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3.

9 Foundations in mining regions


Dietmar Placzek

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


1 General remarks on mining-induced effects 2 Ground movements 2.1 Ground movements above deep mine workings
Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

Mining damage constitutes a special discipline of mining engineering which deals with ground movements induced by underground mining. The assessment of such movements with regard to engineered structures at the surface, including the design of the structures to withstand the impact of future mining, is covered by the field of "mining damage prevention".

Any activity to prevent mining-induced damage of surface structures requires base-line information from a mine surveyor. His task is to specify, for a specific situation, the order of magnitude and the direction of ground movements in space and time. To solve this task he carries out measurements and computations whilst also considering mine planning and production details. Based on this information the geotechnical engineer is then requested to determine the reaction forces which are triggered within engineered structures at or near the surface by mining-induced ground movements. An in-depth knowledge of the mechanical properties of the foundation soil and of the object under consideration (e. g. a building or a tunnel) is essential. With the structural particulars of the object in mind, the structural engineer then finally checks the compatibility of the reaction forces with the object itself. In cases where such compatibility does not exist he then needs to design a damage-free structure or to come up with proposals for the alleviation of any damage which may have already occurred. In the field of mining damage there is a distinction between deep and shallow mining. Generally, shallow mining is considered to be limited to maximum depths of about 100 to 150 m. The impact of shallow mining on the surface and its structures can be substantially more intense than for deep mining. In order to describe mining at very shallow depths the term near-surface mining was coined. In this type of mining, the ground movements follow other rules than those for deep mining. Moreover, the occurrence of collapses to the surface and other discrete surface features, generated by near-surface mining, cannot be reasonably predicted in terms of time.

Mining of a deep seam is associated with collapse and subsidence of the roof strata (Fig. 1). In a most elementary layout of a horizontal seam and the absence of geological faults, subsidence at the surface will be in form of a trough (trough theory after Lehmann [8]) or better still a geosyncline. The formation of a subsidence trough is accompanied by a 3-D movement of the surface points with components not only in vertical but also in horizontal directions. Generally,

560
extension ; I
pl I

Dietmar Placzek
~= ~ E compression geosyncline (subsidence trough)
I

~= ~ E

extension
I~1 I

; I surface

' " '

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


'~:;:::;;::::;i;ii:i:Ji::;::-~ I

top layers

- ---LL _ _ . ~ . ,

I"

~r---

roof layers

/-

//:..

>".z'x

x /

.'.."

"v "+

". . . . .

yl

O. .. ". . ,

"/

~"

.. " x

/1; , ~

[H "]iH l } ] i i l i H " t l l i ; I H I ] ~ ! Hi' i

H iII,,J,]II"M Hi',l',',,,(i',H" HI' i'

111

panel

t limit angle

borders the zone of affected overburden

Fig. 1. Collapse of the roof strata of a longwall panel showing of the geosyncline (settlement trough) at the surface

the movement vectors are directed towards the excavation with an inclination towards the subsidence centre line (Fig. 2). Note that there are gradients for both vertical and horizontal components. Any such gradient induces a tensile or compressive strain along the surface of the subsidence trough, which in turn imposes extra loads (extensional stress or compressive stress) onto an existing structure which might lead to distortion, cracking or even structural failure.

First and second order derivatives of the vertical movement component, with respect to the horizontal distance, give the distributions of inclination and curvature (Figs. 2 and 3). The areas of saddle-like curvatures are indicative of surface regions in extension, those with trough-shaped curvatures are regions in compression. The trough subsidence profile is characterised by the "fracture angle" 13, which controls the area of maximum tensile strain, and the "limit angle" 7, which refers to the surface point where subsidence diminishes to zero. The complement of 7 is termed the "angle of draw". The magnitudes of both angles, 13and 7 depend on the rock mass conditions and on the inclination of the strata.

The order of magnitude of the subsidence and the shape of the trough profile depend on a number of factors. Besides the thickness and the overburden of the seam, dominant factors are the size of the workings and the type of backfill. For unrestricted collapse of a full-size panel, surface subsidence amounts to about 90 % of the seam thickness. In back-filled panels, however, subsidence is reduced to values commonly of the order of about 40 to 60 % of the seam thickness.

Also of interest is the development of surface subsidence with time. In the Ruhr Coal Mining District the following values are common: 1st 2nd 15 3rd 4th 3 5th 2 year

75

% of the total subsidence

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

561

The above numbers are only indicative. There can be substantial deviations, depending on the depth of mining, the sequence of the geological strata and the interactions with older panels above the actual mining level. If the surface subsidence trough (geosyncline) is considered over its entire shape, i. e. in the normal direction to the profiles of Figs. 1 and 2 as well, it becomes evident that there are also distortions in the vertical direction and rotational twists and torsions in the horizontal direction.
subsidence v=

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


I ~ full-sizepanel I panel (planview)
vertical

(subsidencq igh)

subsidence

components

V=~

.~

curvature

v="

horizontal

/~
t e _ _ . _ strain

subsidence

components

i/~li

cementsVx,Vy
. r a i .n t

.,lo __

tensile stlain

~ ~ = ~ c o m p r e s s ~ l \ stram / I

Fig. 2. Surface effects due to the extraction of a full-size horizontal panel [8]

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562

Dietmar Placzek

vertical

subsidence

components

subsidence

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


tilt I curvature
i

I Vz[mm]I

t9= = curvature radius [m]


subsidence

horizontal

components

displacements

V x ~

Vy

I Vx'v'm'I,

strain (tensile strain +; compressive strain -)

AV x

~.~

I Vx2 J i vl

Fig. 3. Vertical and horizontal components of ground movements

When considering the development of subsidence for a particular surface point in context with the extraction process of a deep panel, as mentioned above, it has to be remembered that each surface point is subject to a general 3-D movement. When a surface point becomes influenced by an approaching mine panel it is initially subject to a horizontal tensile strain. As the panel face moves closer to the section of the surface point, the mode of strain changes to compression. With the extraction of additional panels the point is subject to identical strain cycles.

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

563

extraction~ a~
c ~

a
e

~-extracti
~'~
I
Fig. 4, Step and stair like subsidence above a geological fault or an area of concentrated

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


d ~/( d
geologic

extraction

fault

Concentrated extraction of more than one seam in the same area, for example on a claim boundary or in the vicinity of a geologic fault, can lead to locally concentrated subsidence with the possibility of the development of a discontinuous subsidence trough (Fig. 4). In such areas, the evaluation of the geotechnically relevant ground movement is extremely difficult, if not impossible.

In recent years, discontinuous subsidence with extensional strain has become a common feature in the northern area of the Ruhr Coal Mining District. This is clearly documented by open fractures and steps in the surface in the order of decimetres. The fractures are oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the panels. In the Lower-Rhine region, which geologically is characterised by near-surface gravel layers, fractures without any extensional horizontal displacement components are common. The near-surface ground of the central and eastern Ruhr Coal Mining District is characterised by layers of quick sand and sandy silt which are intercalated with limesandstones. Ground fractures are commonly filled with soil from the adjacent layers. Ground steps and ground fractures are discrete features which can occur either individually or in combination. In the latter case the spacing between the step and the associated fracture at the surface is typically of the order of about 30 to 50 m (fracture zone).

