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PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS TASK 1

1. What is an element?
An element is a substance that is made entirely from one type of atom. For example, the element hydrogen is made from atoms containing a single proton and a single electron. If you change the number of protons an atom has, you change the type of element it is. If you had very, very good eyes and could look at the atoms in a sample of hydrogen, you would notice that most of the hydrogen atoms would have no neutrons, some of them would have one neutron and a few of them would have two neutrons. These different versions of hydrogen are called isotopes. All isotopes of a particular element have the same number of protons, but have a different number of neutrons. If you change the number of neutrons an atom has, you make an isotope of that element. Periodic Table of Elements.

2. What is the structure of an atom (e.g. Nucleus, Electron)?


The Atom : Structure of the Atom All matter (solid, liquid or gaseous) consists of elements, of which there are more than 100. If, in theory, we cut a block of iron into smaller and smaller pieces, we would finally end up with the smallest piece possible that still has all the characteristics of the iron element. That smallest piece is called an iron atom. An atom is very, very small. In fact, the size of an atom compared to the size of an apple, is like the size of an apple compared to the size of the Earth. Most atoms consist of three basic particles: protons (with a positive electrical charge), electrons (with a negative electrical charge), and neutrons (with no electrical charge). Protons and neutrons are bundled together in the centre of the atom, called the nucleus. The electrons move around the nucleus, each in its own orbit like the moon around the earth. Each atom of the same element is characterized by a certain number of protons in the nucleus. That number is called the atomic number. Normally, the atom has the same number of electrons in orbit around the nucleus. This atomic number identifies the elements. The list of elements (ranked according to an increasing number of protons) is called the Periodic Table. For example, Helium has 2 protons in its nucleus. Its atomic number is therefore 2. Iron has 26 protons in its nucleus. Its atomic number is therefore 26. Uranium has 92 protons. Its atomic number is therefore 92. Even though the number of protons in the nucleus is the same for all atoms of a particular element, the number of neutrons in the nucleus can differ for different atoms of the same element. Atoms of an element that contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons, are called isotopes of the element. Isotopes are identified by adding the number of protons and neutrons together -- a number which is referred to as the mass number. For example, hydrogen: the element hydrogen has 3 isotopes: hydrogen 1 (also called hydrogen), hydrogen 2 (also called deuterium) and hydrogen 3 (also called tritium). Hydrogen 1 (hydrogen) Hydrogen 2 (deuterium) Hydrogen 3 (tritium)

1 proton, 0 neutrons Mass number = 1

1 proton, 1 neutron Mass number = 2

1 proton, 2 neutrons Mass number = 3

Notice that even though the masses of the above atoms are different, each nucleus has only one proton. The one proton identifies all these atoms as hydrogen isotopes. It is the number of neutrons that defines them as different types of hydrogen isotopes. Normally, atoms have the same number of protons and electrons. The number of positively charged protons is the same as the number of negatively charged electrons so that the atom is electrically neutral. The electrons orbiting at the outside of an atom are the part of the atom that takes part in chemical reactions. They identify the atom chemically. These electrons can be thrown off by the atom, or more can be absorbed. An atom that has lost one or more electrons is positively charged; one that has picked up electrons is negatively charged. These "charged" atoms are called ions. The nucleus of the atom also contains neutrons. Neutrons are about the same size as protons but have no electric charge. Neutrons are bound very tightly in the atom's nucleus with the protons. When the atom's nucleus contains as many neutrons as protons, the atom is stable. Most atoms are stable. However, when the atom's nucleus contains more neutrons than protons, the nucleus is unstable. The nucleus of such an unstable atom will try to become stable by giving off particles or packets of energy (quanta). These emissions are called radioactivity. The particles and quanta are emitted from the nucleus at high energy. If a particle or quantum hits the electron of another atom, it can knock that electron off of the atom, which makes that atom positively charged and, therefore, an ion. That is why we refer to the particles and quanta emitted by radioactive nuclei as "ionizing radiation." Very large and heavy atoms that occur in nature are unstable and, therefore, radioactive. These include atoms of the elements uranium (atomic number 92), thorium (atomic number 90), radon (atomic number 86), and radium (atomic number 88), among others. Many smaller atoms are made radioactive artificially for specific uses. Smaller elements like carbon (atomic number 6), often have a stable, non-radioactive form as well as an unstable radioactive form.

3.What is a chemical compound ?


Chemistry. A pure, macroscopically homogeneous substance consisting of atoms or ions of two or more different elements in definite proportions that cannot be separated by physical means. Any time you have two atoms of different elements (hydrogen, carbon, cesium, etc) bond, then you have a certifiable compound. Take carbon dioxide for example: CO2. Why is this a compound? Because it has at least two different atoms of different elements (carbon and oxygen). We also know that this is a compound because every compound of CO2 is the same (aka macroscopically homogeneous) and every compound will have a ratio of carbon to oxygen which is 1:2 (aka definite proportions). A reasonable question would be: Well, what if it is only made of one element? Those would be called molecules. "Molecule" is an umbrella term that covers all types of situations of bonded elements. Any bonded elements can be a molecule, H2, CO2, NH4, NO2. But not all molecules can be compounds; if it does not contain two different elements, then it is simply a molecule, such as O2. All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds. Now, we say that these atoms are bonded together to create this compound/molecule. There are many types of bonds; for more information, refer to related questions.

4 .what is a molecule ?
The smallest particle of a compound that has all the chemical properties of that compound. Molecules are made up of two or more atoms, either of the same element or of two or more different elements. Ionic compounds, such as common salt, are made up not of molecules, but of ions arranged in a crystalline structure. Unlike ions, molecules carry no electrical charge. Molecules differ in size and molecular weight as well as in structure. Compounds are comprised of species whose electronegativitys differ by 3.5 or more. The individual components when dissociated are called ions. Molecules are comprised of species whose electronegativitys are within the 3.5 range. They more or less share the electrons between them and contain covalent bonds.

5. what is a mixture?
A mixture consist of two or more different substances that are mixed but not chemically combined together. Also there are two main types of mixtures, a solution and mechanical mixture. I think of a mechanic who works with his hands when i think of a mechanical mixture. A mechanical mixture is when you combine 2 or more substances and you can see all the different substances in the mixture. In a solution, you can only see one uniform mixture. Like Iced tea and water. When you pour iced tea powder into water, you can only see the iced tea, you can not see both the iced tea powder and water, since the powder had dissolved. it6 is one or two items So remember there are 2 mixtures: - solution - you cannot see the different parts - mechanical mixture- you can see all of the different parts of the mixture