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Topic 2-3

1.

Work, Energy, Power

An object of mass m1 has a kinetic energy K1. Another object of mass m2 has a kinetic energy
K
K2. If the momentum of both objects is the same, the ratio 1 is equal to
K2
A.

m2
.
m1

B.

m1
.
m2

m2
.
m1

C.

D.

m1
.
m2
(1)

2.

A rocket is fired vertically. At its highest point, it explodes. Which one of the following
describes what happens to its total momentum and total kinetic energy as a result of the
explosion?
Total momentum

Total kinetic energy

A.

unchanged

increased

B.

unchanged

unchanged

C.

increased

increased

D.

increased

unchanged
(1)

3.

The graph below shows the variation with displacement d of the force F applied by a spring on
a cart.
5
4
3
F/N
2
1
0
0

1
2
2
d / 10 m

The work done by the force in moving the cart through a distance of 2 cm is
A.

10 102J.

B. 7 102J.

C. 5 102J.

D. 2.5 102J.
(1)

Topic 2-3

4.

Work, Energy, Power

Which of the following quantities are conserved in an inelastic collision between two bodies?
Total linear momentum of the bodies

Total kinetic energy of the bodies

A.

yes

yes

B.

yes

no

C.

no

yes

D.

no

no
(1)

5.

An engine takes in an amount E of thermal energy and, as a result, does an amount W of useful
work. An amount H of thermal energy is ejected. The law of conservation of energy and the
efficiency of the engine are given by which of the following?
Law of conservation of energy

Efficiency

A.

E=W+H

B.

E=W+H

W
E

C.

E+H=W

W
H

D.

E+H=W

W
EH
(1)

6.

Which of the following involves a change in the total energy of the objects?
A.

Some ice and water as the ice melts at constant temperature.

B.

An electron accelerated by a magnetic field.

C.

A satellite in a circular orbit round the Earth.

D.

A stone falling in a vacuum towards the Earths surface.


(1)

Topic 2-3

7.

Work, Energy, Power

The diagram below represents energy transfers in an engine.

input energy

useful output energy

engine

EIN

EOUT

wasted energy
EW

The efficiency of the engine is given by the expression


A.

EW
E IN

B.

EW
E OUT

C.

E OUT
E IN

D.

E OUT
EW

.
(1)

8.

The variation with time of the vertical speed of a ball falling in air is shown below.

Speed

0
0

time

During the time from 0 to T, the ball gains kinetic energy and loses gravitational potential
energy Ep. Which of the following statements is true?
A.

Ep is equal to the gain in kinetic energy.

B.

Ep is greater than the gain in kinetic energy.

C.

Ep is equal to the work done against air resistance.

D.

Ep is less than the work done against air resistance.


(1)

Topic 2-3

9.

Work, Energy, Power

The point of action of a constant force F is displaced a distance d. The angle between the force
and the direction of the displacement is , as shown below.

Which one of the following is the correct expression for the work done by the force?
A.

Fd

B. Fd sin

C.

Fd cos

D.

Fd tan
(1)

10.

An electric train develops a power of 1.0 MW when travelling at a constant speed of 50 ms1.
The net resistive force acting on the train is
A.

50 MN.

B. 200 kN.

C. 20 kN.

D. 200 N.
(1)

11.

This question is about power.


(a)

Define power.
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(1)

(b)

A constant force of magnitude F moves an object at constant speed v in the direction of


the force. Deduce that the power P required to maintain constant speed is given by the
expression
P = Fv
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(2)

Topic 2-3

(c)

Work, Energy, Power

Sand falls vertically on to a horizontal conveyor belt at a rate of 60 kg s1.

sand
60 kg s-1
2.0 m s-1

The conveyor belt that is driven by an engine, moves with speed 2.0 m s1.
When the sand hits the conveyor belt, its horizontal speed is zero.

(i)

Identify the force F that accelerates the sand to the speed of the conveyor belt.
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(1)

(ii)

Determine the magnitude of the force F.


