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Chapter 13 Basic Geometrical Concepts and Properties Angle Properties of Parallel Lines Secondary 1 (Express) Students of Above-Average Ability (Class 1H) 2 Periods (70 minutes)

Specific Instructional Objectives: At the end of this computer laboratory session, students should be able to: Measure angles using Geometers Sketchpad (GSP) 4.06. Understand the definition of acute, right, obtuse, straight and reflex angles. Appreciate that two angles are called supplementary if their sum is 180o. Appreciate that two angles are called complementary if their sum is 90o. Understand that when two parallel lines are cut by a traversal, the following results hold true, viz. corresponding angles are equal, alternate angles are equal, interior angles are supplementary. Prior Knowledge:

Knowledge of basic functions in Geometers Sketchpad, i.e. selection, point, compass, line and text tools (from previous introductory lesson on GSP 4.06). Baseline IT skills as stipulated by the Ministry of Education in MOE (2006).

Learning Aids / Resources: Visualiser. Whiteboard. Projector. Geometers Sketchpad 4.06. GSP Workfile (Designed by Teacher) http://sps.nus.edu.sg/~tanyinso/gsp Worksheets (Provided by Teacher). 40 Computer Terminals. References:

Chua, P. H. (2006). Lectures on QCM520: Teaching of Mathematics I. Singapore: National Institute of Education.

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Edwards, C. H. (2004). Classroom discipline and management (4th ed.). New York: Wiley. Hayes, B. (n.d.). Introduction to socratic questioning. Retrieved July 24, 2006, from http://okra.deltastate.edu/~bhayes/socratic.html Khine, M. S., & Lourdusamy, A. (2005). Application of discipline models in classroom management. In Khine, M. S., Lourdusamy, A., Quek, C. L., & Wong, A. F. L. (Eds.), Classroom management: facilitating teaching and learning (pp. 174-192). Singapore: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Lee, N. H. (2006). Preparation of schemes of work and lesson plans. In Lee, P. Y. (Ed.), Teaching secondary school mathematics: a resource book (pp. 311-330). Singapore: McGraw-Hill. Ministry of Education, Singapore (2001). Lower Secondary Mathematics Syllabus. Retrieved April 16, 2006, from http://www.moe.gov.sg/cpdd/doc/Maths_LowSec.pdf MOE (2006). Baseline IT Standards for Pupils (Version 2.1). Singapore: Ministry of Education. Posamentier, A. S. & Stepelman, J. (1995). Teaching secondary school mathematics: techniques and enrichment units. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Merrill. Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2003). Educational psychology: a practitioner-researcher approach (Asian ed.). Singapore: Thomson Learning. Teh, K. S., & Looi, C. K. (2001). New syllabus mathematics 1: Textbook. Singapore: Shing Lee Publishers.

Concept Map:

Angles

Supplementary Complementar y

Lesson Plan:

Prepared by Tan Yin Soo (Mr.)

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Teaching / Learning Activities Groundrules Communicate ground rules and expectations for the computer laboratory session to all students (see Appendix). The teacher needs to create a psychologically safe, positive classroom environment that is free from threats through the establishment of proper ground rules (Khine & Lourdusamy, 2005). This is also based on Canters assertive discipline model, i.e. the setting of good ground rules provides for psychological safety in the form of teacher consistency and fairness, i.e. the teacher is not going to treat individual students differently from one another, nor fluctuate wildly in his treatment of the class. Preamble Laboratory organisation and classroom management:-

Rationale / Resources

Research has shown that a nurturing, psychologically safe, and orderly learning environment is essential to learning (Tan, Parsons, Hinson & Sardo-Brown, 2003).

Ask students to sit according to their index numbers. The row furthest away from the teacher will be 1 10. These numbers run sequentially till the last row (i.e. the row nearest to the teacher), which has numbers 31 40. Students are to do this quickly and with minimum noise. Get the mathematics representative to distribute the laboratory worksheets. In the first 10 minutes of the lesson, ask students sitting on the right column to move their seats to the left column, so that they can see the projector screen properly.

