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DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES In this modulator the carrier assumes one of two phases.

A logic 1
produces no phase change and a logic 0 produces a 180° phase
FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING change. The output waveform for this modulator is shown below.
Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a method of transmitting digital
signals. The two binary states, logic 0 (low) and 1 (high), are each
represented by an analog waveform. Logic 0 is represented by a
wave at a specific frequency, and logic 1 is represented
by a wave at a different frequency. A modem converts the binary
data from a computer to FSK for transmission over telephone lines,
cables, optical fiber, or wireless media. The modem also converts
incoming FSK signals to digital low and high states, which the
computer can "understand."

Forms of phase shift keying


Although phase modulation is used for some analogue transmissions,
it is far more widely used as a digital form of modulation where it
switches between different phases. This is known as phase shift
keying, PSK, and there are many flavours of this. It is even possible
to combine phase shift keying and amplitude keying in a form of
modulation known as quadrature amplitude modulation, QAM.

The FSK mode was introduced for use with mechanical teleprinters in The list below gives some of the more commonly used forms of phase
the mid-1900s. The standard speed of those machines was 45 baud, shift keying, PSK, and related forms of modulation that are used:
equivalent to about 45 bits per second. When personal computers PSK - Phase Shift Keying
became common and networks came into being, this signaling speed BPSK - Binary Phase Shift Keying
was tedious. Transmission of large text documents and programs QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
took hours; image transfer was unknown. During the 1970s, O-QPSK - Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
engineers began to develop modems that ran at faster speeds, and 8 PSK - 8 Point Phase Shift Keying
the quest for ever-greater bandwidth has continued ever since. 16 PSK - 16 Point Phase Shift Keying
Today, a standard telephone modem operates at thousands of bits QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
per second. Cable and wireless modems work at more than 1,000,000 16 QAM - 16 Point Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
bps (one megabit per second or 1 Mbps), and optical fiber modems 64 QAM - 64 Point Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
function at many Mbps. But the basic principle of FSK has not MSK - Minimum Shift Keying
changed in more than half a century. GMSK - Gaussian filtered Minimum Shift Keying

PHASE SHIFT KEYING Applications of PSK


Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys The most popular wireless LAN standard, IEEE 802.11b[1][2], uses a
data by changing, or modulating, the phase of a reference signal (the variety of different PSKs depending on the data-rate required. At the
carrier wave). basic-rate of 1 Mbit/s, it uses DBPSK. To provide the extended-rate of
2 Mbit/s, DQPSK is used. In reaching 5.5 Mbit/s and the full-rate of
Any digital modulation scheme uses a finite number of distinct signals 11 Mbit/s, QPSK is employed, but has to be coupled with
to represent digital data. PSK uses a finite number of phases, each complementary code keying. The higher-speed wireless LAN
assigned a unique pattern of binary bits. Usually, each phase encodes standard, IEEE 802.11g[1][3] has eight data rates: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24,
an equal number of bits. Each pattern of bits forms the symbol that is 36, 48 and 54 Mbit/s. The 6 and 9 Mbit/s modes use BPSK. The 12
represented by the particular phase. The demodulator, which is and 18 Mbit/s modes use QPSK. The fastest four modes use forms of
designed specifically for the symbol-set used by the modulator, quadrature amplitude modulation.
determines the phase of the received signal and maps it back to the
symbol it represents, thus recovering the original data. This requires QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION
the receiver to be able to compare the phase of the received signal to
a reference signal — such a system is termed coherent (and referred QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) is a method of combining
to as CPSK). two amplitude-modulated (AM) signals into a single channel, thereby
doubling the effective bandwidth. QAM is used with pulse amplitude
Alternatively, instead of using the bit patterns to set the phase of the modulation (PAM) in digital systems, especially in wireless
wave, it can instead be used to change it by a specified amount. The applications.
demodulator then determines the changes in the phase of the
received signal rather than the phase itself. Since this scheme In a QAM signal, there are two carriers, each having the same
depends on the difference between successive phases, it is termed frequency but differing in phase by 90 degrees (one quarter of a
differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). DPSK can be significantly cycle, from which the term quadrature arises). One signal is called
simpler to implement than ordinary PSK since there is no need for the the I signal, and the other is called the Q signal. Mathematically, one
demodulator to have a copy of the reference signal to determine the of the signals can be represented by a sine wave, and the other by a
exact phase of the received signal (it is a non-coherent scheme). In cosine wave. The two modulated carriers are combined at the source
exchange, it produces more erroneous demodulations. The exact for transmission. At the destination, the carriers are separated, the
requirements of the particular scenario under consideration determine data is extracted from each, and then the data is combined into the
which scheme is used. original modulating information.
Multiplexing: Sharing a Medium

Introduction

Under the simplest conditions, a medium can carry only one signal at
any moment in time.