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(2)

(iii)

Calculate the power P required to move the conveyor belt at constant speed.
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(1)

(iv)

Determine the rate of change of kinetic energy K of the sand.


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(2)

Topic 2-3

(v)

Work, Energy, Power

Explain why P and K are not equal.


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(2)

(d)

The engine that drives the conveyor belt has an efficiency of 40%. Calculate the input
power to the engine.
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(2)

12.

This question is about the kinematics and dynamics of circular motion.


(a)

A car goes round a curve in a road at constant speed. Explain why, although its speed is
constant, it is accelerating.
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(2)

In the diagram below, a marble (small glass sphere) rolls down a track, the bottom part of which
has been bent into a loop. The end A of the track, from which the marble is released, is at a
height of 0.80 m above the ground. Point B is the lowest point and point C the highest point of
the loop. The diameter of the loop is 0.35 m.
A
marble

0.80 m

0.35 m

ground

The mass of the marble is 0.050 kg. Friction forces and any gain in kinetic energy due to the
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Topic 2-3

Work, Energy, Power

rotating of the marble can be ignored. The acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 ms2.
Consider the marble when it is at point C.

(b)

(i)

On the diagram opposite, draw an arrow to show the direction of the resultant force
acting on the marble.
(1)

(ii)

State the names of the two forces acting on the marble.


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(2)

(iii)

Deduce that the speed of the marble is 3.0 ms1.


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(3)

(iv)

Determine the resultant force acting on the marble and hence determine the
reaction force of the track on the marble.
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(4)
(Total 12 marks)

Topic 2-3

13.

Work, Energy, Power

This question is about driving a metal bar into the ground.


Large metal bars can be driven into the ground using a heavy falling object.
object
mass = 2.0103 kg

bar
mass = 400 kg

In the situation shown, the object has a mass 2.0 103 kg and the metal bar has a mass of
400 kg.
The object strikes the bar at a speed of 6.0 m s1. It comes to rest on the bar without bouncing.
As a result of the collision, the bar is driven into the ground to a depth of 0.75 m.
(a)

Determine the speed of the bar immediately after the object strikes it.
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(4)

(b)

Determine the average frictional force exerted by the ground on the bar.
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(3)

Topic 2-3

14.

Work, Energy, Power

Block on an inclined plane


A block is held stationary on a frictionless inclined plane by means of a string as shown below.

string
block
inclined plane

(a)

(i)

On the diagram draw arrows to represent the three forces acting on the block.
(3)

(ii)

The angle of inclination of the plane is 25. The block has mass 2.6 kg. Calculate
the force in the string. You may assume that g = 9.8 m s2.
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(2)

(b)

The string is pulled so that the block is now moving at a constant speed of 0.85 m s1 up
the inclined plane.
(i)

Explain why the magnitude of the force in the string is the same as that found in
(a)(ii).
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(2)

(ii)

Calculate the power required to move the block at this speed.


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(2)

Topic 2-3

(iii)

Work, Energy, Power

State the rate of change of the gravitational potential energy of the block. Explain
your answer.
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(2)

15.

This question is about estimating energy changes for an escalator (moving staircase).
The diagram below represents an escalator. People step on to it at point A and step off at point
B.
B

30m

(a)

40

The escalator is 30 m long and makes an angle of 40 with the horizontal. At full
capacity, 48 people step on at point A and step off at point B every minute.
(i)

Calculate the potential energy gained by a person of weight 7.0 102 N in moving
from A to B.
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(2)

(ii)

Estimate the energy supplied by the escalator motor to the people every minute
when the escalator is working at full capacity.
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(1)

10

Topic 2-3

(iii)

Work, Energy, Power

State one assumption that you have made to obtain your answer to (ii).
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(1)

The escalator is driven by an electric motor that has an efficiency of 70%.


(b)

Using your answer to (a) (ii), calculate the minimum input power required by the motor
to drive the escalator.
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(3)

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