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UNIT - I

Introduction, Definition of Material Handling, its relationship with Plant Layout. Type of industries, related material handling Equipment. Design of Plant Layout, Site selection for Plant. INTRODUCTION :- Material Handling involves the movement of material, manually or mechanically in batches or one item at a time within the Plant. The movement may be horizontal, vertical or combination of horizontal or vertical. Material Handling is concerned with motion, time, quantity and space. The Material Handling Institute describes this as follows, (1) First, Material Handling is MOTION. Parts, material and finished products must be moved from store to location. Material Handling is concerned with moving them in the most efficient manner. (2) Second, Material Handling is TIME. Each step in any manufacturing process requires that it supplies are on hand the moment it needs them. Material Handling must assure that no production process or customer need will be hampered by moving material arranged of location too late or too early. (3) Third, Material Handling is QUANTITY. Rate of demand varies between steps in the manufacturing process. Material Handling has the responsibility of being sure that each location continually receive the correct quantity of parts. (4) Fourth, Material Handling is SPACE. Storage space, both active and dormant, is a major consideration in any building as space costs money. Space requirement are greatly influenced by the Material Handling flow pattern. Put these four elements together and you have the basics of Material Handling. It should be noted that this element are not treated independently. They must be integrated and there composite performance determines the quality of Material Handling systems.

DEFINITION'S OF MATERIAL HANDLING :- 1) BASIC DEFINITION:

Basically Material Handling is the art of implementing movement-economically

and safely.

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In the classic sense, Material Handling is the act of creating Time and Place utility, as distinct from Manufacturing, which creates form utility. The proper application of Material Handling knowledge will result in the smooth integration of all the process in an enterprise into one efficient Production Machine. 2) BY J.R. BRIGHT:

Material Handling is a system designed in order to get the materials. At right place b) at right time c) in right quantity d) in good condition e) at minimum cost. 3) BY HENRY FEYOL :

It is a system of auxiliary equipment that improves flow of material which intern reduces stoppage in production machines and thus increases productivity of machine. These equipment are designed in order to supplement the production machines. 4) BY JAMES APPLE :

It is that branch of Engineering concerned with development of special Machinery for transporting goods through various manufacturing stages to finished product stage. It is systematic physical movement of material. 5) BY NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL :

It is a system which forms the single factors of movement, transfer, warehousing, in process handling and shipping into one interdependent cycle considering the most economical solution for the respective plant. If we look at the cost for Material Handling formed to a cost circle there are the following cost factors (fig 1) :

we look at the cost for Material Handling formed to a cost circle there are the

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The goal, therefore, is to get control over these costs to be able to reduce them with effective Material Handling. Briefly, Material Handling is the moving of materials from the raw stage through Production to ultimate Customer with the least expenditure of time and effort so as to produce maximum Productive Efficiency at the lowest Material Handling cost. PLANT LAYOUT :

Plant Layout means the physical arrangement of the various Industrial facilities (equipment, material, manpower, etc.) within the plant. This arrangement includes the spaces needed for material movement, storage, indirect labourers and all other supporting activities or services as well as operating equipment and Personnel. Plant Layout is the basis of industrial activity since it determines the efficiency. Generally what is being achieved is arrangement of work areas and equipment which is the most economical and at the same time safe and satisfying employees. Plant Layout is concerned with the analysis, planning, and design of the physical facilities utilized in the production of goods and services. Material Handling deals with that phase of the operations which involves the movements of the material used in carrying on the activities of the enterprises. No two aspects of industrial activity are more closely related. Actually, Material Handling is a Major part of nearly all Plant Layout work. This close relationship is emphasized in the following definition of Plant Layout :

Plant Layout may be defined as planning and integrating the paths of the component parts of a product to obtain the most effective and economical inter relationships between men, equipment and the movement of material from receiving, through fabrication, to the shipment of the finished product. TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUT AND FUNCTION :- 1) PROCESS LAYOUT OR FUNCTIONAL LAYOUT :

It is characterized by keeping similar machine or similar operations at one location (place). In other words, all lathes will be at one place, all milling machine at another and so on, that is machine are to be arranged according to their function. This type of layout is generally employed for industries engaged in job order production and non-repetitive kind of maintenance or manufacturing activities.

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Advantages of Process Layout :

1) Better Machine utilization allows lower investment on equipment. 2) It is better to maintain continuity of production in event of

(a)

Machine breakdown

(b)

Storage of Raw material

(c)

Absence of workers

3) It copes up with varying production schedules. 4) It is adopted to a variety of products and to frequent changes in sequence of operations.

2) PRODUCT LAYOUT OR LINE TYPE LAYOUT :

It implies that various operations on a product are performed in a sequence and the

machine are placed along the product flow line, i.e., machines are arranged in the sequence in which a given product will be operated upon. This type of layout is preferred for continuous production, i.e. involving a continuous flow of in-process material towards the finishing product stage.

Advantages of Product Layout :

1) Less Handling of Material. 2) Less material in process allows lower investment in materials. 3) More effective use of labour

(a)

through greater job specialization

(b)

through ease of training

(c)

through wider of labour supply

4) Easier control

(a)

of production allows less paper work.

(b)

over workers allows easier supervision

3) COMBINATION LAYOUT :

A combination of process and product layout combines the advantages of the both

types of layouts. A combination layout is possible where an item is being made in different shape and sizes. In such cases machinery is arranged in a Process Layout but the process grouping is than arranged in a sequence to manufacture various types and sizes of product. The point to note here is that, no matter the product varies in size and type, the sequence of operations remain same or similar.

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4) FIXED POSITION LAYOUT :

In other types of Layouts discussed earlier, the product moves past stationary

Production Equipment, whereas in these case the reverse applies ; men and equipment are moved

to the material, which remains at one place and the product is completed at that place where the

material lies. For e.g., aircraft manufacture, ship building, big pressure vessel fabrication.

5) GROUP OR CELL LAYOUT In a group or Cell Layout, the layout design is in not according to functional characteristics of machine, but rather by group of different machines (called Cells) that are necessary for the production of families of parts.

PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT :

A few sound principle of Plant Layout are,

1) INTEGRATION:

It means the integration of production center facility like workers, machinery, raw material, etc. in a logical and balanced manner. 2) MINIMUM MOVEMENTS AND MATERIAL HANDLING The number of movements of workers and materials should be minimized. 3) SMOOTH AND CONTINUOUS FLOW Bottlenecks, congestion points, and back tracking should be removed by proper line balancing technique. 4) CUBIC SPACE UTILIZATION Beside using the f1oor space of a room, if the ceiling height is also utilised, more materials can be accommodated in the same room. Boxes or bags containing raw material or goods can be stacked one above the other to store more items in the same room. Overhead Material Handling Equipment's save a lot of valuable floor space. 5) SAFE AND IMPROVED ENVIRONMENT:

Working places-safe, well ventilated & free from dust, noise, fumes, & other hazardous conditions decidedly increase the operating efficiency of the workers & improve their morale. All this leads to satisfaction amongst the workers & thus better employer employee relations.

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6) FLEXIBILITY:

In automotive and other industries where models of products change after some time, it is better to permit all possible flexibility in the layout. The machinery is arranged in such a way that the changes in the production processes can be achieved at the least cost to disturbance. PROCEDURE FOR DESIGN OF PLANT LAYOUT :

The ideal procedure for a plant layout, is to build the layout around the productive process and then design the building around the layout. This may not be possible always, because the plant building may already be existing or the shape of plant site may not permit the construction of building to house the productive process, etc. Ultimately, one has to strike to balance between the two approaches. However various procedural steps involved in plant layout have been listed below

a. Accumulate basic data,

b. Analyse and coordinate basic data,

c. Decide the Equipment and Machinery required.

d. Select the material handling system.

e. Sketch plan of plot for making factory building,

f. Determine a general flow pattern,

g. Design the individual work stations,

h. Assemble the individual layout into the total layout,

i. Calculate the storage space required.

j. Make flow diagram for workstations and allocate them to areas on plot plan,

k. Plan and locate service areas,

l. Make master layout,

m. Check final layout, and

n. Install the approved layout.

Interrelationship Between Material handling and plant layout Material handling and Plant Layout are closely interrelated, and a reciprocal relationship exists between the two. An effective layout involves least Material Handling and

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less costly material handling equipment. It permits, material handling without any loss of time, with minimum delays and least back tracking. The total number of movements and the distances moved in one movements are also considerably reduced in a properly designed plant layout. In a poorly planned layout, the aisle's s/sub aisle's widths or ceiling heights may not be sufficient to accommodate efficient material handling equipment; even if used somehow or rather, the back tracking or duplication of material movements may not permit the material handling system to be economical.

