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JOB TRAINING & EMPLOYEE EFFECTIVENESS

CMHR 523
Training & Development Research Project Report

Comparative Analysis on Job Training and Employee Effectiveness

Professor Anne Hardacre Ruth Tupe 500199176

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Table of Contents
Introduction

01 03 06 09 11 15 16 17

Summary Background

Theoretical Concepts / Best Practices

Overview of Actual Management of HR Function Process

Compare, Contrast, Critique

Recommendations for Improvement

Works Cited

Appendix

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INTRODUCTION

Perceived vs. Actual Job Training Effectiveness


Investing in people to develop skills, provide knowledge, and helping to realize potential is the perhaps one of the main factors for success for an organization (Goldenberg, 2006). Not only is this important for the Canadian workforce but it is also an indicator of our competitive level in this ever-growing, intertwining, global economy. Canada in particular is shifting towards the knowledge/service-based economy (Schuetze & Sweet, 2004), which has implications on the training needs and expectations of workers. It is easy to correlate the concept of training and development in order to prepare and groom the ideal employee and yet current trends shows a decreasing commitment in employee investment in Canada. While the participation in training is increasing, it masks real employer attitudes. In fact, Canada appears to be under-performing in workplace learning, slipping from 12th to 20th place in the global market, in regards to prioritizing training for their workforce (Goldenberg, 2006). The rate of job-related training in Canada is only
Figure 1.1 World Rank in Job Related Training, Goldenberg, 2006

average and less than 30% of adult workers in Canada participate in job-related education and training, as opposed US which levels and 45% (Goldenberg, 2006). In general, the US invests approximately 50% more on training than Canadian firm (Goldenberg, 2006). Therefore, it is relevant to assess the perceived vs. actual effectiveness of training programsultimately to understand how that results in organizational performance. Perhaps mandatory training has become prescribed and commoditized but does not necessarily guarantee high performance. The real challenge for institutions is reconciling modern methods, identifying disparate needs of the organizations, and creating implement effective long term HR strategies (Smith, 2002).

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There are many contributing factors that have led to this trend in Canada. However, the purpose of this paper is to particularly focus on the correlation between training methodologies and how they affect employee performance. This paper assumes that is the simplest and most direct way to gain a better understanding how and if employees are prepared in their respective workplace environments.

SUMMARY BACKGROUND

Starbucks vs. Adecco


COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Starbucks and Adecco both have reputations of having effective training methodologies and but why do their strategies result in performance? This paper will provide an in-depth analysis of their 5-Step Training program and assess them in a management and trainee perspective. More specifically, front line workers will be analyzed to reveal how well training was transferred to performance. The Barista Program from Starbucks and Adeccos Warehouse Safety Training will be analyzed. A set of best practices has been identified that theoretically predicts high employee performance. Both organizations will be evaluated based on these criteria. Furthermore, employee survey results will provide insight on the level of effectiveness of the training process and whether it in fact impacted the employees in their knowledge, skills, and abilities.

STARBUCKS COFFEE COMPANY (Canada)


Starbucks is not only renowned for coffee but is a leader in the food services industrytheir mission is to inspire and nurture the human spiritone person, one cup, and one neighbourhood at a time (Evans & Hansen, 2010). Starbucks is known for their legendary customers service and also treating employees as partners not employees. On an interesting note, this Starbucks location is a franchise owned by Compass Group (an international food-service company). There are known discrepancies between the Starbucks Trainer and Compass Group Manager in regards to managing the store. This factor is quite evident in our employee perceptions survey. In fact, research shows that learned behaviours are short-lived without support from Management (Connelly, 2011).
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PARTNER (HUMAN) RESOURCES DEPT. Starbucks has rigorously invested in their training to ensure consistency of quality. They understand that selecting the right people and respecting them as equals would lead to success. Their HR structure is horizontal and flat with regional divisions (Appendix 1) and then further dividing into Senior, Associate, and District Manager, and finally Manager positions. Since our focus is on Training, the focus will be on the Corporate Store Trainer who acts as the bridge from Corporate to local stores. PARTNER TRAINING Partners are required to complete the 100 Barista Training Program, which educates partners on coffee (history, roasting, blending), beverages making, and delivery of customer service (Evans & Hansen 2010). The training program begins with short discussions and then focuses on Barista hands-on practice (Ahmed, 2011). The paid training is divided into 3 modules and lasts from 2 weeks to a month. Partners are provided on-going training (i.e. management) if they choose and are also on a 3 month probationary period (Ahmed, 2011).