Assigned seating is given to students so as to minimise changing of seats and to ensure that curriculum time is not wasted by students taking excessive time in settling down. Students are to be seated close to the teacher during the initial briefing so as to ensure full attention and that there are no students at the back rows causing unnecessary disruption.

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Motivational Activity Begin by giving a quick recapitulation of the main functions in the GSP 4.06 toolbox, viz. selection, point, compass, line and text tools.

This emphasis stimulates retrieval of information in students by prompting them to recall their prior knowledge of the selection, point, compass, line and text tools (Gagns task analysis in educational psychology). This recapitulation activity reduces the lessons mental demand on students by making connections to previously learnt knowledge, and by breaking down the learning task into smaller components (Piagets constructivist theory). Socratic questioning technique: Source and viewpoint question. Curriculum Enrichment: Introduces a challenging element into the computer laboratory session to stimulate students critical thinking (Catering to the diverse needs of students of high ability). Goal (i.e. expectancy) of the lesson is communicated to students right from the start (Gagns task analysis in educational psychology).

Remind students that the lesson ended yesterday when we learnt how to construct a circle of diameter 8 cm. Ask students, Now that Ive used the compass tool to draw a circle on the screen, what do I need to do next to ensure that my circle has the correct dimensions? Give students some wait-time and call on students to solicit their responses. Next ask, Has anyone tried constructing an equilateral triangle? Curriculum Enrichment: After soliciting students responses, discuss two possible solutions with students, i.e. either doing it manually, or via Euclids construction using two circles of equal radii. Briefly introduce to students the life story of Greek mathematician Euclid (325 BC 265 BC), widely revered as the father of geometry.

A

mABC = 60.07 mBCA = 60.07 mCAB = 59.86

Explain to students that the purpose of our lesson today is to build on yesterdays understanding by learning how to construct and measure angles. In the second period of this lesson, we will explore some of the angle properties of parallel lines.

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Lesson Development Give students specific instructions on how to download the workfile (Discovery.gsp) for todays lesson. This can be done via the teacherss homepage http://sps.nus.edu.sg/~tanyinso/gsp For students who have forgotten their password, they are to raise their hands and the teacher will come to them later. Once satisfied that all students have gotten the workfile up and running, the teacher will formally proceed with the lesson. Draw students attention to Activity 1: Measuring Angles in both the worksheets and Discovery.gsp. Guided Demonstration (Activities 1 & 2): The teacher is to scaffold this activity for students by giving a 10-minute modelled demonstration on how to solve this activity. Especially re-emphasise the correct procedure for measuring angles in GSP, e.g. if the required angle is BAC, then the points have to be highlighted in the proper sequence B A C. Students are then to complete the rest of Activity 1 on their own. The teacher switches from an expository teaching method to a facilitator role at this point in time and moves around the computer laboratory to assist students in Activity 1. Clear and unambiguous instructions given to students to minimise confusion, enhance the learning process and to ensure a quality of experience in students when doing the activities. Warm-Up (Activity 1): Scaffolding needs to be provided in order to help students move to a higher level of skill and knowledge based on his zone of proximal development. (Vygotskys social development theory). This guided demonstration segment familiarises students with the necessary techniques and heuristics to solve the rest of the activities independently. Teachers walking around ensures that students get instant feedback for their work, and do not misbehave or stray from the task (Gagns task analysis in educational psychology). Ample and timely feedback should be given on students progress (Gagns task analysis in educational psychology).

Teacher is to use this crucial period of time to monitor students progress and check that students have understood the instructions clearly. If misconceptions are repeatedly encountered, the teacher is to quickly intervene by asking students to pause their activity, and then promptly address these misconceptions in front of the whole class. Once satisfied that all students have familiarised themselves with the measurement of angles via Activity 1, the teacher gives a brief introduction to Activity 2, which involves the new concepts of acute, right, obtuse, straight and reflex angles. Students are told that they are to work individually (or with a partner if they are having serious difficulties) to complete Activity 2 .

