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Intro.

To CDMA2000

Wireless Facilities Inc.

Module 3

GSM
Radio Network Optimization
Prepared By: Advanced Technology Group in collaboration with RF Engineering
Contact: hedayat.azad@wfinet.com

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Intro. To CDMA2000

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Introduction
Network optimization phase begins after sites

have been commissioned and integrated into the network.


The optimization process would involve
n n n

System performance measurements Analysis of measurement data Refining system parameters to achieve optimum performance

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Optimization Goals
Optimization is performed in order to:
n

Ensure that system operation is in accordance with design


to

move measured network performance closer toward predicted and desired performance objectives. the prediction is refined with measured network performance data collected during the optimization process.
n

Tune system parameters


Handoff

parameters, neighbor lists, switching system parameters, etc.

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Optimization Goals (cont.)


n

Control the introduction of users into the network


By

gradually introducing users to the network, performance under real-world conditions can be determined and then optimized. optimization progresses, these users are given access to larger sections of the network. the end of the optimization process, enough users should be utilizing the network to make the transition to commercial service virtually seamless.

As At

Quantify problems with the network and identify solutions to those problems
Engineers

enabled to quickly isolate problems, correctly determine and implement solutions to those problems and quickly test the solution.
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Optimization Steps
Sites pre-test
n

This is prior to site turn-on and includes checking design predictions, parameter settings, physical connections, antenna configurations, drive test route selections, etc.

Sites functional test


n

After the pre-test has been completed and the site has been turned on, the site is tested to verify that it is functioning properly. This includes checking transmitted power, basic call processing, test mobile performance, etc.

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Optimization Steps (cont.)


Cluster optimization
n

Optimization undertaken at this early stage is coarse and typically focuses on interference reduction, coverage verification, and handoff performance. Adjustments may not only be required to the switch parameters, but also to RF site configurations such as antenna orientations and downtilts. Optimization procedures can be performed on different clusters in parallel, as clusters become ready. Experience gained at this stage will be fed back into the design specification and RF engineering process in order to design more effective sites later in the process.
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Optimization Steps (cont.)


System optimization
n

Testing is performed on the adjacent clusters as a system, with new clusters being added after they have passed cluster optimization. In this manner, the whole network is built up piece-by-piece. Optimization undertaken at this stage is very detailed, and fine parameter adjustments are made to truly maximize network performance. As more clusters pass system optimization, more users can be added and given access to the new areas. Eventually, the complete network will be active and optimized with users placing calls throughout. The network is then ready for launch.
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Optimization Tools
Network optimization tools have been developed to

assist engineers in the complex optimization task.


Specialized hardware for performance data collection

facilitates rapid collection of large amounts of information upon which network diagnoses and corrections can be made.
Advanced software tools enable optimization engineers

to efficiently organize and process this vast amount of data in order to make the best and most accurate diagnosis in the shortest amount of time

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Optimization Guidelines
NETWORK OPTIMIZATION
Clusterization

I&C verifies hardware Site are grouped into cluster Cluster may consist of 10 to 20 sites

System Wide Parameters

Initial Verification

Failed

OMC-B verifies software

Data fill parameters including neigborlist and frequencies assignment

Drive test routes

-Call setup -Frequency verification -Time slot quality verification -Intra site handover verification (between sectors of same site)

Drive test are mutually agreed upon by all envolved parties

Passed

Optimization Drive test

Failed

Network Reconfigured

Specifications Ant tilt Ant Az. Ant Model System wide parameters (including Neighbor list and frequency retune)

passed Service quality parameters are mutually accepted by all envolved parties RF Optimization point of contact Point of contact on OMC-B Tower crew point of contact I&C (Instrument & control) point of contact System Acceptance Test

Organization

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Optimization Process
Radio Network Optimization Process
n n n n n n

Data Collection Problem Identification Problem Resolution Implementation of Changes Monitoring of Changes Documentation

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Data Collection
Data Collection Concept:
n n

Problem Identification Problem Solving

Methods of Data Collection:


n n n

Drive Test OSS / Equivalent Source Customer Care/ Trouble Reports

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Data Collection - Drive Test


Drive tests should be planed carefully ahead of time.

Drive-routes must meet the following conditions:


n n n

Follow normal traffic routes Cover the low signal areas Cover the high population areas

Drive tests should be performed on regular basis. Switch can also provide measurement data,

Uplink/Downlink, by setting up CTR (Cell Traffic Recording). CTR provides a record of events (handover, call setup, dropped call, etc.) and a complete set of measurements such as RXQUAL and RXLEV.

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Data Collection - OSS


In order to assess Service-Quality, certain parameters

should be collected from the BSC. Useful parameters are:


n n n n n n

Number of handover attempts per cell and per BSC Number of handover completion per cell and per BSC Number of call attempts per cell and per BSC Number of call completion per cell and per BSC Number of blocked calls per cell and per BSC Dropped call percentage per cell and per BSC

BSC counters are used for traffic-monitoring and event-

detection purposes.

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Data Collection - Trouble Reports


Although it is sometimes difficult to determine

the actual problem from the customer report, the problem area can be identified.
After identifying the problem, performance

engineers should investigate all possibilities of the root cause.

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Problem Identification and Resolution

General network issues include:


n n n n n n n n

Coverage Interference Capacity Multipath Functionality Handover Failure Call Dropping Call blocking

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Problem Identification and Resolution (cont.)


Coverage problem is usually due to power limitations,

obstructions, foliage and defective H/W. Interference is usually due to cell spacing, overshooting or improper frequency planning. Capacity analysis is the study of Erlang, utilization, GoS and feature-loading . Busy hour is the reference point for this study. Multipath interference occurs when delay-signal exceeds four to five symbol periods and the main-path to delaypath ratio is less than 15dB. Functionality problems are usually due to defective MS, RBS or Telco line(s).

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Problem Identification and Resolution (cont.)


Handover problems are usually due to:

Neighbor List Handover Parameters Interference / High Noise Level Path Imbalance / Power Measurement Module Missing Neighbors High Interference Low RSSI Equipment

Call dropping is usually due to:


n n n n

Call Blocking is usually due to resource availability, as

well as non-uniform distribution. Solutions are:


n n n

Channel-Add Off-Loading Underlay/Overlay


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Change-Orders / Implementation
Change-Orders should be released by RF to

Operations.
Change-Orders should be implemented properly

to correct / optimize the network.


RF should verify the effect of recent changes by

monitoring traffic performing drive tests.

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Documentation
Documentation:
n n n

Allows cross-referencing problems and solutions Allows back-tracking Facilitates performance reporting

Problems and solutions should always be

documented in detail with the following information:


n n n n n

Problem Type Date & Location Down-Time Duration Root Cause Problem Status
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Initial Site testing & Verification


Call Setup Check Intra Site Handover Check Coverage Check Frequency / BSIC / Time Slots Check Antenna Orientation Check

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Key Performance Factors (KPF)


Call Success Rate Handover Success Rate Signal Quality (FER, BER) TCH Availability Rate Non-Blocking TCH Rate (GoS < %2)
n n n

A Different weighting factors can be given to each of KPFs Totally Network/Client Dependent General Performance of the network rather than single factors

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Main features/parameters to check


Periodic Consistency Check
Frequency Planning Check Drive Test & Analyzing Layer 3 Messages Cell Access Parameters Handover Parameters Power Control Parameters Frequency Hopping Parameters (HSN, MAIO) Optional Features Site Configuration Recommendations (Antenna Type
Change, Antenna Height Change, BTS Equipment/Filter Change, Antenna Orientation Change, Downtilt)

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Idle Mode Operation


When?
n n

When the MS is switched ON When there is no dedicated connection

Why?
n

To camp on the best suitable cell

Why to camp on a specific cell?


n n n

For MS to receive system information from the NW on DL For MS to be able to initiate a call whenever needed For the NW to be able to locate the MS when there is a MT call/SMS

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Idle Mode Operation


Access/Mobility management PLMN selection Cell selection and reselection Location update

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Access/Mobility management
ACCESS/MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
n

notAllowedAccessClases (09, 1115) indicates which mobile classes cant have access to the cell. plmnPermitted (07) broadcast on the BCCH. MS will report measurement of permitted PLMN.

Location Information
n

LocationAreaId = MCC + MNC + LAC


Country

MCC is the Mobile Country Code Operator MNC is the Mobile Network Code Area in the PLMN LAC is the Location Area Code

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Access/Mobility management (cont.)


Parameter: baseStationIdentityCode - BSIC:

- BSIC = NCC (07, fixed for every PLMN) + BCC (07, BTS color code)
n

In the same area, Cells with same BCCH frequencies should have different BSIC. BSIC is used to separate co-channels used in different BTS. In other word, if cells A and B have identical BCCH and BSIC, a NBR cell to A or B can confuse the two cells if A and B are not isolated from a propagation perspective. In order to identify NBR cells, MS decodes BSIC and includes the info together with the BCCH frequency in the measurement report.