HR PROFESSIONAL INTERVIEWED Viliyat Ahmed has been working at Starbucks for the past 8 years, as an on-site extension of Partner Resources as the Corporate Store Trainer. His role is to provide training and orientation and facilitate store openings in Toronto. He has valuable insights on both the Trainer/Trainee side as he first began as a Barista. He facilitates and certifies 100 Barista training in Ontario. He reports to the Toronto District Manager who works/reports to Partner Resources to manage new partner development strategies. MAJOR HR ISSUES IN TRAINING A common issue for any retail store is reducing employee turnover, because of the minimum wage. Starbucks actively counters by providing strong benefits and an on-going positive and learning environment (Ahmed, 2011). Diversity management is a challenge; being able to find a balance in aligning other cultures with Starbucks culture (Ahmed, 2011). Starbucks spends much more time and resources for their partners which does affect bottom line; the main challenge is balancing partner interests and at a reasonable cost (Ahmed, 2011).

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ADECCO (Canada)
Adecco is the world leader in human resource solutions with over 50 years of experience and more than 50 locations in Canada alone. Adecco connects people with permanent, temporary, and contract opportunities. HUMAN RESOURCES DEPT. Adeccos Human Resources department is led by Nicollete Mueller, the VP for Canada. The structure is more vertical moves down to Directors, who overlook divisions such as Professional Placement, Recruitment services for all of Adeccos services (Ratte, 2011). Within each division are Managers and Directors who work in-line with employees that they are staffing for their clientele (Ratte, 2011). EMPLOYEES IN TRAINING Employees are must complete training for stock control, manual handling, packaging, workflow, WHIMIS, and equipment handling (Ratte, 2011). Seminars and presentations are the main ways to communicate policies and procedures and supplemental handouts provide additional information. Employees are paid for training for 2 weeks and can participate in specialty training (i.e. Forklift Training) under a 3 month probation. HR PROFESSIONAL INTERVIEWED Ash Ratte is the Senior Coordinator/On Site Manager at Adecco Canada and specifically leads hiring, orientation, and safety training for business clients in the warehousing and manufacturing sector. In addition she deals with administrative duties such as payroll, scheduling and specializes in in conflict resolution within the workplace. She facilitates and certifies employees for her clients. MAJOR HR ISSUES IN TRAINING The major issue to overcome is countering negative employee attitudes (Ratte, 2011). Since the job is monotonous and repetitive, it is difficult to inspire employees to do more than expected. Also, the training program has a large emphasis on safety which is not the most riveting topic for employees. Therefore, the challenge is to make sure everyone is aware of procedures to prevent workplace incidents and accidents (Ratte, 2011).

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THEORETICAL CONCEPTS

Best Practices in Training & Development


The following concepts are specifically targeted at the unique training program at Adecco and Starbucks. It also serves as the assessment framework for comparing the quality/effectiveness of training. THEORETICAL CONCEPT: 5-STEP TRAINING PROGRAM Typical training programs are based on the Five-Step Training Process, which consists of 5 integral sections: Needs Analysis, Instructional Design, Validation, Implementations, and Evaluation (Dessler & Cole, 2011). Therefore the Starbucks and Adeccos training must be evaluated based on this structure. Step 1: Needs Analysis Systematic assessment of peoples learning needs Step 2: > Instructional Design Step 3: > Resources & Validation

>

Step 4: Implementation Conducting education and training programs by executing plans

>

Step 5: Evaluation Measuring, monitoring, collecting feedback, closes the loop

Developing learning objectives/change drivers (concepts, skills, attitudes, values)

Planning specific sessions, materials, instructors, etc. Test the program.

