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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry


The roadmap to World - Class Maintenance describes its various pillars

and the implementation strategies in a process industry. Maintenance is one of the most

critical areas governing any process industry. Maintenance, when neglected leads to

frequent breakdown, leading to costly repairs and faster deterioration of valuable

equipment, besides causing incalculable production loss. This necessitates continuous

monitoring of equipment by adopting asset care management and practicing autonomous

maintenance. The Asset Care Management emphasizes on maximizing the overall

equipment effectiveness through the people that operate and maintain the equipment. The

reliability and maintainability of components can be enhanced through improved design,

skilled manpower, strict supervision and adopting best maintenance practices.

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry


There has been a significant development in the field of maintenance and

various scientific approaches were adopted to improve maintenance and support logistics.

The maintenance concept and culture went through a radical change during the last

decade in India. In the process industry, where production was given prime importance,

maintenance was regarded as a liability. With the onset of various new concepts like

Reliability Centered Maintenance, Total Productive Maintenance, Total Quality

Management, World - Class Manufacturing etc., the maintenance discipline got its due

attention and the work-culture of the organization has improved significantly.

World - Class Maintenance integrates the various concepts of maintenance

functions which need to be carried out to achieve a total quality production system of

world-class stature through the use of scientific methods, effective equipment and highly

dedicated workforce.

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry


The eight pillars of World - Class Maintenance are as follows:

 Maintenance Organization

 Maintenance Information System

 Maintenance Training & Development

 Maintenance Scheduling, Planning & Control

 Overall Equipment Effectiveness and Benchmarking

 Maintenance Prevention and Maintainability improvement.

 Autonomous Maintenance

 Maintenance Cost Reduction

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

A. Maintenance Organization:

The maintenance organization should have a flat structure with reduced

number of levels with clearly defined duties and responsibilities. This would result in

more accountability and empowerment to take decisions at the lowest level. Table I

shows the responsibility matrix level – wise in terms of execution, planning and control.

The levels in organizational hierarchy are defined as below:

Level 1: Top Level Management

Level 2: Middle Level Management

Level 3: Lower Level Management

Every process industry should have a "Engineering Services Department"

apart from the centralized /decentralized maintenance department. The Engineering

Services Department should mainly consist of two sections namely Engineering and

Services. The Engineering Section should be responsible for Planning, Control, Expert

Cell, Inspection Cell for Material Quality Control and Industrial Engineering activities.

The Services section should consist of sub-sections like Safety, Fire-Fighting and

Industrial Transport.

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

Table 1 : Responsibilities Matrix – Level wise

Sr.No Responsibility 1 2 3
1. Equipment Maintenance
A Work Distribution
B Repair
C Replacement
D Maintainability
A Roofs, Floors, Partitions
B Building Services Equipment
C Minor Construction & Rearrangement
A Inspection
B Lubrication
C Minor Construction & Rearrangement
A Indent Preparation
B Inventory Control
C Spares Availability
D Stores Expenses
A Monitoring Jobs
B Contractor’s Expenses
A Budget Preparation
B Budget Monitoring
A Labour Relations
B Overtime & Absenteeism Monitoring
A Training of workers
B Training of staff
C Autonomous Maintenance
A Selection of staff
B Internal Mobility
A Staff
B Workers
13 MIS
A Report Generation
B Analysis
C Action Plan

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry


Execution Planning Control

B. Maintenance Information Systems:

The maintenance information system should be designed in such a way

that right information reaches the right person at the right time, such that decisions are

taken promptly. The nature of information required at each level varies, so proper formats

should be developed for each level of the organization structure.

The executive summary report required by top level management should

contain all important information with deviations from the norms and corresponding

action plans. The executive summary format for top - level management should contain

information related to average production, downtime (planned and unplanned), major

breakdowns affecting production, production loss, stores expenses (deviation, stores

inventory, pending orders), contractor's norms and expenses, labor overtime due to

absenteeism / others, accidents (severity index and frequency index), new schemes

(completed, delayed, non-saving, saving schemes), sanction amount (expenditure,


The various formats required for middle and lower level management are listed below:

 Downtime Records

 Stores Expenses

 Contractor's Expenses

 Overtime Analysis

 Accident Analysis

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

 New Schemes Status

 Departmental Expenses Summary

C. Maintenance Training & Development

The basic aim of education and training is to enhance ability of individuals

to contribute to improve corporate performance and to create increased values in their

lives and work through "On the Job Training" and Self-development.

Training is necessary for all levels of workers and management. Whereas

the workers training should lay more emphasis on skills, craftsmanship and behavioral,

the management training should focus on new technology and emerging new

management concepts implementation.