2.2

Ground movements above shallow and near-surface mine workings

Over the last few decades, comprehensive knowledge has been gathered about the subsidence damage caused by shallow and near-surface mining. One distinct uncertainty associated with such mining is insufficient or even non-existing documentation of the location, size and depth of the old mine workings. Some of these are more than 100 years old, others are the leftovers of unauthorised "wild" extractions during the war and post-war periods often carried out from private dwellings for self-supply purposes. Against this background of such uncertainties, exploratory drilling is necessary, which has to be adjusted for local geological conditions. If necessary, the drillholes may also be used for ground stabilisation purposes. Experience suggests the following: The subsidence trough theory, developed for deep mining conditions, is also applicable to shallow mining, if a comparatively steep "limit angle" y is used. In near-surface mining there are some subsidence features which are distinctively different from those of the deeper extractions. Distinct features are collapses to the surface and sinkholes which can occur a very long time (in practical terms un-

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564
.. . .'.- . .'.. ----...'.,'...

Dietmar Placzek

I (I
I /

i ! i[~,~111
I I I~tll /

I I i I
I I

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


I
I I I I / I \ I I I I I ~ I I / I

I I"~'xt~ i
I I I

Fig. 5. N e a r - s u r f a c e m i n e w o r k i n g s a n d their potential i m p a c t s o n t o the f o u n d a t i o n strata a n d the s u r f a c e

surface

collapse

sinkhole

limited) after extraction. Surface collapse denotes a situation in which caving of the roof strata reaches the surface. Sinkholes are a secondary feature of a piping process in which the soil of the upper layers is washed out by flowing groundwater and transported into the collapsed zones of the deeper ground. Based on extensive and systematic investigations, Hollmann and Niirenberg [4] developed a characteristic lines method which comprehensively describes the effects of near-surface extraction. Below a critical depth, collapse above an underground opening (roadway and roadway crossing) ceases without reaching the surface. The new blocky structure of the collapsed roof material is then in a condition in which a new overall equilibrium of the ground is established.

I n f l u e n c e o f g r o u n d m o v e m e n t s on the f o u n d a t i o n

The vertical and horizontal components of the mining-induced ground movements (Fig. 3) have specific impacts on the design and use of surface structures. Depending on their dominance, different types of prevention measures are appropriate.

3.1

Influence of equal vertical subsidence

If the vertical component of the subsidence (sagging) is of equal magnitude across the foundation no additional stress is generated within the structure. This type of sagging is therefore not considered in the design. However, sagging may require attention with regard to the changed drainage conditions and the rise of the groundwater level relative to the structure (Fig. 6). The close proximity of the foundation of a building to the groundwater level or even immersion into the groundwater can have negative repercussions upon the use of the building (soaking) and can even have detrimental effects on its bearing capacity (foundation failure; uplift).

3.2

Influence of tilt - differential vertical subsidence

Differential vertical subsidence causes a tilt of a building with the maximum tilt occurring at the transition points between the convex and concave portions of the subsidence profile. The tilt generates additional horizontal forces within the structure which require the engineer's attention, particularly for relatively slender structures such as chimneys

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

565

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
....

subsidence !n the area ~ the structure

~.gro~n~wa~;r~;;;~,"~7~,..__
rising grounawater level relative to the structure and the surface

~ ........................ ~:~

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


~ ~
. . . . . . . . . . . ~/" subsidence in t h e a r e a o f a d r a i n a g e d i t c h

.~""~

drainage ditch

--

groundwater level sinks by an amount s

S < Vz

Fig. 6. Effects of surface subsidence

....

Fig. 7. Effects of tilt for tall structures and structures founded in groundwater basins

and silos, but also for buildings which are set into an impervious foundation basin (Fig. 7).

In addition to this, an assessment of the usability of the structure is required for each individual case (e. g. considerations of the function of elevators, machine tools, assembly lines, boiler of power plants and containers). Amounts of tilt exceeding 1% can severely impair the function of ordinary buildings.

Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons

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566

Dietmar Placzek

3.3

Influence of curvature

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


flexible structure saddle configuration trough configuration stiff structure

Mathematically, the curvature is the second order derivative of the vertical subsidence Vz. Curvature imposes additional moments in the structure. Their size depends on the moment and distortion stiffness of the structurally interconnected parts of the building. Ideal flexible structures conform to the curvature of the subsidence trough (geosyncline) without generating any additional stresses. Generally, this is not the case for stiff structures. Saddle and trough style curvatures can cause different types of gaps under stiff foundations as indicated in Fig. 8. The foundation conditions of stiff structures depend on a number of factors. The shape and dimensions of the gaps (centre hole and cantilevered positions) depend not only on the extraction direction of the panel but also on the compressibility of the foundation layers. Stiff layers can cause significant stress concentrations. Flexible and stiff (rigid) structures are extreme cases. In reality, most masonry brick and steel-concrete skeleton buildings have an intermediate stiffness. These structures can accommodate a certain, but limited amount of curvature without any damage.

llll
I~'~

area of support

Fig. 8. Effects of surface curvature on flexible and stiff structures

saddle configuration

trough configuration

3.4

Influence of strain

Strain can be in the form of an extension or a shortening of the foundation plane. In the terminology of the mining damage field the forces generated within a structure are termed tensile and compressive forces, respectively. A convex shape of the subsidence profile (saddle) causes an extension, a concave shape (trough) a shortening. Relative displacements between the foundation soil and the foundation of the structure generate frictional forces in the base plane and side walls of the foundation structure. Soil resistance is mobilised at the side walls. Figure 9 shows physical models which delineate the principal effects of extension and shortening of the foundation plane parallel to the main axis of a structure.

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions


structure prior to tensile strain structure prior to corn )ressive strain

567

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


structure after compressive strain, compressive forces in the roof of the opening

Fig. 9. Effects of tensile and compressive surface strain as demonstrated in a physical model

411"-- i i

II

iII' - - I ~ " i

::'i"i: iaending :i"i-: L|t

. ":."..,

friction

loosening of the soil by tensile strain

:toe resistance

Fig. 10. Effects of tensile strain in the ground onto a pile foundation

Particularly problematic is mining-imposed ground strain on a pile foundation. If the pile heads are structurally connected, the resulting moments can rarely be accommodated by the piles. This commonly leads to a loss of the bearing capacity of the piles. Furthermore, it has to be realised that the effective skin friction can be severely reduced by ground strain (Fig. 10).

3.5

Influence of ground movements above near-surface mine workings

As mentioned before, near-surface extraction of seams can cause surface collapse and sinkholes depending on the depth and type of extraction (Fig. 11). They occur spontaneously and possibly a very long time after the extraction. For existing structures at the surface there are central hole and cantilevered foundation configurations. The associated loads imposed onto the structures depend on the location and extent of the surface subsidence trough and to a lesser degree on the foundation depth.

Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons

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568

Dietmar Placzek

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


~ar-surface mine workings

ig. 11. Surface collapse above

3.6

Influence of discontinuous ground movements

According to the most recent findings, discontinuous ground movements in the form of sinkholes can occur not only in near-surface but also in deep mining, especially in areas within the extension zones of the geosyncline. Their occurrence is controlled by factors such as the composition and structure of the roof strata, depth of the groundwater level and the extraction sequence in multi-seam mining. The results are localised and cause relatively large centre hole and cantilevered foundation configurations which are usually incompatible with the structure of the building.

Preventive measures in areas with deep mine workings Types of preventive measures

4.1

The type and extent of preventive measures for surface structures depend on the type and magnitude of the ground movements, the bearing capacity of the structure and on economic factors such as its state of usability and the importance and sensitivity of its function. Firstly, the capability of the structure to accommodate the expected ground movements has to be checked with regard to its type and function. A distinction is made here between (see also Chapter 3.1):

Stiff structures, which essentially remain unchanged in their shape and dimension. The deformations are in response to stresses which remain within acceptable limits. Flexible structures, which conform to the subsidence profile without exceeding the acceptable stress limits.

One must also verify to what extent the type and the function of the structure can tolerate the damage prevention measures and, if such measures are required, what type of measures should be implemented. The design of such measures can be in accordance with either [6]:

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

569

the Principle of Resistance, which means that all additional forces imposed by the ground movements can be accommodated by the structure or the Principle of Deformation, which means that the structure complies with the ground movements without developing any detrimental stresses.

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


4.2 Basic considerations on layout and design of surface structures
;ture
Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

Depending on the function requirements of the structure and the economic considerations, the damage prevention alternatives are as follows: Total damage prevention, which implies the prevalence of the highest safety level. Usually, the building is designed as a very stiff structure. Any type and amount of ground movement causes straining of the structures which remains within the acceptable elastic limits of the materials. The original position can be re-established by suitable underpinning and lifting techniques such as hydraulic jacking.

Partial damage prevention which implies that measures are taken to alleviate the impact from the most detrimental factor of the ground movements, which is usually strain in the horizontal direction. This strategy aims to secure the overall stability of the structure whilst tolerating minor damage which can be repaired as it occurs.

In the early planning stage of a project, it is already advisable to take the relevant subsidence factors into account, particularly the general geological conditions and the expected ground movements from the extraction of seams. In plan view, the longitudinal

stand

Fig. 12. Structural damage prevention by subdivision of the superstructure into numerous small structural units separated by joints (Football arena "Auf Schalke" in the City of Gelsenkirchen)

570

Dietmar Placzek

~
~ ~ :"i::"::':(i

sliplayei\ Z-Z-~ ng paddi


with

extension plate

r on

beam

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


'

~ioam or m ~ (~::i::':(i::."foundati pile


head

Fig. 13. Separation of the foundation structure from the superstructure by means of slip surfaces (example of a pile foundation)

axis of the building should preferably be oriented in the direction of strike of the seams, as this will result in the minimum of subsidence-related problems. Compact structures are less prone to subsidence damage than extended ones. The latter requires the incorporation of separation joints, which are typically spaced at 20 to 30 m (Fig. 12). Foundations may also need a separation from the superstructure by purpose-designed joints or spacers to avoid unfavourable interlocking problems (Fig. 13). The construction material must be particularly suitable for the changing conditions imposed by mining. In a design which is based on the Principle of Deformation, soft and elastic elements are more appropriate than brittle elements or those with a high moment of inertia. If not in contradiction with the function of the structure, a statically-determinate system should be preferred for minimal structural resistance against the imposed deformations.

4.3

Bearing capacity and functionality of a structure

The design of structures resting on subsiding ground requires the consideration of the specific load case-"mining-induced actions". The fundamental reference for this case are the "Guidelines for engineered structures in regions affected by underground mining" [ 1]. Generally, the guidelines permit a design taking into account an increased load bearing capacity of the materials and in exceptional cases even their ultimate strength. The latter possibility, however, requires a detailed examination of the functionality and structure for each individual case.

Strain-sensitive structures and historic monuments, for instance, are to be differently designed with respect to bearing capacity and functionality than buildings constructed using modern materials.

4.4

Provisions for tilt

If no precise information on the possible or expected tilt is available, the structure should always be designed for extra loads acting in any horizontal direction with a magnitude of 1% of the vertical loads acting over the cross section considered. When exceeding the

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

571

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


I

longitudinal section

,,,,'rF:;:;:+~--::~-'~;::;;:::;;:::;;:::~:~:;;=='],,,,",,"' '",, ,,"' ,,"' ,,"' ,,"' ,,"' ,,"'


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I II Id[

17
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I I , I I I l I l

II II I I

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II II 11 II
I II

~;~.uu m
,b It I II II II tl II II
II II

II II 11 11 +',iI~ i~Ii~i

II It

II II II #

tl II II

,, II II II II It II II II

It II II II II II II II

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II II II II II

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It

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,

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F i .r e 1 4.. S w.l m m l n. ~ oool with a three~ ~" p o i n t SUDDOI't s y s t e m T h e SUDDOrts a r e


L xl # ix " " located immediately beneath walls at the base of the pool

,,

,,

,+

+,

t h e s l"d e -

L_222.~7.22

-2222222--.2--.--22----22----2~-22--2-2_~

/ /

plan

view

with

supports

allowable tilt, the foundation supports of the structure must be readjusted. This is best be achieved by a three-point support (Fig. 14). In other cases, pressure chambers should be provided immediately beneath the foundation raft for the installation of lifting devices such as hydraulic jacks. A general precondition for this tilt correction is a structure with a significant bending stiffness. It is, however, also possible to apply the above total damage prevention technique to flexible structures provided that their supports are re-adjustable and that it is a statically determinate system, e.g. a steel skeleton building.

4.5

Provisions for curvature

According to [1], the following radii of subsidence curvature Pz (which is the inverse of the subsidence curvature proper) can generally be assumed in a foundation design: For a saddle-like subsidence profile Pz = 2000 m and for a trough-like profile Pz --- 5000 m. These radii are applicable in all cases with the exception of an explicit specification of a lower curvature radius. If the functionality of the structure is not negatively affected, statically determined systems or structures with a low degree of stiffness should generally be preferred. The lower the stiffness of a structure, the lower the imposed stresses

(deformation principle).

