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SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a simple and attractive analytical method for the removal

and recovery of metal ion from aqueous solution. In SPE the analysts to be extracted are partitioned between a solid and liquid (rather than between two immiscible liquids in liquid phase extraction). SPE have been developed to replace many traditional liquid-liquid extraction methods. SPE is highly effective and ecologically safe.SPE may be carried out using column required for SPE is made of various organic-inorganic hybrid materials. At present several researchers are engaged in synthesizing solid phase extractor based on immobilization of silica gel with poly(4-vinyl pyridine) ,poly(aniline), poly(pyrrole) and Aliquat-336 for selective extraction and pre-concentration of Cr(VI). The problems associated with the SPE of chromate ions are mainly due to low selectivity, poor binding capacity and narrow pH range. Polymer-transition metal complexes having nitrogen donor centre, are gaining importance now-a-days due to their potential application in ion conduction, catalysis, biomolecule separation and ion exchange chromatography ,Transition metal salts typically increases the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymers that contain active ligand in the side group. Khairou et al found that the copper, cobalt and nickel metal ions enhance the Tg of poly(4-vinyl pyridine). Spectral ,thermal and catalytic properties of poly(4-vinyl pyridine)/cupric salt complexes (P4-VPCu2+) have been studied by several researchers. The role of cupric ion on the properties of the polymer has been well documented. Quaternization improves the catalytic activity of P4-VPCu2+ complex for the oxidation of thiosulfate by oxygen. Copolymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine with di-vinyl benzene (DVB) followed by coordination with cupric ion yields physically improved polymer-metal complex (P4-VP-DVB-Cu2+). Silica gel (SG) is a very good supporting material for chromatographic application . It may be used to strengthen the complexes like 4-VPCu2+ for better use in the field of ion exchange chromatography. As per literature searched so far there are no reports regarding silica gel immobilization with 4-VPCu2+ complex. or batch techniques. Smart and intelligent solid phase

However, various authors reported the features of polymer-silica composites. Clevenger et al synthesized P4-VP coated silica gel having fast kinetic of diffusion-controlled sorption of chromate ion. Gautam et al studied the retention ability and selectivity of P4-VP-SG composite towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in normal phase high performance chromatography (HPLC). .

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