, limbi de curea,
un fragment de fibul cu picior ntors pe dedesubt, pandantiv dublu spiralat n form de ochelari i pandantiv
n form de plrie (dup 1996).
Fig. 22. Poziia fibulelor digitate, a iragului de mrgele i de pandantive metalice, a cataramei i a plcilor de curea
pe scheletul 9 din camera funerar 38 de la Luistoe (dup Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009).
Fig. 23. Camera funerar 98 de la ufut Kale: fragment de fibul digitat i plci de curea (dup
1965).
Fig. 24. Poziia fibulelor digitate din mormntul 28 de la Suuk Su (dup 1906; 1996).
Fig. 25. Poziia fibulelor digitate, a crucii i a cataramei cu cap de vulture de pe scheletul 6 din camera funerar 257
de la Eski Kermen (dup 1982).
Fig. 26. Mormntul 349 de la Cskbreny: fibul digitat, tub de os, mrgele de sticl, fragment de lan de fier,
aplic circular i verig de fier (dup Vida 1995).
Fig. 27. Mormntul 2 de pe strada Pannonhalmi din Budapesta: fibul digitat, cataram, cercel i mrgele de sticl
(dup Nagy 1998).
Fig. 28. Mormntul de inhumaie de la Tiszabura: cercei, cuit, cataram, fibul digitat i irag de mrgele (dup
Csallny 1961).
Fig. 29. Mormntul 14 de la Szigetszentmikls-Haros: cercei, lanet, aplici, cuit, fibul digitat, lan, irag de
mrgele, cataram i brri (dup Nagy 1998).
Fig. 30. Obiecte de pe scheletul de femeie din camera funerar 11 de la Bakla: fibule i cataram (dup ,
1995).
Fig. 31. Mormntul de inhumaie de la Balakliia: fibule digitate i brar (dup 1996).

190

. , II c

Fig. 32. O selecie de obiecte din tezaurul de la Nova Odessa: irag de mrgele, fibul digitat, aplic de plumb, pandantiv de tabl de bronz trapezoidal, pandantiv ptrat, pandantiv n form de clopoel i lan (dup
1996).
Fig. 33. Mormntul de inhumaie de la Mohna: fibul cu picior ntors pe dedesubt, pandantiv din tabl de bronz
trapezoidal, brar, cercel (sau inel de tmpl) cu capt rsucit, fibul digitat, inel, aplic circular, pandantiv
n form de clopoel i un fragment de diadem (dup , 1998).
Fig. 34. Descoperirea ntmpltoare de la Mena: fibul digitat i brri (dup 1996).

A woman from Dnceni, or bow fibulae of Werners class II c


Abstract
Joachim Werners changing views on the so-called Slavic bow fibulae of his class II C have long influenced the
views of archaeologists working on the early Middle Ages in East Central and Eastern Europe. A fresh look at the
much enlarged corpus of evidence was therefore much needed. The near-neighbor clustering analysis of all whole
specimens of Werners class II C reveals some interesting observations. First, very few II C fibulae found on neighboring sites are also alike, and that only in the Middle Dnieper region. More often than not, very similar specimens
have been found at a long distance from each other, e.g., in Crimea, the Middle Dnieper region, or in the Carpathian Basin. Except the pair of fibulae from Dnceni, almost identical specimens are only known from assemblages
in Left Bank Ukraine. A thorough examination of the archaeological context in which some of the II C fibulae have
been found shows that the earliest specimens are those from Cariin Grad and Carevec, mainly because of their association with cast fibulae with bent stem, otherwise dated to the second half of, or the late sixth century. No fibulae
are known which could be firmly dated later than the first half of the seventh century, which suggests that Werners
class II C may have been in fashion shortly before and after AD 600. In Crimea, such fibulae often appear in combination with specimens of Werners class II D, a combination also attested in hoards of bronze and silver from the
Middle Dnieper region. In burial assemblages from both that region and from Crimea, pairs of fibulae were sometimes connected with a necklace of glass beads and pendants, a fashion of north European, possibly Scandinavian
origin. Trasological studies of fibulae found in the Middle Dnieper region showed that they were produced locally,
even though to this date no mould is known from that region. In the Carpathian Basin, fibulae of Werners class II
C were worn singly, but contrary to Werners own opinion, there is nothing Slavic about that fashion. The pair of
fibulae from Dnceni represents a clear reference to the fashions sported by elites in the Middle Dnieper region,
whom local elites in late sixth- or early seventh-century Moldova wanted to emulate.
List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Grave 280 in Dnceni: bow fibulae, bracelet, handmade pottery, and glass beads (after 1986).
Fig. 2. Werners class II C, brooch design parts: head-plates (1 A-G) and foot-plates (2 A-G).
Fig. 3. Werners class II C, brooch design parts: foot-plates (2 H-l), terminal lobes (3 A-T), bow (4 A-K), and knobs
(5 A-C).
Fig. 4. Near-neighbor cluster analysis of 46 bow fibulae of Werners class II C.
Fig. 5. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn after Teodor 1992;
1996).
Fig. 6. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn after Teodor 1992;
, 1995; 1996; Nagy 1998).
Fig. 7. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn after Ss 1963;
Teodor 1992; Haralambieva 1993; 1996. Photos after 1965; -,
1988).
Fig. 8. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn by the author (14)
and after 1990; 1996; , 2001-2002).
Fig. 9. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn after
1996; 1998. Photos after 1985; 1996).
Fig. 10. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawings and photos after
1996).
Fig. 11. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn after 1993;
1996; , 1998; 2000; Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009).
Fig. 12. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn after
1996; 2000. Photo after Khn 1981).