Initially, an assessment has to be made as to how far the structure can comply with the expected curvature without any damage. Order of magnitude estimates are provided in Fig. 15 for trough-like parts of the subsidence profile. It can be shown that for common structures, consisting of masonry brick and reinforced concrete slabs or a steel-concrete

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572

Dietmar Placzek

reference Terzaghi Leusslnk Russian norms Meyerhoff Skempton Rausch


(1948) (1954) (1955) (1955) (1957) (1955) (1078)

p~ [ml
72 L ,.. 170 L 72-L.170. L L 550 L

As [cm]
" L 1350

550
L

""

1Lso

3 1 . L... 6 2 . L
62.L

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


L 500 L

2go "

r3o

76"L

600

125 L

L 1000
""

:'2!'. .... . 2!'. ?:::':'2i';?: :':.,2! ".?::':.,i IL -I

Burland et al,

20 L... 1 2 5 . L L in [ m ]

L 150

L 1000

through position

Fig. 15. Settlement differences and curvature radii tolerable for surface structures

skeleton, the acceptable amount of bending is in the order of As = L/800. This is equivalent to a minimum radius of curvature of Pz = 100 L, or considering common building dimensions, Pz = 1000...3000 m with As = L2/(8 Pz)- For steel skeleton structures (predominately industrial plants) the respective amount of bending is usually even greater (and accordingly, the minimal curvature radius smaller) than the above-mentioned values. Some attention, however, is needed to maintain the integrity of the floor and roof deck support systems throughout the various subsidence phases. This is particularly relevant if statically determinate systems and flexible structures are subject to excessive bending. Usually, the structure of a building reacts more sensitively towards saddle-like curvature conditions. This has the consequence that there is an admissible curvature radius for saddle-like conditions which is typically larger than for trough-like ones. For structures with a high bending stiffness it is necessary to investigate all of the potential support conditions of the foundation (central hole and cantilever situations). In order to determine the stress distribution within the structure, either the sub-grade modulus method or the stiffness modulus method may be used (see Chapter 3.1).

The stiffer the foundation soil, the more likely is the development of high stress concentrations within the structure and the formation of large central hole and cantilever settings. By placing soft pads within the foundation plane and by designing relatively small foundation areas with comparatively high foundation pressures it is possible to homogenise and improve the general foundation conditions and to alleviate the impact of major open gaps in the foundation plane.

Figure 16 provides an example of a silo with a comparatively high bending stiffness. It shows the load distribution of the four external pillars for some selected curvature radii. The influence of the curvature on the magnitude and the distribution of the foundation pressure is evident. Note the influence of the size of the foundation slab on the load redistribution process. A comparatively small foundation area of 2.0 x 2.0 m, which is associated with an average foundation pressure of (~0 = 0.68 MPa, gives a load redistribution of about half the magnitude of a larger foundation area of 3.0 x 3.0 m, and an average foundation pressure of or0 = 0.30 MPa. In this context it has to be mentioned that when selecting foundation pressures well above the admissible limit, very careful investigations have to be carried

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

573

out for the bearing capacity of the foundation soil to avoid any uncontrolled settlements at the functional limit of the structure.

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


30.8 m

From Fig. 16 it furthermore can be depicted that, when the foundation soil is layered, the softer layer should be preserved, if possible in its full thickness. This layer acts as a soft cushion and homogenises any settlement differences. Overall, there are almost identical conditions for the two opposing cases of a stiff structure resting on soft soil or a flexible structure resting on stiff soil.

Slab foundations are critical in a saddle-like curvature profile and the associated gaps in the cantilever-type foundation (Fig. 8). To achieve a reasonable adjustment of the settlements it is advisable to avoid slab foundations altogether whenever possible. An alternative is a ring foundation, which can also be designed for comparatively high base pressures. As shown for the example of a cylindrical container (Fig. 17), this can be achieved by placing pads in the central parts of the foundation. In static computations of the above case it was shown that, for the two load cases considered with and without mining-induced subsidence, there were virtually identical reactions in the container structure.

Q = 10.8
lOm

MN

lOm

_1_ -I-

lOm

Fs

~,+

:s

/ ~

/ / >~" / I

-r/';"~P~,~l

5.0msilt
I~l i i hard

E s=20MPa

II

I~'l I

I i

r/I I

i"r i

I~ I

II i

11 L ~ F ~ l ~ r ~ - - ' l i i i i i i and stiff marl

I~i "ff--I~l I~ I I I I I I 1 I I I I [ I i i i i i i i i F i i

base base

pressure pressure

with foundation with foundation

dimensions dimensions

o f a / b -- 3 . 0 x 3 . 0 of a/b = 2.0x2.0

m : ~0 = 0 , 3

MPa

m : G 0 = 0.68 MPa

pillar force F s (MN) s; is

radius Pz (m) oo

influence of the thickness of silt layer at Pz = 5000 m pillar force F s (MN) axis

2.7 (2.7) 3.2 (3.0) 3.7 (3.3)

2.7 (2,7) 2 2 (2.4)

2.7 (2.7)

2.7 (2.7)

thickness (m)

10.000 5.000 3.000 2.000

2.2 (2.4) 1.7 (2.1) 1.0 (1.7) 0 (1.2) (O)

3.2 (3.0) 3.7 (3.3)

1.7 (2.1) 1.0 (1.7) 0 (1.2) (O)

5.0 3.0

3.7 3.9

1.7 1.5

1.7 1.5

3.7 3.9 5.2

4.4 (3.7) 5.4 (4.2) (5.4)

4.4 (3.7) 5.4 (4.2) (5.4)

1.000

1.0

5.2

0.2

0.2

) at dimensions of the foundation of 2,0 x 2,0 m and ~0 = 0,68 MPa

Fig. 16. Redistribution of foundation pressures in response to surface curvature (trough configuration)

Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons

Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

574

Dietmar Placzek

f
cylindrical container

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


34.60 m 29.90 m . 24.00 m

Z
I

DDD[]
nravel

2:

k --Z.:--

-- - ~ Z 2 . . . . . . .

sand

.2Zi

......

Z2z

---

Fig. 17. Subsidence damage prevention for an ammonia container

The reaction forces developing due to subsidence in stiff structures can also be reduced by separation joints. The opening of the joint should be of such magnitude that in concave curvatures (trough) there should be no transmission of forces across the joint. In convex curvature (saddle) provision should be made for a sufficiently broad cladding of the joint.

S~drll~

nncitinn:

r~n

AI :

=~ _

h2

trough

p o s i t i o n : req. AI = a h 2

. . . . . . . . .

:ii

Fig. 18. Minimum width of separation joints to accommodate the influence of curvature

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

575

The relevant width of a joint, dependent on the curvature, can be easily calculated from Fig. 18. It is: AI : a. h / p z with A1 being the required width of the joint.

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


4.6 Provisions for extensional strain
Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

A further component of the required joint width stems from length changes (strain) which are considered below.

Extensional strain of the surface leads to relative displacements between the soil and the foundation slab which, in turn, generate shear forces acting in the horizontal direction. When the soil is in direct contact with the slab, i.e. there are no inserted pads or lowfriction layers, the magnitude of the shear forces is almost independent of the magnitude of the relative displacements. Significant factors, however, are the dead load of the structure and the shear resistance properties of the soil. In a situation with low foundation pressures the shear forces tend to be higher in cohesive soils (due to the cohesion being the relevant portion of the shear resistance) than in non-cohesive soil such as sand. In this situation it is advisable to replace any thin top layers of cohesive soil by sand so that in the foundation plane there are only frictional forces. Furthermore, it should be noted that at very low vertical load (e. g. retaining walls and railroad structures) the friction coefficient ~t can be significantly higher than in normal circumstances due to the structural interlocking of the particles.