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

Table 2 : Training Areas for Maintenance Executives

S.No. Training Areas Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Top Middle Lower
Mgmt. Mgmt. Mgmt.
1 Process Description and Parameters
2 Equipment Know-how
3 Criticality Assessment of Equipment
4 Autonomous Maintenance
5 Maintenance Engineering
6 NDT, Condition and Vibration Monitoring
7 Maintenance Information
8 Maintenance Planning & Control
9 Safety Procedures in Maintenance
10 Statutory Requirements
11 Reliability, Maintainability & Availability
12 Financial & Budgetory Control
13 Cost Reduction Techniques
14 Trouble Shooting
15 Minimising Scrap, Rework, Wastage
16 Inventory Management
17 Standardization
18 Life Value Analysis, Reconditioning &
19 NOBM Concept and Implementation
20 Worker’s Utilisation & Contractor’s Work
21 Industrial Relations
22 Team Building & Conflict Management

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

23 Advancements in Maintenance
24 World Class Maintenance

Level 3 Level 2 Level 1

D. Maintenance Scheduling, Planning & Control

World - Class Maintenance aims at utilization of the resources like labor,

material, machines and money effectively and efficiently. This requires proper

scheduling, planning and control of maintenance tasks and resources. Efficiency is

defined as the optimum utilization of all resources to keep delays and non-productive

activities to minimum. Effectiveness is the utilization of resources at their level of

proficiency to anticipate and correct problems before they call for major repairs.

The maintenance jobs should be scheduled in such a way that the

maintenance crew has full day's work and the job is completed in time. Critical Path

Method (CPM) and Programme Evaluation & Review Techniques (PERT) are useful

tools in scheduling and planning of maintenance activities.

Maintenance systems should also lay emphasis on safety aspects and

pollution free environment. Safety policies and principles should be designed to avoid

mis-operations and near miss accident chances. Safety Audit would provide a high level

of surveillance of unsafe places of work and action. The scientific techniques like

HAZOP (Hazard Operability Studies) and HAZAN (Hazard Analysis) should be used to

identify and analyze hazards at critical areas of the plant. Implementation of

Occupational Health & Safety (OH&S) and Environmental Management Systems (EMS)

will ensure pollution-free and safe working conditions for employees.

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

E. Overall Equipment Effectiveness and Benchmarking

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (O.E.E.) is the product of the

availability, performance rate, and quality rate. It is necessary to calculate O.E.E. of all

equipment from time to time and proper actions should be taken to improve upon it.

Mean Time Between Maintenance (MTBM) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) should

be calculated to evaluate the performance of the equipment and maintenance personnel.

Benchmarking of these parameters within the departments / sister concerns will help in

achieving maximum O.E.E., reduced MTTR and maximum MTBM.

The severity index is the ratio of total productive hours lost due to

stoppages to the total machine running hours. The frequency index, is the ratio of total

number of stoppages to the total number of machine running hours.

Availability: Availability is the probability that the equipment is available for production.

The machine stoppages affect availability. The stoppages of spinning machine may be

due to preventive maintenance, breakdown, planned stoppage, quality change,

accumulation of fiber, mechanical, electrical, process and power failures.

Downtime in hours
Availability = 1 -
Total running hours

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

The availability of machines can be enhanced by reducing breakdowns

due to component failures, administrative and supply downtime. This can be best

achieved through Need-Cum-Opportunity Based Maintenance.

Performance :
Standard Production: It is defined as the rated capacity of the machine to produce a

certain quantity of fiber under ideal conditions.

Target Production : It is the production figure to be met during a day as decided by the

production planning department based on the demand and inventory available.

Actual Production : It is the quantity of fiber produced during a day under actual ideal

condition of machine running.

Actual Production
Performance Rate = × 100

Hence, the performance may be more than 100% as the actual production

may be more than the target production.

Quality Rate

 Deem Quality: It is the ratio of actual quality achieved during production to the

maximum duality achievable based on the quality of raw materials.

 Actual Quality: It is the actual quality produced by the machine taking into

consideration all fiber characteristics.

No. of bales of go quality produced

Quality Rate =
Total no. of bales produced

O.E.E. = Availability x Performance Rate x Quality Rate

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

Table 3 shows the O.E.E. calculation of Spinning Machine for the period October 1997

to October 1998. Similar calculations were performed for critical equipment like Slurry

Press, Multi-Stage Flash Evaporators, Acid Plant, Boiler, Turbines. The Best in Class

values of various system parameters of this critical equipment are shown in Table 4.

The O.E.E. calculation matrix indicates the average, best-in-class values

and standard deviation of maintenance parameters. The goal should be to improve upon

the best-in-class values continuously.