On the other hand, an efficient material handling system helps building an effective plant layout around itself. Various departments are located such that the material handling is minimised. Space requirements are considerably reduced. Material movements are much faster and more economical. Bottlenecks and points of congestion are removed. Machines and workers do not remain idle due to lack of material. Production line flow becomes smooth. The place of material handling in industry It has been said that for manufacturing activity of any kind, whether it is a single machine or a group of machine or an entire plant, it is possible to identify three basic function which define the total activity. The functions are work performing, handling, and control. This function is shown in figure 2.

handling, and control. This function is shown in figure 2. Fig 2. Three basic function of

Fig 2. Three basic function of any manufacturing activity FUNCTIONS OF MATERIAL HANDLING Material handling embraces two functions namely;

1) Moving It includes movement between machines or workstations, between department, between buildings, the loading and unloading of carrier's, as well as much of more handling done at work place.

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2) Storage:

It includes storage of material and tools and supplies between and around all of the above location, including finishing good, warehousing, and the other storage related activities that lie between the producer and consumer. 3) Selection

a. To choose production machinery and assist in plant layout so as to eliminate as far as possible the need of material handling; and

b. To choose most appropriate material handling equipment which is safe and can fulfill material handling requirement at the minimum possible overall cost.

OBJECTIVES OF MATERIAL HANDLING All tangible and intangible benefits can be reduced to four major objectives. The application of material handling methods and equipment to be of greatest benefits should be governed by the following; 1) REDUCED COSTS:

Cost-Reduction programs has two broad goals; either to reduce the cost of Material Handling or to reduce total production cost; by improved handling procedures. The latter concept sometimes means increasing handling costs in order to bring about a net reduction in total manufacturing costs. Ways in which cost reductions are realized through improved material handling are;

a. Reducing material handling labour.

b. Reducing the Material handling work done by direct labour. High-skill and high-cost labour should not be assigned low-skill and low-cost labour.

c. Reducing indirect labour associated with material handling activities, such as shipping, production control personnel, inspectors, etc.

d. Reducing waste and damaged materials through more careful handling.

e. Reducing paper work and associated clerical help through handling systems that minimizes control requirements.

f. Reducing the amount of material in the system by faster through-put and less in-process storage.

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Reducing the amount of subsidiary materials such as packaging materials and other protective devices such as trays, racks and special containers.

g.

INCREASED CAPACITY Material handling improvements can increase capacity in the following ways,

2)

Better space utilization

a)

Modern storage systems, make use of "AIR RIGHTS" by means of racks or containers that stack upon each other when full and nest completely when empty, e.g. Handling systems, particularly cranes and conveyor can operate in unused space above production activities. They can be arranged to operate outside buildings in unnecessary stairways, through underground passage-ways, or other unusable space. This can release prime space for production and storage. The net result is a great increase in space utilization and handling efficiency.

b) Improving the layout to reduce travel or excessive waste of spaces

By analysing the flow of materials between operations, the volume involved in the flow paths, and the timing of material movement, it is usually possible to reduce travel time and space needs. Rearranging equipment and providing handling systems that reduces the distance material must travel are usual practices.

c) Higher equipment utilization

Many pieces of expensive production equipment do not operate at their potential capacity because are limited by the rate at which materials are supplied to, or removed from, the equipment or the work area. A proper handling system, or efficient control of an existing handling system can greatly increase production equipment utilization.

d) Faster loading and discharge of common carriers:

The adaptation of portable conveyor systems & cranes to the loading of motor carriers greatly reduces loading time. Thus the transportation unit can spend more time moving and less time sitting the loading dock. This not only lowers operating cost but reduces the number of docks or terminal spaces required, with a corresponding reduction in loading crews (workers) and of supervision.

3) IMPROVED WORKING CONDITION

a) Safety to men, materials and associate equipment:

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These may be enhanced by a proper material handling system. Insurance cost. Accident cost, lost time associated with accidents, etc. are all reduced by proper material handling. Material and equipment damage are also greatly reduced.

b) Easier jobs

When heavy objects must be handled, the rate of output may be significantly affected by the physical ability and condition of the operators. Moreover, heavy work can only be done by men, and often only by young men. Many handling system have been justified in part, by the fact that they have taken the high effort out of the task, resulting in a steadier flow of work throughout the day and in higher production. It also may mean lower employee turnover, less training on replacement workers and better morale in the work force.

c) Lighter Work If the work is physically lighter, it may be possible to use operators at different

job classification i.e. At lower wage rate.

d) Fool proof operation :

In some activities it is also too easy for an operator to become confused and to direct material to a wrong location, to use the wrong amount, to mishandle or damage materials, or to otherwise disrupt production operation. Handling systems are sometimes installed to insure that such errors will not happened. In the mixing of fertilizers, foods, and other bulk products that are formulated to order, this may be very attractive benefit.

4) IMPROVED SALABILITY OF PRODUCTS

Handling systems often enhance the value of a product to the customer. The adaptation of such handling system may make the difference in the customer's decision to use one vendor instead of another. This may be accomplished by the following means.

a) Speed of service:

If the handling procedure can provide goods or materials promptly, accordingly to the customer's desire, or with a significant time advantage over competitors, it

may be the prime reason that business is obtained or retained.

b) Helping customers cut costs

The development of the unit load has enabled vendors to help customer cut there of cost since they need not handle individual items or undertake the expense of palletizing on their own docks.

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The reduction in packaging or packing materials and their cost is some times obtained through unit load techniques. This may enable the vendor to cut his cost to the customer. Also, the use of materials by the purchaser may be simplified by proper unit load design thereby reducing the cost of unpacking and disposing of the packaging material. Unitizing by the vendor may be done at the end of his assembly lines, or other final operations. C) Sales value of an outstanding installation :

While it might be hard to prove that a handling system is justified in promotional value alone, a tremendous amount of publicity can accrue to a truly outstanding system. Several managers have been heard to argue vigorously that by taking prospective customers through their

new factories, the visitors have become so impressed that an order was obtained because of the impression of efficiency, quality and service conveyed by the installation. An outstanding plant is admired by employees as well as customers. To say again in brief, the primary objectives are;

1. To save money

2. To save time

3. To save men

LIMITATIONS AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEMS It is bad engineering and worse management practice to look only at benefits and to ignore limitations. Handling systems, at times, have consequences that may be distinctly negative. These too, should be evaluated before the changes are adopted. Some such possible disadvantages are 1) Additional capital investment :

It must be verified that the cost of the handling system is more attractively invested in the system under consideration than in any other part of the business. It should be assured that the gains expected are not based upon a more mechanized system v/s present practice, but rather the proposed new system v/s the best version of present practice. 2) Loss of flexibility Proposed system must be flexible enough to be economically and quickly adopted to the likely range of changes in the product or production techniques. If not, change over cost and

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time loss must be included in the evaluation, or it must be shown that the investment will be satisfactorily recovered before the proposed handling system will require modification. 3) Vulnerability to downtime; Since a handling system is a composite of mechanical and electrical machinery and controls, it must be recognised that it may break down at any times. What happens than how long will it take to get back to service and what will be done when repairs are being made. If this is serious-, the handling system must be re-design to provide for better reliability, for alternate handling techniques in event of breakdown or for in-process- storage that can feed subsequent operations while be system is being repaired. All of these can result in additional costs that must be charged against the handling system. 4) Maintenance If it is planned to install additional handling mechanization, almost surely it will be necessary to take on more maintenance. This may mean the addition of new maintenance skills, or a provision for obtaining them when needed. It may be that extra pieces of handling equipment should be provided for use during downtime or breakdowns. It may be necessary to plan for periodic overhauls by skilled technicians. It may be necessary to carry a large supply of repairs parts, or a new or enlarged maintenance facility and staff may be required. 5) Auxiliary equipment costs Frequently a new handling system carries with it requirements that involve hidden or unrecognized costs for auxiliary equipment or service, e.g. adopting a fork lift truck means more than taking on the mobile equipment, its power supply, and its maintenance. The point of identifying this drawbacks is neither to discourage nor disparage the adaptation of modern handling methods, but to emphasize that a careful balance of the total benefits and limitations is required before wise decisions can be reached.

OBJECTIVES OF PLANT LAYOUT AND MATERIAL HANDLING In much the same way that the scope of both plant layout and material handling are closely interrelated, so also are their objectives. Indicated below are some of the objectives of plant layout. Under each are listed some objectives of material handling associated with each plant layout objectives. 1) Facilitate the manufacturing process

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a) Efficient flow of materials.

b) Minimum of production bottlenecks.

c) Quicker delivery to customers.

d) Better facility for maintenance, inspection, etc.

2) Minimize material handling

e) Larger unit loads.

f) Less damaged materials.

g) Better control of material.