Frictional forces can be significantly reduced by separation joints. As mentioned before, the opening of the joints must be sufficiently large to accommodate all the influences of length changes (both in extension and compression) and have a curved surface (both saddle and trough like profiles). These influences have to be assessed with respect to time, i. e. the sequence of mining-imposed subsidence effects have to be incorporated into the assessment. A selection of common joint configurations is shown in Fig. 19. In steel skeleton structures the transfer of reaction forces can be reduced, if not completely neutralised, by the use of self-aligning beams as indicated in Fig. 20. For strip and raft foundations, considering the shear strength properties of the soil, investigations need to be made into how far the friction forces acting in the foundation base can be accommodated by the structure. If they can not be accommodated, appropriate measures are to be designed such as additional reinforcement and the incorporation of a low-friction slip plane in the foundation base. Dedicated measures are not required for extensional strains of less than 2 %. When allowing for the full bearing capacity of the reinforcement bars (see also Section 4.3) it is not necessary to design additional protective measures against this extension. This approach, however, is not valid if the extensional strain is in conflict with the functional requirements of the building, if there is a sensitive building structure with regard to extensional strain generally or, of course, if the strain exceeds the limit of 2 %. In all these cases the provision for slip layers to lower the extension forces is desirable and is in fact common practice. Previously, graphite or molycote were used as low-friction materials.

576

Dietmar Placzek

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


1,2n,I ~t~0.35 ~t~0.10 forcy<50kPa forcy>500kPa
,---' r--, , * ' - - ~ .... r--, r--, r--, r--, * - ' - - ~ . ' - - ~ ' , - - , - ~ " r -" ~,w r--' ,-~+ r--" ~* ~ r--" I I I I I I I I I I

Fig. 19. Construction details of separation joints [6]

T o d a y ' s preferred practice however, is the use o f two p o l y e t h y l e n e sheets with a silicon grease in b e t w e e n . T h e frictional coefficient g for this PE s a n d w i c h sheet d e p e n d s on the f o u n d a t i o n pressure cy a n d has an order of m a g n i t u d e as follows:

A i~+--!4r ~ ~-'--'~
'_J_l I '_J_, I '_J ,

_J_

3_

_J___ J , _J_, _3 _;_, _L, !1~------+ +4-:---i++- i+-~,--~-~: B ~,


rl t .... L_' I '_J : '_J_', I '_J_~ I ' J ,

. ,:~. - ~ :-. ,-~-'. - ,-~-' - ',~II-. -tI .i- .i~. rz -.' _ , ~i-:- .-4~~. a 1-~' ,-~-' ', , ~ ' rip
'_J . . . . I I ~ I I

-;----~i-! +~:i--;~---~+- 4;-i--~-i---~-.--~,~i--~4i


i i i i i i i i

: ,+--'-.-,

" ~-'---',-

~-~

-I ~,,

".-1___',~,

%, i__~.~

plan view

Fig. 20. Example of a flexible foundation design. Note that only in its centre is the ground floor designed as a stiff frame (after [6])

section

A - B

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

577

A low cost alternative to the PE sandwich is two layers of untreated bituminous paper which react visco-elastically at a combination of high pressures (~ ~ 0.5 MPa) and low displacement velocities in the slip plane. The upper limit of the shear stresses then amounts to "c ~ 50 kPa.

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


4.7 Provisions for compressive strain
c o m p r e s s i v e strain e a r t h p r e s s u r e d u e to c o m p r e s s i v e strain

Shortening of the foundation plane generates not only friction forces (compressive) within the foundation base but also soil resisting forces at the vertical foundation faces (Fig. 21). Usually, there is not a full mobilisation of the earth pressure at the vertical faces because the most common soil types require substantial amounts of relative displacements for this mobilisation which, in fact, rarely occurs in practice. Measurements revealed that for full mobilisation of the earth pressure to occur a displacement of the sidewall is necessary which amounts to about 1/10 h for soft and loose soil and to about 1/50. h for dense and stiff soil. The approximate functional relationship between the mobilised earth pressure and the actual displacement is shown in Fig. 22.

A more accurate examination of this relationship was carried out by [11] using a FE computation. When considering mining-induced surface compressions of sand within the range of 0.2 and 2 % and ignoring any frictional resistance at the side walls (5 = 0) it was shown that a compression of about 1% is required for full mobilisation of the earth pressure.

The magnitude of the earth pressure acting on the sidewalls of a foundation can be significantly reduced by the insertion of pads. Depending on the compressibility of the pads, the horizontal displacements between the soil and the lateral faces of the structure can be partially or fully accommodated by the pads. Soft clay, blast furnace slag, slag wool and, in particular, peat are the most suitable pad materials. It should be noted that their degree of compressibility largely depends on the quality of installation and on the storage time.

/I

ep ~ earth resistance ea ~ active earth pressure ~R -- friction

ep

: :~: ea

~ep

: ep

centre of gravity

Fig. 21. Earth resistance ep mobilised on a vertical foundation sidewalls in response to compressive strain in the ground

Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons

Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

578
o~ 100 '90 A J I
f

Dietmar Placzek

i~ o

80

~
m
~
,id

7o
60

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


,~ o so
*ls:~
i
,11

40

'

//

"

'

"lJ

30

i Ep--~ !
:

i ,,/ : ~...,

-~

I1

2O 10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

normalised

wall displacement

s in %

Fig. 22. Interrelationship between earth resistance forces Ep and the displacement s

Foam pads of polysterene (e. g. trade name Poresta) or of polyethylene (e. g. Ethafoam) are suitable for the formation of large, homogeneous and installation-insensitive layers with a high crushing potential. These materials are also used for insulation purposes. Mechanically, they are characterised by an initial strength of virtually zero and a very low stiffness modulus even at low stress levels (Fig. 23). Polyethylene foam

compressive
100 ....

stress [kPa]
200

50

150

250

300

10

sand clay

g -

,,,

3O

50

,.

"

60

Ethafoam 700

8O

90

Ethafoam 100

220

Fig. 23. Compressibility behaviour of different types of pad materials

Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

579

pads are particularly suitable for repeated load changes. Due to the wide variety of the type of material available it is always advisable to experimentally determine the stressstrain characteristics of the material employed. In some cases, attention must also be paid to the time-dependent material characteristics of the foam material. A significant delayed deformation, for instance, is typical for the Poresta material.