191

I. Studii

Fig. 13. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawings after
1996).
Fig. 14. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn by the author (40)
and after 1996).
Fig. 15. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn after Werner 1950;
1996; Nagy 1998. Photo after Csallny 1961).
Fig. 16. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn after
1928, 1996; 2003. Photos after 1953; 2004).
Fig. 17. Fibulae of Werners class II C. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the appendix (drawn by the author (11)
and after 1928; 1996; Garam 2004).
Fig. 18. Plotting of the nearest-neighbor similarity of 46 fibulae of Werners class II C. Diminishing line thickness
indicates the decreasing number of shared neighbors from 6 (thickest) to 3 (thinnest).
Fig. 19. The distribution of fibulae of Werners class II C in Eastern Europe. Numbers refer to the list of finds in the
appendix.
Fig. 20. The Koloskovo hoard, selected artifacts: fibula with bent stem, belt mount, lance head, belt buckle, bow
fibula, double-spiral eyeglass-shaped pendant, torc, and bracelet (after 1996).
Fig. 21. The Kozievka hoard, selected artifacts: bow fibulae, belt mounts and buckle, strap ends, fragmentary fibula
with bent stem, double-spiral eyeglass-shaped pendant, hat-shaped pendant (after 1996).
Fig. 22. Luchistoe, burial chamber 38, grave goods associated with skeleton 9: bow fibulae, beads, pendants, buckle, and belt mounts (after Aibabin, Khairedinova 2009).
Fig. 23. Chufut Kale, burial chamber 98: fragment of bow fibula and belt mounts (after 1965).
Fig. 24. Suuk Su, grave 28 with associated bow fibulae (after 1906; 1996).
Fig. 25. Eski Kermen, burial chamber 257, grave goods associated with skeleton 6: bow fibulae, cross and eagleheaded buckle (after 1982).
Fig. 26. Cskbreny, grave 349: bow fibula, bone tube, glass beads, iron chain, circular mount, and iron ring (after
Vida 1995).
Fig. 27. Budapest-Pannonhalmi Street 2, grave 2: bow fibula, belt buckle, earring, and glass beads (after Nagy
1998).
Fig. 28. Tiszabura, inhumation: earrings, knife, bow fibula, and beads (after Csallny 1961).
Fig. 29. Szigetszentmikls-Haros, grave 14: earrings, lancet, mounts, knife, bow fibula, chain, beads, buckle, and
bracelets (after Nagy 1998).
Fig. 30. Bakla, burial chamber 11, grave goods associated with the female skeleton: fibulae and buckle (after , 1995).
Fig. 31. Balakliia, inhumation: bow fibulae and bracelet (after 1996).
Fig. 32. The Nova Odessa hoard, selected artifacts: beads, bow fibula, lead mount, repouss copper-alloy pendant,
square pendant, bell-shaped pendant, chain (after 1996).
Fig. 33. Mokhnach, inhumation: fibula with bent stem, repouss copper-alloy pendant, bracelet, ear(or lock-)ring
with twisted end, bow fibula, finger-ring, circular mount, bell-shaped pendant, and fragment of a diadem (after
, 1998).
Fig. 34. Mena, stray find: bow fibula and bracelet (after 1996).

14.03.2011
. , Department of History, University of Florida, 202 Flint Hall, P.O. Box 117320, Gainesville, FL
32611-7320, USA, e-mail: fcurta@ufl.edu

192