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Temperature sensors

0 Gives a Vout propotional to ambient room


0 Concept : as temperature increases, voltage

across a p-n junction increases at a known rate. (in this case Vbe)

0 Voltage at Anlg.Pin in Volts = (reading

from ADC) * (5/1024) V 0 Centigrade temperature = [(analog voltage in V) 0.5] * 100

Before: Writing the code

0 Review: 0 How does the lm35 work? 0 Read datasheet of lm35. 0 How to connect it to arduino? 0 What reference to use? 0 What sort of noises will be present? 0 What does the analogue input signify?

Datasheet of LM35

Circuit connection diagram

Temp sensor code

0 Connect lm35 as per circuit diagram in 7. Temp Sensor


0 Were giving AREF as 3.3V to reduce noise from the

LM35 and give more accurate readings.

0 Upload code onto Arduino and Output is seen in the

Serial monitor of the Arduino.

Write the code

1. Decide which analogue pin youre going to and

3. 4. 5.

assign it to a global variable in setup() { }, initialize serial port to 9600 baud rate to send temp reading out to PC. In loop() { }, take the analogue reading from a pin and store it in a temp float variable. Multiply reading by 5.0 and then divide by 1024 to get voltage value read by the port. Store this is a float variable called volt. Print out this value to the serial port and check.

Keep Writing the code

0 To get temp in centigrade, (volt 0.5) * 100

0 This is the ambient temperature recognized by the

LM35 in Celsius.

0 Send it to the serial port and check your code. 0 To convert to fahrenheight, mult by 9 then divide by 5

then add 32 to that result. Send it to serial port too.

0 Congratulate yourself please.

0 Use 3.3V as reference to increase resolution since

datasheet says that resolution of lm35 ~ 10mV. resistance,

0 Put in on PCB to avoid noise by breadboard internal 0 DO NOT LIGHT THE LM35 OR IMMERSE IT IN WATER. 0 Make a waterproof casing for the lm35 to test temp of


0 Any other applications?

0 An LDR is a Light Dependent Resistor. 0 As in the resistance offered by this device to an

electrical circuit is dependent on the amount of light falling on the circuit.

0 Also called photocells because they convert light

energy to an electrical response.

0 Useful for on-when-light/off-when-dark.

How to connect the LDR

0 LDR is basically a resistor, so it can be connected


0 You need a pull-down resistor to avoid sinking all the

current onto the arduino pin.

0 Circuit is GND-10kohn-LDR-VCC. 0 This circuit will only work if between 0-5V. If light is

too bright, it will saturate at 5V. 0 putting a variable resistor in place of 10k allows for controlling saturation with too bright/too dark light.

Ambient light like Dim hallway Moonlit night Room Dark overcast day / Bright room Overcast day

Ambient light (lux) 0.1 lux 1 lux 10 lux

Photocell resistance () 600K 70 K 10 K

LDR + R () 610 K 80 K 20 K

Current thru LDR +R 0.008 mA 0.07 mA 0.25 mA

Voltage across R 0.1 V 0.6 V 2.5 V

100 lux

1.5 K

11.5 K

0.43 mA

4.3 V

1000 lux


10.03 K

0.5 mA


Writing code!
0 decide analoge pin used as input to LDR.

0 In setup(){ }, initialize serial port with 9600.

0 In loop(){ }, first do an analogueread(pin) and store it in an

int variable called reading.

0 This value represents illumination received by LDR. 0 Send it to Serial Port.

0 Allow delay of some time to let the ADC settle.

Application 1
0 Make thresholds and determine the brightness

received and send it via serial port.

if (reading < 10) { Serial.println(" - Dark"); } else if (reading < 200) { Serial.println(" - Dim"); } else if (reading < 500) { Serial.println(" - Light"); } else if (reading < 800) { Serial.println(" - Bright"); } else { Serial.println(" - Very bright"); }

Application 2
0 Take the analogue reading and use it as the delay

amount in an LED blinking scenario. Use ledpin = 13.

void loop() { val = analogRead(LDR); digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH); delay(val); digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW); delay(val); }

Another Application
0 Put three LEDs around the LDR. Red, Green and Blue.

0 Put an object of a particular color in front of the LDR.

0 Light up RED LED and measure LDR value 0 Light up GREEN LED and measure LDR value 0 Light up BLUE LED and measure LDR value 0 From these three analogue values you can determine the

color of object being sensed.

Sensor Data on PC
0 Reading and plotting sensor data on PC is very simple

on the arduino.

0 Send data continuously to the computer over the

serial port.

