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4.0 Milling Removal of the dried parchment (hulling, milling, shelling ) is required to release the bean.

Like dehusking of dry processed coffee, it is usually undertaken at a central curing works. Two types of machine are used are the common consists of a long rotating screw, the helical pitch of which increases towards the discharge end (Varnam, 1994) . The coffee is transported through the hulling machine by the screw, back pressure being controlled by a gate at the discharge end. During the transit, the parchment is broken by friction and is either removed by a vacuum applied to a perforated section in the base of the machine, and/ or by directed air jets as the coffee leaves the hulling machine. The second, less common, type of machine is based on impact milling in which the parchment is physically broken before removal. The contact surfaces of hulling machines are traditionally made of phosphor bronze which is believed to improve the colour of the finished beans. Green coffee beans undergo additional processing, including polishing, sorting and grading (Fukunaga, 1956).

4.1 Polishing Polishing involves removal of the silver skin, except that retained in the centre cut of the beans. The purpose is purely cosmetic, to improve the appearance of the beans. A separate polishing stage may not be required for wet processed Arabica. Dry processed coffee, especially Robusta, has a very tough and tenacious silverskin, which requires a wet polishing operation to remove (Clarke, 1987). This is done to improve the appearance of coffee beans and eliminate a byproduct of roasting called chaff. It is decried by some to be detrimental to the taste by raising the temperature of the bean through friction which changes the chemical makeup of the bean. Polished beans are considered superior to unpolished ones, in reality there is little difference between the two.

4.2 Sorting Sorting is required to remove any defective beans remaining after processing. A certain amount of extraneous material including whole berries, twigs, stones and fragments of husk and parchment, may also be present and requires removal. Sorting may be carried out physically by blasting air upward through the beans ( Bittenbender, 1990). This process, air lifting, will remove defective beans and extraneous material which has a significantly lower density than sound beans. The process is of relatively low discrimination and a proportion of the sound beans is usually removed with the defective. In some cases beans removed by air lifting are exported as low-grade triage coffee. Hand sorting of wet processed Arabica coffee is a traditional process. Hand sorting is highly labour intensive, but the cost can be justified by the high quality of hand sorted coffee. Expert sorters are employed and the highest quality is obtained by sorting in stages, removing the easily recognized black beans and discoloured sour beans at separate sorting points. Discoloured sour beans are difficult to recognize, but complete removal is essential for high quality, since only a small number adversely affect the flavour of the brew. Electronic sorters have been available for a number of years and developments both in optical systems and in electronics have resulted in sophisticated machines capable of high throughput and high level of discrimination. Electronic sorters sort by both colour and through image analysis, by shape, unsatisfactory material being removed by air jets. It is now common practice to operate electronic sorters in tandem with inspection under ultraviolet excitation to detect hidden stinkers. Beans fluorescing in the correct wavelengths are removed automatically. The use of a combination of electronic and ultraviolet sorting has enabled hand sorting to be totally replaced in some large- scale operations.

4.3 Grading The size of green coffee beans varies and forms the basis of grading systems. Coffee is marketed according to grade specifications which are assessed by laboratory test screen analysis. Most green coffee is graded into different sized portions by screening, although

some is sold unscreened. Reel graders are most commonly used for screening. These consist of rotating drums fitted with perforated screens of varying dimensions. Coffee beans enter at one end, where the screen dimensions are finest, and pass over increasingly coarse screens, falling through the screen corresponding to the bean size. Coffees also may be graded by the number of imperfections (defective and broken beans, pebbles, sticks, etc.) per sample (Fukunaga, 1956) . Each producing country sets its own standards for grading, and the criteria used for grading vary from country to country. The governments of many coffee-growing countries impose strict grading standards to maintain consistent quality and preserve the reputation of coffees grown in those countries. For the finest coffees, origin of the beans (farm or estate, region, cooperative) is especially important. Growers of premium estate or cooperative coffees may impose a level of quality control that goes well beyond conventionally defined grading criteria, because they want their coffee to command the higher price that goes with recognition and consistent quality.