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

Table 4 : Benchmarking of Maintenance Parameters of Key Equipment in Staple Fibre

Division Best in Class Values

S.No. Equipment OEE MDT MTBM Severity Frequenc Operational

Index y Index Availability
1 Spinning Machine 0.9342 2.87 141.40 16.97 5.66 0.9792
2 Slurry Press 0.7469 2.06 34.74 70.77 27.35 0.9227
3 Multistage flash 0.8495 2.33 104.24 19.18 8.22 0.9781
4. Acid Plant 0.9031 0.10 371.95 0.13 1.34 0.9997
5. Boiler 1.0286 0.00 744.00 0.00 0.00 1.0000
6. Turbine 0.9032 0.00 744.00 0.00 0.00 1.0000

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

F. Maintenance Prevention and Maintainability Improvement

Maintenance Prevention is an important aspect of world class
Maintenance. Maintenance consumes productive time and resources. Hence, the
downtime of machines has to be reduced with minimum frequency of failures by using
scientific approaches.
1. Cause-Effect Diagram
2. Phenomenon-Mechanism Analysis
3. Why-Why Analysis
4. Identifying the causes of Repetitive Failures
5. Maintainability at the design stage and along the line of flow
This increases the plant availability and reduces the overall cost. Maintenance Prevention
can be achieved through continuous monitoring of equipment and upgrading the
sophistication of the equipment through better design and process improvement.
The various methods of maintenance prevention are :
i. Design Change
ii. Size Change
iii. Material Change
iv. Process Improvement
v. Vendor Change
vi. Crew Change
The various methods for maintainability improvement are :

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

i. Improve Service Procedure

ii. Improve Testing Procedure
iii. Improve skills of labor
iv. Availability and Quality of Service Parts
v. Adopt Condition Monitoring Techniques
vi. Adopt Vibration Monitoring Techniques

G. Autonomous Maintenance

Autonomous Maintenance creates pleasant and productive work-culture

by changing the way people think about and work with equipment through out the

company. It helps in shaping right attitudes among the employees by creating proper

systems and procedures of doing right things, every time and on time.

Autonomous Maintenance includes any activity performed by the

production department that has a maintenance function and is intended to keep the plant

operating efficiency and stable in order to meet production targets and plans. The goals

of autonomous maintenance is to prevent equipment deterioration through correct

operation and daily checks, to bring equipment to its ideal state through restoration and

proper management and to establish the basic conditions needed to keep equipment well-


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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

H. Maintenance Cost Reduction

Controlling the maintenance cost is an important aspect of World – Class

Maintenance. The major expenses incurred include material cost, manpower cost and

rework. Hence, it is mandatory that spare parts management and manpower utilization

should be given utmost attention. The maintenance cost analysis and the deviations

should be properly analyzed. The budgeting should be done on an yearly basis and

monitored continuously. Standardization of material and spare parts results in variety

reduction and thus in turn reduces inventory.

Replacement of equipment is the easiest task in maintenance. The

replacement activity requires lot of investment and kills the skill of maintenance

personnel. The replacement of equipment is often done before achieving its useful life.

Hence, it is recommended that reconditioning of equipment should be carried out

according to the guidelines provided and proper analysis should be done regarding the

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

failures and its frequency. This helps in prolonging the life of equipment, upgrading

skills of workmen and saving lot of money.


i. Maximum Overall Equipment Effectiveness

ii. Maximum Availability & Improved Maintainability

iii. Reduced Costs

iv. Improved Inter-departmental communication

v. Improved Decision – making & Time Management

vi. Role Clarity and Defined Responsibilities

vii. Improved Planning, Scheduling and Control Procedures

viii. Safety Conscious

ix. Creates clean environment and environmentally clean

x. It is valued by employees and employers alike

xi. It changes the attitudes of employees and create a feeling of ownership.

xii. It creates good corporate image

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry


The implementation of World-Class Maintenance requires a thorough

application of above systems and procedures. The top – level management should render

full support. The middle level management should render full support. The middle level

management should analyze all maintenance parameters and should make all efforts to

improve maintainability, reliability and overall equipment effectiveness. The lower level

management should be able to implement the new concepts in a scientific manner and

make every effort to improve their department working by adopting best maintenance

practices and upgrading skills and knowledge. The operators and maintenance workers

should understand and adopt autonomous maintenance concepts, safety practices and

upgrade their skills through training.

The Staple Fiber Division of GRASIM Industries Limited has successfully

implemented the concept of World – Class Manufacturing and achieved excellent results

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A Roadmap To World-Class Maintenance In Process Industry

in all its pillars. The implementation of World-Class Maintenance would definitely strive

all process industries to achieve better results in equipment maintenance, enhancing plant

availability and imbibing good corporate culture.


1. Arun Maity, “Enhancing Plant Availability and Equipment Maintainability”, Udyog

Pragati, Vol 25, No.1, January-March 2001.

2. Bernard T Lewis, “Management Handbook for Plant Engineers” Mc Graw Hill Book

Company, 1976

3. Gopalakrishnan & Banerji A.K., “Maintenance & Spare Parts Management”, Prentice

Hall of India Limited, New Delhi, 1991.

4. Peter Willmott, “Total Productive Maintenance :

The Western Way” , Butterworth Heinmann Ltd,1994

5. Suzuki Tokutaro, “TPM in Process Industry”, 1994.

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