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Access/Mobility management (cont.)

MCC - USA MNC - Operator LAC1


F1, BSIC3

LAC2
F1, BSIC2

F1, BSIC2

F1, BSIC1

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PLMN Selection
An operational network in GSM is called PLMN (Public Land Mobile

Network).
A GSM customer has a subscription relationship with a single PLMN.

This specific PLMN is called home PLMN of the subscriber.

The home PLMN is set as the PLMN to try at the switch on. A change of PLMN can occur only when the user decides so, or

when the MS finds out that the serving PLMN can no longer provide normal service (because the MS is leaving the PLMN coverage area).

In those cases the MS will search for cells in the whole spectrum, to

find which PLMNs cover the location.

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PLMN Selection (cont.)


The PLMN selection is done in either manual

mode or automatic mode.


n

The automatic mode is based on the existence of preferred PLMN list which is stored in the SIM. The PLMNs are tried starting with:
Home Each

PLMN PLMN that has been stored in SIM in priority order Other PLMNs with received signal strength above 85dBm.

In manual mode the list of PLMNs the MS has found as potential candidates for providing normal service is presented to the user.

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Cell selection in Idle Mode


Two methods:
n n n

(a) Normal cell selection (b) Stored list cell selection (optional) If no suitable cell found with method (b) then (a) is tried

Suitable cell to camp on


n n n n n

Cell is in the selected PLMN Cell is not barred Cell is not in a forbidden location area for national roaming C1 >0 If there is no normal priority cell then low priority cell

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Cell selection in Idle Mode (cont.)


Radio Criteria

C1 = (A - Max(B,0))

Averaging 3-5 Sec.

s A = Received Level Average - p1 s B = p2 - Maximum RF Output Power of the Mobile

Station s p1 = rxLevelAccessMin: Min. received level at the MS required for access to the system s p2 = msTxPowerMaxCCH: Max. Tx power level which an MS may use when accessing the system

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Parameters
Parameter: RxLevAccessMin (-110-47 dBm)
n

Minimum signal strength required by the MS to get service from a specific cell in idle mode. A margin used in cell reselection when NBR cell is in a different LAC. It prevent ping pong location update which consumes SDCCH capacity: Rxlev_Cell_A > Rxlev_Cell_B + CellReselectHysteresis

Parameter: CellReselctHysteresis (014 dB)


n

Parameter: msTxPwrMaxCCH (1343 dBm)


n

MS maximum transmit power when accessing the system.

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Cell Reselect Hysteresis

cellReselectHysteresis (0 14 dB)
The real LA border The nominal LA border
cellReselectHys teresis

L2 L1

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Cell selection in Normal Operation


Search all RF CH and sort by RxLev Search for FCCH to verify if BCCH BCCH?
No

Tune to next Frequency in the List

Decode BCCH data Suitable Cell? -Correct PLMN -Cell not barred CELL_BAR_ACCESS=0 -C1 > 0 -Location not forbidden for national roaming
No

If no Normal Cell found? camp on lower priority cell


No

Camp On Cell
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Cell Re-selection
MS will calculate the C1 and C2 for the serving cell,

every 5 s. MS will calculate the C1 and C2 for the six best neighbor cells, every 5 s.
Cell re-selection is needed if: n Path Loss criterion C1 < 0 for cell camped on , for more than 5 seconds. n Any of the NBR have a higher C1 after 5 sec. n There is a DL signaling failure. n Cell becomes Barred. n There is a better cell with C2 criterion. n Random access attempts is still unsuccessful after
maxNumberRetransmission repetitions.

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Cell Re-selection based on C2 Criteria


Used in GSM Phase 2 (for Dual band and layered systems)

Example: single band system with macro and micro layers. Fast moving MS can be for example kept on the macro layers and slow moving mobiles on the micro layer. Parameter: cellReselectParamInd(Yes/No) if C2 parameters are sent to MS. cellBarQualify (Yes/No) control if cell baring can be overridden. Parameter: PenaltyTime (20640 s) time delay before final comparison is done between 2 cells. Parameter: TemporaryOffset (070 dB) temporary offset in dB during PenaltyTime of received signal strength. Parameter: CellReselectOffset (0126 dB) offset in dB to cell reselection

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Cell Re-selection based on C2 Criteria (cont.)


C2 calculation:
C2 = C1 + cellRselectOffset - temporaryOffset x H(penaltyTime - T) when penaltyTime < 640. OR: n C2 = C1 - cellReselectOffset when penaltyTime = 640.
n

Where: n H(x) = 1 when x >= 0 n H(x) = 0 when x < 0 n A timer T is started for each cell in the list of the 6 strongest cells as soon as it is placed on the list. T is reset to 0 when removed from the list.

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Cell Re-selection based on C2 Criteria (cont.)

dB

C2 when penaltyTime = 640 C2 when penaltyTime < 640

C2 cellReselectOffset cellReselectOffset C2 time temporaryOffset C1

penaltyTime

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IMSI Attach/Detach
MS is indicated as inactive in the Network to avoid

useless paging. Parameter: IMSIAttachDetach (Yes/No)


n

IMSI detach procedure may be invoked by a MS if the MS is deactivated. No response is returned from the Network in this case.

IMSI attach procedure complements IMSI detach to

indicate that The MS is active in the network. The IMSI attach procedure is used only if the IMSI was deactivated while the MS was in "idle updated" state and the stored LAI is the same which is sent on the BCCH of the current serving cell. IMSI attach is performed by using the location updating procedure. The LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message shall indicate IMSI attach.
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Location Update
MS initiates procedure by sending LOCATION UPDATING

REQUEST message to the network and starts a timer. The authentication procedure is initiated by the network upon receipt of the LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message from the MS. The ciphering mode setting procedure is initiated by the network, if a new TMSI has to be allocated. If the location updating is accepted by the network a LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT message is transferred to the Mobile Station. MS stores the received location area identification (LAI), stop the timer, reset the attempt counter and set the update status to "updated".

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Location Update (cont.)


If the LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT message contains an IMSI, the

MS shall delete any TMSI. If it contains a TMSI, it should replace the old TMSI and send a TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE to the Network. After that, the mobile station shall wait for the network to release the RR-connection. In normal cases, the mobile station will enter the "idle, updated" state after the release of the RR-connection. In this state it shall :
n n

n n n

Perform normal location updating when a new location area is entered Perform periodic updating controlled by timerPeriodicUpdateMS (0.025.5hours) Perform IMSI detach Perform IMSI attach if activated in the same location area Respond to paging

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Radio Link Measurements


In GSM, the MS uses the BS Identity Code (BSIC) to

distinguish between neighboring BSs.


The measured signal level value (RXLEV) and signal

quality level value (RXQUAL) parameters are used for the purpose of inter-cell and intra-cell Handovers.
Inter-cell Handover from the serving cell to a neighbor

cell occurs when RXLEV and/or RXQUAL is low in the serving cell and better in the neighbor cell.
Intra-cell Handover from one channel/time slot to

another channel/time slot in the same cell occurs when RXLEV is high but RXQUAL is low.
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Radio Link Measurements (cont.)


The MS monitors the signal strength of neighbor BSs and

maintains a list of six strongest non-serving BSs. A new BS is selected from the list if:
n

n n n

The path loss criterion for the serving BS is not met for 5 seconds. The signaling link with the serving BS fails. The serving BS becomes barred. Non-serving cell access signal is greater than that of the serving BS for 5 seconds, and by at least the CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERSIS value in dB.

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Measurement Processing
MS downlink measurements of serving and

neighboring (NBR) cells


n

Idle Mode Measurement


MS

decodes BCCH of serving cell, every 30 sec., and BCCH of NBR cells every 5min (pre synchronize and decode the BSIC). The list of 6 best NBR cells is updated every 60 sec, and if a new NBR cell appears on the list, MS has to decode its BCCH within 30 sec.

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Measurement Processing
n

Dedicated Mode Measurement


MS

has limited time to conduct measurements since MS is transmitting and receiving data from serving cell. MS measures NBR cells after transmitting and before receiving the next frame. MS gets a list of NBR cells on BCCH (System Info 5). During Idle slot (slot #25 of traffic multi-frame), MS has more time to decode and measure NBR cells signals. MS presynchronize with the frequency of NBR cell and decode BSIC. MS has to pre-synchronize and decode BSIC of NBR cells once every 10 sec. MS needs to decode New NBR on the list within 5sec.