5.0 Roasting Coffee roasters offer various blends and degrees of roast. Many also offer individual coffees. Coffee for roasting normally requires little pre-preparation except for choice of beans and simple clean and destoning. Decaffeination, where applicable, usually takes place before roasting (Dicum, 1990). Decaffeination, however, is almost always carried out on the green beans, although processes exist for decaffeination of roast beans and of soluble extract. The process involves solvent extraction of caffeine from the green beans followed by recovery of the caffeine and re-use of solvent. Older processes involve moistening the beans with water followed by extraction with organic solvents, typically ethyl acetate or methylene chloride. Residual solvent can be almost entirely removed by steaming and drying the extracted beans. The use of organic solvents, however, is widely considered inappropriate in foods and alternative processes have been developed. The first of these used an aqueous extraction , designed and controlled to minimize the quantity of flavour compounds co-

extracted with caffeine. Solvents are used to recover caffeine from aqueous solution, but have no contact with the coffee. The second, and generally preferred, method involves the use of supercritical CO. Decaffeination processes are typically able to reduce the caffeine content of coffee to below 0.1% on a dry weight basis. The decaffeination of process is not, however, totally selective and proportion of flavour compounds are inevitably removed. The difference in the final brew is usually small, however, providing that good process control is applied (Fukunaga, 1956). The first stage of roasting involves the removal of moisture. Roasting proper begins when the temperature of the green beans is ca. 200C. Subsequent chemical reactions are exothermic and the temperature rises rapidly. The length of roasting varies from ca. 5 to ca. 30 min. The exothermic nature of chemical reactions means that control of the process must be carefully applied. The roasting process is usually verified by instrumental assessment of the colour. Samples are taken immediately after roasting and ground using a rigidly standardized method before reading the colour. Provision of a rapid and efficient cooling stage is also necessary. A small proportion of water (quench water) is added to the beans at the cooling stage. This assists rapid cooling and also leads to a high degree of particle size uniformity in subsequent grinding. In batch roasters, quench water is added to beans in the roasting drum at the end of the process. The beans are then discharged into a perforated cooling tray through which air is blown. Continuous roasters of the drum type incorporate a cooling section, separated by a heat lock, into which the beans pass after roasting.

A. Coffee Bean Roaster Roasters are ovens, which operate either on a batch or a continuous basis. Heating is normally carried out at atmospheric pressure, the usual medium being hot air and combustion gases. Heat may also be applied by contact with heated surfaces and in some designs of roasters, this is the primary or sole, means of heating. Older roasters used air at a temperature as high as 540C, but temperatures of 375C or lower are now common, but require higher air velocities (Dicum, 1990). The most common design, which can be adapted

for either batch or continuous roasting, consists of a horizontal rotating drum. In most cases, beans are tumbled in a current of hot air flowing through the drum, although in some roasters a cross-flow of hot-air is also possible. Air is heated directly by gas or oil fuelled burners and in modern designs air recirculation systems are used. Air recirculation systems incorporate secondary burners (afterburners), the prime purpose of which is to reduce atmospheric pollution. Operating costs are also reduced. The economics of large-scale coffee roasting dictate that the process should be as short as possible. Shortening the roasting time has been achieved largely by increasing the velocity of the hot air flow, although mechanical means such as the use of rotating paddles to increase the rate of heat transfer to the beans are used in some roasters. To some extent, the scope for further improvement of conventionally designed roasters is limited and a number of novel approaches have been taken. A batch roaster based on the centrifugal principle is available, for example, in which beans and hot air are intermingled in a rotating bowl. The most effective means of utilizing high velocity air flows currently available, however, is fluidized bed roasting. A number of designs are now commercially available and it seems likely, for large-scale operations at least, that fluidized bed roasting will replace other types. Although most roasters operate at atmospheric pressure, interest has been shown in pressure roasting. Pressure roasting is considered to be potentially more efficient and is generally considered to increase the acidity of the brew. Nitrogen is used as pressurizing agent (Sun, 2006). The electric coffee roaster was designed to be as simple as possible to allow reliable control of temperature and sample taking. The beans will be roasted mainly by conductive heat transfer from the surface of the rotating roasting drum made of stainless steel. The roasting drum is heated by nine electric resistance heaters positioned around the lower half of the rotation drum. A double jacket is present to allow insulation of the whole drum to prevent excessive heat loss. In order to allow the control of temperature with a thermostat, a thermocouple is installed inside the roasting drum. A second thermocouple is installed at the

bottom of the double jacket to prevent overheating while heating up the roaster. It was estimated that the average production of this coffee roaster at 30kg per hour or 87 tons per year which assumes a production time of 8 hours per day (Meier, 2002).