(The Journal for Quality and Participation, 2000) GENERAL BEST PRACTICES IN TRAINING According to the IMPA HR Benchmarking Committee, there are several recommendations best practices to ensure success in a training program. First, to develop the competencies needed an organization, it is important to align strategic objectives to training and development procedures (Bjornberg, 2002). This is logical since the existence of training and development is to ensure performance. An example would be creating a set of long/short term goals, performance appraisals, and creating a lifelong learning environment (Bjornberg, 2002). Secondly, an effective structure must be established in order to accurately assess skills and behaviours in the workplace. This provides criteria to assess whether employees are working effectively towards the goals initially established. Examples of structural initiatives would be mandatory training sessions, professional development sessions, tuition reimbursement, educational leaves, etc (Bjornberg, 2002). Third, the function of the program must ensure that employees are equipped with the skills,
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knowledge, and abilities in order to perform effectively (Bjornberg, 2002). Some examples of functions that requires training are: organizational learning process improvement, resource management, facilitating change, and managing liability (Bjornberg, 2002). Lastly, there must be a method of assessing the Transfer of Learning, to determine if employees have retained the training and whether they can apply them in the workplace (Bjornberg, 2002). Annual meetings, feedback from trainers, and customer reviews, are examples to measure the application of the training program. Most importantly, there must be a strong commitment from managers to provide leadership and guidance of the training program (Bjornberg, 2002). TRAINING FRANCHISE MANAGERS Franchise Managers are unique in that they hold the interests of the licensor and the franchisor (Davis, 2004). The challenge for Training managers in a franchise organization is to be resourceful, persuasive, and creative to uphold company values, as most of them bring in personal beliefs (Davis, 2004). Another challenge is that franchisees are usually running different businesses and are too busy for training (Davis, 2004). To successfully design training for franchisees, the program must align with business goals, for example a 5-year plan for the company (Davis, 2004). Next, support and development must be tailored for each individual, considering their strengths and experiences to meet their specific needs (Davis, 2004). TRAINING TEMPORARY AGENCY WORKERS Because of the complex employment structure of temporary workers, they are more susceptible to behave in extreme results: either the worker engages in organizational citizenship or negative counterproductive attitudes (Connelly, 2011). Evidence supports that Interpersonal Justice (perceived fairness) from the agency and client organization is a major factor that influences worker behaviours (Connelly, 2011). Therefore, to curb these attitudes, agencies should offer supportive programs outside the scope of the, development training for employees to gain skills to become more competitive, and a positive working environment (Connelly, 2011). The individuals own personality and motivations plays a role as well, therefore a careful screening process should be in place to ensure good job performance (Connelly, 2011).
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TRAINING ASSESSMENT MODEL (BASIS FOR EVALUATION) Based on the IPMA Benchmarking committee, Ive established criteria based on the results of the 20012002 HR Benchmarking survey. The committee has indicated that an effective training program is successful over time, produces qualitative and/or quantitative results, results in positive outcomes, facilitates innovation, and is replicable (Bjornberg, 2002). More specifically, the IPMA/NASPE benchmarking subcommittee developed diagnostic operational questions to identify different aspects of training programs, which establishes criteria to assess the training program and the level of effectiveness. (See Below) Evaluation for Training Programs 1. Strategic Alignment 2. Structure & Reportability 3. Function 4. Assessment and Transfer Description How training and development align with the organization's strategic plan Description of the organization's training and development structure The primary focus of training and development efforts Assessing training needs and ensuring that skills/attitudes/behaviors taught during training/learning events are applied on the job. (Bjornberg, 2002) Evaluation for Training Effectiveness 1. Trainee Perception 2. Evaluating Learning 3. Evaluating Behaviour 4. Impact & Results Description How did participants feel about the training? Test the trainees after the training to determine what new skills they acquired or what knowledge they obtained. Has actual job behavior changed as a result of the training? Collect data and determine whether there has been an improvement in organizational results. (Bjornberg, 2002) This will be the framework used to assess both training programs but also the employee performance. As recommended by the study, to collect information, surveys must be conducted with a sample group that have undergone Adecco and Starbucks training. The results of these employee surveys will provide insights to compare and contrast the effectiveness of both organizations.

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OVERVIEW OF HR FUNCTION AND PROCESSES

The 5-Step Training Process


The following is an assessment of the 5 step training function for both Starbucks and Adecco. This places the programs in the same context and will provide the basis of comparison and analysis.

STARBUCKS COFFEE COMPANY (Canada)


Stage 1: Needs Analysis ! Online application/interview pre-screens applicants to identify job behaviours and skills ! ! ! Previous barista experience not necessary Believes in training anyone with right attitudes Lenient on skills, emphasis on development (Appendix 2a) ! ! Stage 2: Instructional Design ! ! Orientation with emphasis on company culture All skills necessary divided into 3 learning blocks with 4-5 modules in each block Partners are instructed to read, write, see, act, teach, and think about situations Visual aids, multimedia presentations, and onsite practice is provided (Appendix 2b) Stage 3: Resource the Program/Validation ! The program has been tested thoroughly since the re-training initiative launched by Schultz ! All training modules come with booklets and activity cards for reference ! Manuals and resource booklets are provided and encouraged (i.e. Beverage Resource) Stage 5: Evaluation and Follow-Up ! All baristas are partnered with a mentor, who provides guidance and feedback ! Validation is facilitated through the Barista Certification, which qualifies beverage making ! On-going validation methods are encouraged through the Coffee/Tea Passport program, which encourages Partners to record their experiences with Starbucks (Appendix 2b) ! ! ! ! Stage 4: Implementation ! Integrated rather than separated from instructional design modules Deployment is a simulation test that allows Partners to apply their skills in a real-life scenario (i.e. Partners orders drinks and partners prepare drinks and taste test them) Additional Notes ! Training methodologies in developing skills are highly effective, attainable for most people Strong mentorship and support system Positive, energetic environment Strong emphasis on company and coffee culture and legendary customer service