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Measurement Processing
MS

sends the measurements of the 6 NBR cells to the BTS every SACCH period (480 msec). BTS pre-process the data and forwards it to the BSC. Final processing is done at the BSC. BTS averages UL&DL measurement over 1, 2, 3 or 4 SACCH period set by parameter btsMeasAver(14 SACCH). Averaging and sampling of measurements in the BSC is controlled by parameters ho/pcAveragingLev/QualDL/UL. The parameters have windowSize(132 SACCH) and weighting(13) as arguments. These parameters determine how samples are averaged and weighted due to DTX. msDistanceAveragingParam(132 SACCH) is the averaging parameter used to trigger HO due to distance. Averaging is done every SACCH period by using a sliding averaging window.
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Averaging and Sampling

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10

480 ms

AVERAGE=40 AVERAGE=35

P=0 P=0 P=1 P=2

Handover trigger HoThresholdLevDL = 33 (-77 dBm) WindowSize = 5, Weighting = 1 Px = 3, Nx = 4 btsMeasAver = 1 (no pre-processing in BTS)

AVERAGE=30 AVERAGE=25

AVERAGE=20

P=3

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Averaging and Sampling


Fast Handover Averaging Method
n

Suitable for micro cells where fast HO decision is required. Can be used in call setup phase (SDCCH) by enabling enaFastAveCallSetup (y/n) Can be used after power control by enabling enaFastAvePC (y/n) Can be used in the beginning of a new TCH by enabling enaFastAveHO (y/n) The method is always used in NBR cells measurements

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Averaging and Sampling


n

After PC command, PC comparison is started again but HO comparison is continued and only measurement before PC are initialized.
PC 0 New Ave. 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nx 6 1 1 1 0 HO Px 4

PC 0 Old Ave. Nx 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 HO Px 4

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Measurement Processing
n

BSC capacity is related to number of adjacent NBR cells processed simultaneously in the BSC. Parameter allAdjacentCellsAveraged (Yes/No), is used to specify if all NBR should be averaged or just the 6 best ones. No means 6 best NBRs.
BTS sends to the BSC 6 best NBR measurements, the rest is being given a zero result. Good adjacent cells without measurement results zero value can still be taken into account (up to 7 zeros) with the parameter numberOfZeroResults (07). numberOfZeroResults zero samples can be omitted when averaging measurement results in choosing NBR cells.

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Averaging with DTX and weighting


DTX is allowed just on TCH (only for speech call, not for

data call) SUB- measurement results are reported when DTX is used
Example pcAveragingLevUL windowSize= 8 weighting= 2 Sample: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DTX used: 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 uplink level: 35 42 33 36 39 40 39 35
2x35 + 1x42 + ... + 2x35 = 36 2+1+2+2+1+1+1+2 Value 0 1 2 BTS MS may use DTX MS shall use DTX MS shall not use DTX
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AV_RXLEV_UL_PC = Parameter

DTXMode

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RXLEV and RXQUAL parameters


The RXLEV and RXQUAL values used in GSM are listed below:
RXLEV 0 1 2 3 . 62 63 dBm
< <

RXQUAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

BER (%)
< 0.2

-110

-110 to -109 -109 to -108 -108 to -107 . -49 to -48


> >

0.2 to 0.4 0.4 to 0.8 0.8 to 1.6 1.6 to 3.2 3.2 to 6.4 6.4 to 12.8
> 12.8

-48

Signal level values

Quality level values

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Traffic Channel Allocation


After a request including the preferred TCH rate

is received, the BSC determines the type of TCH resource to be allocated. This is based on the following:
n

n n n n

the A interface circuit that the MSC has allocated for the call the given list of preferred speech codecs by MS the speech codecs support of the BTS the TCH configuration on the BTS the resource situation in the BTS

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Idle Channel Interference


The BTS measures and reports on the uplink

interference of the radio channels which have been idle during the whole measurement period. Idle TCHs are classified into five interference classes RR Management algorithm assigns a channel from the lowest possible interference class
Parameters Value

interferenceAveragingProcess 1 ... 32 (SACCH Period) boundary 1-5 -110 ... -47 (dBm) (boundary0/5 fixed)

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Idle Channel Interference

Interference Level ( dBm) -47 Boundary5 -90 Boundary4 -95 Boundary3 -100 Boundary2 Boundary1 -105 -110 0 4 7

=> TS4 will be selected!

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TRX Prioritization in TCH Allocation


The advantages of using the BCCH carrier for

call set up:


n n

It would not increase interference in the network. BCCH channels are planned to be the least interfered ones.

The advantage of using the TCH TRX for call

set up:
n

The hopping gain.

It is possible to set priority between the TCH

TRXs and BCCH TRX.

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TRX Prioritization in TCH Allocation


Parameters TrxPriorityInTCHAllocation Value 02 where: 0 = no preference 1 =BCCH preferred 2 =Beyond BCCH preference

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FACCH Call Setup


When an idle SDCCH is not available for the

request
n

BSC tries to allocate a TCH for signaling instead of an SDCCH. After the signaling is finished the channel mode is modified as TCH and the call continues on the same channel.
Parameters pagingAnsOnFACCH restablishOnFACCH emerCallOnFACCH ordinaryCallOnFACCH Value Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Directed Retry (DR) Algorithm


n

When no TCH is available in the serving cell, TCH can be allocated in an adjacent cell
Mobile

Originated and Mobile Terminated Calls

It is actually handover from SDCCH to TCH.


Imperative

Handover (equation 1 only) Candidates ranked based on radio properties.


n

Queuing can take place in source cell, not in target cell.


Traffic (TCH) Call Setup (SDCCH)

BTS B

BTS A

rxLevAccessMin

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DR Algorithm (cont.)

minTimeLimitDR

Assignment Request
maxTimeLimitDR

Time

DR not allowed : improves the reliability of the measurements of adjacent cells and gives the queuing process time DR allowed

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DR Parameters

Parameters drInUse MinTimeLimitDR MaxTimeLimitDR

Value Yes/No 0 14 (sec.) 1 15 (sec.)

BTS

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DR Improvement
n

DR helps network to avoid the loss of a call in callsetup if the accessed cell is congested DR improvement: introduces new criterion in candidate cell selection
drThreshold

> RxLEV_MIN

TCH SDCCH congested

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DR Improvement (cont.)
Parameters

Parameters drMethod drThreshold

Value 0: Improvement not in use 1: Threshold evaluation method -47 -110 dBm
BTS ADJC

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Intelligent Directed Retry (IDR)


Based on Directed Retry : Target Cell selection depends

upon
n n n

MS Classmark MS Priority Adjacent Cell Type

Subscribers Classified in GSM


n

Based on Classmark (bitmap in BSC associates classmarks to GSM subscriber) Based on Priority (bitmap in BSC associates MS Priorities to GSM subscriber)

DR and IDR enabled/disabled independently on a per

cell basis.

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Intelligent Directed Retry (cont.)

macro cell (GSM cell)


DR congestion GSM subscriber micro cells (MCN cells) congestion MCN subscriber

macro cell (GSM cell)


IDR micro cells (MCN cells)

No TCH Available on Accessed Cell No TCH Available on Accessed Cell

GSM or MCN subscriber ? GSM or MCN subscriber ?

MCN => IDR in Use in the Cell ? MCN => IDR in Use in the Cell ? Yes => Directed Retry Only to MCN Cells Yes => Directed Retry Only to MCN Cells No => Reject Call No => Reject Call GSM => DR in Use in the Cell ? GSM => DR in Use in the Cell ? Yes => Directed Retry (any Cell) Yes => Directed Retry (any Cell) No => Reject Call No => Reject Call
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IDR Parameters
Parameters

Parameters

Value

IdrUsed CellType adjCellType

Yes/No GSM/MCN GSM/MCN

BTS

ADJC

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Handover in GSM
There are two types of Handover in GSM
n n

Internal handover External handover

The handover is internal if the serving and target BTSs

are located within the same BSS. In this case the BSC can perform handover without the MSC involvement. This is also called intra-BSS handover.
n

Handover decisions are made by the Radio Resource Management (RRM) in the BSC.

The handover is external if the serving and target BTSs

do not reside in the same BSS. In this case the MSC performs the switching task between two BTSs.
n

External handover can be classified as intra-MSC or inter-MSC handovers.


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Handover categories
There are three main categories of Handover:
n n n

Radio Resource Handover Imperative Handover Traffic Handover The Level, where the signal level is below the Handover threshold level The Quality, where the signal quality is below the Handover threshold quality The Interference, where the interference level is above the Handover threshold interference level The Power Budget Handover The Umbrella Handover
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Handover is considered Radio Resource if it relates to:


n

n n

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Handover categories Handover categories


Handover threshold level, Handover threshold quality

and Handover threshold interference are three defined parameters for both uplink and downlink.

Power Budget Handover:


n

Ensures that the MS is always handed over to the cell with the minimum path loss. BSC evaluates neighboring cells radio link properties, in regular time intervals, to find a target cell. Is only performed between cells of the same category, e.g., Micro to Micro.

