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SOLAR CHIMNEY

Solar Energy I Physics 471 2001-02-1 Instructor : Prof. Dr. AHMET ECEVIT Presented by: Yusuf SIMSEK

TABLE OF CONTENT
1. Introduction 2. The Collector 2. Structure of the Collector 3. 3 Glazed Collector 4. The Energy Storage in the Collector 5. Chimney 5 Chi 6. Solar Chimney Prototype at Manzanares (Spain) 7. Turbines 8. How Does Collector Work?

PAGE
4 7 8 9 11 13 14 16 17

9. Collector Efficiency 11. The Chimney y 12. The Turbine 13. 13 The Appropriate Charesteristic Curve 14. Typical Dymensions for Solar Chimneys 15. Termodynamics 15 T d 16. Operation 17. Technical Data Quantities 18. Energy Production Costs 19. Conclusion

21 25 32 35 38 39 41 42 44 47

1.INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION
Solar chimney converts the solar radiation into electricity. It consists of three simple parts: Glass roof collector Chimney Turbine Basically, air is heated by solar radiation under the g y, y glass roof and it starts to move toward to the chimney. Turbines which are placed at the base of the chimney converts this mechanical power into electricity (Fig. 1.). (Fig 1 )

A single solar chimney with a suitable large glazed roof area A and a high chimney can be designed to generate 100 to 200 MW continously 24 h a day. Thus even a small number of solar chimneys can replace a large nuclear power station. Solar chimneys operate l l l t ti S l hi t simply and have a number of other advantages: The collector can use all solar radiation, direct and diffused. radiation diffused Due to the heat storage system the soalr chimney will operate 24h on pure solar energy. energy Solar chimneys are particularly reliable and not liable to break down, in comparision with other solar generating p , p g g plants. Unlike conventional power stations (and also other solar thermal power station types), solar chimneys do not need cooling water.

Unlike conventional power stations (and also other solar thermal power station types), solar chimneys do not cooling water. water The building materials needed for solar chimney, mainly concrete and glass, are available everywhere in sufficient g , y quantities. Even in poor countries it is possible to build a large plant without high foreign currency expenditure by using their own resources and work forces [1].

2. The Collector
Collector is the part of the chimney that produce hot air by the green house effect. It has a roof made up of plastic film or glass plastic film. The roof material is stretched horizontally two or six meter above the ground. ground The height of the roof increases adjacent to the chimney base, so that the air is diverted to the chimney base with minimum friction l f i ti loss. This covering admits the short Thi i d it th h t wave solar radiation component and retains long-wave radiation from the heated ground. Thus h Th the ground under the roof heats up and d d h fh d transfers its heat to the air flowing radially above it from the outside to the chimney [2].

Chimney

Collector C ll t

Fig. 1.Parts of the Solar Chimney Fig 1 Parts

Turbine

3. Structure of the Collector


The structure of the collector changes to the covering material we used. If we use plastic film we can construct the skeleton by adjusting the space between the rods as 6 meter. k l t b dj ti th b t th d t In this type skeleton attaching plastic film is easy and it is particularly suitable for very large collector surface in remote places because of the small quantites of the materials needed and low transportation cost. The 45 000 m2 of the prototype were covered with various plastic film and glass to establish the optimum and cheapest material in the long life term [3].

4. Glazed Collector
A flate glazed roof must have much more durable skeleton. Besause glazing increases the mass of the roof. Its rods are more stronger and they are attached like in the picture below (Fig. 2.). A collector roof of this kind has a very long lifespan. With proper maintanence this can easilly be 60 y y years or more [4]. [ ]

Fig. 2. Collector Glass Roof of Solar Chimney


Prototype at Manzanares from Inside

A flate glazed collector can convert up to 70% of irratiated solar energy into heat, dependent on air throughput, a typical annual average is 50%. Also the ground under the roof provides natural energy storage at no cost [5]. Clearly, the [5] Clearly temperature increases towards to the tower and energy loss increases near the chimney. We can increase the ability of the collector roof by double glazing about the tower (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Aerial View of Solar Chimney Prototype at Dusk.

