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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate School City of Balanga, Bataan

Course Title: Human Behavior in Organization Topic: Group Structure and Process Reporter: Rodelia L. Sansano Professor: Dr. Mercedes G. Sanchez What is a group? A group is two or more individuals who are connected to each other by social relationships. A group is a collection of people who interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members and who share a common identity. Why do people join groups? Companionship groups provide members to simply be in the company of other people. Survival and security from a historic or evolutionary perspective our ancestors would partake in group experiences for hunting and defense Affiliation and status membership into various groups can provide individuals with certain social status Power and control with group membership comes the opportunity for leadership roles; individuals who feel they need to exert their power and opinions over others can have such experiences within group settings. Achievement groups have the capability to achieve more than individuals acting alone. Types of groups 1. Formal A formal group is the deliberate and systematic grouping of people in an organization so that organizational goals are better achieved. Formal work groups are established by an organization to achieve organizational goals. Formal groups may take the form of command groups, task groups, and functional groups. Command Groups - Command groups are specified by the organizational chart and often consist of a supervisor and the subordinates that report to that supervisor. - An example of a command group is an academic department chairman and the faculty members in that department. Committee or Task force - Task groups or task force consist of people who work together to achieve a common task and relatively have a temporary life. - Members are brought together to accomplish a narrow range of goals within a specified time period.

The organization appoints members and assigns the goals and tasks to be accomplished. Examples of assigned task: development of a new product, the improvement of a production process, resolve a specific complaint or develop a process.

Functional Group - A functional group is created by the organization to accomplish specific goals within an unspecified time frame. - Functional groups remain in existence after achievement of current goals and objectives. - Examples of functional groups would be a marketing department, a customer service department, or an accounting department.

2. Informal Group Informal groups are formed naturally and in response to the common interests and shared values of individuals. They are created for purposes other than the accomplishment of organizational goals and do not have a specified time frame. Informal groups are not appointed by the organization and members can invite others to join from time to time. Informal groups can have a strong influence in organizations that can either be positive or negative. For example, employees who form an informal group can either discuss how to improve a production process or how to create shortcuts that jeopardize quality. Informal groups can take the form of interest groups, friendship groups, or reference groups. Interest Groups - Interest groups usually continue over time and may last longer than general informal groups. - Members of interest groups may not be part of the same organizational department but they are bound together by some other common interest. - The goals and objectives of group interests are specific to each group and may not be related to organizational goals and objectives. - An example of an interest group would be students who come together to form a study group for a specific class. Friendship Groups - Friendship groups are formed by members who enjoy similar social activities, political beliefs, religious values, or other common bonds. - Members enjoy each other's company and often meet after work to participate in these activities. - For example, a group of employees who form a friendship group may have an exercise group, or a basketball team. Reference Groups - A reference group is a type of group that people use to evaluate themselves.

The main purposes of reference groups are social validation and social comparison. Social validation allows individuals to justify their attitudes and values while social comparison helps individuals evaluate their own actions by comparing themselves to others. Reference groups have a strong influence on members' behavior. By comparing themselves with other members, individuals are able to assess whether their behavior is acceptable and whether their attitudes and values are right or wrong. Reference groups are different from the previously discussed groups because they may not actually meet or form voluntarily. For example, the reference group for a new employee of an organization may be a group of employees that work in a different department or even a different organization. Family, friends, and religious affiliations are strong reference groups for most individuals.