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ADECCO (Canada)
Stage 1: Needs Analysis ! Application is the first indicator of the skills and knowledge of the employee ! Licenses (i.e. Forklift License) and certifications (i.e. WHIMIS) are recommended ! If not, the training program provides the resources to acquire these qualifications Stage 3: Resource the Program/Validation ! The training proven to be successful, becoming one of the leading firms worldwide ! Facilitates their own in-house certification courses and training, employees can simply sign up and training is paid for Stage 5: Evaluation and Follow-Up ! Employee is tested to work independently and the trainer assesses whether the employee knows policy and procedures ! ! Employees are given a 3-month probation Additional training is provided as needed ! ! Stage 4: Implementation ! Training begins with a presentation/lecture to provide new employees information Employee job shadows a current employee to witness first hand experience and to have a mentor for guidance Additional Notes ! Extremely structured training process with strong emphasis on safety procedures Less emphasis on establishing corporate/company culture and results in less engaged attitudes from employees ! Stage 2: Instructional Design ! ! Orientation to acquaint employees with job Provide documents, booklets, and brochures for more information Information is relayed mostly through lectures and presentations using Powerpoint

Overall Assessment of Training Programs


Ratings were given on a 1-5 scale (1=poor, 5=excellent) and based on criteria previously established. In general both organizations scored high, with minor points of differences (in-depth discussion in Analysis). EVALUATION CRITERIA Strategic Alignment Structure & Reportability Function Assessment and Transfer STARBUCKS ADECCO

4 4 5 5

Encourages a stronger company culture/value system Casual environment, structured performance measures Training is more engaging and stronger on-going initiatives Multi-dimensional construct is the Five Ways of Being

3 5 3 4

Generally focuses on the needs and wants employees only Strict structure and stringent policies and procedures Teaching is less engaging, no on-going mentorship Continuous testing and performance appraisals

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COMPARE, CONTRAST, CRITIQUE

Comparative Analysis
It is important to consider that cognitive ability is a good indicator of training performance but not necessarily job performance (Salas, 2001). Therefore it is necessary to first contrast the individual 5-Step Training Programs and then to contrast job performance. Job effectiveness was assessed based on a small survey conducted from two training groups from Adecco and Starbucks. The sample size was 10 people per group and each member has been trained in the past month. Ratings and levels use a 5-point system where 1 ranks the lowest and 5 ranks the highest score. Comparative scores reflect the average rating of the sample. The data had no outliers, thus the survey is accurately portraying perceptions and attitudes of newly trained employees in this sample group.

I. Evaluation of 5-Step Training Programs Criteria 1: Strategic Alignment


Starbucks Score = 4, Adecco Score = 3 There are two factors that make Starbucks training effective; first, the pre-screening process identifies individuals that already align with company values and second, Starbucks strengthens those values to brand affiliation. Based on Salas research, individual characteristics are crucial in predicting training effectiveness, particularly cognitive ability and self-efficacy (Salas, 2001). Research suggests the cognitive ability is not an accurate predictor of job success, it simply establishes if the individual is capable. Selfefficacy however is a complex personal value that relates to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, relationship values, and attitude towards learning. Since it describes how the individual can perform tasks but also their behaviours, it is a powerful predictor of performance (Salas 2001). For Adecco, individuals are mostly screened on the basis of cognitive ability, which does positively correlate with predicting performance however lacks to identify an individuals commitment to the organization and does not predict attitudes and behaviours in the workplace (Colquitt, 2000). Overall, self-efficacy enhances learning outcomes and performance and should have more precedence in the selection process.

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Criteria 2: Structure & Reportability

Starbucks Score = 4, Adecco Score = 5

Conducting an organizational analysis is necessary to identify the structural and system components that affect the delivery of the training program (Salas, 2001). The established organizational climate can likely predict whether trainees retained and learned new skills (Salas, 2001). In the case of Adecco, they have a stringent policy on safety and as a result, the level of stakes and expectations are high. Adeccos strategic position to communicate that the training is to protect employees, which in turn establishes a caring organizational climate and trainees positively respond to this. Furthermore, Adecco provides inhouse training and also in an organized manner that makes it simple for employees to participate in gaining certifications. As a result, the structure is extremely effective. In the same respect, Starbucks does an excellent job in creating an effective learning environment but is less stringent. Starbucks distinctly establishes a serve first attitude and coffee enthusiasm creates a fun and positive environment for employees. Though quality control is highly valued at Starbucks, the training climate established by Adecco to maintain high safety standards takes precedence because of the risk factor (Rynes, 2002).