3) Maintain flexibility of arrangement and operation,

h) Flexibility of handling methods and equipment.

i) Coordinated material handling system.

j) Material handling planned for expansion.

4) Maintain high turnover of work in process.

k) Shorter production time cycles.

l) Constant rate of production.

m) Avoidance of production delays.

5) Hold down investment

in equipment.

n) Less idle time per machine.

o) Reduced handling between operation.

6) Make economical use of floor area

p) Better space utilization.

q) Higher production per square foot per employee.

r) Use of material handling equipment not requiring fixed floor space.

s) Less congestion and better housekeeping.

7) Promote efficient utilization of manpower

t) minimize manual handling.

u) Make effective use of containers.

v) Lees supervision and indirect labour.

8) Provide for employee convenience safety and comfort.

w) Safer working conditions.

x) Less fatigue.

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y) Improved personal comfort. z) Upgrading of employees. z) Improved worker morale. SITE SELECTION FOR PLANT

A plant is a place, where men, material, equipment, machinery, etc. are brought

together for manufacturing products. The problem of plant- location arises when starting a new concern or during the

expansion of the existing plant. Plant location means deciding a suitable location, area, place, etc., where the plant or factory will start functioning. Plant location involves two major activities. First, to select a proper geographic region and second, selecting a specific site within the region. Plant location plays a major role in the design of a production system as it determines the cost of

(a)

obtaining raw material

(b)

processing raw material to finished goods;

(c)

dispatching finished goods to customers. The following factors are taken into consideration in the selection of site for

plant layout;

1. Availability of land and costs

Large amount of land is required for locating a plant, therefore land is selected taking into consideration economy and other facilities such as presence of related industries, future expansion, Housing facility, Taxes, security, existence of school, hospitals, banks, post-

offices.

2. Availability of raw material

Availability of raw material is to he looked into particularly when raw material are bulky and difficult and expensive to transport, plant must be located close to the source of raw material, it will reduce the cost of transporting raw material.

3. Transport facility

A lot of money is spent both in transporting raw material and the finished goods.

Depending upon the size of raw material and finished goods, a suitable method of transportation like roads, rail, water or air is selected and accordingly the plant location is decided. Transport facility for the labour to come to the factory are also to be considered.

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4. Nearness to the market It reduces the cost of transportation as well as the chances of the finished

product getting damaged and spoiled during transportation.

5. Availability of skilled labour

Labour is one of the primary tools for transforming material into products. Hence, existing of good training facilities which can be a source of ski1ed labour is a factor to be considered. Further to attract skilled labour other facilities like housing, transport, education, and public health are necessary and hence form an important aspect of plant location.

6. Availability of water Water is used for processing, as in paper and chemical industries, and is also

required for drinking and sanitary purpose. Depending upon the nature of plant, water should be available in adequate quantity and should be clean and pure.

7. Availability of electricity and fuel

Electricity is the essential factors for any plant location, therefore it is essential that electric power should be continuously available. Industries like rolling mill are located near source of fue1 to cut down the fuel transportation costs.

8. Climate and environment

Some industries requires efficient manufacture, like humidity,

into since otherwise it may be essential to provide these facilities artificially and thus increasing cost.

9. Facilities for disposal of effluents:

In the case of process industry, disposal of effluents is very important. There should be scope for very efficient disposal of effluents. 10. Municipal regulations:

good climatic and atmospheric conditions for dust-free environment, etc. This aspect has to be looked

Municipal regulations concerning location of industries have to be carefully looked

into. SYMPTOMS OF POOR LAYOUT :- The symptoms are, 1) Excessive inprocess materials.

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2) Excessive increase in idle time of men and machine. 3) Increase in maintenance. 4) Congestion in floor space as well as aisles. 5) Increase in breakage's of material and products. 6) Increase in accidents. 7) Increase in handling costs.

TYPES OF INDUSTRIES AND RELATED MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT Material handling in

(a) Small industry

In small industries mostly manual handling devices are used to move the materials inside the plant. For such purposes, material are moved by unskilled labour from one department to the other in containers carried by them in hands or in tray6, handcarts and in wheel barrows etc. Material inside the shop can be moved by operators themselves while working on different machines till the work on the job is fully completed for that particular shop.

(b) Thermal power plant

In thermal power plant, the main items to be handled are coal and ash. Coal can be transported from the source of supply to the stock-yard either by rail or road. Then, from the stockyard it is pushed to coal handling plant by trolleys either manually operated or locomotive may be employed. Further from handling plant coal is moved to boiler bunker through a belt conveyor. From bunker coal is fed in the hopper through a belt conveyor, and from hopper it is fed on grate by gravity. Ash is moved at a distant place with belt conveyor. Further bucket elevator raises the ash in hopper where it can be moved outside the plant with the help of hand trolleys or trucks or wagons. It depends on the quantity to be handled. In addition, overhead cranes are almost installed in every plant such as turbine house, boiler house, water treatment. Pump house and repair shop etc.

(c) Big automobile repair shop

In a big automobile repair shop both manual and mechanical handling devices are used. "Fork Lift truck” is very common for elevating and moving the heavy parts such as complete

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engine assembly, engine block, gearbox, etc. Motor trucks are employed for inter department transporting of heavy components. Overhead cranes are used in machine shop, engine shop, assembly shop & degreasing plant etc. Recovery van may be used for moving breakdown vehicles. (D) Big steel plant In a big steel plant almost all types of handling devices are employed. Locomotive is used to carry laddles of molten pig from blast Furnaces to steel shop or to open hearth furnaces. They are used to Pull the hot ingots of steel shop or to open hearth furnaces. They are used to pull the hot ingots of steel of steel shop or to open furnaces,. They are used to pull the hot ingots of steel to rolling mills for Production of various steel sections. They are employed for bringing in Iron ore and other huge materials. Belt Conveyor is employed to transport coke oven to blast oven to blast Furnace. Belt conveyor is employed to transport coke from coke oven to Blast oven to blast furnace. Belt conveyor is also used for- Transporting sand in huge casting foundry shop. Roller conveyor is used in rolling; mills- to move the hot Billets of iron along the bed to various processes. Huge cranes are employed to transport machinery and iron ore for storing and processing. Overhead cranes are installed almost in every shop. (e) Cement factory :

In dry process of cement manufacture, the various stepwise Processes are (1 ) crushing of raw materials, (2)drying, (5)grinding, (4) Proportinating, (5)pulverizing of raw material, (6) Burning, (7) Cooling and storing the Clinker, (8) Adulteration of related set, (9)reduction of clinker to an impalpable powder, (10)seasoning of cement, (11) bagging.

MATERIALS HANDLING EFFICIENCY- The efficiency of material handling could be judged by the following principles:

1. "equipment built for motion should be kept in motion; idle Equipment should be kept inexpensive". 2."continous material movement is most economical" This principle states that materials handling efficiency is Greatest when it approaches a steady flow of materials, in as straight As possible, with minimum interpretations and minimum backtracking and Where movements approach continues rather than intermittent flow.

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It is not; always possible, in practice, to completely achieve The objective of this rule. However, it is the target towards which we Aim our thinking. conveyors systems, both overhead and floor types, are excellent examples of the application of this idea. 3. "materials' handling economy is generally directly proportional to the size of load handled"

We all recognise, however, that as the load size increases There is a point reached beyond which it becomes more costly, and less Practical. From this, it is also logical to conclude another important axiom: "there is a definite ideal load size in a given material Handling operation ".

4. "storage space is best measured in terms of cubic content" The "space saving" rule states that equipment should be Selected so as to allow

utilisation of cubical space for temporary and Permanent storage.

5. "Material Handling Operations are only as good as the physical layout of the plant will

permit"

Good layout of machinery, fixed equipment and aisle areas are fundamental to good product handling. Where you are erecting a new building, you have unlimited opportunities to layout the various areas allowing proper aisle widths, sufficient storage areas, and erect your Plant with material movement in mind. 6."standardization of methods, types of equipment and sizes of Equipment is desirable for good material handling efficiency" The most efficient system is generally that which is Simplest. It is not hard to understand why standardization is important, because it permits interchangeability of equipment between Department and plants; it allows stocking of fewer replacement parts; It simplifies employee training in the equipment. In addition, it-enables management to shift equipment from department to department Depending on the production load changes. Another aspect of standardization for the sake of economy in that of choosing equipment That is considered "standard" by the material handling equipment Manufacturer. Standardization does not require that only one size container, for example, is permissible; rather it implies the fewest number possible. In some instances it would be impossible to standardize on one size container especially where a large number of Different parts are handled. Repeat in standardisation does not mean one it means the fewest number.