Group Structure A groups structure is the internal framework that defines members relations to one another over time. The most important elements of group structures are size, roles, norms, values, communication patterns, cohesiveness, and status differentials. Group Size Group size can vary from 2 people to a very large number of people. Small groups of two to ten are thought to be more effective because each member has ample opportunity to participate and become actively involved in the group. Large groups may waste time by deciding on processes and trying to decide who should participate next. Group size will affect not only participation but satisfaction as well. Role A role can be defined as a tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way. Roles may be assigned formally, but more often are defined through the process of role differentiation. Role differentiation is the degree to which different members of a group have specialized functions. Norms Group norms are the informal rules that groups adopt to regulate members behavior. Norms refer to what should be done and represent value judgments about appropriate behavior in social situations. Values Group values are goals or ideas that serve as guiding principles for the group. Like norms, values may be communicated either explicitly or on an ad hoc basis. Values can serve as a rallying point for the team. Communication Patterns - Communication patterns describes the flow of information within the group and they are typically described as either centralized or decentralized. With a centralized pattern, communications tend to flow from one source to all group members. Centralized communications allows consistent, standardization information but they may restrict the free flow of information. Decentralized communications allows information to be shared directly between members of the group. When decentralized, communications tend to flow more freely, but the delivery of information may not be as fast or accurate as with centralized communications. Another potential downside of

decentralized communications is the sheer volume of information that can be generated, particularly with electronic media. Cohesiveness Cohesiveness refers to the bonding of group members and their desire to remain part of the group. Many factors influence the amount of group cohesiveness. Generally speaking, the more difficult it is to obtain group membership the more cohesive the group. Groups also tend to become cohesive when they are in intense competition with other groups or face a serious external threat to survival. Smaller groups and those who spend considerable time together also tend to be more cohesive. Cohesiveness in work groups has many positive effects, including worker satisfaction, low turnover and absenteeism, and higher productivity. However, highly cohesive groups may be detrimental to organizational performance if their goals are misaligned with organizational goals. Status Differentials Status differentials are the relative differences in status among group members. Status can be determined by a variety of factors, including expertise, occupation, age, gender or ethnic origin.

Group Process A groups process looks like the group itself: the parameters of a group culture and communication style dictate how the group process will look. In some groups, the process may look like a moderate discussion, while other groups, at other times, it has more of an emotional and non-linear quality. In organizational development (OD), or group dynamics, the phrase "group process" refers to the understanding of the behavior of people in groups. The following steps to a group process are meant as guideline or blueprint. Sorting and filtering for topics This step helps the group focus on a topic. Some groups already have a topic chosen, while other groups need to go through a sorting process to find what topic they want to choose. Even if the topic is chose, sometimes the group still needs to go sort through the topic to find the specific focus within that topic. Gathering Consensus Consensus is a method of framing a direction the group, or part of the group, seems to be heading. It is not a unanimous agreement to go in a direction, but a momentary agreement of one part of the group to focus on a topic, and on another part of the group to put their issues on hold in order to focus on that topic. Identifying Roles Roles are often communicated as positions, feelings, point of view, and some of them can be named and identified with people. Other roles are less obvious, and are just felt in the atmosphere or implied. Roles emerge as different positions and it is helpful to explicitly name and make room for these roles and give their meaning clearly. Watching for communication edges and hotspots In groups, an edge is a place where the known meets the unknown. The edge is frequently characterized by a communication block or difficulty speaking. When roles

cannot speak, or complete what they are saying, they are at an edge. Noticing edges to communication helps the roles speak, and unfolds the deeper interaction in the groups field. When roles begin to interact and express themselves, they are often one or several hotspots: a strong, intense, surprising, or emotional expression or there is a silence, frozenness, or laughter. Hotspots represent a potential transformation or deepening of the interaction. Framing topics, level of conflict, and communication style The facilitator helps the group become aware of its different parts, experiences, roles, and atmosphere. Some of what makes a group process confusing are the overlapping levels of conversation. Interaction between people in a group can be emotional, volatile, and intimate. A facilitator framing and naming the different levels as they occur helps the group focus on these different levels, and can deepen what is happening. Momentary Resolution and Shift in Atmosphere There are moments in a group where the atmosphere changes temporarily, perhaps edges have been crossed, things become more personal, an interaction becomes completed, or a new learning, experience or insight has arisen. The intensity and excitement of a group process can marginalize cold spots or subtle moments of transformation or resolution. Sometimes the facilitator has to bring the group back to focus on and notice these moments.