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Handover categories Handover categories


Umbrella Handover:
n n n

Can be enabled/disabled Is executed in regular time intervals Considers MSs power class, and some other defined parameters, in choosing the neighboring cells as Handover target cells, e.g., Macro cells for vehicular and portable MSs and Micro cells for handheld MSs. Fast moving MSs are handled by Umbrella Handover within Macro cells. If MS is moving slowly, a Handover to lower layers, i.e. Micro cell, is triggered.

Umbrella Handover has priority over Power Budget

Handover.

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Handover categories Handover categories


Handover is considered Imperative if it relates to:
n n n n n

MS-BTS distance O&M order to empty cell Directed-Retry Rapid-Field-Drop Turn-Around-Corner

In Traffic Handover, in order to share load among cells,

MSC request BSC to perform Handover.


In both Imperative and Traffic Handovers, target cells

are ranked based on their link quality. Priorities are not considered.
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Review: Handover Algorithm


First condition in all Handover cases: 1. AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max (0, A) Where: A = msTxPwrMax(n) - P P = depending on MS Classmark Except for Umbrella Handover: 1a. AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > hoLevelUmbrella(n) The additional condition: 2. PBGT > hoMarginPBGT(n) where: PBGT = ((msTxPwrMax - msTxPwrMax(n)) - (AV_RXLEV_DL_HO AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)) - (btsTxPwrMax - BTS_TXPWR)) 2a. PBGT > hoMarginLev/Qual(n) where: PBGT = (AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) - AV_RXLEV_DL_HO) (btsTxPwrMax - BTS_TXPWR)
If enableHoMarginLevQual = Y

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Target Cell Selection


BTS sends the measurements and list of best candidates to the BSC. BSC selects cells which meet radio link requirements. BSC can handle up to 16 (Intra-BSC) to 32 NBR target cell evaluation. BSC verifies candidates load with parameter btsLoadThreshold

(0100%) BSC decrease priority of overloaded cells, specified by parameter hoLevPriority(07), by another paramater hoLoadFactor(07). After load check, priority comparison between candidates is made. Candidate with highest priority is selected as target cell. For equal priority cells, selection is based on best signal strength. Minimum interval between HO requests related to the same connection is set by parameter MinIntBetweenHoReq (031s) Minimum time MS must wait after HO failure before new attempt to the same connection is set by parameter MinIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt (031s)
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Handover due to Level


Parameter hoThresholdsLevUL/DL (Px, Nx) is used for

triggering Level HO. Candidate selection by BSC: n Equation-1 is used. n If enableHoMarginLevQual = N, Use Equation-2 Else, Use Equation-2a with hoMarginLev. n Priority and Load are both considered.
Parameter
hoThresholdLevUL/DL px nx rxLevMinCell(n) msTxPwrMax(n) hoMarginLev(n)

Value
-110 -47 dBm 1 32 1 32 -110 -47 dBm 5 43 dBm -24 24 dB

HOC

ADJC

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Handover due to Level

Equations 1 and 2a are used if parameter enableHoMarginLevQual is set Yes

hoMarginLev = 4 dB Trigger for Handover due to Level Threshold (Lev) -95 dBm A 2 dB B => Since 2dB < 4 dB, cell B is not selected as candidate for HO due to level

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Handover due to Quality


Parameter hoThresholdsLevUL/DL (Px, Nx) is used for

triggering Quality HO. Candidate selection by BSC: n Equation-1 is used. n If enableHoMarginLevQual = N, Use Equation-2 Else, Use Equation-2a with hoMarginLev. n Priority and Load are both considered.
Parameter
hoThresholdQualUL/DL px nx rxLevMinCell(n) msTxPwrMax(n) hoMarginQual(n)

Value
0..7 1 32 1 32 -110 -47 dBm 5 ..... 43 dBm -24 24 dB

HOC

ADJC

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Handover due to Quality

Equations 1 and 2a are used if parameter enableHoMarginLevQual is set Yes

hoMarginQual = 0 dB Trigger for Handover due to Quality A 2 dB B

=> Cell B is selected as potential candidate for HO due to Quality since 2 dB > 0 dB

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Handover due to Interference


Parameters hoThresholdsLevUL/DL (Px, Nx) and

hoThresholdsInterferenceUL /DL (Px, Nx) are used for triggering Interference HO. Candidate selection by BSC:
n

n n n

Priority for InterCell/Intracell HO selected at BSC independently for UL/DL Priority InterCell HO Quality HO if any candidate, If not IntraCell HO Priority IntraCell HO Parameter Value
-110..-47 dBm 1 32 1 32

hoThresholdInterferenceUL/DL px nx enableIntraHoInterfUL/DL hoPreferenceOrderInterfUL/DL

Y/N

HOC BSC
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INTER / INTRA

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Handover due to Interference


Equations 1 and 2a are used if parameter enableHandoverMarginQual is set Yes

hoThresholdQual =4 hoThresholdInterferenceDL = -85 dBm hoPreferenceOrderInterfDL = intra Trigger for Handover due to Interference
A B

Threshold (Interf Lev) -85 dBm

- Field strength higher than threshold - Bad quality => interference => intra cell Handover

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Power Budget Handover


Periodic Check (hoPeriodPBGT) is used for triggering Candidate selection: n Equation 1 & 2 are used n Priority and Load Considered Multi-Layered Network Typically used between cells of the same "Layer" Parameter hoPeriodPBGT enablePwrBudgetHandover rxLevMinCell(n) msTxPwrMax(n) hoMarginPBGT(n) Value 1 ... 63 (SACCH Period) Y/N HOC -110 -47 dBm 5 43 dBm -24 24 dB

ADJC

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Review: Power Budget Handover


Equations 1 and 2 are used
Serving Cell: AV_RXLEV_DL_HO = -90 dBm msTxPwrMax = 33 dBm (= 2W) btsTxPwrMax = 42 dBm (= 16 W) BTS_TX_PWR = 42 dBm = (16 W) hoMarginPBGT(n) = 6 dB Best Adjacent Cell: AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) = -80 dBm rxLevMinCell(n) = -99 dBm msTxPwrMax(n) = 33 dBm (= 2W) btsTxPwrMax = 42 dBm (= 16 W)

1. AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max [0, msTxPwrMax(n) - msTxPwrMax] -80 dBm > [-99 dBm + (33 dBm - 33 dBm)] First condition: -80 dBm > -99 dBm

2. PBGT = [(msTxPwrMax- msTxPwrMax(n)) - (AV_RXLEV_DL_HO AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)) - (btsTxPwrMax - BTS_TXPWR)] PBGT = [(33dBm-33dBm)-(-90 - -80)-(42dBm-42dBm)] = 10 dB Second condition: 10 dB > 6 dB Handover!
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Umbrella Handover

Periodic Check (hoPeriodUmbrella) is used for triggering

Candidate selection: n Equation 1a is used n Priority and Load Considered Multi-Layered Network
Example GSM MS class 4 (33 dBm) gsmMacrocellThreshold = 35 dBm gsmMicrocellThreshold = 33 dBm msTxPwrMax(n) = 33 dBm hoLevUmbrella = -85 dBm hoThresholdLevDL = -90 dBm

Macro cell Umbrella Handover A -85 dBm -90 dBm B Umbrella Handover Handover due to Level 6 dB Handover due to Level

Micro cell

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Combined Umbrella and PBGT Handover


If enablePowerBudgetHo = Yes & enableUmbrellaHo = Yes n Power Budget Handover to cells of the same layer n Umbrella Handover to cells of different layer Parameters to be used: n gsmMacrocellThreshold, gsmMicrocellThreshold n msTxPwrMax, msTxPwrMax(n) UMB umbrella HO n MS classmark

RR PBGT radio reason HO power budget HO

macrocells

PBGT,RR UMB,RR PBGT,RR microcells UMB,RR

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IHO - Rapid Field Drop

Parameter hoThresholdRapidLevUl is used for triggering RFD HO.


n

Rx_Lev_UL (Not averaged/only UL)


Serving Cell MS Chained Cell

Candidate Selection n Only Chained adjacent cell n Equation 1 only/no priority Multi-Layered Network

Example
hoThresholdRapidLevUl = - 93 dBm hoThresholdRapidLevUlN (px) = 2 chainedAdjacentCell = Yes

Serving Cell -93 dBm 1st Rapid Field Drop Handover . . 2nd

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IHO - Enhanced Rapid Field Drop


In case of DDE (Deep Dropping Edge), the averaging window sizes

and power budget period are reduced:


n n n n

Level downlink window size Level uplink window size Adjacent cells averaging window size Handover period power budget

Signal Level

A MS moves away from cell site, the signal is dropping gradually

Signal Level

MS moves away from cell site, the signal is dropping gradually MS turns a corner, the signal drops faster than moving in straight line

A MS turns a corner, the signal drops rapidly

Figure 7 Signal Strength of a Fast Moving MS

Time

Figure 8 Signal Strength of a Slow Moving MS

Time

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IHO - Enhanced Rapid Field Drop