Criteria 3: Function

Starbucks Score = 5, Adecco Score = 4

Both programs have in-depth training that results in effective knowledge transfer. Their instructional approaches vary, largely attributed to the difference in job duties/expectations. Thus the only point of critique is evaluating which program embodies an on-going learning environment to encourage development (Smith, 2002). To promote this process, the training methodology must: (a) present relevant information/concepts, (b) demonstrate the knowledge/skills learned, (c) create opportunities for trainees to practice, and (d) provide feedback to trainees during and after practice (Salas, 2001). The Starbucks module program excels as it divides the skills as attainable goals while using a kinesthetic approach to further reinforce learning. Also, their on-going mentorship/team training program provides more support than Adeccos job shadowing approach. Studies have shown positive results as it improves teamwork, changes team attitudes, and continues to impart company culture and objectives (Salas, 2001).

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Criteria 4: Assessment of Transfer

Starbucks Score = 5, Adecco Score = 4

There are conditions that must exist to maximize the transfer of training, factors such as: learning environment, opportunity to perform, peer and supervisor support, intervention strategies, team leadership, and if the training is conceptualized as a multi-dimensional construct. (Salas, 2001). Both organizations score high in all of these aspects but the key point of difference is designing the training into a multi-dimensional construct. Starbucks Five Ways of Being (Be Welcoming, Be Genuine, Be Considerate, Be Knowledgeable, Be Involved) are the guiding principles of every employee. Not only does this further reinforce values but is designed to align with personal values and motives. This reduces the responsibility on management to supervise actions of employees and puts the onus on the individuals to have personal reflection and assessment (Subedi, 2004). This also relates to the Partner concept Starbucks establishestreating employees as equals. This strategy has the greatest impact as it instills deep-rooted behaviours and attitudes that more reliably predict employee performance (Subedi, 2004).

II. Evaluation of Employee Training Perceptions


The purpose of this section is to show the training transfer effect on the employees. It is acknowledged that the sample size and data does not reflect the entire organization but rather a training group in itself. However, this is still valuable feedback and a basis of criteria to try and measure training effectiveness. A summary of the survey results will be included in Appendix 3. Listed below are summaries of the results.

Criteria 1: Trainees Perception

Starbucks Score = 3.8, Adecco Score = 3.5

In general, Adecco employees expressed that the overall training program was well organized, structured, provided lots of information, and was lastly relevant because of the safety factor. The communication method was effective but since it was in lecture format, breaks would have been helpful to assist in retaining all the procedures. The teaching method was only appealing to some individuals. Starbucks employees expressed that the quality and relevance of the information was particularly strong as was the communication method. However two factors reduced the overall score, they were the organization and preparation of the materials. This is mostly a reflection on the manager not the trainer.

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Criteria 2: Evaluating Learning

Starbucks Score = 3.8, Adecco Score = 3.4

Starbucks employees enjoyed the teaching method. Since Baristas were required to discuss, read, and teach all the material (as if they were the trainer), it effectively reinforced all the concepts and the skills in the three modules. Furthermore, there was team collaboration and hands-on application at the end of each module. In contrast, Adecco employees must be first certified before than can practice operating equipment, which creates a longer learning cycle. Research has shown that simulated and collaborative learning reduces required instructor time and resources as opposed to only observational learning opportunities (Salas, 2001). Generally, the more methods and opportunities for learning, the better.

Criteria 3: Evaluating Changes in Behaviour

Starbucks Score = 3.9, Adecco Score = 2.2

Effective training establishes learned behaviours to lead to better job performance, rather than just focusing on the task itself (Subedi, 2004). There is no formulaic answer, however maintaining learner interest, engagement, and feedback generally results in positive behaviours (Martin, 2009). Starbucks has a stronger maintenance of behaviours because of their workplace environment and follow-up techniques (i.e. goal setting, team-building). Adecco lack these techniques, which has led to apathetic behaviours. It is also difficult to manage temporary workers; studies have shown that desires for permanent position or scheduling is not as important as a positive environment, which affects their engagement (Connelly, 2011). Interpersonal justice is a considerable factor for temporary workers attitudes (Connelly, 2011).