5. The Energy Storage in the Collector


Water filled black tubes are laid down side by side on the black sheeted or sprayed soil under the glass roof collector (Fig. 4). They are filled with water once and remain closed thereafter, so that no evaporation can take place. The volume of water in the tubes is selected to correspond to a p water layer with a depth of 5 to 20 cm depending on the desired power output. Since the heat transfer bet een black t bes and water between tubes ater is much larger than that between the black sheet and the soil, even at low water flow speed in the tubes, and since the heat capacity of water (4.2 kJ/kg) is much higher than that of soil (0.75 - 0.85 kJ/kg) the water inside the tubes stores a part of the solar heat and releases it during the night, when the air in the collector cools down [6].

Fig. 4:Principle of heat storage underneath the roof using


water-filled black tubes.

6. Chimney
The chimney is the plants actual thermal engine (Fig. 5). Its optimal surfacevolume ratio decreases friction loss and makes it like a pressure tube. The upthrust of the air heated in the collector is aproximately proportional to the air temperature rise T in the collector and the volume of the cchimney. In a solar chimney the collector raises the temperature of the air by about T= 35oC. This produce an updraught velocity in the chimney of about V=15m/s [7].

Fig. 5. Chimney

7. Solar Chimney Prototype at Manzanares (Spain) ( i 6) (Fig. )


The sheet metal was The only 1.5mm thick 150m high 10m diameter The d bt f b di Th debt of beading was 150mm The sheets were abuted vertically at intervals of 8.6m and shiftened every 4 b exterior 4m by i trussrirelers [8].

Fig. 6. Solar Chimney Prototype at Manzanares

chimney 195 m hi h hi high and 10 m in diameter surrounded by a collector 240 m in diameter.

Fig. 7. Prototype of the solar chimney at Manzanares.

8.Turbines
The turbines, the air current is converted into mechanical energy. The turbines are always placed at a height of 9 meter at the base of the chimney. According to the size of the turbine, they placed horizontally (Fig. 8) or verticaly (Fig. 9) and also the number of the turbines can vary.

Fig. 8. Horizontal

Fig. 9. Vertical

9.How Does A Collector Work?


When solar radiation pass through the transparent roof it is g p absorbed by the ground elements and it converts into heat energy. When air is heated it starts to rise up and, starts and to move toward the chimney and gains a velocity (Fig. 10).
Fig. 10. Solar Chimney Power Plants

A solar chimney collector converts available solar l hi ll t t il bl l radiation G onto the collector surface Acoll into heat output. Collector efficiency ncoll can be expressed as ratio of the co heatoutput of the collector as heated air Q and the solar radiation G (measured in W/m2) times Acoll[9].

Collector Efficiency

Heat Output

Collector Area

Solar Radiation

Spesific heat capacity of the air

Mass flow

The temperature differences between the collector and out flow b t th ll t d t fl

Air speed at collector outflow/chimney inflow

C Chimney cross-section area ey c oss sec o a ea

Spesific dendsity of air at temperature To + T at collector outflow/chimney inflow

10. Collector Efficiency

Additionaly valid for heat balance collector:

fective absorption coefficient of Loss correction value (in W/m2K), allowing p ( ), g the collector for emission and convection loss

Thus collector efficiency can also be expressed like this:

In order to find velocity

These equations are independent of roof height because friction oses and ground storage in the collector area neglected. Typical Values:

= 0.75-0.8 56 = 5-6 W/m2 G=1000 W/m2


T=300C =% 62

11.The Chimney

The efficiency of the chimney (i.e. The conversion of heat o kinetic energy) is particularly independent of the rise of air mperature in the collector; it is essentially determined by the side temperature To at ground level (the lower the better). better) us solar chimneys can make particularly good use of the low e in air temperature produced by heat emitted by the ground ring the night and even the meager solar radiation of a cold i th i ht d th l di ti f ld y. Comparing with the collector and turbine, the chimney iciency is relativelly low, hence the importance of size in its iciency curve. For example, at a height of 1000 meters, mney efficiency is somewhat greater than 3% [10].