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7. "The value of equipment is directly proportional to it's Flexibility"

The greater the variety of uses and applications to which a Piece of equipment can be put, the greater is its flexibility, and the More valuable it becomes from a material handling standpoint. Flexibility in equipment offers the distinct advantage that It is readily adaptable to any unforeseeable changes that comes up from Time to time. in any progressive organization methods and equipment and Constantly in the state of change and improvement. Flexible machinery Takes these changes in stride, and does not have to be scuttled before its useful life is completed.

8. " The use of mechanized equipment instead of manpower generally increases efficiency

and economy in handling." By the use of mechanized equipment instead of manpower, Efficiency and

economy in material handling is obtained.

Mechanized equipment must, of course, be able to justify Itself on a rupee- and- basis , like any investment management may Make. Some of the advantage of mechanized equipment are as follows, to both management and labor; ( a) over all safety is increased

(b)

workers are less fatigue at the end of the day

(c)

work done by power is generally cheaper

(d)larger volume of work handled per operator is accomplished (e)greater speed of handling is obtained, resulting in less Idle time for skilled workers, better production control, a larger volume of goods manufactured and displaced workers put on other jobs in the plant.

9. "Productivity increases as working conditions become safer".

Unless mechanized equipment makes s given handling job safer for the plant personnel, it will costlier in the last analysis. In material handing there is an old axiom, "if it is safe, it is not worth it " 10. " The ratio of dead weight to payload must be kept minimum." Mechanical handling equipment which is unencumbered by excessively unnecessary dead weight can perform at top efficiency. For example, an aluminium conveyor is now being substituted in many instances for heavier metal (steel) conveyors where operations require moving the handling conveyor. Another good example is the reduction in weight of

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highway trailers and unit load containers, pallets and skids to eliminate the necessity for hauling excess weight. 11. " The most economical motive force is gravity"

One of industry's highest priced items is the cost of power to run

its processes.

Therefore, when nature's free, bountiful supply of gravitational pull can be put to use the very essence of economy is Practiced.

REVIEW QUESTION :.-

Q. No.l : Give any two definition's of material handling?

Q.No.2 : What are the objective of material handling? Give two Definition of material

handling supported by standard organization? Q.No.3: define material handling system. Explain how it increases Productivity?

Q.No.4: Material handling does' not add value to a product, it usually adds a significant element of cost. Justify the statement. Q.No.5: What are the different factors affecting the plant Location?

No.6: Q

Q.No.7: What do you understand by flexibility of plant layout?

Q-No.8: Explain the various principle of plant layout for material Handling?

How the plant layout affect the selection of material Handling system?

Q.

No. 9: what type of plant layout would you suggest for :-

(i)

hospital

(ii)

milk industry

(iii) pharmaceutical industry . Q.No. 10: What do you understand by flexibility of layout? Q.No. 11. What are different types of industries? Give related Material handling equipment's for each type? Q.No.12. (a) Discuss the selection of material handling system for foundry shop ? Q.No.13. (b) What are factors to be considered while planning a lay out of a plant ? Q.No.14. (a) How does selection of site affect the plant layout ? Explain. (b) What is relationship between plant layout and material handling? Q.No.15. (a) What do you understand by flexibility of a plant layout ? Explain with the help of Suitable example.

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(b) Explain in brief a factor affecting in selection of plant location ?

Q.No.16. (a) Discuss how good layout and efficient material handling system creates space utility.

(b) What type of layout would you suggest for automobile industry ? Justify your

answer. Q.No.17. (a) What are objectives of material handling ? Give two definition of material handling supported by standard organization ?

(b)

What type of plant layout would you suggest for Hospitals?

(c)

Discuss different types of plant layouts and function ?

Q.No.18. (a) What are advantages and disadvantages of urban site ?

(b) Explain process layout with its advantages & disadvantages?

Q.No.19. (a) Suggest a suitable layout for following industries and justify your answer

(i)

Thermal power plant.

(ii)

Sugar Industry.

(b)

Define material handling system. Explain how it affect (increases) productivity ?

(c)

How plant layout affect the selection of material handling system ?

Q.No.20. (a) Material handling does not add value to a product it usually adds a significant element of cost. Justify the statement ?

(b) Give any two definition of material handling system ?

Q.No.21. (a) Explain various principles of plant layout for material handling system ?

(b) Classify and explain various material handling system ?

Q.No.22. (a) Discuss need and importance of material handling systems in industry by means of suitable example ?

(b) What is plant layout ? Discuss design procedure of plant layout for material handling system ?

Q.No.23. (a) What are different types of industries ? Discuss one example and its material handling system ?

(b) What are proper selection of site for plant ? What factor consider for proper site

selection ? Q.No.24. (a) Efficient material handling is the heart of production activity ? Explain. (b) What are various plant layouts ? Explain in details ? Q.No.25. (a) Material handling system is a function of

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(1) SPACE

(2) TIME

(3) QUANTITY

(b) Suggest suitable layout for the following industries & justify your answer.

(i)

Ship building industry.

(ii)

Pharmacutical industry.

(iii)

Bottling plant for cold drink.

Q.No.26. (a) Write the advantages and disadvantages of rural site ?

(b)

Explain line layout with its advantages & disadvantages.

(c)

Explain the principle of cubic space utilization with suitable example ?

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UNIT II

Principles of Mechanical Handling, Types of Material Handling Equipment and their field of applications. Selection and Specification of Equipment's. SCREW CONVEYOR :- Introduction , Calculation of H.P. of Motor used , Characteristics and field of Application of Screw Conveyor , Determination of Application of Screw conveyor, Salient Dimensions and Power Requirement. PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING :- The principle presented here represent an accumulation of experience equivalent to untold years of practice. They are adapted from those stated in the literature, with certain changes made for clarification and with several new one added to round out the coverage of the field. In reviewing the principles it will be found that nearly every one applies to several aspects of Material Handling and aids in accomplishing one or more objectives. In presenting the principle's, each is stated and briefly described. Next, suggestions for putting the principle into used are spelled out- often in explicit details - to facilitate their prompt convenient application. Then , at the end of the presentation of the principles, some general suggestion are given on their use in analyzing and solving Material Handling problems.

1. PLANNING PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

All Handling activities should be planned.

DESCRIPTION:

If there is one principle on which all should agree, it is that Handling activities should be planned, and not left to chance. Remember , Handling may account for 25 to 80 percent of all the productive activity. Management most certainly deserves to have this sizable portion of total activity planned - not left to chance. SUGGESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE PLANNING PRINCIPLE :

a)

Avoid placing material directly on the floor, without a pallet or other support underneath.

b)

Assure adequate storage space at the workplace for the proper amount of material , both ahead

of

and

following the

operation being planned.

c)

Plan to use the same container throughout the system ; avoid frequent changes of containers.

d)

Consider floor Load capacities , ceiling heights, truss capacities , column spacing , etc.

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e) Comp1y with current a.isle width , or alter if necessary and practicable.

f) Provide necessary clearances in and around each work place - for

proper handling of materials and for maneuvering handling equipment.

g) Arrange for instruction for each operator in the correct method.

h) Plan for correct location of material supply and disposal in work in work area.

i) Provide adequate means for scheduled scrap removal.

j) Plan for productive operations and inspections to be done during material movement.

k) Combine operation to eliminate intermediate handlings.

l) Do make judicious use of Manual Handling.

m) Plan to minimize

n) Apply the principle of Motion Economy

walking.

2 .SYSTEMS PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Plan a system integrating as many Handling activities as is possible and coordinating the full scope of operations (receiving , storage , production, inspection packaging, warehousing, shipping, and transportation.)

DESCRIPTIONS Each Handling activity should be considered a portion of the whole Handling system, and planned as an integral part of the system. SUGGESTION FOR CARRYING OUT THE SYSTEMS PRINCIPLE :

a) Consider the entire scope of the handling activity, i.e., beyond the area under immediate

consideration.

b ) Plan flow between work areas.

c) Integrate operations into the handling system, such as : processing , inspect ion , packaging , etc

d) Arrange for alternative Handling Methods - in case of emergency.

e) Move material directly to production whenever practical, rather then an intermediate storage

area- to avoid re-handling.

f) Work closely with suppliers, customers and carriers.

g) Be aware of future requirement changes in product, process, volume, etc. - and allow for

necessary flexibility.