Criteria 4: Evaluating Impact & Results

Starbucks Score = 3.2, Adecco Score = 3.3

Starbucks employees feel that the lack of cohesion between the manager and Starbucks training has largely impacted employee behaviours and as a result, has reduced performance levels. Most felt that the training itself was effective but supervisory behaviours contradicted Starbucks culture. For Adecco, employees felt that the training was informational and relevant, but not extraordinarily motivating. As a result, over time, some employees find it difficult to maintain interest in a warehousing environment and usually these negative attitudes result in mistakes, workplace incidents, or counterproductive behaviours. Therefore, both workplaces have not fully succeeded in the transfer of training.

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Recommendations

Analysis for Improvement


Based on the feedback from the employees, strong training practices/procedures does not necessarily guarantee good job performance. In Starbucks case, there was lack of management support to carry out the learned behaviours established by Starbucks. In Adeccos case, managing temporary agency attitudes was the largest obstacle. As research suggested, worker behaviours and attitudes towards the organization are greater predictors of success rather than their ability to complete job tasks (Bjornberg, 2002). These recommendations focus on maintaining behaviours since the programs have strong training procedures.

STARBUCKS COFFEE COMPANY (Canada)


Two major recommendations for Starbucks are to improve communication between Starbucks and Compass Group and also offer Training for the Franchise Manager (Chris). Vilayat should focus on listening and responding to Chris to identify his specific needs, while still consistently delivering the Starbucks philosophy (Davis, 2004). Vilayat can then take action to recommend the Starbucks Store Manager course. Sometimes managers who run food services do not fully understand the aspects to running the business behind the counter and making this connection might help transfer Starbucks attitudes to Chris (Davis, 2004). Continuous feedback should exist for managers as well and not just Baristas, follow-up sessions and performance reviews can provide more guidance.

ADECCO (Canada)
When recruiting applicants, Adecco should carefully examine workers motivations and attitudes as research shows that attitudes are an important predictor of organizational commitment (Davis, 2004). Individuals must be aware of the line of work they are committing to which is the responsibility of Adecco. To prevent counterproductive behaviours against the monotony of the work, it is recommended to the workers gain additional experience or gain useful skills to gain higher positions within the agencies (Davis, 2004). As a preventative measure, Adecco should avoid selecting temporary workers on the basis of cost, it is important to treat workers fairly or they may retaliate in negative behaviours (Davis, 2004).
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REFERENCES

Works Cited
Ahmed, Vilayat. Personal Interview. 4 Nov. 2011. Alvarez, K., Salas, E., & Garofano, C. (2004). An integrated model of training evaluation and effectiveness. Human Resource Development Review, 3(4), 385-416. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/221818051?accountid=13631 Agarwal, S. (2010). Learning, training and development in organizations. Training & Management Development Methods, 24(4), 707-711. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/login ?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/747211807?accountid=13631 Bjornberg, Linda (2002) Training and Development: Best Practices, Public Personnel Management; Vol 31 Iss:4, pp.507-516. Connelly, C., Gallagher, D., & Webster, J. (2011). Predicting temporary agency workers' behaviors. Career Development International, 16(2), 178-194. doi:10.1108/13620431111115622 Davis, P. (2004). Organizational effectiveness and empowered stakeholders: Challenges for training managers. Training & Management Development Methods, 18(1), 709-714. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/202595266?accountid= 13631 Education and training steps .. (1995). The Journal for Quality and Participation, 18(2), 82-82. Retrieved http://ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/219120993?accountid= 13631 Goldenberg, M 2006, Employer investment in workplace learning in Canada: how we are doing, why it matters, what the key issues are, how we can do better, CPRN research report no.W/36, Canadian Policy Research Networks, Ottawa. Martin, H. (2010). Improving training impact through effective follow-up: Techniques and their application. The Journal of Management Development, 29(6), 520-534. doi:10.1108/02621711011 Peter J. Smith, (2002) "Modern learning methods: rhetoric and reality further to Sadler-Smith .", Personnel Review, Vol. 31 Iss: 1, pp.103 113 Ratte, Ash. Personal Interview. 4 Nov. 2011. Salas, Eduardo, and Janis Cannon-Bowers. "THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING: A Decade of Progress." Annual Review Psychology 52.1 (2001): 471-499. Print. Subedi, Buwani. Emerging Trends of Research on Transfer of Learning International Education Journal 5.4 (2004): 591-599. Print.