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


4.8 Provisions for discontinuous ground movements 5 Preventive measures in areas with near-surface mine workings Types of preventive measures 5.1
Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

If, for whatever reasons, it is not possible to avoid a concentrated extraction of underground seams (e. g. by modification of the panel layout, higher degree of backfilling, sequencing of the seam extraction) discontinuous ground movements must be expected in almost all circumstances. In this case stabilisation of the foundation soil is often unavoidable, particularly when buildings, public installations and traffic arteries are affected. As outlined in Section 5.3, one ground stabilisation option is backfilling of the foundation soil with a cement suspension, in particular using the low-strength variety "D~immer". Another option is high-pressure injection of the above materials ("FEP" technique). The main objective of these activities is to reestablish a sufficient compressive strength in the foundation ground and, if possible, to create a state of slight horizontal pre-stressing in the ground. If necessary, foundation settlements or subsidence can be stopped or even be reversed (grout compensation technique). Besides these measures, the structure may also be secured by installing hydraulic jacks and/or springs in its foundation. Note, however, that to use these measures the structure has to be sufficiently stiff or amenable to stiffening. It is a general rule that, in addition to the above measures, discontinuous movements of the foundation ground need continuous monitoring. This includes deformation measurements along surveying lines across fault zones, deformation measurements of the structure and the foundation and load measurements at jacks and springs.

Near-surface seam extraction can trigger surface collapse and sinkholes which, in turn, can generate centre hole and cantilevered foundation configurations. According to observations so far available, most surface collapses and sinkholes occur as spontaneous events which, at the surface, are typically confined to a diameter of about 3 to 6 m. However, in an actual situation the exact area affected cannot be determined with a sufficient degree of accuracy. It is therefore necessary to take adequate preventive measures for the structures located in the immediate vicinity of such ground collapse structures. Either the buildings must be structurally reinforced to cope with centre hole and cantilevered foundation configurations with dimensions which are considered to be typical for the mining region, or the subsurface ground must be rehabilitated to a degree that further collapses from near-surface mine workings are no longer possible or are harmless to the structure.

580 5.2 Preventive measures for structures

Dietmar Placzek

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


section AB ;.:: m a t 1 2 m depth

The depth of the seam extraction is the controlling factor for the type of construction and preventive measures of buildings which are both structurally feasible and economically viable. If in near-surface extraction the footwall of the mined-out seam is in close proximity to the foundation, an obvious option is pillar or pile foundations with their footings positioned in the undisturbed footwall strata. Such foundations are economically viable up to foundation depths of about 10 to 20 m, depending on the size of the building. A possible modification to this foundation type is that part of the foundation raft is in form of a cantilevered structure (Fig. 24). If the relevant mined-out seam is at a depth which is beyond the economic limits of a pillar or pile foundation, the structure has to been designed for potential cantilevered and central hole foundation configurations. This type of structure is termed a "full provision structure". In adopting successful design practices from limestone karst regions, the foundations in collapse-prone mining areas are usually designed for a centre hole diameter of 3 m and for a cantilever length of 6 m (Fig. 25). In almost all practical cases and without undue economic constraints, the required stiffening of the structures can be achieved by the incorporation of a basement. For heavyduty buildings the entire basement should be designed as a steel concrete structure which, together with its ceiling, constitutes a compact structural unit. For light structures such as single to double storey dwellings it is usually sufficient to restrict the steel concrete structure to the lower parts of the basement up to the sill of the basement window. All door openings of the basement must be designed as stiff frames and all the floors have to be reinforced with a continuous and, if possible, a grid arrangement of the reinforcement bars. In virtually all cases in which the relevant seam extraction was at a depth of between 15 and 30 m, the above-mentioned design concept of single and double story dwellings is sufficient, provided that the foundation and the reinforced floors are structurally interconnected into a stiff framework and that all floors are additionally reinforced by ring anchors. An analogous design concept can be employed for statically determined, strain-

-50.00 rn

"1

plan view

Fig. 24. Hollow box foundation of the Thyssen high-rise building in the city of Essen. Note the location of the large-diameter piles in the footwall strata of the mined-out coal seam

Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons

Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

3.9 Foundations in mining regions


cantilever configuration centre hole configuration

581

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


1~3.om I_ I-7

_1 3.Ore I -7 -I

I_ a _J_ I-I-

6.om

_J_ a
-i-

I "I

Fig. 25. Proposal for the design assumptions of structures in cantilevered and centre hole foundation configurations insensitive frameworks. For sensitive elements, however, such as crane rails, provision for positioning correction has to be made.

Preventive measures are also required if there is a possibility of sinkholes occurring in the foundation area. This is the case if the foundation layers are prone to 'quick' behaviour, in particular, if they consist of water saturated fine to medium sand and coarse silt. Under these conditions piping can occur in which the material from the upper layers is transported by the flowing groundwater into the voids of the collapsed strata of the deeper ground. A prediction of the local occurrence of piping and sinkholes is quite difficult. It is therefore a good strategy for these geotechnical conditions to consider a deep foundation solution in which the footings are positioned below the critical layers and onto stable ground. In case such a solution is technically difficult and uneconomic however, systematic injection of the deeper ground is recommended with the objective of reducing the permeability of the lower strata to a degree where piping is no longer possible. Injection is also unavoidable if there is surface collapse and if a structure is not amenable to internal stiffening procedures.

5.3

Stabilisation o f the g r o u n d by injection General remarks

5.3.1

One of the main effects of backfilling and injection of hydraulically bound cemented materials is the stabilisation of ground which is structurally disturbed by underground mining. The objective is not to fill all the major voids, as is usually the case in dam construction, in an attempt to make the underground sufficiently impermeable. In fact, the main objective is to establish fixed contacts between the collapsed blocks of the unstable ground. To design the injection works, the ground has to be specifically investigated for its void characteristics. It is essential to gain detailed knowledge on the local geological conditions and the depth and orientation of the coal seams. Flush drilling with careful observation of the degree of circulation loss and the injection quantities is required.

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582

Dietmar Placzek

5.3.2

Injection method (see also Chapter 2.2, Volume 2)

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


The injection grout must be continuously mixed in a container equipped with tool to avoid any sedimentation prior to injection. The grout is conveyed by pumps from the mixer via tubes and hoses to the injection point. The pumping and the injected quantities must also be continuously monitored, e.g. by a volume chart recorder.