Learning is an active

Prepared by Tan Yin Soo (Mr.) Page 5

Since the pedagogy of this computer laboratory session is based primarily on the discovery-learning approach, the teacher resumes the role of a coach and facilitator. He walks round the computer laboratory to facilitate students learning, giving hints, prompts and cues as necessary. In order to assess students understanding of Activity 2, the teacher calls on a sample of students to share their answers with the rest of the class. Guided Demonstration (Activity 3): Once satisfied that all students have understood and gotten correct answers for Activity 2, the teacher is to proceed by giving a modelled demonstration of Activity 3. The teacher is to especially highlight to students the following: Drag point G to obtain different configurations of parallel lines. For each configuration, students are to write down one set of values for the angles. A total of five sets are required. The teacher resumes the role of a facilitator, and walks round the computer laboratory to facilitate students learning, giving hints, prompts and cues as necessary. In order to assess students understanding of Activity 3, the teacher calls on a select sample of students to share their answers with the rest of the class. Similarly, this method of modelled demonstration, facilitation and assessment of learning is repeated for Activities 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. Filler Activity: Since 1H is a class of above-average ability, a bonus activity is given as a filler, for which extra marks will be awarded. To make the bonus activity more interactive, the teacher initiates a thinkpair-share amongst students at this stage. Students are to first think through the responses on their own, discuss their ideas with their neighbours. The teacher then randomly calls on a few students to share their ideas with the rest of the class. Think-Pair-Share is a structure first developed by Professor Frank Lyman at the University of Maryland in 1981. It introduces an important element of cooperative learning, which has been demonstrated to be a powerful factor in improving student responses to questions. Closure Recapitulate for students the main learning points of the lesson. In this lesson, we learnt the following:-

process in which the learner discovers the concepts and relationships for himself (Bruners constructivist theory). Continually reinforce difficult concept to students. Repetition and continual reinforcement of learn concepts in multiplemodalities is essential to cater to the needs of slow-learning students (Catering to the differentiated and diverse needs of students). Getting students to share answers with the rest of the class boosts self-confidence and increases self-efficacy of students in solving problems independently. Teachers should provide students with a range of opportunities to socialise and interact with both the teacher and their peers in a collaborative learning environment (Vygotskys social development theory).

measuring and identifying acute, right, obtuse, straight and reflex angles.

Prepared by Tan Yin Soo (Mr.)

Recapitulation provides for consolidation of the lessons learning and helps students internalise the new concepts.

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two angles are called supplementary if their sum is 180o. two angles are called complementary if their sum is 90o. when two parallel lines are cut by a traversal, the following results hold true, viz. corresponding angles are equal, alternate angles are equal & interior angles are supplementary. Ask all students to switch off their computers and submit their completed worksheets. Students are to line up quietly outside the computer laboratory. The teacher does a final check of the computer lab to ensure that all items are in order before handing it over to the laboratory technicians.

Computer laboratory is to be kept neat, tidy and back to its original condition before it is handed over to the next teacher.

Students were generally excited about the activity, since they prefer a lot of hands-on interactive activities. Working with GSP in a computer laboratory learning environment caters well to their learning needs.

Initially, some of the weaker students were apprehensive about the task, as they were unsure what to do even after much teacher telling. However, almost all showed rapid progression after some individual guidance from the teacher, and after working through the warm-up activity. This proves that scaffolding is an invaluable tool for helping weaker students.

Students such as Charlotte, Pei Qi, Rachel, Man Man and Guan Xian showed great enthusiasm in the task, continually taking the initiative to come to the teachers desk to check their answers and to ask questions.

About 10% had difficulties measuring the straight angles in Activity 2 because they clicked on points in the incorrect sequence. However, these students were quick to seek clarifications from the teacher and after some further explanation, the correct conceptual understanding finally dawned upon them.

About 85% of the students attempted the bonus activity in the worksheet, many coming up with correct answers. I felt tremendously encouraged when one of the girls gave the following positive remark after trying hard at one of the activities for the past 5 minutes, Yes! I finally got it! Its easy!

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No surfing to other websites until the entire worksheet is complete, and even then, permission must be obtained from the teacher. Computer terminals must be switched off and chairs pushed in before leaving the room at the end of the lesson. Computer laboratory must be kept neat and tidy at all times.

Worksheet must be handed in to the teacher for grading at the end of the lesson.

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