Example ddeWindow = 3 SACCH (n = 3) ddeThresholdLev = 10

the BSC compares the most recent measurement of sample 8 (multiframe k) with the measurement of sample 5 (multiframe k-n).
Sample Signal level 1 -71 dBm 2 -68 dBm 3 -70 dBm 4 -71 dBm 5 -69 dBm 6 -70 dBm 7 -75 dBm 8 -83 dBm

DDE_LEVEL = RXLEV(k- ddeWindow) RXLEV(k) = -69 dBm (-83 dBm) = 14 dB

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BSC Initiated TRHO


Networks load can be more efficiently distributed by reducing

power budget margins between heavy loaded and less loaded cells => more trunking efficiency => more capacity Capacity of the regular layer can be released and performance of IUO is increased => Quality + capacity
Ping-pong handovers are avoided due to AMH penalty system

=> quality
Handover

+0 dB

+4dB

+6 dB

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Review: BSC Initiated TRHO


New algorithm: 1. AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > TRHO_TARGET_LEVEL(n) + Max(0, (MS_TXPWR_MAX_CELL(n)-P)) 2. PBGT (n) > AmhTrhoPbgtMArgin & PBGT(n) < HOMArginPBGT

Parameters AmhTrhoPbgtMargin AmhUpperLoadThreshold AmhMaxLoadOfTgtCell amhTrhoGuardTime

Values -24dBm .. +24dBm


HOC

0100% 0100% 0120 sec

BSC

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IUO Load control


During a very light load, only regular frequencies are used. Thus

additional handovers are avoided => increases quality

super-reuse TRX

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Multi-layer Load control


In the night time, when the load is very small, and the speed of the

MSs can be very fast, the MSs can be kept in the macro cell layer, avoiding additional handovers between different layers => quality

GSM/macro

DCS/micro

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Timers
MinIntBetweenHoReq is the minimum time between consecutive

handovers related to the same connections.


MinIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt is the minimum time between

handover attempts after a failure n Is applied differently in Intercell / Intracell handovers

Parameter minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt minIntBetweenHoReq

Value 0 ... 30 (seconds) 0 ... 30 (seconds) HOC

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Objectives
Power Control reduces the overall system

interference and increases spectral efficiency. It also prolongs MS battery life.


Uplink/Downlink PC
n

The BTS can independently control the power level of each uplink and downlink time slots. Power Control for downlink and uplink are performed independently. Measurements are performed by MS and BTS respectively. Power Control can be performed on all downlink channels except BCCH (MS continuously measures serving and NBR cells BCCH). Power Control is performed on all uplink channels.
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PC scheme is controlled by BSC


The PC scheme is controlled by the BSC which,

compares MS and BTS measurements with relevant PC thresholds and calculates the power level increase or decrease and communicates it to both MS and BTS.
Power level can be changed on a variable or fixed steps

of 2, 4 or 6 dB increments every 60 ms. If two fixed steps were not enough to reach the target level, the variable step size is used.
Power control can be enabled/disabled on a cell by cell

basis by parameter PowerCtrlEnabled (Y/N).

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Transmission powers (Parameters)


Max and Min MS transmission powers are defined on a cell by

cell basis (serving cell) and are determined by parameters msTxPwrMax and msTxPwrMin (33dBm, step sizes of 2dB). MS typical range for GSM1900 is 0 ~ 30dBm. Maximum and Minimum transmission power of the BTS are determined by BsTxPwrMax and BxTxPwrMin. The BTS attenuation factor is 0 to 30 dB from maximum transmitter power with step sizes of 2dB. BTS PC is enabled with PowreCtrlEnabled(Y/N) Timer PowerControlInterval(031s) defines the minimum interval between the changes in the RF power level. It is used to prevent unnecessary repetitive PC changes in the BTS/MS.

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PC and HO
The Power Control algorithm is closely coupled with the

Handover algorithm.
The BSC will try to increase the power level of the MS as

it moves farther away from the BTS. After it makes a determination that the quality of the communication link can no longer be improved by increasing MSs transmit power, it starts the Handover process.
Handover has always priority over Power Control.

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PC: Signals Level and Quality


RXQUAL

RxQual = 7 Power Increase (Bad Quality) pcLowerThreshold Qual UL/DL Power Decrease (Good Level) pcUpperThreshold Qual UL/DL

Power Increase (Bad Level) Power Decrease (Good Quality)

RxQual = 0 pcLowerThresholdLevUL/DL pcUpperThresholdLevUL/DL RXLEV

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PC Algorithm
MS/BTS Increase due to LEVEL
n

PC increase can be based on a fixed or variable power step size. powIncStepSize (2, 4 or 6 dB) determines fixed step increase of MS/BTS power. pcLowerThresholdsLevUL/DL (-110-47dBm, Px, Nx) determines the lower threshold value for triggering power control. Trigger PC if: AV_RXLEV_UL/DL_PC <= pcLowerThresholdsLevUL/DL for Px(132) out of Nx (132). If: RXLEV_UL/DL + 2 PowIncrStepSize* <= pcLowerThresholdsLevUL /DL then go to variable power increase step size:
PWR_INCR_STEP

= pcLowerThersholdsLevUL/DL RXLEV_UL/DL (The actual RxLEV not the averaged value). (2, 4 or 6 dB)

else:
powIncrStepSize

* If 2 fixed steps are not enough to reach target, use variable step size. Copyright 2002, Wireless Facilities Inc.

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PC Algorithm
MS/BTS Increase due to QUALITY
n

pcLowerThresholdsQualUL/DL (07, Px, Nx) is compared with AV_RXQUAL_UL/DL_PC. Trigger PC If: AV_RXQUAL_UL/DL_PC >= pcLowerThresholdsQualUL/DL for Px (132) out of Nx (132).

Calculation of MS/BTS power increase due to Quality?


n

Insufficient Quality can be due to low signal or interference. BSC calculates one step size due to low signal and one due to interference and selects the larger step. 1) Interference Step Size:
PWR_INCR_STEP Where

= [1+Max(0,Qa)] PowIncrStepSize Qa = RXQUAL_UL/DL - pcLowerThresholdsQualUL/DL RXQUAL_UL/DL is the current actual value (not the averaged value)
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PC Algorithm
n

2) Low signal Level Step Size:


If:

AV_RXLEV_UL/DL_PC + 2 PowIncrStepSize >= pcLowerThresholdsLevUL/DL Then: PWR_INCR_STEP = pcLowerThersholdsLevUL/DL RXLEV_UL/DL The actual RXLEV is used and not the averaged value.
n

For quality PC, the BSC always applies a variable step size.

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PC Algorithm
BTS Decrease due to LEVEL
n

Trigger PC if: AV_RXLEV_DL_PC >= pcUpperThresholdsLevDL for Px(132) out of Nx (132). Parameter VariableDLStepUse (Yes/No) indicates if variable step size is used for DL power decrease. Parameter OptimumRxLevDL(-109-47 dBm) indicate optimum DL signal level which ensures adequate speech/data quality with minimum DL interference. Parameter is controlled on a transceiver by transceiver basis. If: RxLev_DL - 2 PowDecrStepSize* >= pcUpperThresholdsLevDL then use variable power decrease step size:

PWR_DECR_STEP = MIN[(RXLEV_DL - PcUpperThersholdsLevDL), 10]

else:
powDecrStepSize

(2, 4 or 6 dB)

* If 2 fixed steps are not enough to reach target, use variable step size.
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PC Algorithm
BTS Decrease due to QUALITY
n

Trigger PC if: AV_QUAL_DL_PC =< pcUpperThresholdsQualDL for Px(132) out of Nx (132)

The BSC will determine DL power decrease based on two

alternative algorithms:
n

1) Based on Non defined optimum downlink RF Signal Level If: RxLev_DL - 2 PowDecrStepSize* >= pcUpperThresholdsLevDL then variable power decrease step size.
PWR_DECR_STEP

= MIN[(RXLEV_DL PcUpperThersholdsLevDL),10] (2, 4 or 6 dB)

else:
powDecrStepSize

* If 2 fixed steps are not enough to reach target, use variable step size .
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PC Algorithm
n

2) Based on Defined optimum downlink RF Signal Level.


DL

BTS power decrease is based on:


AV_RXQUAL_DL Quality Threshold for BTS decrease: pcUpperThresholdsQualDL Optimum DL RF signal level: OptimumRxLevDL(-109-47 dBm) Current DL signal level: RXLEV_DL

PWR_DECR_STEP

= MIN[PwrDecrLimit, MAX(A, B)] PwrDecrLimit, A and B are some parameters defined in the system. A margin of 6dB is used in the formulas to prevent a power decrease due to quality to trigger a power increase due to level (pwrLowerThresholdLevDL).

