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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, BELGAUM A technical seminar report on supercharger Submitted in partial fulfillment as per VTU curriculum for

VIII semester Bachelor of Engineering In Mechanical Engineering Of Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum Submitted by ANSHUMAN PANDA (1DS05ME107) 2009-2010 Department of Mechanical Engineering DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINE ERING BANGALORE-560078 1

VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Dep artment of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore 560078 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Technical Seminar report entitled SUPERCHARGER has been presented by Mr.ANSHUMAN PANDA, USN: 1DS05ME107 in partial fulfillment for the a ward of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering of the Visvesvaraya Te chnological University, Belgaum during the year 2009-10. It is certified that al l correction/suggestions indicated for internal assessment have been incorporate d in the report deposited in the department library. Date: Sign of HOD/Coordinator Internal Examiners: Name & sign. 1. 2. 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS It is with great satisfaction and euphoria that I am submitting the Technical se minar report on SUPERCHARGER. I have completed it as a part of the curriculum of our university. First of all I thank the almighty for providing me with the strengt h and courage to present the seminar. I avail this opportunity to express my sin cere gratitude towards Dr. K. G. Sudhakar , head of mechanical engineering department , for permitting me to conduct the seminar. I am also indebted to all the teachi ng and nonteaching staff of the department of mechanical engineering for their c ooperation and suggestions, which is the spirit behind this report. Last but not the least, I wish to express my sincere thanks to all my friends for their good will and constructive ideas. ANSHUMAN PANDA 3

CONTENTS 1. Supercharger, the engine booster. ----------------- 5 2. Why superchargers?? -------------------------------- 6 3. How it works??? ------------------------------------- 7 4. Working diagram of a supercharger. --------------- 8 5. Classi fication of superchargers. -------------------- 9 6. Commonly used superchargers . -------------------- 10 7. Roots supercharger. ------------------------------11 8. Twin-Screw Supercharger. -------------------------- 12 9. Centrifugal Superch arger. -------------------------- 13 10. Diagrammatic Illustration. ------------------------ 14 11. Drives used in Superchargers. -------------------- 16 12.Su percharger, An edge over turbocharger. -----17 13.Nothing is perfect. ---------------------------------- 18 14.Conclusion. ----------------------------------------- 19 15.References. ----------------------------------------- 20 4

INTRODUCTION To increase the output efficiency of any engine we have to burn more fuel and ma ke bigger explosion in every cycle. We have two options for this. One way to add power is to build a bigger engine. But bigger engines, which weig h more and cost more to build and maintain, are not always better. Another way to add power is to make a normal-sized engine more efficient. We can accomplish this by forcing more air into the combustion chamber. More air means more fuel can be added, and more fuel means a bigger explosion and greater hors epower. This can be done with the help of a supercharger. A supercharger is basically an air compressor used for forced induction of an in ternal combustion engine. It does the same work as that of a compressor, i.e. it compresses the air being delivered to the combustion chamber of an engine. The greater mass flow-rate provides more oxygen to support combustion than would be available in a naturally-aspirated engine, which allows more fuel to be provided and more work to be done per cycle, increasing the power output of the engine. Thus a supercharger is extra equipment provided in an engine so as to boost the capacity and the torque of an engine. 5

WHY SUPERCHARGER ?? A supercharger is used in an engine for various reasons. Some of the advantages of superchargers are as follows: Increases the power of an engine. A supercharger spinning at 50,000 RPM translates to a boost of about six to nine pounds per square inch (psi). Increases the torque produced. An efficiently working engine with supercharger can achieve the same speed in on e third of the time taken by the same engine without supercharger. Necessary in airplanes and jets as they have less oxygen at high altitudes. So t hey provide the sufficient amount of air by compressing it to higher pressure. A nd ensures complete combustion. Higher amount of oxygen in compressed air from supercharger ensures complete com bustion of the fuel. Complete combustion reduces pollution to some extent. 6