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APPENDICES

Appendices Overview
Employee Evaluation Survey Results

1 2 3

Organizational Charts of Starbucks & Adecco

Starbucks Training Materials


Training Photos/Barista Certification (Training Modules)/Pages of Training Booklet

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Appendix 1: Starbucks Employee Evaluation Results


SURVEY: STARBUCKS EMPLOYEE EVALUATION

TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS
I. The trainee's perception of training. How did participants feel about the training? CRITERIA P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 AVG 2.1 3.8 4.1 4.0 4.3 3.8

Organization 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 Quality of Content 3 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 4 Relevance of Information 4 5 4 4 5 4 3 4 5 3 Communication 4 4 5 3 4 3 4 4 5 4 Teaching Method 4 5 3 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 Preparation 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 5 2 II. Evaluating learning. Test the trainees after the training to determine what new skills they acquired or what knowledge they obtained? CRITERIA Create Beverages Dealing with Customers Using the POS System Dealing with Stress Deployment P1 4 4 3 3 4 P2 3 3 4 4 3 P3 4 4 3 3 4 P4 2 4 3 2 4 P5 3 4 4 3 3 P6 4 3 3 3 4 P7 4 5 2 5 3 P8 3 5 2 4 5 P9 4 4 5 5 5 P10 5 4 3 5 3

AVG 3.6 4.0 3.5 3.9 3.8

III. Evaluating changes in behaviour. Has job behaviour changed as a result of the training? CRITERIA Attention to Detail Attitude/Enthusiasm Teamwork Skills Conflict Resolution P1 4 4 4 3 P2 3 5 4 4 P3 5 3 5 3 P4 4 3 4 2 P5 5 4 3 3 P6 3 5 5 3 P7 5 3 3 4 P8 4 4 5 3 P9 4 4 4 3 P10 4 4 4 4 AVG 4.1 3.9 4.1 3.2

IV. Evaluating impact and results. Collect data to determine whether there has been an improvement in organizational results. CRITERIA Sales Customer Experience Quality of beverages Performing side tasks Closing/Opening Tasks P1 3 4 4 4 3 P2 4 5 5 3 4 P3 3 3 3 4 5 P4 3 4 5 5 4 P5 4 3 4 4 5 P6 5 4 4 4 3 P7 4 5 3 5 5 P8 3 4 5 4 4 P9 4 5 5 5 5 P10 3 5 5 4 5 AVG 3.6 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.3

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SURVEY: ADECCO EMPLOYEE EVALUATION

TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS
I. The trainee's perception of training. How did participants feel about the training? CRITERIA P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 AVG 4.1 3.5 4.1 2.8 2.4 4.2

Organization 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 3 3 4 Quality of Content 3 4 3 4 4 2 4 3 4 4 Relevance of Information 4 5 3 4 5 4 3 4 4 5 Communication 2 3 2 4 4 3 2 4 2 2 Teaching Method 2 3 2 4 3 2 2 1 3 2 Preparation 3 4 5 4 5 5 3 4 5 4 II. Evaluating learning. Test the trainees after the training to determine what new skills they acquired or what knowledge they obtained? CRITERIA Inventory Equipment Maintenance Packaging/Sorting Safety Procedures Handling Equipment P1 3 3 3 3 3 P2 4 4 4 2 4 P3 3 3 5 3 3 P4 5 5 4 4 2 P5 4 4 3 3 3 P6 3 3 4 2 2 P7 4 4 5 4 4 P8 2 4 4 4 3 P9 4 3 3 5 3 P10 4 3 4 3 3

AVG 3.6 3.6 3.9 3.3 3.0

III. Evaluating changes in behaviour. Has job behaviour changed as a result of the training? CRITERIA Attention to Detail Attitude/Enthusiasm Teamwork Skills Conflict Resolution P1 2 3 2 3 P2 3 2 2 2 P3 2 1 3 3 P4 3 1 1 1 P5 4 2 1 2 P6 1 1 3 3 P7 2 3 2 2 P8 3 2 3 1 P9 2 2 2 2 P10 2 2 3 2 AVG 2.4 1.9 2.2 2.1

IV. Evaluating impact and results. Collect data to determine whether there has been an improvement in organizational results. CRITERIA Reduction of Incidents Meeting Quotas Performing side tasks Closing/Opening Tasks P1 3 3 5 3 P2 4 4 4 4 P3 5 3 3 3 P4 4 3 5 3 P5 3 4 4 4 P6 4 3 5 3 P7 2 4 3 4 P8 3 3 4 5 P9 4 4 4 2 P10 4 4 5 3 AVG 3.6 3.5 4.2 3.4

PG 19

Appendix 2: Starbucks Organizational Chart

Appendix 2: Adecco Organizational Chart

Appendix 2a: Pre-Employment Application

Appendix 3: Starbucks Training Material

Green Apron: 5 Ways of Being (Philosophy)

Barista Training Booklet/Manual

Certification Pins for Service/Barista Skills Training Group

How to steam milk (Training) Coffee Passport Certification

PLAN TRAINING INDIVIDUAL


Cafd Stores

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Task:Prepareany food item for samplingand follow activesamplingprocedure.