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Review: PC Algorithm
Formula

for reference:

PWR_DECR_STEP = MIN[PwrDecrLimit, MAX(A, B)] PowDecrLimit/Band0-2 is the maximum size of the variable power decrease step:
PwrDecrLimitBand0 (038dB) indicates max size of power decrease step when
BTS power is decreased due to quality and the average BER is better than 0.2%.

PwrDecrLimitBand1 (038dB) indicates max size of power decrease step when PwrDecrLimitBand2 (038dB) indicates max size of power decrease step when
BTS power is decreased due to quality and the average BER is worst than 0.4% (quality band from 2 to 7).

BTS power is decreased due to quality and the average BER is between 0.2 - 0.4%

A = MAX(0, RXLEV_DL - OptimumRxLevDL) reduces the BTS power to the Optimum level defined by parameter OptimumRxLevDL (-109-47dBm).

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PC Algorithm
B = [PwrDecrQualFactor + MAX(0,Qa)] PowRedStepSize
PwrDecrQualFactor indicates whether power decrease takes place when:
RXLEV_DL < OptimumRxLevDL && AV_RXQUAL_DL_PC = PcUpperThresholdsQualDL. PwrDecrQualFactor (24) ensures that B is always > 0.

Qa = pcUpperThresholdsQualDL - AV_RXQUAL_DL_PC takes into


account the distance between the pcUpperThreholdsQualDL and the average quality that triggered the PC. The distance is multiplied by the power reduction step size PowDecrStepSize (24).

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PC Algorithm
MS Decrease due to Signal Level
n

Trigger PC if: AV_RXLEV_UL_PC >= pcUpperThresholdsLevDL for Px(132) out of Nx (132) If: RXLEV_UL - 2 PowDecrStepSize* >= pcUpperThresholdsLevUL then go to variable power increase step size:
PWR_DECR_STEP

= RXLEV_UL - PcUpperThersholdsLevUL (2, 4 or 6 dB)

else:
powDecrStepSize

* If 2 fixed steps are not enough to reach target, use variable step size.

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PC Algorithm
MS Decrease due to QUALITY
n

Trigger PC if: AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC =< pcUpperThresholdsQualUL for Px(132) out of Nx (132)

The BSC will determine DL power decrease based on two

alternative algorithms:
n

1) Based on OptimumRxLevUL = not used


If:

RxLev_UL - 2 PowRedStepSize* >= pcUpperThresholdsLevUL then go to variable power increase step size:
PWR_DECR_STEP = RXLEV_UL - PcUpperThersholdsLevUL

else:
powDecrStepSize

(2, 4 or 6 dB) * If 2 fixed steps are not enough to reach target, use variable step size.

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PC Algorithm
n

2) Based on OptimumRxLevUL = used (on TRX by TRX

basis)

UL

MS power decrease is based on:


UL signal quality: AV_RXQUAL_UL Quality Threshold for MS decrease: pcUpperThresholdsQualUL Optimum UL RF signal level: OptimumRxLevUL (-109-47 dBm) Current UL signal level: RXLEV_UL

Formula

for reference:

PWR_DECR_STEP = MIN[( MIN(PwrDecrLimit, MAX(MAX(0, RXLEV_UL - OptimumRxLevUL) , (PwrDecrQualFactor + MAX(0,Qa)) PowRedStepSize))), 10] Qa = PcUpperThresholdsQualUL - AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC PowDecrLimit/Band0-2 is the maximum size of the variable power decrease step, as described earlier.

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)


The DTX aims at increasing the system efficiency through a

decrease of the interference level, by inhibiting the transmission of the radio signal when not required.
If the transmitter is silent during the speech pauses, the power

consumption in the MS is decreased as well as the amount of emitted radio power.

When DTX uplink and downlink is used, there is an improvement of

the C/I in the system. This improvement can be utilized for a tighter cell planning, especially when frequency hopping is used. It will also save battery life in the MS.

DTX is not used on a BCCH carrier.

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DTX (cont.)
In a speech connection, the Voice Activity Detector in the

transcoder or MS detects whether a traffic frame consists of speech or of background noise. If a frame consists of only noise, the transmitter sends one Silence Descriptor (SID) frame, and then the transmission is stopped. After that, one new SID frame is sent each SACCH period, until speech is detected again. The active speech flow is of one frame of 260 bits each 20 ms, while the inactive speech flow is of one such frame each 480 ms.

SF SF SF SF SF SF SF SID
20 ms SF = Speech Frame SID = Silence Indicator

No TX

SID

No TX
480 ms

SID

SACCH period

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DTX (cont.)
DTX mode may slightly deteriorate the quality of

transmission, in particular when used twice along a path, mobile to mobile call. So it can be activated on a call per call basis by the network. Used in conjunction with frequency hopping, DTX can give an improvement of approximately 3dB in the C/I for the TCH channels. The recommended setting for DTXU and DTXD are as follows:
Parameter DTXU DTXD Default value 2 OFF Recommended Value 1 ON

DTXU is the uplink parameter and states whether the MS shall (DTXU=1) or shall not (DTXU=2) use DTX. With DTXU=0 the MS may use DTX which means that MSs in battery saving mode shall use DTX.
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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Frequency Hopping
FH is used in GSM to improve the systems performance

and quality in the multipath fading environment and to reduce the required S/N ratio.
GSM uses Slow FH in which the hopping rate is less than

the message bit rate.


n

In GSM the operating frequency is changed only with every TDMA frame. The hopping rate is 216.7 hops per second which corresponds to a frame duration of 4.615 sec.

The mobile transmits at different frequencies for

different time slots. A frequency synthesizer is used to change and settle on a new frequency within a fraction of one time slot (577 s).
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Frequency Hopping (cont.)


FH provides frequency diversity to overcome Rayleigh

fading which may cause fades of 40 to 50 dB deep on the received signal.


FH also provides interference diversity (interference

averaged over multiple users).


FH reduces the S/N ratio required for an acceptable QoS,

from 12 dB for a non-hopping radio link to 9 dB (approx.), improving the overall networks capacity.
Different hopping algorithms can be assigned to the MS
n n

Cyclic Hopping Random Hopping

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Frequency Hopping (cont.)


In the Mobile Station, in FH mode, only three time slots

are available to transmit, receive and monitor while in the BTS all eight time slots are capable of transmitting and receiving to support eight MSs in one frame.
The Broadcast Channels (BCH) comprising of FCCH, SCH

and BCCH are not allowed to hop. All dedicated channel types can hop (TCH/SDCCH/FACCH/SACCH).
Two different implementation schemes of SFH are used in

BSs which are base-band hopping and RF hopping.


Hybrid hopping is a combination and compromise of the

two implementation schemes.


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Base-band Hopping
Each transmitter is assigned with a fixed frequency. At

transmission, all bursts, irrespective of which connection, are routed to the appropriate transmitter of the proper frequency. The mobile is hopped around the transmitters and receivers. The advantage with this mode is that narrow-band low loss filter combiners can be used.
TRX 1 TS handler TRX 2 TS handler TRX 3 TS handler TRX 4 TS handler Bus for routing of bursts

transmitter f0 transmitter f1 transmitter f2 transmitter f3


filter combiner

ANT

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Base-band Hopping (cont.)

B= BCCH TSL 0 (f1). It does not hop.

TSL 1.7 of all TRXs hop over (f1,f2,f3,f4)

BB hopping on 4 TRXs. Also the BCCH TRX is hopping except on RTSL-0. The call is hopping over TRXs (TRXs keep the same frequency as planned)

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RF Hopping
One transmitter handles all bursts that belong to a specific

connection. In contrast to base-band hopping, the transmitter tunes to the correct frequency at the transmission of each burst. The advantage of this mode is that the number of frequencies that can be used for hopping is not dependent on the number of transmitters. It is possible to hop over a lot of frequencies. The disadvantage with synthesizer hopping is that wide-band hybrid combiners have to be used. This type of combiner has approximately 3dB loss making more than two combiners in cascade impractical.
TRX 1 TS handler TRX 2 TS handler TRX 3 TS handler TRX 4 TS handler transmitter f0 . . . f n transmitter f0 . . . f n
transmitter f 0 . . . fn hybrid combiner

ANT

hybrid combiner

ANT

transmitter f0 . . . f n

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RF Hopping (cont.)

B= BCCH TSL. TRX does not hop.

Non BCCH TRXs are hopping over the MA-list (f1,f2,f3).

RF hopping in 2-TRX cell. The BCCH TRX cannot hop because the BCCH frequency must be continuously transmitted in a cell. Other TRXs will physically change frequency along a specified MAL.

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Hopping Algorithms
Cyclic frequency hopping: the frequencies are changed,

once every TDMA frame, in a consecutive order (e.g. ,f1,f2,f3,f 4,f 1,f 2,f 3,f4,).
Random frequency hopping: a random hopping sequence

is implemented as a pseudo-random sequence. 63 independent sequences are defined. Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) will specify which of the 63 sequences to be used (e.g. ,f 1,f 4,f 4,f 3,f1,f2,f4,f 1,).
n

The random hopping mode is superior for averaging the cochannel interference. Random hopping is the hopping mode of choice for high capacity networks.