PRINCIPLE OF WORKING More fuel + More air = Bigger explosion = Greater horsepower. Every supercharger works on the same above mentioned tagline. It is quite evident that to get more output from any engine we need to burn more fuel. More fuel will result in a bigger explosion in every cycle, which will th en push the piston with more thrust, and consequently this thrust will be transm itted to the wheels with the help of crank and shaft. Wheels will rotate faster and with more power and that is how it works. But, to burn more fuel in an engine, we need more air in it (The chemically corr ect mixture (14: 1:: air : fuel) is essential for an engine to operate perfectly). Thus a supercharger compresses the air being delivered to the engine so as to s upply more air in the same, limited volume of the cylinder. This ensures complet e combustion of the fuel and no unburnt fuel comes out of the exhaust. Thus the supercharger increases the power output of any engine. 7

DIAGRAM OF A WORKING ENGINE EQUIPPED WITH A SUPERCHARGER A TYPICAL SUPERCHARGER 8

CLASSIFICATION OF SUPERCHARGERS Based on method of compression, Superchargers can be classified as:1. Positive-displacement type, which deliver a nearly-fixed volume of air per revol ution at all speeds and a fairly constant level of boost regardless of engine sp eed. 2. Dynamic compressors rely on accelerating the air to high speed and then exchangi ng that velocity for pressure by diffusing or slowing it down & deliver increasi ng boost with increasing engine speed. A supercharger comes in two different variations: Positive displacement and dyna mic compressors. A positive displacement supercharger pushes air into the engine at a constant sp eed, while a dynamic supercharger uses velocity to manipulate the pressure in th e air. In either case, oxygen is compressed as it is delivered to the engine, allowing more power to be gained from every explosion in the combustion chambers. 9

COMMONLY USED SUPERCHARGERS Nowadays, there are several types of superchargers used in the engines. Followin g are some of the most commonly used superchargers in the market. o Roots Superchargers o Twin-Screw Superchargers o Centrifugal Superchargers History of Superchargers The Roots supercharger is the oldest design of supercharger used in any type of engine. Philander and Francis Roots, in 1860, introduced the concept of such typ e of equipment. Though they patented the design as a machine that would help ven tilate mine shafts, later this turned out to be a miraculous invention for autom otive engineers. In 1900, Gottleib Daimler for the first time included a Roots s upercharger in a car engine which improved the output of the engine. This was th e first step towards its development. 10

ROOTS SUPERCHARGER Constructional features: It consists of two meshing lobes that are fitted on two parallel shafts. Those lobes resembles to a lobe gear that are in continuous me sh. Both the lobes mesh in such a manner that the air pockets between these lobe s and the side walls goes on decreasing as air moves from the fill side to the d ischarge side. Thus the passing air gets squeezed. Working of Roots Supercharger: As the meshing lobes spin, air trapped in the pockets between the lobes is carried between the fill side and th e discharge side & large quantities of air move into the intake manifold and "st ack up" to create positive pressure. This pressurized air is received at the dis charge side. Roots superchargers are usually large and sit on top of the engine. Roots superchargers are the least efficient supercharger for two reasons:1. They add more weight to the vehicle. 2. They provide air in discrete bursts instead of Providing in a smooth and cont inuous manner. 11

TWIN-SCREW SUPERCHARGERS Constructional features: Twin-Screw Superchargers consist of two meshing lobes t hat resemble a set of worm gear. The two gears meshes in such a way that the air pockets between them goes on decreasing as air moves ahead. Working of Twin Scr ew Superchargers: A twin-screw supercharger operates by pulling air through a pa ir of meshing lobes that resemble a set of worm gears. The rotors have a conical taper, which means the air pockets decrease in size as air moves from the fill side to the discharge side. Thus a twin-screw supercharger compresses the air in side the rotor housing. As the air pockets shrink, the air is squeezed into a sm aller space. Thus twin-screw superchargers are more efficient compared to roots supercharger. They cost more because the screw-type rotors require more precision in the manuf acturing process. They also make a lot of noise. The compressed air exiting the discharge outlet creates a whine or whistle that must be checked with noise suppression techniques. 12