B. Levels of Roasting Roasting is a time-temperature dependent process, which initiates significant chemical changes. A loss of dry matter occurs, primarily as gaseous CO and other volatile pyrolysis products (Dicum, 1990). Many of the pyrolysis products are important in determining the flavour of coffee. A high proportion, however, is retained within the coffee together with ca. 50% of the CO. Dry matter losses can be broadly correlated with degree of roasting. A light roast loses 3 5% ( in addition to moisture lost), a medium roast 5-8% and heavy roast 8-14%. Degree of roasting determines many of the flavour characteristics of the brewed coffee. The colour of beans also varies with degree of roast and may be used as the basis of a simple classification system. Physical changes occur, including loss of density due to popping. This is a function of rate of roasting as well as extent and is reflected in a lower bulk density in the ground coffee. (Wilcox, 2008). Light roast or also known as city roast which the coffee bean is taken through the first crack. Colours will be light brown (sometimes noted as cinnamon roast). There will not be any oil on the beans surface. The flavours are typically muted floras and some fruit notes. However, only certain beans can be prepared this way. If a harder bean is used, sometimes woody, grass, or hay notes will be present while medium roast or also known as full city roast are which the coffee bean is roasted between first and second crack. The bean will be a medium brown colour, and there will not be any oil on the outside surface of the bean. The flavours are typically floras and fruit, with enhanced sweetness due to the caramelization of the beans natural sugars. This is a common roast, typically used to cup or test new coffee beans.

Most beans perform well at this level. Medium to dark roast or also known as full city roast are the condition where the bean is roasted as close as second crack as possible, thus creating a darker bean. There will be light hints of oil on the surface on the bean. The floral flavours will no longer be present, and the bean will have a fruit sweetness, and begin to develop a coco or chocolate flavour. On lighter/less dense beans, a dark roast tends to be flat. At this level harder beans begin to be developed for espresso given the muted acidity and brightness (Dicum,1990). The beans are taken into the second crack are the dark roast or also known as Vienna roast. The colours quickly darken, and oils begin to become very apparent on the beans surface. These are the darkest roasts typically served. The beans have flavours that become smoky, nutty, with coco typically replacing the chocolate flavouring. Only a very select type of bean can perform well at this level. Typically most dark roasts are blended with other lighter roasts to enhance flavours. The beans are nearing the end of second crack are known as charred and beyond or known as Full French roast. All of the sugars have been burnt, the oils and volatiles have been released and are ready to ignite. The beans wood structure has been cured and toasted. Flavours are flat, typically of ash and char taste. This roast is usually a mistake, and one we throw away.

Appendices

Example of fluidized bed roaster which been used in roasting coffee

example of hulling machine

Reference H. Varnam, Alan and P. Sutherlan, Jane. Beverages : Technology, Chemistry and Microbiology, New York, Chapman & Hall, 1994 Clarke, R.J. and Macrae, R. Coffee : Related Beverages, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 1987 H.C.Bittenbender, N. Kefford, and K.G. Rohrback. Coffee Industry Analysis No. 3, Honolulu : College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, 1990 Gregory Dicum and Nina Luttinger. The Coffee Book. New York : The New Press, 1990, pp. 40-43 Y. Baron Goto and Edward T. Fukunaga. Harvesting and Processing for Top Quality Coffee, Extension Circular 359. Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, July, 1956 Meier T.. Mini Hydropower for Rural Development. Hamburg : LIT Verlag Berlin-HamburgMunster Sun, Da-Wen. 2006. Thermal Food Processing. CRC Press. Florida: Boca Raton. Wilcox E.V. 2008. Tropical Agriculture : The Climate, Soils, Cultural Methods, Crops, Live Stock, Commercial Importance and Opportunities of the Tropics. United States : Read Books