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Hopping Algorithms (cont.)


Orthogonal hopping sequence: for each transceiver, in

the same channel group, in the same cell, they will be assigned with the same HSN, i.e. they hop in the same way.
n

In order not to interfere with each other, they must not use the same frequency at the same time. The problem is solved by using an offset in the hopping sequence, referred to as Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO). Two transceivers bearing the same HSN but different MAIO will never use the same frequency in the same TDMA frame (e.g., ,f1,f4 ,f4,f3,f1,f2,f4,f1 , ,f 2,f1,f1,f4,f2,f3,f1 ,f2, ,f 3,f2,f2,f1,f3,f4,f2 ,f3, ,f 4,f3,f3,f2,f4,f1,f3 ,f4,).

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FH Parameters

General Parameters btsIsHopping BB (BaseBand Hopping) RF (Radio Freq. Hoping) N (No Hopping) BTS
CA MA MAIO HSN = = = = Cell Allocation Mobile Allocation Mobile Allocation Index Offset Hopping Sequence Number

Base-band Hopping

hoppingSequenceNumber1 (TS 0) 0 ... 63 (0 = cyclic, 1 ... 63 = pseudorandom) hoppingSequenceNumber2 (TS 1 ... 7) 0 ... 63 (0 = cyclic, 1 ... 63 = pseudorandom) BTS

0 1 2 TRX 1 B TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4

7 TS f1 f2 f3 f4

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FH Parameters (cont.)

General Parameters mobileAllocationList mobileAllocationId 1 ... 124 (GSM) 1 128 BSC 0 1 2 TRX 1 B TRX 2 TRX 3 BTS TRX 4 MAL MAL MAL
MAL(f3,f4..fn)

RF Hopping usedMobileAllocation 1 128 hoppingSequenceNumber1 0 63 (0 = cyclic, 1 ... 63 = pseudorandom)

7 TS f1

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Flexible MAIO Management


Allows More Flexible RF Hopping
n

n n

Enables Frequency Sharing, i.e. sharing an MA list between the sectors at the same site. Longer MA lists possible. Minimised interference.

New MAIO Step Parameter


n

When used together with MAIO offset, no successive MAIOs will be allocated for TCHs sharing the same MA list.

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MAIO Step

HSN same for all sectors

Sector
1 1

HSN

MAIO Offset MAIO step

TRX
TRX-1

MAIO, same for all RTSLs within the TRX


BCCH, not hopping

MA list can include adjacent frequencies


MA = f1, f2, f3, f4,....

TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4

0
2 4 BCCH, not hopping

2 2 N

TRX-5

TRX-6 TRX-7 TRX-8

6
8 10 BCCH, not hopping

Band allocation: BCCH Hopping Freq's

3 3 N

TRX-9

12

TRX-10 TRX-11 TRX-12

12
14 16

Operator can set the lowest MAIOs for the cells

Operator can also set the MAIO step size

Nor co-channels neither adj. channels used simultaneously if number of frequencies > 2*number of TRXs

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MAIO Step (cont.)

MAIO Offset Band allocation: BCCH

Hopping frequencies Hopping frequencies

MAIO Offset + Step Band allocation: BCCH Hopping Freq's

MA list

MA list

MA list and BCCH need planning MA list and BCCH need planning MA list possibly shorter -> reduced gain MA list possibly shorter -> reduced gain

No need for MA list planning No need for MA list planning BCCH frequencies planned as usual BCCH frequencies planned as usual

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Flexible MAIO benefits


One MA list per site One MA list can contain a continuous band No risk of co-channel nor adjacent channel being used

simultaneously within a site


Single MA/HSN possible -> only BCCH frequency

planning
More tighter reuse possible and thus more capacity can

be achieved

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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IUO

f3 f3 f2 f1 f2


f1

f3 f2

f3 f2 f1

f1

Regular BCCH-TRX Super-reuse TRX Different frequency reuse patterns Super reuse frequencies form the underlay network where frequencies are reused very intensively to produce the extended capacity Selection between regular/superreuse TRXs based on C/I ratio

Call setup always to regular TRX Inter cell HO always to regular TRX

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IUO (cont.)

f3 f3 f2 f1 f1 f2

Microcells to hot spots (microcells using only super frequencies are called child cells) Microcell interference is estimated by using closest regular TRX as a reference (compare C/I based handover candidate evaluation)

f1

f1 f3 f2 f1 f2

f3

f1

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IUO (cont.)

f1

f1

f1 f1 f1

f1

In order to avoid interference caused by tight frequency reuse, the super reuse frequencies are intended to serve MS which are close to the BTS.

Regular frequency is used when the mobile is further away from the BTS where RxLev would be low and co channel interference high.

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IUO (cont.)

Regular layer (reuse = 12)

Regular layer (reuse = e.g. 12)

Regular layer (reuse = e.g. 12)

Regular layer (reuse = 12)

Service region of super layer controlled by interference


(superReuseGoodCIThreshold)
Call handed over from super layer to regular layer when

interference becomes excessive (superReuseBadCIThreshold)


<-------- Interference region -----> Super layer (reuse = e.g. 7) Super layer (reuse = e.g. 7)

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TCH Assignment to Super-TRX

When Regular Layer is Congested, TCH Can Be Allocated in the Super Reuse

Directed Retry EnaTchAssignSuper > 0

EnaTchAssignSuper Defines a Time for BSIC Decoding of Interfering Cells Directed Retry to Other Cells ( ? ) Increased Probability of Congestion on the SDCCH ! --- > Feature to Be Used with Care
Super Reuse Layer 8Super Reuse Layer 8TSL TSL 16 TSL 16 TSL 24 TSL 24 TSL .. .. Regular Layer Regular Layer MinBsicDecodeTime MinBsicDecodeTime

Super Reuse Layer Super Reuse Layer 88TSL TSL 16 TSL 16 TSL 24 TSL 24 TSL .. .. Regular Layer Regular Layer 6-7 TSL 6-7 TSL 14 TSL 14 TSL 22 TSL 22 TSL .. .. SDCCH SDCCH 44Channels Channels 7-8 Channels 7-8 Channels 12 Channels 12 Channels .. ..

Call Set-Up

SDCCH 4SDCCH 4Channels Channels 7-8 Channels 7-8 Channels 12 Channels 12 Channels .. ..

Set-Up

EnaTchAssignSuper DR To Other Cells

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Handover causes
Traffic control between regular and super-reuse

frequencies

Conventional radio criteria Other reasons than radio criteria (e.g., traffic handover,

umbrella handover)
Regular HO Caused by Radio Criteria(or other reasons)
n n

Intra-cell HO within a regular frequency group Inter-cell HO from a regular cell to another regular cell
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IUO Handover Types


Intra-cell HO from a regular TRX to a super-reuse TRX
n

DL C/I ratio of the super-reuse TRX is good enough to sustain a good radio link Both UL and DL signal quality on the regular TRX are good MS-BS distance has not reached the HO threshold

n n

Intra-cell HO from a super-reuse TRX to a regular TRX


n n n n

DL interference DL signal quality Bad C/I ratio MS-BS distance has reached the HO threshold

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IUO Handover Types (cont.)


Intra-cell HO within a super-reuse frequency group
n

UL interference

NOTE: the parameter EnableIntraHoInterfUL must be enabled. Inter-cell HO from a parent cell to a child cell
n n

Same as Intra-cell HO from a regular TRX to a super-reuse TRX As a Power Budget HO

Inter-cell HO from a child cell to a parent cell


n n

Same as Intra-cell HO from a super-reuse TRX to a regular TRX As an imperative handover

HO from a dedicated control channel to a super-reuse TRX


n n n

intra-cell and inter-cell (child-cell) set EnaTchAssSuperIUO to yes Directed Retry is essential
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Improvements
Inter Super-reused Layer Handover
n

In order to minimize the number of imperative handovers without degradation of service quality, a handover between super reused layers (an intra-cell handover) is performed when the regular TRX is congested Other super reuse TRX has to fulfill the C/I requirement

SDCCH REG TRX SUPER 1

Two options: 1) Handover between the super reused layers if Regular TRX is congested 2) Handover between the super reused layers if C/I of the target super is good

SUPER 2

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Intelligent Frequency hopping (IFH)


Improved radio spectrum efficiency Adds the benefits of interference averaging by frequency

hopping to the capacity gains of IUO to further boost performance Frequency hopping combined with IUO means capacity increase by controlled C/I and decreased reuse pattern Applicable for both Radio Frequency and Base Band Hopping
RF Hopping BB Hopping

Regular layer

TRX-1 BCCH BCCH TRX-2 TCH TCH TRX-3 TRX-4 TCH TCH TCH TCH

f1 f1 f2 f2 f3 f3 f4 f4 f5 f5 f6 f6

TRX-1 BCCH BCCH TRX-2 TCH TCH TRX-3 TRX-4 TCH TCH TCH TCH

f1 f1 f2 f2

Super-reused layer

f4 f4 f5 f5

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IFH (cont.)
Intelligent Frequency Hopping is an optional feature. Both layers of a sector can be set hopping separately by

using regular hopping mode and super hopping mode.