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3. MATERIAL-FLOW PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Plan an operation sequence and equipment arrangement to optimize material flow. DESCRIPTION :

As has been previously suggested. Material Handling and Plant Layout are intimately interrelated. The Material-flow pattern is actually the backbone of most production facilities, and one of the first steps in Planning a Material Handling systems is the design of the Material— flow pattern. This may be largely determined by operation sequence , which in turn will determine the pattern of equipment arrangement. SUGGESTION FOR CARRYING OUT THE MATERIAL PLOW PRINCIPLE :

a

) Avoid crowded conditions.

b

) Eliminate obstacles

from Material

flow.

c)

Carefully observe building and carrier restrictions.

d)

Plan movement in direct path.(Avoid backtracking, zig-zag flow, crooked paths .

e)

Arrange for alternate path, in case of difficulty.

i) Be aware of cross traffic and take necessary precautions. Avoid traffic Jams.

g) Keep related work areas close together.

h) Use Product-type layout when possible

i) Plan proper location of subassembly and feeder lines.

j) Comb inc operations to eliminate handling between times.

k)Plan for definite pick up and delivery locations. l)Minimize moves between Floors, Buildings. m)Process Heavy, bulky materials close to receiving

n) Move the greatest bulk and/or weight the least distance.

4.SIMPLIFICATION PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Reduce, combine, DESCRIPTIONS :

or eliminate unnecessary movements and /or equipment

.

Simplification

is

one

of

the

by-words

of

efficiency,

motion economy,

and

many

other

aspects of

industrial

operation.

.It

should likewise

be

a

goal

in

Material

 

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Handling.

well as the elimination or reduction of equipment that is not being properly utilized.

SUGGESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE SIMPLIFICATION PRINCIPLES :

As

used

here,

it

implies, primarily,

the

reduction

or

elimination

of

moves

as

a) Apply the principle of motion economy

b) Reduce or eliminate long or complicated Moves.

c) Plan direct moves.

d) Deliver materials to correct location (spot) the first time»

e) Avoid unnecessary Handling.

f) EIiminate re-handling .

g) Plan to use materials out of original container.

h)Minimise number of moves per process. i ) Minimize walking.

j)Avoid use of variety of equipment types and / or makes. k )Provide proper number of containers.

l) Plan for adequate equipment capacity.

m) Do not mechanize for the sake of mechanization. 5 .GRAVITY PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Utilise gravity to move material whenever practicable. DESCRIPTION:

This is certainly a very obvious principle- but one that is all too frequently overlooked because of its simplicity. Many material moves can be made efficiently by proper application of the Law of gravity. SUGGESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE GRAVITY PRINCIPLES :

a) Use Roller or wheel conveyors, slides chutes, etc., between operations. b)Use ramps between varying work or floor levels. c) Sloping floors (slight) can be utilised where considerable hand truck movement is in one direction. d) Use chutes to connect conveyors at different levels. e)Use spiral chutes to connect conveyors Between floors.

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6.SPACE UTILIZATION PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Make optimum utilization of building cube.

DESCRIPTION :

Factory and warehouse space are expensive. Therefore, wasted space is wasted

square feet and cubic feet are to be given

consideration. One square foot contains as many cubic feet as "clear" height will permit items to be stacked.

money. Inherent in this principle is that both

SUGGESTION FOR CARRYING OUT THE SPACE UTILIZATION PRINCIPLE :

a) Move equipment and operations closer together (not too close)

b) Eliminate or condense "temporary" storage piles of materials

c) Stack material to use full cube available.

d) Use racks to permit higher stacking.

e) Use stacking containers to permit stacking without racks.

f) Analyze space utilization to "find" additional square or cubic feet.

g) Check on economic order quantities and economic lot sizes for possibilities of reducing amount

of material required on hand.

h) Clean out storage areas and dispose of obsolete or useless materials.

i) Use narrow-aisle handling equipment to permit reduction of aisle widths.

j) Use Handling equipment not requiring fixed floor space , i.e., mobile or overhead Equipment.

k ) Don't pile materials directly on floor - use pallets, skids , etc., to permit stacking.

l) Consider reinforcing floors to permit heavier floor loads and stacking to greater heights.

m) Use collapsible container to save space required by empties.

n) Consider possibility of nesting parts products, containers.

o) Review possibility of increasing inventory turnover.

p) Design Pallets etc. to effectively utilize space between columns.

7. UNIT SIZE PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT :

Increase quantity, size, weight of load handled.

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DESCRIPTION :

Wherever practical, individual items should gathered and made up into loads. SUGGESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE UNIT SIZE PRINCIPLE :

a) Examine every move of one item for possibility of making up unit loads.

b) Purchase materials in unit loads.

c) Work with vendors towards design of larger unit loads.

d) Use containers to consolidate items.

e) Use uniform, standardized containers.

f) Design pallet pattern to efficiently utilize pallets and storage space.

g) Design load size to make optimum use of handling equipment.

8. SEFELY PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT :

Provide for safe handling methods and equipment.

DESCRIPTION :

It should be obvious that all handling activities in operations or being planned - should be safe, since an objective of material handling is to improve working conditions by providing safer work situations. A high proportion of all industrial accidents is in the material handling aspects of the production activity. GENERAL CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS :

I) Unsafe Conditions, Environmental Causes.

a) Inadequate guarding ( of Conveyors, Trucks, etc )

b) Unguarded (equipment.)

c) Defective condition (of equipment ).

d) Hazardous arrangement (stacks of material, pallet loads, arrangement of trucks,

etc

II) Unsafe Acts of Persons.

a) Operating without authority ( trucks, etc.)

b) Operating at unsafe speed.

c) Making safety devices inoperative (governors, etc.)

d) Using unsafe equipment (needing repairs)

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e) Unsafe loading (machines, conveyors, cranes, trucks, etc.)

f) Taking unsafe position or posture (in stacking, in trucks, etc)

g) Working on moving equipment (trucks, conveyors, etc.)

III) Unsafe Personal Causes

a ) Improper attitude (taking chances, disregarding instructions)

b) Lack of knowledge (poor instructions, new man, unskilled)

SUGGESTION FOR CARRYING OUT THE SAFETY PRINCIPLES

a) Install adequate guards and safety devices on handling equipment.

b) Keep handling equipment in good operating condition .

c) Furnish mechanical handling equipment for difficult, hard, hazardous handling activities and to

handle dangerous materials.

d) Do not permit handling equipment or devices to be overload or operated over rated capacity.

e ) Keep aisles clear and uncluttered .

f ) Install adequate lighting.

g) Maintain floor in good condition.

h) Avoid crowded conditions.

i ) Provide good house-keeping.

j ) Stacks material carefully.

k) Be sure operation are properly instructed in method and / or use of equipment.

l) Provide mechanized part feeding and removal devices,

m) Plan for removal of undesirable dust fumes, smoke, etc.

n) Isolate inherently dangerous equipment, operations etc.

o ) Allow Liberal factor of safety.

9 .MECHANISATION/AUTOMATION PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Use mechanized or handling equipment when practicab1e . DESCRIPTION:

Used judiciously, mechanized or automated handling devices and equipment can be of extreme value in increasing material handling efficiency. However, handling operations

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should not be mechanized for the sake of ,mechanization alone, nor should they be over - mechanized in terms of the function to be performed.

SUGGESTION FOR CARRYING OUT THE MECHANIZATION/AUTOMATION PRINCIPLE :

a) Consider use of mechanization for :

i) Large quantities or volume of materials

ii ) Frequent , repetitive moves, even though short

iii ) Long moves

iv) High - effort , hazardous, difficult moves.

v ) Two - man lifting/moving tasks.

vi) Replacing excess manual handling

vii) Feeding and removing materials from machine

viii) Moving heavy containers.

ix ) Handling and done by direct labour .

x ) Scrap removal .

xi) Reducing

Handling

time.

b) Do not over mechanize.

c) Design or select containers suitable for Mechanical Handling.

d) Use equipment that is self controlled and self programmed when practicable .

e) Consider mechanization of people flow and equipment movement as well as material

movement.

f) Mechanize communication to facilitate material movement.

g) Utilize automatic couplings, switches transfer, etc.

h) Move heavy Jigs, Fixtures, Tools, etc by mechanical means.

10. EQUIPMENT SELECTION PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT :

In selecting Handling equipment,

consider all

aspects of the MATERIAL

to be

handled, the MOVE to be made, and the METHOD(S) to be utilized. DESCRIPTION :

This principle is primarily a reminder to be extremely careful in selecting & specifying handling equipment by being sure that al1 phases of the problem are thoroughly analyzed.

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SUGGESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE EQUIPMENT SELECTION PRINCIPLE :

a) Select versatile equipment to carry out a variety of tasks and adjust to changing conditions.

b) Select standardized equipment to avoid a multiplicity of makes and models - and to minimise

inventory of repair parts.

c) Prove that the move is necessary.

d) Compare Cost on the basis of dollars per unit handled,

e) Consider indirect or intangible factors in justifying investments.

11. STANDARDISAT I ON PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Standardize methods as well as types and sizes of Handling Equipment.