her air is e a s elative to ir inside chimney

Pressure in outher enviroment is different from the inside the chimney. HC P(pressure) under the gravity changes with p respect to h g : acceleration due to gravity g y HC : Chimney height : density

ig. 11 Chimney Height

fferatial form

And

Air density in outer environment HC Air density in the chimney

ig. 11 Chimney Height

ut of the chimney

side of the chimney

s Ptot increases with chimney height. is consist of two components (dynamic and static) Ptot =PS+Pd

The static pressure difference drops at the turbine, the dynamic component describes the kinetic energy of the air flow. PS= O Ptot= ptotVC,max AC volume

so

Ptot=Pd Efficiency of the chimney can be established

Power

Actual division of the pressure difference into a static and a dynamic component depends on the energy taken up by the turbine. If the turbine is left out, a maximum flow speed of VC,max is achieved and the whole pressure difference is d to l t th i used t accelerate the air.

celli Equation: q

T0 ambient temperature at ground level T Temperature rises between collector inflow and collector outflow /chimney inflow

This basic simplified explanation one of the basic charesteristic e solar chimney,which is that the chimney efficiency is l hi hi h i h h hi ffi i i amentaly dependent only on chimney height. Flow speed and erature rise in the collector do not come into it. Thus the power contained in the flow

12.The Turbine

Turbine in a solar chimney do not work with staged elocity like a free-running wind energy converter, but as a osed pressure-staged wind turbogenerator, in which, similarly a hydroelectric power station, static pressure is converted to tational energy using a cased turbine- in this aplication gy g p stalled in a pipe. The energy yield of a cased pressure-staged rbine of this kind is about eight times greater than that of a peed-stepped open air peed stepped open-air turbine of the same diameter. diameter

Air speed before and after the turbine is about the same. The utput achieved is proportional to the product of volume flow er unit time and the fall in pressure at the turbine. With a view maximum energy yield the aim of the turbine regulation

Blade pitch is adjusted during operation to regulate wer output according to the altering air speed and air flow (Fig. (Fig As soon as the wind speed in the chimney exceed 2.5 m/s the bine is started automaticaly and cut into the public grid. The put power of the turbine is adjusted by limiting the rotation quency of the turbine. This can be adjusted by changing the de angle automatically ( g 12). g y (Fig. )

The pressure drop Theoretical useful power Powerwt at turbine Powerwt =VC AC PS ctrical Power W = V I

lume Flow

d finally we get the equation

3. The Appropriate Charesteristic Curve pp p


Powerwt takes a minimum between these extreme at:

P=VPS

Ptot 2/3 Ptot

Ps

g. 13. Characteristic Curve

Thus mechanical power taken up by the turbine is:


Powerwt,max P

= (2/3)ncoll nc Acoll G = (2/3)ncoll(g/CpTo)HoAcollG

Powerwt,max

Chimney Height

HC: 750m Dcoll: 2200m G: 1000W/ 2 G 1000W/m nwt : 0.8 ncoll : 0.6 CP : 1005j/kgK T0 : 200C g : 9.81m/s2

Collector Diameter

Solar Irradiation S l I di ti

Mechanical Efficiency

Collector Efficiency

Heat Capacity of the Air

Ambient Temperature

Gravity Acceleration y

ric:

(2/3)(0.8x0.6)[9.81/(1005x293)]x750x3751000x1000

. Typical Dymensions for Solar Chimneys With Different Power


Dymensions D i
Power Block Size Collector Diameter Dcoll Chimney Height HC Chimney Diameter DC Annual Energy Production

With 2300 kWh/m2y global radiation ih k h/ l b l di i


MW m m m 5 1110 445 54 30 2200 750 84 87.4 100 3600 950 115 305.2 200 4000 1500 175 600

GWh/y 13.9

15. Thermodynamics
With 2300 kWh/m2y global radiation
MW
oK

r Block Size

5 25.6

30 31.0

100 35.7

perature rise Collector

aft Velocity in Chimney Chi ful load)

m/s

9.1

12.6

15.8

al Pressure ifference iff

Pa

388.3

767.1

1100.5

sure Loss by Friction llector And ll A d himney)