Two injection methods are applicable. The first method is to drill the injection borehole to its final depth and then carry out the injection in a staged procedure from the bottom upwards. Sealing of the individual injection sections of the borehole is carried out by means of a packer. As the ground is usually in a loose state there is a high potential for injection fluid circulating around the packer seals. This can be a major technical problem, which often justifies the use of the alternative, i. e. the second injection method. In this method injection is also carried out in a phased manner, however, this is done from the top to the bottom and in conjunction with the drilling. Drilling and injection are carried out sequentially. First, a standpipe with a minimum length of 2.0 m is set at the bottom of the borehole. The standpipe must be in firm, cement-grouted contact with the rock at the borehole bottom over a length of about 0.5 to 1.0 m. The injection work must be continuously monitored for all depth levels for the injection pressure, the duration of the injection stage and the number of injection cycles. The length of the respective injected sections depends on the void characteristics of the ground, however, it should not exceed 5 m. If there is evidence of a major void, e.g. by a total circulation loss of the drilling fluid or a sudden fall of the drilling rods, drilling has to be stopped immediately. The drilled section then is to be backfilled and injected as an additional injection step. The spacing of the injection boreholes depends on the dimensions of the structure and also on the type of the anticipated prevention measure. When the ground is stabilised in a pillar-like fashion for the support of strip and raft foundations, the spacing is controlled by the stiffness of the superstructure, in particular its structural conformity with the point load foundation supports. In geo-engineering practice, a spacing of about 5 to 7 m is common. A larger spacing may be possible for the support of framework structures. For injections over a larger area, the spacing of the injection borehole should not exceed 5 m. This applies to both deep injection for the treatment of the collapsed strata as well as for near-surface injection for the prevention of sinkholes in piping-sensitive situations. One and the same drill rig can be used for placing the steel pipes, drilling the injection holes and for re-drilling of hole sections which are cement-filled from previous injection stages. Rotational drilling with a full-hole bit and fluid flushing is advantageous in this regard. a stirring means of pressures pressure-

5.3.3

Injection material

The injected material is usually a cement-water mix which may contain additives such as sand, bentonite or an agent to accelerate setting. Each batch has to be prepared for the particular void characteristics of the ground disclosed by the drilling. If drilling revealed the absence of any sizeable voids it is advisable to start injection with a thin fluid. In the case where a pre-specified quantity may be exceeded, a thicker fluid should be injected in a second phase (Table 1). If the drilling revealed larger voids, it is advisable to carry out back-filling first by flushing sand or gravel particles into the voids prior to the commencement of the injection work proper.

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Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

3.9 Foundations in mining regions Table 1. Composition of a rout mix depending on the injected quantity Injected quantity Mix Composition Cement II III IV Cement (+ 1-2% bentonite) Cement + 60-80% sand + 3-4% bentonite

583

w/c-ratio 1.0 ... 1.2 0.5 ... 0.8 0.8... 1.0 1.0 ... 1.2

O- 1000 1
1000- 2000 1 2000-4000 1

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


4000-5000 1 Cement + 200% sand + 4-5% bentonite 1.4 ... 2.0 w/c-ratio ~ water-/cement ratio

5.3.4

Injection procedure

The injection work must be carried out continuously to avoid any disturbances caused by sedimentation within the grout mix. The composition of the mix should depend on the quantities injected in the preceding stages. To avoid uncontrolled injection a long way from the point of application, it is good practice to specify an upper limit of the injection quantity for each injection stage. If it is not possible to achieve some degree of closure of the voids within the first injection stage, as indicated by a lack of any injection pressure built-up, it is necessary to let the grout mix set in the borehole, ream it out after setting and repeat the earlier injection stage.

For secondary injection a systematic grading of the grout mix is no longer necessary. A relatively thick grout can be used for this purpose. As before, an upper limit of the grout volume should be specified and a proper stabilisation of the voids carried out supported by a further auxiliary injection. If after the third injection phase there is still no sign of a pressure built-up, it is advisable to drill an extra injection borehole at a distance of about 1 to 2 m away. The injection pressure must be high enough to overcome the friction losses in the delivery system. On the other hand, it should not be so high that it leads to significant uplift of the overlying ground. This is particularly valid for near-surface injection work. As permeability is usually of no concern for this type of injection work an injection pressure of up to 2 bar is normally sufficient. The ground can be considered to be stable, if an injection pressure of 2 bar can be maintained over a time span of 10 minutes.

5.3.5

Evaluation of the monitoring results

The key parameters of the drilling and injection work are to be monitored in the form of diagrams. In these diagrams major ground disturbances are usually clearly identifiable. The diagrams also allow for the assessment of the degree of ground stabilisation achieved by the injection work. They serve as a prime reference for identification of any additional ground stabilisation work, if required. Figure 26 shows the monitoring results of an injection carried out in a borehole.

Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons

Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

584
b o r e h o l e no.: s u r f a c e l e v e l i: of standpipe E E

Dietmar Placzek

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


o

~2001
.

_~

4000

5001

secondary

injection

19001

Fig. 26. Graphical presentation of the

quantities injected into a borehole

P r e v e n t i v e m e a s u r e s f o r tunnels General remarks

6.1

In principle, the mining-induced actions and the types of provisions for surface structures are equally applicable to tunnels Tunnels are fully embedded within the ground This has the effect that in the load case "mining-induced actions" the tunnel structure will be in direct interaction with the soil and the imposed ground movements. Preventive measures designed in accordance with the principle of resistance would result in reaction forces of enormous, but hardly quantifiable magnitudes.

t(

artifici;

Fig. 27. Cut-and-cover tunnel section of the city railway line in Gelsenkirchen. The tunnel lining consists

of flexible steel elements [12]

Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons

Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

3.9 Foundations in mining regions


:___. ....

585

:_:_A metal W 140


teel Mn 4

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


E crete ;ial soil :oncrete

I
St

he

adjustment

concrete

Fig. 28. Water-tight tunnel lining consisting of corrugated steel profiles with spring elements in the roof [12]

I
,

7.40 m

.I

As a consequence, the usual design for preventive measures against subsidence is based on the principle of deformation [6]. When designing adequate measures for tunnels it one must keep in mind that any disturbance to the tunnel function is often detrimental and should be kept to a minimum. It is advisable to use construction materials which behave in a flexible manner, even under cyclic loading, and which can be replaced easily should their ultimate strength be exceeded. Curved sheet pile tunnel linings, for instance, have a proven record of good adjustment to mining-induced ground movements (Figs. 27 and 28).

6.2

Options for preventive measures

For cut-and-cover tunnels in particular it is feasible to reduce the impact of the reaction forces and the transfer of the ground movements by the use of soft cushions. The above possibilities refer to regions with relatively large mining-induced impacts. In regions with a lesser degree of mining-induced ground movements the standard provisions for soft ground conditions may be employed, in particular shortening of the spacing of the axial construction joints and, when viewed in the cross section, selection of a statically determinate tunnel structure. Local experience from the owner and the Mining Office should be considered in all circumstances.

Upgrading of existing structures Preliminary remarks

7.1

In the urban centres of mining towns a large number of buildings exist which may require structural upgrading to cope with new impacts from mining-induced ground movements. By comparison with newly designed surface structures the implementation of measures to upgrade existing structures is significantly more difficult as, in almost all circumstances, temporarily impairment of the functionality of the structure is unavoidable.

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586

Dietmar Placzek

7.2

Provisions for equal vertical subsidence

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


7.3 Provisions for differential vertical subsidence
Table 2. Preventive measures for existing structures for predominately vertical ground movements Preventive measures

Vertical subsidence of equal magnitude cause a rise of the groundwater level relative to the structure (see Fig. 6). A number of negative impacts are associated with such a rise, most importantly an increase of the water pressure in the foundation causing a decrease in the safety factor against uplift and bearing capacity. The increase of the water pressure acting onto the foundation sidewalls is also of importance. Against this background appropriate provisions may become necessary, such as reinforcement of the basement floor (e. g. increased floor thickness and floor anchors), measures for an increase of the safety against shear failure and insulation and drainage of the sidewalls (e. g. reinforcement of the sidewalls, insulation and drainage on the external face).