In RF hopping both layers, overlay (regular) and

underlay (super), shall have their own mobile allocation (MA) attached.
The parameters for this feature can be modified only

when the frequency hopping for intelligent underlay overlay is on.

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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ICE
HIGH POWER TRX
PWR_INCR_STEP = ( The call is always

started from

high power TRX


where When the signal level exceeds

the Upper_threshold, the call is Qa = RXQUAL_DL - PcLo handedover to low power TRX

LOW POWER TRX


When the signal level goes PWR_INCR_STEP = ( below the Lower_threshold, or bad DL quality exists the call where is handed over to high power TRX

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ICE Handover Support


Handovers between layers are based on DL RxLevel or

DL RxQuality The transceivers are divided into regular (high power) and super-reuse (low power) TRXs as in IUO Frequency Hopping can be used. Both layers have their own Mobile Allocation (IUO + FH is needed) BCCH recovery can be handled by using feature "Preferred BCCH TRX" "TCH assignment to super-reuse TRX" and "Direct access to Super-reuse TRX" can be used together with this feature The performance of the handovers, absorption of the layers, etc. can be measured by using IUO measurement
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Parameters

Parameter superReuseEstMethod

Value AVE / MAX / ICE /NONE

superReuseGoodRxLevelThreshold Rxlevel superReuseBadRxLevelThreshold Rxlevel

-47 -110 (dBm)

-47 -110 (dBm)

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Dynamic Hotspot
n

Controls the traffic load of a frequency hopping radio network on the basis of interference Achieves a higher radio network capacity in a network in which frequencies are reused tightly Makes it possible to reuse hopping TRX frequencies effectively without quality degradation
Result:

The quality of frequency hopping network is kept good and the number of dropped calls is kept low

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Benefits
Enables the usage of very tight frequency reuse of hopping

TRXs without quality degradation and dropped calls BSC limits traffic intensity in those areas where the interference intends to increase above acceptable level With unequal traffic distribution some cells can dynamically handle more traffic than the others when the traffic intensity in the other cells is relatively lower BSC monitors the level of quality from the neighboring cells and the load of the accessed cell
Traffic

Maximum traffic load when traffic is evenly divided and interference limited

Cell
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Dynamic Hotspot
BTS4

If load of accessed cell < Limit If load of accessed cell < Limit reserve TCH reserve TCH otherwise verify Soft Blocking otherwise verify Soft Blocking Probability of getting a channel Probability of getting a channel depends on: depends on: prob(BTS1), prob(BTS2), prob(BTS1), prob(BTS2), prob(BTS3) and prob(BTS4) prob(BTS3) and prob(BTS4)

BTS1

BTS3 BTS2

Quality

Good Quality Sufficient Quality Q1 Q2 Q3 Probability 1 P1 P2 P3

Bad Quality 0

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Dynamic Hotspot

o
BadQual Limit

P1
SignalQual Limit1

TCH PROBABILITY 1 TCH PROBABILITY 2 TCH PROBABILITY 3

P2
SignalQual Limit2

P3
GoodQual Limit

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Dynamic Hotspot
Dynamic HotSpot is applied in following situations:
n n n n

During a call During an internal inter-cell handover During an external handover During an underlay-overlay handover

Dynamic HotSpot is not applied in the following

situations:
n n n

Intra-cell handover (except underlay-overlay handover) TCH is allocated from a non-hopping TRX Internal inter-cell handover is performed because of bad signal quality

Dynamic HotSpot is an optional feature

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Parameters
Parameter softBlockingStartReg softBlockingStartSup interferedCell Value 0255 0255
BTS

0 (no interference) 1 (interference on regular frequencies) 2 (interference on super-reuse frequencies) 3 (interference on regular and super-reuse frequencies) ADJC 0100 (%) 0100 (%) 0100 (%) 0100 (%)
BSC

badQualityLimit goodQualityLimit signalQualityLimit1, 2 tchProbability1, 2, 3

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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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New techniques to reduce interference


The efficient use of spectrum and therefore

techniques to reduce the interference and enhance the system capacity are of prime interest.
There are some approaches in GSM that can be

used for this purpose:


n n

Channel borrowing or effective channel management. Advanced antenna technology

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Channel Borrowing Techniques


Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA)
n

In DCA a central pool of channels is used. A channel is borrowed from the pool by a BS for use on a call and returned to the pool when the call is completed. All BSs have access to the whole channel set. The basic DCA has a self-organizing channel assignment algorithm based on dynamic real-time measurements of interference levels. These measurements are usually performed at the MS in order to reduce the computational load and the complexity of the system. Several variation of DCA have been proposed and some of them have been implemented. Adaptive Channel Allocation (ACA) significantly increases the capacity of a TDMA system as compared to the traditional Fixed Channel Assignment (FCA).
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Channel Borrowing Techniques


Hybrid Channel Assignment (HCA)
n

In HCA, some channels are permanently assigned to each BS, as in FCA, and others are kept in a central pool for borrowing as in DCA. Channel Locking is used to prevent an increase in cochannel interference. It means that BSs within the required minimum channel reuse distance from a BS that borrows a channel can not use the same channel. Channel locking has some disadvantages including the limit on the number of available channels to borrow and system complexity. Another disadvantage is the difficulty in maintaining cochannel reuse distance at the minimum required value everywhere in the system.
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Channel Borrowing Techniques


Channel Borrowing Without Locking (CBWL)
n

In CBWL, each BS is allocated channels as in FCA. If all channels of the BS are occupied and a new call arrives, channel borrowing is used. The borrowed channel cannot be used by the original lending BS but can still be used in any nearby co-channel BSs. In CBWL, only a fraction of the total channels of the system need to be accessible to each BS. The CBWL can be employed in existing cellular systems without additional infrastructure cost. Unlike cell splitting, CBWL does not require new BSs and additional antenna towers to increase system capacity. Simulations show that CBWL provides better channel utilization than a conventional system with FCA, DCA or HCA.
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Smart Antennas
Another way to reduce interference is to use a smart or

intelligent antenna. A smart or intelligent antenna refers to a group of core RF technologies that control directional antenna arrays by means of sophisticated Digital Signal Processing (DSP) algorithms. Smart antennas belong to two basic classes:
n

Switched beam in which the antenna combines signals according to a fixed number of beam patterns. Adaptive in which the antenna picks out the desired signal amid a field of interfering signal/thermal noise and self-regulates its performance to satisfy some pre-assigned criteria.

In TDMA based systems, the use of adaptive antennas

would be considerably beneficial to coverage, capacity, signal quality and the portable terminal transmit power.
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GSM_Module 3: Outline
Introduction Optimization Process Idle Mode Operation Radio Link Measurements Directed Retry & Intelligent Directed Retry Handover Power Control Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Frequency Hopping (FH) Intelligent Underlay & Overlay (IUO) Dynamic Hotspot New techniques to reduce interference Queuing

Radio Resource Management Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

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Queuing and Radio Resources


Purpose
n

To avoid rejecting call set-up or handover attempt by waiting for the release of a suitable traffic channel

Queuing Environment
n n n

Queuing is a BTS specific procedure (controlled by the BSC) Each BTS has a queue of its own Individual queue parameters and queue management for each BTS Only traffic channels are queued Call attempts and Handovers are in the same queue The maximum queue length is relative to the number of traffic channels

n n n

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Queuing and Radio Resources


n

The maximum queuing time can be set individually for both queue types Different priorities according to queue type (Call/Ho) and/or MS priority

Prioritization: The placement in the queue is determined

by:
n n n n n

Queue Type (Priority) Call Setup Handover attempt (non-urgent) Urgent Handover Attempt MS Priority Level

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Queuing Management
A Queuer is removed from the queue when:
n

No suitable channel is released within queuing time limit => timer expires Higher priority subscriber (queue type and/or MS priority replaces a queuer when the queue is full The queuing TRX/TSL is blocked (call release) Queue size is reduced due to removing TRXs

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Queuing and Handover


Internal inter-cell Handover
n

n n n

Ranked list is produced by the Handover algorithm and passed to RR management Maximum sixteen cells as alternative target cells The best candidate with free traffic channel is selected If all BTSs in the list are congested queuing possibility is checked in the candidates according to ranking The BTS identified by the MSC in a HANDOVER_REQUEST message is used as queuing target

External inter-cell Handover


n

- Averaging and processing for HO continues during queuing - The timers for hoPeriodPBGT or for hoPeriodUmbrella are stopped during queuing
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