Pa

28.6

62.9

80.6

ure Drop at turbine

Pa

314.3

629.1

902.4

Pressure Loss at Chimney Top

Pa

40.4

75.1

117.5

Average Annual Efficiency Collector y Chimney Turbines Whole System % % % % 56.24% 1.45% 77.00% 0.63% 54.72% 2.33% 78.30% 1.00% 52.65% 3.10% 80.10% 1.31%

16. Operation
Power Block Size MW 5 30 100 Annual Energy Production Total Per m2 Annual Operating Hours Full Load Hours Capacity Factor Night Energy Production GWh/y kWh/m2y h/y y h/y % GWh/y 13.9 14.4 8423 2780 31.7% 31 7% 1.5 87.4 23.0 8506 2913 33.3% 33 3% 8.7 305.2 30.0 8723 3052 34.8% 34 8% 32.0

17. Technical Data Quantities


MW m m m m2 m2 m2 5 1110 162 76 967700 328880 61900 30 2200 252 118 3801000 1318000 2433000 100 3600 346 159 10180000 3570000 6510000

Power Block Size

Collector Diameter

ass Collector Roofnterior Diameter

otal Covered Area

Glass Roof Area Total Double Glazed 2x4mm Single Glazed

Glass Roof Area Chimney Area

m2 m2 m m km2

947700 4500 2.0 10.0 1.3

3801000 11000 4.5 15.5 5.1

10080000 20000 6.5 20.5 13.7

Glass Roof Height (external)

Glass Roof Height (internal )

otal Quantity 4mm Raw Glass

Table. 4 C ll t D t Q titi T bl 4: Collector Data Quantities

18. Energy Production Costs

With the support of construction companies, the glass industry and turbine manufacturers a rather exact cost estimate for a 200 MW solar chimney could be compiled. We asked a big utility "Energie in Baden-Wrttemberg" to determine the energy production costs compared to coal- and combined cycle power plants based on equal and common methods (Table. 5) [12].

Fig. 14. Energy production costs from solar chimneys, coal and

CONCLUSION

No ecological harm and no consumption of esources, ot even o the co st uct o So a chimneys esou ces, not e e for t e construction. Solar c eys redominantly consist of concrete and glass which are made from sand and stone plus self-generated energy. Consequently in desert areas - with inexhaustible sand nd stone solar chimneys can reproduce themselves. A ruly sustainable source of energy! [13].

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Schlaich, J. (1995). Solar Chimney: Electricity from the , ( ) y y Sun. Stuttgart; Edition Axel Menges, p.16. The Solar Chimney. The energy storage. Retrieved 1 December 2001 from; http://wire0.ises.org/wire/Publications/Research.nsf/def aultview/0DED34BF3EB9A985C12569840055F09E/$ File/SolarChimney_short_version.pdf Schlaich, J. (1995). Solar Chimney: Electricity from the , ( ) y y Sun. Stuttgart; Edition Axel Menges, p.18. Internet sayfasini bul Schlaich, J. (1995). Solar Chimney: Electricity from the Sun. Stuttgart; Edition Axel Menges, p.52.

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2. Collector glass roof of solar chimney prototype at Manzanares from inside. Retrieved 30 November 2001 from; ; http://wire0.ises.org/wire/independents/imagelibrary.nsf/25bcb7 328e30a3e 2c12567530049c67f/A892385128ECAD96C12569840050A66F /$File/glass_roof_from_inside.jpg 3. Aerial View of Solar Chimney Prototype at Dusk. Retrieved 30 November 2001 from; http://wire0.ises.org/wire/independents/ImageLibrary.nsf/H/O? Open&840A07E8A8A6A557C1256984004EEDF8 4. The energy storage; Principle of heat storage underneath the roof using water-filled black tubes. Retrieved 1 December 2001 from; http://wire0.ises.org/wire/Publications/Research.nsf/defaultview /0DED34BF3EB9A985C12569840055F09E

. 5. Solar Chimney prototype during construction. Retrieved 30 November 2001 from; http://wire0.ises.org/wire/independents/imagelibrary.nsf/396e928198 80db7dc125680f00443688/1982AF4545393096C1256984004F7395/ $File/SolarChimneyManzanaresChimneyConstruction.jpg

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