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History of Modern Thought Rousseau (1712-1778) - Moderate form of constitutional monarchy as best form of government for French people

e - Explain human laws and institutions - Study of the evolution of legal systems/thinking - Wants to show that legal codes need to be shaped by complex series of considerations o Based on general principles o Laws must be adapted to a countrys people Climate, religion, position, spirit, etc. (subjective per population) - The Great Legislature: (Montesqueiu) o Evolves through and in time; legal codes should not be often tampered with o Quiet conservative reformer - Forms of Government (Republics, Monarchies, Despotisms) o Republics Democratic: power is with people Aristocratic: power is with smaller ruling body of representatives o Monarchies The Rule of One Person The Prince rules according to established laws that create other governing bodies o Despotisms Tyranny, political slavery - Virtue: courage The Social Contract: - General will is important to our freedom - Man was born free and everywhere he is enslaved o Everyone is a slave, those who think they are masters are even more slaves than those they assume they own o People think they are free however, they are not o Analysis of contemporary society - P. 49, ch. 1 *** - Melancholy set of observations o Men are alone responsible for the chains placed upon them o How will people know how to change? How could they want anything different? Is there any hope for social change? Is there an escape from this history of slavery? o It looks improbable that we can break the cycle based upon a set of inequalities o We must examine the successive changes that are taking place in the human constitution Anti-enlightenment insights o Weve become less and less free, less and less equal No longer masters of ourselves - Can we produce a theory that will change how we think/way we see the future? o A theory that will lead us into action - Social Contract is a method to lead us out of slavery cycle

o Magnificent construction designed to hammer us back into shape, to radically reform us; to point out the program that will lead us upwards o Rousseau sees that we need this system o Series of concepts weve seen before Social contract, Sovereign, etc o Set up in a way he calls the general will very complicated We have to work very hard for this, must become citizens Very demanding, not easy; this is the point must transform us into citizens that want to act for our freedom We will become political creatures o The work may be hard, but in the end it is worth it Google search: if the abuse of his new condition he should constantly bless the happy hour Analysis: Consider the discourse o Rousseau is a republican Born in the independent, Calvinist city-state of Geneva, a self-governing republic Ancient Roman, Spartan political style Converts to Catholicism Goes to France and meets major players in Enlightenment realizes his differences in thought Debated many of their ideas; chief critic of the enlightenment maybe it isnt so great What is the origin of inequality among men? Answered with 2nd Discourse o The Social Contract a reconstruction of how things should be; perfect moral commonwealth John Locke progressive analysis of the protection of mans natural rights in society Rousseau does not agree with this progression into society Google search: The first man who having enclosed found people simple enough to believe him The way in which you populate your state will form your politics o Rousseau objects to bringing in features of societal world into state of nature in order to justify them Self Love (Rousseau) love of ones own being a good thing o Passion o Principle of compassionate identification with others o Says: natural pity occurs when we identify with someone who is hurt; pity prevents us from hurting others Identification with others; basic, natural drive We live solitary lives; we have occasional encounters with others o Unstable relationships o We are absolutely free to pursue any path we want; very instinctual desires We live in a primitive state there is a point where small communities begin to evolve o This occurs because of competition

This leads to a form of self-consciousness; we begin to consider our own attractiveness in relation to others This leads to a new self-interested drive/impulse within us aka PRIDE Desire the recognition of others o Swollen, disfiguring image of ourselves in relation to others o Produces private property The Idea of Property o The Right of Land: o Society has primitive form of justice to each his own o Rambling Google search: It soon became necessary either to have them or to feign them o We act not as we are, but as we want other people to see we want to go up in the eyes of other people o Being and appearance are entirely different things P.180,190 All evils are the effects of property