Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5


307.4 million
P (PPP):
4.2 trillion
-2.4 growth
0.7 5-year compound annual growth
46,38 per capita
nflation (CP):
2. billion
The United States` economic Ireedom score is 77.8, making its economy
the th Ireest in the 20 Index. Its score is 0.2 point lower than last year,
reIlecting deteriorating business Ireedom, trade Ireedom, government
spending, and monetary Ireedom. The U.S. is ranked 2nd out oI three
countries in the North America region, and its overall score is well above
the world and regional averages.
The U.S. economy Iaces enormous challenges. The government`s recent
spending spree has led to Iragile business conIidence and crushing public
debt. Interventionist responses to the economic slowdown have eroded
economic Ireedom and long-term competitiveness. Drastic legislative
changes in health care and Iinancial regulations have retarded job
creation and injected substantial uncertainty into business investment
Ongoing regulatory changes, coupled with Iading conIidence in the
direction oI government policies, discourage entrepreneurship and
dynamic investment within the private sector. Leadership and credibility
in trade have been also undercut by protectionist policy stances and
inaction on previously agreed Iree trade agreements with South Korea,
Panama, and Colombia.

The U.S. economy is the world`s largest. While services account Ior more
than 70 percent oI economic activity, the U.S. remains the world`s largest
producer oI manuIactured goods. A Iederal Iorm oI government that
reserves signiIicant powers to states and localities has encouraged diverse
economic policies and strategies. However, the national government`s
role in the economy has expanded sharply in the past two years, and the
Iederal budget deIicit is extremely large, with gross public debt
approaching 00 percent oI GDP. Passage in March 200 oI a massive
health care bill signiIicantly expanded the Iederal government`s control
oI the health care industry, but a proposed climate change bill that would
have imposed Iederal constraints on energy use has been stalled.
Elections in November resulted in a Republican Party takeover oI the
U.S. House oI Representatives.

The overall Ireedom to create and run a private enterprise, regulated
primarily at the state level, is strongly protected. However, new
regulatory uncertainty hampers business expansion and employment

The weighted average U.S. tariII rate was .8 percent in 200. Anti-
dumping and countervailing duties laws, 'buy American procurement
rules, high out-oI-quota tariIIs, services market access restrictions, import
licensing, restrictive labeling and standards, and export-promotion
programs and subsidies add to the cost oI trade. Ten points were deducted
Irom the U.S. trade Ireedom score to account Ior non-tariII barriers.

U.S. tax rates are burdensome. The top income and corporate tax rates are
35 percent. Other taxes include an estate tax and excise taxes. Additional
income, sales, and property taxes are assessed at the state and local
levels. In the most recent year, overall tax revenue as a percentage oI
GDP was 26. percent. Should authorities choose not to extend tax cuts
enacted in 200 and 2003, the tax rate on the top individual income
bracket will jump to 3.6 percent beginning in 20, and the top capital
gains tax rate will increase Irom 5 percent to 20 percent.

In the most recent year, total government expenditures, including
consumption and transIer payments, equaled 38. percent oI GDP.
Spending increases totaled well over trillion in 200 alone, an increase
oI more than 20 percent over 2008. Stimulus spending has hurt the Iiscal
balance and placed Iederal debt on an unsustainable trajectory. Gross
government debt exceeded 0 percent oI GDP in 200.

InIlation has been low, averaging .4 percent between 2007 and 200.
Price controls apply to some regulated monopolies and the health
insurance sector; certain states and localities control residential rents; and
the government inIluences prices through subsidies, particularly Ior the
agricultural sector, dairy products, and some Iorms oI transportation.
Government interventions in housing, automotive, health, and Iinancial
markets have substantially increased price distortions. FiIteen points were
deducted Irom the U.S. monetary Ireedom score to account Ior measures
that distort domestic prices.

Foreign and domestic enterprises are legally equal. Foreign investments
Iace screening only iI perceived as a potential threat to national security.
Foreign investment in banking, mining, deIense contracting, certain
energy-related industries, Iishing, shipping, communications, and
aviation is restricted. Regulations are generally transparent; individual
states may impose additional restrictions. There are Iew controls on
currency transIers, access to Ioreign exchange, or repatriation oI proIits.
Foreign investors may own land.

The U.S. Iinancial sector has undergone Iar-reaching changes since the
sub-prime mortgage crisis in 2008. A number oI prominent Iinancial
Iirms or banks Iailed or were bailed out, and the government has intruded
on Iirms` management in unprecedented ways. The damage caused by
mortgage guarantors Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac remains largely
unabated. Concerns continue over the intrusive nature and cost oI the
2002 SarbanesOxley Act, which increased disclosure and internal
control requirements to the detriment oI smaller Iirms. The impact oI a
sweeping overhaul oI Iinancial regulations passed in July 200 is yet to
be measured, though it appears to do little to reduce the chances oI Iuture
government bailouts.

Property rights are guaranteed. Contracts are secure, and the judiciary is
independent. A well-developed licensing system protects patents,
trademarks, and copyrights. Government interventions in Iinancial
markets and the automotive sector have raised concerns about
expropriation and violation oI the contractual rights oI shareholders and
bondholders. The individual health insurance mandate passed by
Congress in 200 raised serious constitutional questions regarding
whether government could require the spending oI private Iunds.

Corruption is perceived as minimal. The U.S. ranks th out oI 80
countries in Transparency International`s Corruption Perceptions Index
Ior 200. The U.S. government has become part owner or eIIective
operator oI several 'too-big-to-Iail companies, and the impartiality oI
subsequent regulatory eIIorts is seen by some as corrupted.

U.S. labor regulations are highly Ilexible. The non-salary cost oI
employing a worker is low, and the severance payment system is not
burdensome. With private-sector union membership steadily shrinking,
more union members currently work Ior the government than Ior private
COOMC #OMS 41&nited$tates
Embed this data
Business Freedom AVG 64.3 75 Investment Freedom AVG 50.2
86 Trade Freedom AVG. 74.8 7 Financial Freedom AVG 48.5
68 Fiscal Freedom AVG. 76.3 85 Property Rights AVG 43.6
56 Government Spending AVG. 63. 75 Fdm. Irom Corruption AVG 40.5
77 Monetary Freedom AVG. 73.4 57 Labor Freedom AVG 6.5