CENTRIFUGAL SUPERCHARGERS Constructional features: Centrifugal superchargers consist of an impeller with s everal blades that rotate at a very high speed at around 50000 rpm. This impelle r throws the air outside due to centrifugal force. It also consists of a diffuse r which exchanges the speed for high pressure. Working of Centrifugal Supercharger: As the air is drawn in the hub of the impel ler, centrifugal force causes it to radiate outward. The air leaves the impeller at high speed, but low pressure. A diffuser converts the high-speed, low-pressu re air to low-speed, high-pressure air. Thus pressurized air is achieved. Impeller speeds can reach 50,000 to 60,000 RPM. Centrifugal superchargers are the most efficient and the most common induction s ystems. They are small, lightweight and attachable to the front of the engine. Thus the centrifugal superchargers are the best among the above list. 13

DIAGRAMATIC ILLUSTRATION ROOT SUPERCHARGER WORKING OF A TWIN-SCREW SUPERCHARGER TWIN-SCREW SUPERCHARGER 14

CENTRIFUGAL SUPERCHARGER WORKING OF A CENTRIFUGAL SUPERCHARGER 15

DRIVES USED IN SUPERCHARGERS Drives are basically the equipments that are used to transfer power from one sha ft to another shaft. In a supercharger, drives are used to transfer part of engi ne power to the supercharger There are several types of drives used to empower a supercharger. These drives a re used according to there requirements. Some of them are as under: Mechanical: Belt (V belt, toothed belt & Flat belt). Gear drive.

Chain drive. Exhaust gas turbines: Axial turbine.

Radial turbine. Other: Electric motor. 16

SUPERCHARGER AN EDGE OVER TURBOCHARGER Superchargers do not suffer lag: - Superchargers have no lag time because they a re driven directly by the crankshaft, whereas Turbochargers suffers lag because it takes a few moments before the exhaust gases reach a velocity that is suffici ent to drive the impeller/turbine. Since the superchargers are directly empowere d from the engine, so as the engine starts, the superchargers can be activated. But in the case of turbochargers they take some time for the accumulation of exh aust gases. Modification of the exhaust system: - Installing a turbocharger requ ires extensive modification of the exhaust system, but superchargers can be bolt ed to the top or side of the engine, that makes them cheaper to install and easi er to service and maintain. So this becomes a problem in the case of turbocharge rs. It becomes a tough task to modify the exhaust system as well as it adds an e xtra cost in the vehicle. Shutdown procedure: - No special shutdown procedure is turbochargers must required with superchargers as they are not lubricated by engine oil. They can b e shut down normally. Whereas idle for about 30 seconds or so prior to shutdown so the lubricating oil has a c hance to cool down. Thus it creates a problem during shutdown procedure as turbo chargers cant be shutdown normally. 17

NOTHING IS PERFECT It derives power from the engine itself: Crankshaft drives superchargers so they steal some of the engine's horsepower. A supercharger can consume as much as 20 percent of an engine's total power output. So it can be considered as a loss of engine power. (But because a supercharger can generate as much as 46 percent ad ditional horsepower, I think the trade-off is worth it). Whereas this is not the case in turbochargers, it empowers itself from the exhaust gas of the engine, w hich is mainly a waste of the engine. An added strain on the engine: Supercharging puts an added strain on the engine, which needs to be strong to handle the extra boost a nd bigger explosions. Engine and the other connected mechanisms have to be made robust enough to bear the extra pressure. So this makes the design engineer task tougher. An extra expense: Heavy-duty components, design complexity & maintenance add an extra burden on the expenses. And these expenses have to be made for better perf ormance without any compromise. Though this seems too much, but when compared to its output, this seems a good deal. 18

CONCLUSION Despite their disadvantages, superchargers are still the most cost-effective way to increase horsepower.

Superchargers can result in power increase of 50 to 100 percent, making them gre at for racing, towing heavy loads or just adding excitement to the typical drivi ng experience. It is a must use component in an airplanes. As superchargers ensure complete combustion, it greatly reduces the pollution pr oblem. With the use of high octane premium-grade gas, I think it is a miracle invention for speed junkies. 19

REFERENCES http://auto.howstuffworks.com/supercharger5.htm http://www.howstuffworks.com/search.php?terms=supe rcharger http://www.superchargerpros.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercharger http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercharger#History http://www.magnusonproducts.com/ 20