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the cuttingprocedure. pieces into sample 4. Place tray. cupsand onto serving guardor clear 5. Place sneeze a coverto protectsamples m from conta ination. with a 6. Greeteachcustomer smile, and offera sample. . Provide nome and the descriptronof the item to the customer. Remove domedlid for customer. emptysomplecupsas Remove customerstoste the product. . Moke sure somple tray is full and oppeoling.

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Dateof Certification: Comments: StoreManager

The barista successfully completed Barista the Basics trainingprogram.

E:p 'e:soB a"B asics killCheck s : S . Steoming Milk . . Pulling Shots* BosicBeveroges

Fo o dand W arming kill S Check , AchveSampling Prepare Clover@ Brewed Coffee SkillCheck* Lea ing Block1 Knowledge rn Check

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Beve rageEssentials Checks: Skill , CollBeveroge, Mark Cupond BuildBeveroge ColdBeverage Ch Skill ecks: . CaramelFroppuccino@ BlendedCoffee . Tazo@ Shaken lced Teoor Shoken lced TeaLemonode

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Beve ragePreparation Checks: Skill , Coramel Mocchioto . . . . Tozo@ BlockTeaLatte+ CaffdLatte with VonilloSyrup Tazo@ TeaLatte* Choi lced CoIfdMocho

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Beverage Prepa ratron Skill Checks: . C1ramel Macchiato . . , . Tozo@ BlackTeaLatte* CoffdLatte with VanillaSyrup Tazo@ TeoLotte+ Chai lced CoffdMocha
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UNDERSTANDING HoW EXPERIENcEs IMPACT cUsToMERLoYALTY satisfied customers havean okayvisit,but nothingis memorabre aboutthe experience. Delivering the keydriversof overal satisfaction on (tasteof beverage, speedof service and friendliness emproyees) of movessatisfied customers highrysatisfied royal to and customers. when you completethis activity, you wifl be abreto apprywhat you haverearned about how keydriversimpactloyaltyby readingcustomercomments, and to determineac_ tions to increase numberof customers the who are highlysatisfied Vourstore. in

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Review the customercommentsberow Reflect how the experences on recounted in the commentsimpactcustomerlovaltv. CommentOne: "Many thanksfor the excellent serviceofAnn and crew members. Theywent out oftheir way to ensurethat the coffeewasfresh.Theyeven deliveredmy coffee and bagelto my table. I am presentlyunemployed and need to watch my expen_ ditures.My trip to Starbucks my only splurgeright now is Thankyou to the great manager and staffat this locationfor allowingme to havea respite from the down economv."

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L' considering of the keydrivers each (taste beverage, of friendriness partners of andspeed service), didAnnandherteamdo to make of what thiscustomer loval?

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2. Whichof the fiveGreen Apronbehaviors theydemonstrate? did

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SEcfloNFouR:INVENToRY When complete section, willbeable you this you to: . Effectively control inventory . Create pars . Order from Starbucks . Order from vendors . Receive process and orders

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EFFECTIVETY coNTRoLTTNG INVENToRY Having rightproducts the rightquantities the in you enabres to successfufly increase sales. orderto sella produc!whether mug,wholebean In a coffee an espresso or beverage, is important knowhowmuchyou have it to available whenVoucanex_ and pectto receive morein Vour store. Effectively ordering, receiving tracking and inventory promores operationar efficiency. Youcanmoreeffectivery determine whatis in stock, knowwhenandwhatto orderand canmonltor storecosts. Fina|y, enhance starbucks you the Experience, customers as will appreciate knowing their requested that products readily are avairabre themto for purchase to enjoy. and

Inventory anagement Cycle

Theinventory management hassixsteps: cycle 1, Create pars Pars herp determine to boththe rever product of usage whenit istime to and reoroe r. 2, Organize storage product Every shourd have standard a rocation, a[ associates responand are siblefor maintaining store,s the organization. 3, Order/receive Products sentto yourstorewhentheyareordered are or auto_replenished; product each mustbeverified received and before becomes of your it part Inventorv, 4. Product management o Comparing manifest the product the to received . Keeping shelves the clean andpreparing product display organizing for by the products the sherves on . Filling the products restocking in and whereappropriate

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