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INTRODUCTION

Bending moment in physics is an example of an internal force that is induced in a structure when loads are applied to that structure. Loading tends to cause failure in two main ways:

by shearing the beam across its cross-section. by bending the beam to an excessive amount.

A bending moment may be defined as "the sum of turning forces about that section of all external forces acting to one side of that section. Moments, at any point, are calculated by multiplying the magnitude of the external forces (loads or reactions) by the distance between the point at which moment is being determined and the point at which the external forces (loads or reactions) are being applied The objective of this experiment are to show that at any section of a beam subjected to transverse loads, the shearing force is define as the algebraic sum of the transverse component of force located at one side of the section. In addition, the bending moment is defined as the algebraic sum of the moment of the force to one side of the section. The applications of the experiment are to study about how to establish the shear and moment for bean and shaft. Beam and shaft are important structural and mechanical element in engineering.

THEORY
Consider the cantilever beam subjected to a number of transverse loads W located at distance x, as show in figure. Note the sign conversation used

Cantilever Beam Loading

Shearing Force and Bending Moment Sign Convention

At any transverse section X-X: 1. 2. the shearing force: the bending moment: Q= W=W3-W2-W1 M=WX=W3x3-W2x2-W1x1

PROCEDURE
Apparatus

1. 2. 3.

The beam is checked whether it is in equilibrium position when without a load applied to the beam. The support tension adjusted if necessary. The load is attached to hanger 2 and weights to the beam at position xi, and weight is added to hanger 3 and 4 until the beam return to equilibrium position.

4. 5. 6.

The experiment is repeated with weights at position x2 and x3. The value is recorded for each position of the load W The experiment is continued with two addition weight value are 2N and 3N.

RESULT
Load: 100 gram Distance (m) x1 x2 x3 Experimental Value W1(N) W2(N) W2 x a (Nm) 0.981 0.981 0.981 1.471 5 0.981 0.490 5 Load: 200 gram Distance (m) x1 x2 x3 Experimental Value W1(N) W2(N) W2 x a (Nm) 1.962 1.962 1.962 2.943 1.962 0.981 0.2943 0.1962 0.0981 Theoretical Value Qx(N) Mx(Nm) 1.962 1.962 1.962 0.2943 0.1962 0.0981 %Error W1 & Q W2 x a 0 0 0 &Mx 0 0 0 0.14715 0.0981 0.04905 Theoretical Value Qx(N) Mx(Nm) 0.981 0.981 0.981 0.14715 0.0981 0.04905 %Error W1 & Q W2 x a 0 0 0 &Mx 0 0 0

Load: 300 gram Distance (m) x1 x2 x3 Experimental Value W1(N) W2(N) W2 x a (Nm) 2.943 2.943 2.943 4.414 5 2.943 1.471 5 x1 = 0.15m x2 = 0.10m x3 = 0.05m 0.44145 0.2943 0.14715 Theoretical Value Qx(N) Mx(Nm) 2.943 2.943 2.943 0.44145 0.2943 0.14715 %Error W1 & Q W2 x a 0 0 0 &Mx 0 0 0

Shearing force and bending moment diagrams

Load: 100 gram x1=0.15m

W1

Mx 0.15m

V(N)

x(m) -0.981 0.15 Shearing force diagram M(N.m)

x(m) -0.981x -0.14715 0.15 Bending moment diagram

Load: 100 gram

x2=0.10m

W1

Mx 0.10m

V(N)

x(m) -0.981 0.10 Shearing force diagram M(N.m)

x(m) -0.981x -0.0981 0.10 Bending moment diagram

Load: 100 gram

x3=0.05m

W1

Mx 0.05m

V(N)

x(m) -0.981 0.05 Shearing force diagram M(N.m)

x(m) -0.981x -0.04905 0.05 Bending moment diagram

Load: 200 gram

x1=0.15m

W1

Mx 0.15m

V(N)

x(m) -1.962 0.15 Shearing force diagram M(N.m)

x(m) -1.962x -0.2943 0.15 Bending moment diagram

Load: 200 gram

x2=0.10m

W1

Mx 0.10m

V(N)

x(m) -1.962 0.10 Shearing force diagram M(N.m)

x(m) -1.962x -0.1962 0.10 Bending moment diagram

Load: 200 gram

x3=0.05m

W1

Mx 0.05m

V(N)

x(m) -1.962 0.05 Shearing force diagram M(N.m)

x(m) -1.962x -0.0981 0.05 Bending moment diagram

Load: 300 gram

x1=0.15m

W1

Mx 0.15m

V(N)

x(m) -2.943 0.15 Shearing force diagram M(N.m)

x(m) -2.943x -0.44145 0.15 Bending moment diagram

Load: 300 gram

x2=0.10m

W1

Mx 0.10m

V(N)

x(m) -2.943 0.10 Shearing force diagram M(N.m)

x(m) -2.943x -0.2943 0.10 Bending moment diagram

Load: 300 gram

x3=0.05m

W1

Mx 0.05m

V(N)

x(m) -2.943 0.05 Shearing force diagram M(N.m)

x(m) -2.943x -0.14715 0.05 Bending moment diagram

DISCUSSIONS & CONCLUSIONS

Discussions 1. From the experiment we found out that we need less load for a decreasing of length from the origin to produce bending moment. This can be proven by equation below: Moment = Fx F = Load applied X = Perpendicular distance 2. When there is a moment produced, shear force will balance the system(moment & forces exist) so that it will be in equilibrium state. This can be proven from our earlier analysis. The amount of shear force(in equilibrium) can be measured by hanging few load to get both lines(moment indicator & shear indicator) in one line. 3. For the same system, we still have the same amount of bending moment although the distance from origin is decreasing. 4. The instrument has high precision and accuracy because we obtained 0 percentage of error. This shows the system is nearly perfect. 5. In engineering we need less amount of bending moment because it can reduce the amount of deflection in the beam. This can decrease the percentage of failure of the beam

Conclusions

In this experiment, we need to consider bending moment and shear force need to be considered to make the system in equilibrium. We also conclude that the shorter the perpendicular distance to the load, the system will produce less bending moment which is preferable and more stable.

REFERENCES
1. R. C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Material, Sixth Edition, 2005, Prentice Hall. 2. R. C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Statics, 2005, Prentice Hall 3. http://www.wikipedia.org

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