DESCRIPTION :

The Material Handling Engineer should constantly on alert for new developments which may replace current methods or equipment. Nor does Standardization means only one type of equipment must be used. Any attempt at Standardization should be preceded by a careful analysis. This will assure that the best have been determined , and that the wrong methods, etc., is not standardised inadvertently ,by a failure to make a through investigation. SUGGESTION FOR CARRYING OUT THE STANDARDIZATION PRINCIPLE :

a) Adhere to standard sizes of the container, etc.

b) Purchase "Standard" types of equipment.

c)Purchase "Standard" sizes of equipment.

d) Record

e)Make dock height s. 'standard dimension f)Design new buildings to accommodate pallets,, containers, equipment. g) Keep a manual of standardized methods.

standardized methods .

12.FLEXIBILITY PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Use methods and equipment that can perform a variety of tasks and application.

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DESCRIPTION :

that can perform a wide range of handling tasks and which has a

variety of uses and application can often be more fully utilized than single purpose, specialized

frequent change, flexibility should be

units. Since industry requirements

carefully considered as an important characteristics of any Handling Equipments.

SUGGESTION FOR CARRYING OUT THE FLEXIBILITY PRINCIPLE :

Equipment

are

subject

to

a) Buy flexible equipment -lift trucks, roller and wheel conveyor etc:,

b ) Specify adjustable speed drives.

c) Make use of attachment and accessories (for lift Trucks, etc.)

d) Use gasoline-powered equipment.

e) Use four way pallets, skids, containers

f) Utilize trucks, etc. (mobile) in favour of conveyors (which may be fixed).

g) Carefully weigh use of special purpose equipment.

h) Consider adjustable racks.

13. DEAD-WEIGHT PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT :

Reduce the ratio of mobile equipment dead— weight to pay load. DESCRIPTION:

Excess weight of mobile equipment not only costs more money, but may require additional power and be slower to operate. It is therefore unwise in invest in a heavier— weight equipment than is required by the task to be performed. SUGGESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE DEAD-WEIGHT PRINCIPLE :

a) Portable conveyors, dock boards, etc: should be made of lightweight aluminium, magnesium,

etc. b ) Use lightweight pallets, skids, containers.

c) Purchase aluminium trailers to reduce tare weight.

d) Select lightweight equipment for high loads.

e) Use " walkie " type trucks (v/s counterbalanced, for elevator servicing.)

f) Consider expendable materials

for pallets, skids, and containers.

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14.MOTION PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Equipment designed to transport materials should be kept in motion. DESCRIPTION:

This Principle implies; that mobile equipment should be keep moving i.e.,

the function for which it was designed. It should not be tied up for unduly long

performing

periods of time for loading an unloading.

SUBGESTIONS FOR CARRYINB OUT THE MOTION PRINCIPLE :-

a) Plan to reduce load/unload time to decrease turn-around time.

b) Use mechanized loading and unloading equipment.

c) Maintain equipment properly to minimize down time.

d) Use self-loading equipment- lift trucks, straddle carriers, etc.

e) Consider 2-way radio on vehicles to permit quicker stacking.

f) Plan return loads for equipment.

g) Return mobile equipment promptly for re-use.

h) Study carefully use of load-carrier and platform-type trucks where carrying devices are attached

to motive unit.

i) Plan to haul loads, rather than carry them.

j) Utilize pallets, skids, etc to hasten loading of trailers.

k) Use pallets or skids in place of "stationary", four-wheel hand

trucks-which should be kept moving.

15 .IDLE-TIME PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENTS :

Reduce idle or unproductive time both handling equipment and manpower. DESCRIPTION:

or commercial activities and

especially so in the use of Material Handling equipment or manpower. Equipment- and manpower are "Making Money" when fully utilized. Therefore, every effort should be made to plan methods and scheduled equipment to permit full use of both resources.

Idle time

is undesirable

in nearly any industrial

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This Principle is very closely re1afed to the Motion Principle and many suggestions made there are equally applicable here. SUBOESTION FOR CARRYING OUT THE IDLE-TIME PRINCIPLE:

A.

Manpower

a)

Deliver materials at the proper rate.

b)

Use indirect labour for material handling.

c)

Install handling equipment to permit direct labour operators to spend full time on production.

d)

Combine jobs i.e. one man, 2 machine or jobs--load one while other is eye cycling.

e)

Be sure that operator is supplied with material-not waiting.

B.

Equipment

a)

Scheduled use of Handling Equipment.

b)

Use radio for dispatching .

c)

Transfer Equipment to other areas where it can be utilised more fully .

16.MAINTAINCE PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT :

Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repair of all handling equipment. DESCRIPTION:

have

implied

Material Handling activities. Probably very few phases of the Material Handling program can

The

suggestion

of

for

application

of

several

of

the

previous principles

the

importance

preventive

maintain

and scheduled repairs to the effectiveness of

contribute

more

to

overall

plant

efficiency

then

well-organized maintenance and repair

function.

SUGGESTION FOR CARRYJNB OUT THE MAINTENANCE PRINCIPLE:

a) Anticipate repairs in order to avoid breakdowns that will take equipment out of service unexpectedly.

b) Require operators to make daily inspections of equipment and report findings.

c) Plan for detailed, major inspection and reporting on equipment condition at regular intervals.

d) Set up a regular lubrication schedule covering all Handling Equipment, using chart to assure adequate lubrication.

e) Establish a preventive maintenance program.

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f) Provide adequate maintenance and repair facilities and personnel to handle normal requirement.

g) Work out a schedule and work load for repair work to its being done when equipment can be spared and at convenient times.

h) Maintain an adequate supply of repair parts and maintenance supplies .

i) Keep number of makes and models to minimum to reduce inventory of parts & simply maintenance.

j) Paint all equipment on a scheduled basis to keep up appearance and promote care of equipment.

k) Require Driver training for all mobile equipment operators.

l) Provide adequate instruction in proper operation of all non- mobile equipment .

m) Fix responsibility and delegate authority for the

n) Send maintenance mechanics' to factory training programs.

o) Check with manufacturers on required periodic maintenance, instructions etc.

p) Alter maintenance schedules when production schedules change.

q) Avoid "over - maintenance".

r) Keep floor clear.

17.OBSOLESCENCE PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Replace obsolete handling methods and equipment when more efficient methods or equipment will improve operations. DESCRIPTION:

As with any other type of physical equipment, Material Handling devices are subject to obsolescence, as well as depreciation. And, in a similar sense, so are handling methods. New ideas, techniques, methods and equipment are reported every day, and the Material. Handling engineer must be continuously alert to be sure he is aware of the latest developments. SUGGESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE OBSOLESCENCE PRINCIPLE:

a ) Establish a definate

b) Set a replacement program and budget.

c) Be aware of old equipment that still works.

d) Carefully study all alternatives.

e) Rent or lease new equipment for a try out period.

f) Established a planned, periodic equipment evaluation program.

maintenance and repair function .

replacement

policy.

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g) Keep up with what is new - i) Periodicals, Journals, etc. ii ) Books, Handbooks. iii) Equipment shows, expositions iv) Technical society meetings, v) Conferences, short courses . vi) Plant visits viii )Manufacturers Representative.

18 .CONTROL PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT :

Use material handling equipment to improve production control, inventory control and order handling. DESCRIPTION:

Since Material Handling equipment is used to move materials through the plant and the production process, its use can have a great effect on the control of the items being moved. In many cases, Handling Equipment provides a direct Mechanical path for the movement, and thereby facilitates the control of the material. SUGGESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE CONTROL PRINCIPLE :

a. Provide Mechanical Path for materials movement.

b) Move materials in lots, batches, containers of a predetermined quantity and size.

c) Store, or pack, materials in containers holding a specific number of pieces.

d) Use containers (wire mesh) through which contents can be identified and /or counted.

e) Utilize 2-way radio or TV to expedite movement and control of materials .

f) Make optimum use of Mechanical Handling in order picking, automation, loading.

g) Pace production with Mechanical Handling Equipment.

h) Build production, inventory, and accounting control features in to the Material Handling

Systems.

i) Move material on a schedule and in lots to match production, to avoid rush delivery, partial

loads, duplicate moves. j) Coordinate handling program (schedule) with purchasing, Manufacturing

19. CAPACITY PRINCIPLE :-

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STATEMENT:

to

DESCRIPTION:

In many ways, this principle is a summation of all the preceding ones, in that major objective of material handling is to increase production capacity. Nearly every one of the foregoing principle will contribute in some way to higher production levels. However, the emphasis here is on those facets, of operation and the other principles that are directed specially towards increasing or- making full use of production capacity.

SUGGESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE CAPACITY PRINCIPLE:

a) Use Mechanical Handling Equipment to assure a uniform, paced rate of flow.

b) Operate Equipment at optimum rate.

c) Plan to utilize return runs of Handling Equipment.

d) Fully Load or use container, vehicle, conveyors.

e) Make full use of Building cube and floor load capacity to obtain additional square foot.

f) Reduce time between operations and departments with Mechanical equipment.

g) Efficiently utilise carrier capacity by judicious combination of load, weight, and volume.

h) Change size, shape of unit loads to utilise space, equipment capacity, manpower .

i) Use area over Aisles (balconies) for additional storage space make use of rented storage facilities during peak season to free own space for production.

k) Use outdoor storage space for materials not requiring protection from weather- or easily

Use

Handling

Equipment

help

achieve

full

production capacity.

protected.

l) Pool Handling Equipment for better utilization.

m) Establish one- way aisle to easy traffic congestion.

n) Widen aisles to speed Materials Movement.

o) Utilize automatic door openers, dock levelers, couplings, etc.

p) Eliminate storage areas by using overhead space, moving storage processing during movement etc.

q) Use additional safety devices -bo permit, greater speed of movement.

20 . PERFORMANCE PRINCIPLE :- STATEMENT:

Determine

handled.

efficiency

of

handling

performance

in

terms of expense per unit

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DESCRIPTION:

As pointed out above, there are many objectives of Material Handling. However , an effective Handling Method may achieve one or several of these objective. The primary criterion for measuring the efficiency of a handling technique is Dollars. Although efficiency can be measured in terms of total cost or equipment performance, the most effective means of measuring efficiency is in terms of dollars per unit handled . It should be pointed out that there are cases where maximum economy is not the overall goal. Some Material Handling devices may be installed to provide higher production rats, safer working conditions, or reduced physical effort. Time or effort saved may be the primary criteria and the cost of handling may be of little or no interest. SUGGESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE PERFORMANCE PRINCIPLE:

a) Carefully study all characteristics of the material to identify all possible units which could be used as a basis for comparison.

b) Select a common, convenient, standard unit,

c) Use the same unit

d) Avoid changing the unit from department to department, time to time, etc.

for as many control

purposes as possible,

THE UNIT LOAD CONCEPT: -

A study of precedent would show that the size weight and bulk of the individual

packages used in commerce today are the result of their being handled conveniently by one man. Of course, marketing demands reflect their influence on packages sizes. But, when we come down to the selections of methods, techniques, systems or equipment for Material Handling, our choice is always guided by whether we want to handle one piece on one trip or one piece in a continues flow from one point to another, or several at a time either in a continues flow or intermittently.

The Unit Load Principle implies that materials should be handled in the most efficient , maximum size unit, using mechanical means to reduce the number of moves needed for a given amount of material. A Unit Load has been defined by Professor James R. Bright as:

A number of items or bulk material, so arranged or restrained that the mass can be

picked up and moved as a single object too large for manual handling, and which upon being

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released will retained its initial arrangement for subsequent movement. It is implied that single

initial arrangement for subsequent movement. It is implied that single objects too large for manual handling are also regarded as Unit Loads In summarizing the Unit Load concept, Johnson has stated that it should:

1. Perform a minimum number of handlings and eliminate Manual handling.

2. Assemble materials into a Unit Load for economy of Handling and storage.

3. Assemble materials into Unit Load as soon as possible and keep n that form as soon as possible.

4. When necessary, redesign packages and cartoons for better assembly into unit loads and retain the unit load form to use all possible cube and prevent product damage.

5.Make the Unit Load as large as possible considering the imitations of building, Handling Equipment, Production areas, volume of material required, and common carrier dimensions and capacities .

ADVANTAGES OF UNIT LOAD :

1) Permits handling of larger loads. 2) Reduces Handling costs. 3) Faster movements of goods. 4) Reduces time for Loading and Unloading. 5) Reduces packaging costs. 6) Maximum use of cubic space.

7) Reduces Pilferage in transit and storage.

8 ) Less time wasted in tracing stray items,,

9 ) Reduces Product

10) Reduces Physical Inventory Time and cost. 11) Better co-ordination of deliveries to Production. 12) Safer Handling, 13) Better Customer service. 14) Reduce s Transportation Cost. 15) Lower Insurance Rate for good in Transit. 16) Reduces time and expenses of labeling Individual items. 17) Utilization permits uniform stock placement, resulting in uncluttered aisles.

damage.

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18) Production Operators need not waste valuable time in helping to move materials. 17) Items themselves need not be uniform as unitizing medium provides uniformity. 18) Irregular items can become stable load. 19) Provide basis for overall handling system within physical distribution cycle . 20) Provide basis for handling systems within plant. 21) Unitized load stabilize stacks of materials. 22) Unitizing Medium can provide uniform temperature and moisture control of goods. 23) Unitizing Medium can protect loads from foreign elements. 24) Maximum accessibility of stored goods 25) Reduces Handling of individual items.

DISADVANTAGES OF UNIT LOADS :

In spite of the overwhelming

evidence

in

favour of

applying the

unit

load

concept, there are, nevertheless, some disadvantages, such as:

1. Cost of Unitizing,

2. Cost of De-unitizing,

3. Equipment required .

4. Space required.

5. Lack of flexibility.

6. Wasted cube within Unit Load.

7. Tare Weight of Unitizing Medium.

8. Problem of returning empty containers

9. Possible damage due to mishandling of large Unit.

10.Common carriers are not uniform in size. 11.Transfer Equipment often not available on both "ends" of the move. EQUIPMENT CONCEPTS :- In the Material Handling equation it was suggested that an analysis of the materials to be handled and the moves to be made should indicate the method, However, before becoming involved in problem- solving details, it is felt that a brief introduction to Material Handling Equipment will prove helpful in comprehending the overall objective of the Handling analysis-to design a method. And the method nearly includes some type of Handling

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Equipment. Therefore, one of the major task of Material Handling Engineer is to become acquainted with the large and overgrowing field of handling equipment, although it would be next to impossible for an individual to become intimately acquainted with all the types. THE PLACE OF EQUIPMENT IN THE HANDLING SYSTEM :- As implied several times previously, equipment is not always required in order to solve a Handling problem. Usually the simplest and most economical method should be utilized, which may not require any equipment In fact, the work simplification approach suggests the following general procedure :

1.

Eliminate

the move .

2

. Combine the move with

some

other function processing , inspection, storage,

etc.

3. Change the sequence of activities to shorten, eliminate, and after the move requirement. 4.Simplify the move to reduce the scope, extent, distance, method, equipment, etc. Then-after having accomplished the above -the equipment would selected if necessary.

THE ROLE OF MANUAL HANDLING :- A factor frequently overlook in the rush to mechanize or automate is that Manual

Handling, may be the easiest, most efficient, and least expensive method of moving materials.

the analyst should very

carefully explore the possibility of Manual Handling Methods.

So, even

before attempting to select a piece of Handling Equipment

Some of the characteristics which would generally tend in four Manual Handling are :

1

.Material Type

a.

Unit

2

. Material Characteristics

 

a.

Small

b. Light

c. Fragile

d. Costly

e . Safe to handle

f.

Solid or containerized

g . Scrap

3.

Material Quantity

 

a. Small , low volume.

 

b. Single items one at a time.

 

4.

Move Source and Destination-close together.

5

.Move Logistics a . Work place( small area ).

.

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b

. Multi-plane.

c.

Level to level.

d

. Variable

profile.

e.

Complex path.

f.

Working height.

g

. Complicated move .

6 . Move

Characteristics

a.

Short distances

b.

Infrequent

c.

Low rate

d

.Non-uniform rate

e

. Variable speed

f.

Irregular

g.

Intermittent

h

. Variable

i. Low percentage of Handling j .Variable sequence.

7. Move Type

a. Maneuvering

b. Positioning

8. Handling Unit-same as items 1 & 2

9. Equipment

a. Probab1y none

b. Operator controlled

10. Manpower

a. Relatively small amount of operator time required

b. Low hourly rate.

11. Physical Restrictions (As implicit by other characteristics of the problem, above : otherwise , not applicable.)

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It should be pointed out that all the above characteristics do not imply only

manual methods. Some of them, usually in combination with other characteristics or because of

the nature of the nature of the material, will require Mechanical devices. Only after it has been

proved that Manual Handling is more costly, too dangerous., too slow, etc .should the analyst turn his attention to Mechanical Equipment.

NON-POWERED EQUIPMENT: - Included with the several hundred types of Material Handling Equipment are

a number of non powered or manually operated or controlled, i.e., not "mechanized".

The following list indicates the situations in which non-powered or manual equipment may

fit into handling system.

1 .Where handling volume is limited, or handling activity can be extended over a long

period

2. Where building limitations preclude use of heavier or bigger devices.

3. Where service conditions, such as confined areas, explosive atmosphere, or quiet surroundings necessitate the advantage of non- powered equipment.