0 Data can be viewed by any program capable of

viewing this data

Send sensor data to serial port

0 Open the folder Sensor data graph

0 Upload the arduino code onto the arduino and close

arduino IDE after checking serial monitor.

0 In softwares folder extract the processing folder.

0 Open processing and copy the processing code onto it and


0 Make sure serial port number in the processing sketch

matches arduino

The motor shield

1. DC Motor Interface Drives 2 motors with L293D DC Motor Driver IC. 2. IR paired sensors For line sensing, 4 IR sensor pairs can be attached and controlled. 3. The Buzzer or Servo Motor Selectable via jumper 4. The Switch or Servo Motor Selectable via jumper 5. Two LEDs

The motor shield goes on top of the arduino neatly. There are loads of shields for the arduino that provide different functionality.

Be careful removing the shield, if you bend the pins, you cant put the shield in again.

0 An IR transmitter (TX) is a LED that emits

light in the infrared spectrum. 0 (most cameras see IR, light up the IR LED and point a camera at it to check)

0 An IR Receiver (RX) is a transistor with the

base exposed. 0 The base voltage depends on the amount of IR received and it controls the amount of current passing through the C-E junction (leads).

IR schematic
0 The IR TX LED is connected through a current

limiting resisto 0 The IR RX is connected via a variable potentiometer to a voltage comparator to give a digital output.
0 The pot is used to adjust

For ambient light intensity.

0 The IR TX RX pairs should be spaced 1/4th of an inch apart

for optimal detection.

0 Calibration of IR sensors is important to adjust the sensors

for ambient light.

0 The output of this circuit is DIGITAL and read by a digital

pin. 1 obstruction; 0 No obstruction.

0 If you have to use IR sensors in the sun, use electrical tape

to provide adequate shielding.

Using the IR sensors

0 The motor shield has 4 IR sensors and 4 pots. 0 Connect the IR dongles to the placeholders. They go in only 0

0 0 0

one way There are status LEDs just next to each IR socket, if the comparator goes HIGH, the LED lights. This is for calibration. Keep the IR sensor pointed at nothing (no obstruction). Use a screwdriver and GENTLY turn the appropriate POT until the respective IR sensors status LED turns dark. Check with your hand if LED lights, if not readjust as you like.

0 The table below shows the pin arrangement for the 4

sensors on the shield.

0 If the shield is mounted, then these 4 pins provide the

output of the comparator.

0 Use digitalread(pin) to see the state of the pin at any


0 Connect all four IR sensors and calibrate them.

0 Write a program to output which of the 4 IR sensors

has gone HIGH to the serial port.

0 CHALLENGE: Try and make sure that the message on

the serial port doesnt repeat until the IR sensor has gone LOW again (obstruction removed). It shouldn't continuously output the message if the IR sensor is obstructed,

DC motors
0 Motors are devices that convert electrical energy to

mechanical energy. etc

0 Motors come in different varieties: AC, DC, Servo, Stepper 0 If motor draws less than 40mA of current, it can be directlu

wired to an arduino pin.

0 Current drawn by a DC motor is propotional to speed and

torque. To avoid burning out the arduino, we use motor drivers to control DC motors.

The L293 driver

0 This chip isolates logic level voltages and the motor supply

0 It as also called a H-bridge. 0 It uses the transistors as a switch concept to electrically

switch a DC power supply onto the terminals of the motor.

0 The driver can control two motors independently from the

same supply.

Motor Driver

The Motor Shield

0 The motor driver is present on the

shield which also contains a wire block for easy connection of the wires.

0 The supply will have terminals

marked on the board. Do not reverse these connections. The direction might have to be calibrated by testing if the terminals are reversed.

0 Motor can be connected in anyway.

Arduino shield to Motor Driver Pinout

0 To use a motor, set the enable pin to high in the setup() { } 0 Motor movement is done in loop() { } 0 If l1 is HIGH and l2 is LOW, motor turn in one direction. 0 If l1 is LOW and l2 is HIGH, the motor turns in the other


0 If both l1 and l2 are set to HIGH or LOW, then motor is stopped.

Wiring motors
0 Attach the arduino shield onto the arduino. 0 Take a 9V battery cap and screw it onto the motor

supply terminals. Take care of polarity.

0 Red >> + and Black >> -

0 Wire up the motors and connect them to the


0 Move both motors in same direction. 0 Reverse both motors. 0 Stop one and turn the other. 0 Stop the other and turn the one. 0 Make each motor turn in a different direction.

0 Combine the functionality of 2 IR sensors and the

motors to make an obstacle avoider bot.

0 Algorith: 0 Move forward, left and right randomly. 0 If IR sensors detect an obstruction, move a little back in the opposite side of the obstruction 0 Continue.