For multiple signals to share one medium, the medium must


somehow be divided, giving each signal a portion of the total
bandwidth.

The current techniques that can accomplish this include


• frequency division multiplexing (FDM)
• time division multiplexing (TDM)
• Synchronous vs statistical
• wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)
• code division multiplexing (CDM)

Multiplexing (MUX)

• Two or more simultaneous transmissions on a single circuit.


– Transparent to end user.
• Multiplexing costs less.

Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing


Frequency Division Multiplexing
Assignment of non-overlapping frequency ranges to each ―user‖ or The original time division multiplexing.
signal on a medium. Thus, all signals are transmitted at the same
time, each using different frequencies. The multiplexor accepts input from attached devices in a round-robin
fashion and transmit the data in a never ending pattern.
A multiplexor accepts inputs and assigns frequencies to each device.
T-1 and ISDN telephone lines are common examples of synchronous
The multiplexor is attached to a high-speed communications line. time division multiplexing.

A corresponding multiplexor, or demultiplexor, is on the end of the If one device generates data at a faster rate than other devices, then
high-speed line and separates the multiplexed signals. the multiplexor must either sample the incoming data stream from
that device more often than it samples the other devices, or buffer
Analog signaling is used to transmits the signals. the faster incoming stream.
If a device has nothing to transmit, the multiplexor must still insert a
Broadcast radio and television, cable television, and the AMPS cellular piece of data from that device into the multiplexed stream.
phone systems use frequency division multiplexing. This technique is
the oldest multiplexing technique. Since it involves analog signaling, it Three types popular today:
is more susceptible to noise. • T-1 multiplexing (the classic)
• ISDN multiplexing
• SONET (Synchronous Optical NETwork)
Time Division Multiplexing
The T1 (1.54 Mbps) multiplexor stream is a continuous series of
Sharing of the signal is accomplished by dividing available frames of both digitized data and voice channels.
transmission time on a medium among users.
The ISDN multiplexor stream is also a continuous stream of
Digital signaling is used exclusively. frames. Each frame contains various control and sync info.
SONET – massive data rates
Time division multiplexing comes in two basic forms:
1. Synchronous time division multiplexing, and Synchronous TDM
2. Statistical, or asynchronous time division multiplexing. • Very popular
• Line will require as much bandwidth as all the bandwidths of
the sources
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing

A statistical multiplexor transmits only the data from active


workstations (or why works when you don’t have to).

If a workstation is not active, no space is wasted on the multiplexed


stream.

A statistical multiplexor accepts the incoming data streams and


creates a frame containing only the data to be transmitted.

A statistical multiplexor does not require a line over as high a speed


line as synchronous time division multiplexing since STDM does not
assume all sources will transmit all of the time!

Good for low bandwidth lines (used for LANs)

Much more efficient use of bandwidth!

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

Give each message a different wavelength (frequency)


Business Multiplexing In Action
Easy to do with fiber optics and optical sources
XYZ Corporation has two buildings separated by a distance of 300
meters.
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
A 3-inch diameter tunnel extends underground between the two
Dense wavelength division multiplexing is often called just buildings.
wavelength division multiplexing
Building A has a mainframe computer and Building B has 66
Dense wavelength division multiplexing multiplexes multiple data terminals.
streams onto a single fiber optic line.
List some efficient techniques to link the two buildings.
Different wavelength lasers (called lambdas) transmit the multiple
signals. Possible Solutions

Each signal carried on the fiber can be transmitted at a different rate Connect each terminal to the mainframe computer using separate
from the other signals. point-to-point lines.

Dense wavelength division multiplexing combines many (30, 40, 50, Connect all the terminals to the mainframe computer using one
60, more?) onto one fiber. multipoint line.

Connect all the terminal outputs and use microwave transmissions to


Code Division Multiplexing (CDM) send the data to the mainframe.

Old but now new method Collect all the terminal outputs using multiplexing and send the data
to the mainframe computer using a conducted line.
Also known as code division multiple access (CDMA)

An advanced technique that allows multiple devices to transmit on


the same frequencies at the same time using different codes

Used for mobile communications

An advanced technique that allows multiple devices to transmit on


the same frequencies at the same time.

Each mobile device is assigned a unique 64-bit code (chip spreading


code)

To send a binary 1, mobile device transmits the unique code


To send a binary 0, mobile device transmits the inverse of code

Receiver gets summed signal, multiplies it by receiver code, adds up


the resulting values

Interprets as a binary 1 if sum is near +64


Interprets as a binary 0 if sum is near –64