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# Inverting Subtractor and Voltage Controlled Oscillator

## BLENU4ECE09105 BLENU4ECE09108 BLENU4ECE09114

Inverting Subtractor
Aim :

## uA741 1k ohm 0-10V

1 4 2 1 1 As required

Theory:

The inverting subtractor is implemented using a differential amplifier where the higher input is given to the negative terminal of the op-amp.

GENERAL CASE:

For common-mode rejection, anything done to one input must be done to the other. The addition of a compensation capacitor in parallel with Rf, for instance, must be balanced by an equivalent capacitor in parallel with Rg.

Condition:

V1> V2
CASE 1: Whenever R1= R2 and Rf=Rg,:

## CASE 2: When R1=Rf and R2=Rg:

A=1
The circuit acts as a differential follower:
Applications:

A differential amplifier amplifies the difference signal between its two inputs, while rejecting the common mode signal that might be present relative to circuit ground. Applications include subtractors, differential microphones, reducing hum, or small signal sensor monitors, often over a large distance such as in a process control application.

Circuit:

Calculation:

4

=-1V
Output:

Aim :

## 1 each 1 each 1 each 1 1 1 As required

Theory:

A Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is an oscillating circuit whose output frequency changes in direct proportion to an input voltage. VCOs can be made to oscillate from a few Hertz to hundreds of GHz. For a constant voltage the output is a free running sinusoidal waveform. Every wireless device in use today has some sort of voltage controlled oscillator inside it. For example, there is a least one VCO inside every cell phone that generates the Radio Frequency (RF) waves that are used to communicate by-directionally to the cell tower. A voltage controlled oscillator is an electronic oscillator.

An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a repetitive electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave A reverse-biased semiconductor diode displays a measure of voltage-dependent capacitance and can be used to change the frequency of an oscillator by varying a control voltage applied to the diode. Special-purpose variable capacitance varactor diodes are available with wellcharacterized wide-ranging values of capacitance. Such devices are very convenient in the manufacture of voltage-controlled oscillators. For low-frequency VCOs frequency is varied by altering the charging rate of a capacitor by means of a voltage controlled current source. A VCO output frequency is stabilized or controlled with a Resonator. A Resonator can be as simple as an Inductor or as complex as a Quartz Crystal. Applications

## VCOs are used in:

Electronic jamming equipment Function generators The production of electronic music, to generate variable tones Phase-locked loops Frequency synthesizers used in communication equipment.

Voltage-to-Frequency converters are voltage-controlled oscillators, with a highly linear relation between applied voltage and frequency. They are used to convert a slow analog signal (such as from a temperature transducer) to a digital signal for transmission over a long distance, since the frequency will not drift or be affected by noise. VCOs may have sine and/or square wave outputs. Function generators are low-frequency oscillators which feature multiple waveforms, typically sine, square, and triangle waves. Monolithic function generators are voltagecontrolled. Analog phase-locked loops typically contain VCOs. High-frequency VCOs are usually used in phase-locked loops for radio receivers. Phase noise is the most important specification for them.

Low-frequency VCOs are used in analog music synthesizers. For these, sweep range, linearity, and distortion are often most important specs. Since music synthesis is nowadays done digitally, the market for audio-frequency VCOs has largely disappeared.

Circuit:

Output:

10

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