Construction measures inside and in the vicinity of existing structures require a principal decision in order to determine how to cope with the expected, mining-induced vertical ground movements. One option is to preserve the existing state in terms of structure and function (conservation option), the other one is to reinstate the structure in its original position (reinstatement option). For differential vertical subsidence and its derivatives, tilt and curvature, adequate construction measures can be selected for the two options as

Soil movement

at and in the structure

outside of the structure

Conservation

Reinstating

Conservation

Reinstating

Tilt

Compensation measures:

Floors (e.g. stone cement, artificial floor) Walls (e.g. plastering, panelling) Ceilings (e.g. suspended ceiling)

Foundation treatment and lifting as for differential subsidence and curvature, resp. Foundation treatment and lifting by means of:

Stabilisation of the foundation soil and the strukture

Stabilisation of the foundation soil and lifting the structure

Differential subsidence

Foundation treatment

Drilled piles Injektion pile High-pressure injektion Mortar filling of soil Under-pinning

Stabilisation of the foundation soil by:

Hydraulic jacks Pressure pads Springs Constant load system

Injection Hight-pressure injection of solid particels and mortar treatment of the ground

Stabilisation of the foundation soil and lifting of the structure by:

High-pressure injection

Structural stabilisation:

Drilled piles Injection piles Mortar treatment of soil Under-pinning

Curvature

as above Separation joints

as above Structural stiffening

as above

as above

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

587

detailed in Table 2. The table shows a distinction between preventive measures to be implemented in the inside of a structure (most likely with imposed temporary restrictions on its usage) and outside of a structure (most likely without any restrictions). An example of a remedial measure for an existing building is tilt correction by means of hydraulic jacks as shown in Fig. 29.

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


Fig. 29. Tilt correction by lifting of a building using hydraulic jacks 7.4 Provisions for horizontal ground m o v e m e n t s

As for vertical ground movements, appropriate preventive measures for existing structures can also be specified for ground movements predominately in the horizontal direction (Table 3). Figures30 and 31 depict the preventive measures at existing structures to cope with horizontal shortening (compressive strain) of the foundation ground.

pad~(~/'~

~ I'

// / / / /k
. . . . .

ditch

basement

~ : Ep

le O f a ~ l O i l l

I ca. 2.00ml
I-I

pad ditch

pads in drillholes

Fig. 30. Reductionof the earth pressure generated by compressivestrain in the groundby the construction of a deformation zone (pads) [14]

Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons

Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

588

Dietmar Placzek

Table 3. Preventive measures for existing structures for predominately horizontal ground movements
Preventive measures

Soil movement

at and in the structure Conservation Reinstating Anchoring and tensioning by:

outside of the structure Conservation Stabilisation of the structure: Reinstating Stabilisation of the structure and displacement in the foundation plane:

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l


Tensile strain Foundation treatment:
T e n s i o n plate Tension beam T e n s i o n b e a m grid Tension anchors T e n s i o n bars Tension b e a m G r i d o f tension b e a m s (e.g. by m i c r o tunneling)

Anchoring:

R o l l e r supports Hydraulic jacks

Tension anchors T e n s i o n bars

Slip planes in foundation plane:


L o w friction sheets Supports

Injection of cracks Foundation treatment:

Compressive strain

Pressure plate Pressure b e a m G r i d o f pressure b e a m s

Rehabilitation and securing those parts which are in contact with the soil:
I n j e c t i o n o f cracks Displacement of walls Renovation of walls External padding

Shielding of the structure:

Decompression by:

C u s h i o n drillhole C u s h i o n ditch

Drillholes Ditches Separation joints

Wall strengthening and stiffening Separation joints to form structural subunits

Stabilisation of the structure:

Pressure b e a m Grid o f pressure b e a m s (e.g. by m i c r o tunneling)

Separation joints to form structural subunits

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3.9 Foundations in mining regions

589

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Fig. 31. Cutting of a brick wall as a preventive measure against subsidence damage

References

[1] Guidelines for engineered structures in regions affected by underground mining (in German), Edition 1953. Ministerialblatt of the State of North-Rhine Westfalia, 16 (1963), Edition A: 1716 - 1726. [2] Drisch, L.,Schiirken, J. (1995). Assessment of mining-induced ground movements and settlement damage of buildings (in German). Theodor Oppermann Publ.. [3] Hollmann, F., Hiilsmann, K.H., SchOne-Warnefeld, G. (1970). Foundation ground in mining areas. The impact of earth movements due to mining subsidence and construction ground by an example in the Westphalian industrial area (Ruhr District) (in German). Proceed. 2nd Int. Congr. Int. Soc. Rock Mech. Beograd, 3: 511-530. [4] Hollmann, F., Niirenberg, R. (1972). Near-surface mining as a technical problem in civil construction in the Lower Rhine - Westphalia Coal District (in German). Mitt. Westf. Berggewerkschaftskasse, Bochum, 30: 1-39. [5] Kratzsch (1997). The science of mining-induced damage (in German), 3rd Edition. Bochum Deutscher Markscheider-Verein e. V., Essen. [6] Luetkens, O. (1957). Construction in mining regions (in German). Springer-Verlag, Berlin/G6ttingen/Heidelberg. [7] Nendza, H., Placzek, D. (1997). Foundation design in regions affected by underground mining (in German). Grundbau-Taschenbuch, Vol. 3, 5th Edition, Chap. 3.11, Ernst & Sohn, Berlin. [8] Niemczyk, O. (1949). The science of mining-induced damage (in German). Gl~ickauf, Essen. [9] Placzek, D., Weber, U. (1991). Protection and sanitation of old buildings and architectural monuments in cases of externally induced soil movements. Proceed. X. European Conf. Soil Mech. Foundation Eng., Florence, 2: 825-830. [10] Schmidbauer, J. (1966). Foundation design in regions affected by mining-induced subsidence (in German). Grundbau-Taschenbuch, Vol. 1, 2nd Edition, Ernst & Sohn, Berlin. [11] Schmidt-Schleicher, H. (1997). Subsidence-induced interaction between underground and building structures (in German). Der Prafingenieur.

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Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

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Dietmar Placzek

[12] Tunnel construction with steel supports (in German). Techn. Rep. Philipp Holzmann AG, Mai 1983. [13] Traffic tunnels in areas with mining subsidence (in German). Berichte Inst. fur Konstruktiven Ingenieurbau, Ruhr-University Bochum, Vol. 15 (1973). [14] Weber, U. (1986). Investigations into the economy of preventative measures in building structures for the alleviation of damage induced by underground mining (in German). Mitt. Fachgebiet Baubetrieb & Bauwirtschaft, University of Essen, Vol. 5.

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