4. Where equipment is used not only for handling but for storage or display .

5. When investment capital is limited.

6. When the required Flexibility, utility, mobility, arid portability can only be obtained in a

non-powered floor device .

7. Where the maintenance facility are minimal or non-existence

8. Where the mobile equipment must be tailored to the production need.

9. Where the operating efficiency of non-powered equipment higher than that of other type.

10.When loads are relatively light and equipment .is to be manually moved. 11. For stand-by use. 12. For durable, low cost operation. The above possibility should be checked before Mechanized or Powered Equipment is seriously considered.

o f

time.

SELECTION OF MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT :- A wide variety of Material Handling Equipment is in the market ; some equipment's are for general, purpose use. The choice of a particular equipment depends upon the

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44

specific requirement or the condition an industry. Naturally, the best equipment will be the one which permits smooth and continuous production flow, involves less accidents, reduces production cycle time, promotes better working condition, incurs less fatigue to the operators and brings down the Material Handling Costs . The following factors may be considered while selecting a Material Handling

Equipment ; MATERIAL TO BE HANDLED:

The size of the material, it's shape, weight, delicacy, nature (solid, liquid, gases,) and its chances of getting damaged during handling, etc, should be considered.

2) PLANT BUILDINGS AND LAYOUT :- Widths of aisles, inequality in floor levels, width of doors, height of ceiling, strength of floor and walls, columns and pillars, etc., to a great extent influence the choice of Material Handling Equipment. For example, low ceiling heights may not permit stacking of palletized materials, weak roofs limit the use of overhead conveyor and steps between two floors- will not allow trucks to operate. 3) TYPE OF PRODUCTION MACHINE:

Different Machines have different outputs per unit time. The Material Handling Equipment should be able to handle the maximum output. 4) TYPE OF MATERIAL FLOW PATTERN:

A vertical .flow pattern will require elevators, conveyors pipes, etc., whereas' horizontal flow pattern will need trucks, overhead bridge cranes, conveyors, etc. 5) .TYPE OF PRODUCTION:

The type of production affects to a large extent the selection of Material Handling Equipments. conveyors are more suitable for mass production in on fixed routine and powered trucks for batch production; because conveyors though costly, can handle more volume of production per unit time as compared to trucks, whereas a truck is more flexible equipment. 6) Cost of Material Handling Equipment/

7 ) Handling Cost.

8 ) Life of Equipments

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9) Amount of care and maintenance required for the Material Handing equipment.

10 ) Safety of equipment.

11 ) Equipment Reliability.

EQUIPMENT SELECTION PROCEDURE :- The Procedural Steps involved in Equipment Selection have been listed below l. Relate all factors pertinent to problem viz ; the material , the move and the method.

2. Determine appropriate degree of Mechanization.

3. Make a tentative selection of Equipment types.

4. Narrow the choice.

5. Eva1ate the alternative.

6. Check the selection for with the rest of the system.

7. Select the specific type of Equipment

8 . Proper specifications.

PROPERTIES OF SELECTED MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT - The Equipment selected should, l. Fit into the Hand1ing System,

2. Combine Handling with other function.

3. Optimize Material Flow.

4. Be as simple as it is practicable.

5. Utilize Gravity wherever possible.

6. Require s minimum of space.

7. Handle as large a load as is practical.

8. Make the move safely, in terms of both manpower and material.

9. Use Mechanization judiciously.

10.Be flexible, adaptable. 11.Have a low dead-weight to pay-load ratio,

12.Utilise a minimum of Operator time.

13. Require a minimum of loading, unloading, and re-handling.

14. Call for as little Maintenance, repair, power and fuel as possible.

15. Have a Long, useful life.

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16. Be capable of Capacity Utilization.

17. Perform the Handling operations efficiently and economically.

TYPES OF MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT: - Generally there are following types of Material Handling Equipment:

1) CONVEYOR These are gravity or powered devices, commonly used for moving uniform loads continuously from point-to-point over fixed paths, where the primary function is conveying. They prove economical if the flow of material is continuous.

Classification:

A. Belt Conveyor

a. Flat

b. Trough

c. Portable

B. Bucket

a. Gravity Discharge

b. Pivoted Bucket (Bucket Elevator)

C. Chain or Cable

a. Apron

b. Arm

c. Car Type

d. Drag

e. Flat-top

f. Flight

i. Power and Free

j. Slat

k. Tow

i) Overhead

ii) Flush

iii) Under-floor

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l. Trolley

D. Chute

E - Pneumatic conveyor

a. Pipeline

b. Air activated gravity

c. Tube

F. Roller Conveyor

a. Gravity

b. Line

c. Portable

d. Rack

G. Screw Conveyor

a. Screw attachment

i) Ribbon Conveyor

ii) Paddle Conveyor

b. Movement of Material

 

i)

Horizontal Screw Conveyor

ii)

Vertical Screw Conveyor

H.

Vibrating

Uses:

I. Wheel

Conveyors are generally useful when:

a. Loads are Uniform

b. Material moves continuously

c. Route does not vary

d. Load is constant

e. Movement rate is relatively fixed

f. Conveyors can By-pass Cross traffic

g. Path to be followed is fixed

h. Movement is from one point to another

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i. Automatic counting, sorting, weighing Dispatching is needed

j. In-process storage or inspection is required.

k. Necessary to Pace Production.

l. Process Control is needed.

m. Controlled flow is required

n. Handling hazardous material

o. Handling Material at extreme temperature or under adverse condition.

p. Handling is required on dangerous areas.

q. Manual Handling and or lifting is undesirable.

r. Integrating Machine into a "System"

s. Handling between workplaces

t. Flexibility is required to meet changes in production processes volume or space.

u. Conveyor can be installed overhead to save floor space.

v. Necessary to make constant visual check of production processes.

2. CRANES AND HOISTS :

These overhead devices are usually utilized to move varying loads, intermittently, between points within an area fixed by the supporting and guiding rails, where the primary function is Transferring. Classification :

A. Cranes

a.

Jib

i) Floor Mount

ii) Top and bottom

iii) Wall Mount

b.

Traveling

i) Bridge I) Top Running II) Under Running

ii) Gantry

c.

Stacker

i) Crane

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49

 

ii)

Storage Machine

 

d.

Mobile

 

B.

Elevators

 
 

a.

Bucket

 

i) Continuous

 

I)

External Discharge

II)

Internal Discharge

 

ii)

Spaced

 

I)

Centrifugal Discharge

II)

Positive Discharge

 

b.

Portable

 

C. Hoists

 

a.

Chain Type

 

b.

Pneumatic

c.

Electrical

D. Monorails

Uses :

Cranes and Hoist are most commonly used when,

a. Movement is within fixed area.

b. Moves are intermittent.

c. Load vary in size or weight.

d. Cross Traffic would interference with conveyors.

e. Unit handled are not uniform.

3. INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS :

These are hand or powered vehicles (non-highway) used for the movement of mixed or uniform loads, over various paths having suitable running surfaces and clearances, where the primary function is Maneuvering or Transporting.

Classification :

A. Non-powered

a. dolly

b. 4-wheel hand truck

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B. Powered

Uses :

c. Hand Lift (jack)

d. semi-live skid

e. stacker

f. trailer

a. Driver Walk

i) Platform Type

ii) Pallet Type

iii) High Lift Fork

b. Driver Ride

i) Platform I) Low Lift II) High Lift

ii) Pallet Lift

iii) Telescopic fork lift

Industrial Trucks are generally used when,

a. Material is moved intermittently.

b. Movement is over varying routes.

c. Loads are uniform or mixed in sizes and weight.

d. Length of move is moderate.

e. Cross Traffic will prohibit Conveyors

f. Clearances and running surfaces are adequate and suitable.

g. Most of the operation consist of Handling.

h. Material can be put up into Unit Load.

SCREW OR SPIRAL CONVEYOR :- INTRODUCTION :

A conveyor consisting of a continuous or broken blade helix screw fastened to the shaft and rotating in a trough so that the revolving screw advances the material. Depending upon the type of screw attachment.

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Screw Conveyor are of Two types as follows, RIBBON CONVEYOR : It has the screw attached to the shaft with arms or spokes so as to leave space between the screw and shaft. PADDLE CONVEYOR : It has the screw interrupted and shaped as Individual

paddles. CONSTRUCTION :- HORIZONTAL SCREW CONVEYOR :

Screw Conveyor are installations serving to move materials over a trough by a rotating screw. This is formed by a Helical Blade attached to a drive shaft B which is coupled to a drive 1 and supported by end bearings 2, 6 and by inner bearing 4. The trough 7 of the round bottom shape is topped by inner bearings 4. The Trough 7 of the round-bottom shape is topped by a cover plate 3 with an opening 5 for loading the conveyor. A similar unloading opening 9 is provided in the bottom of the trough. The Loading and Unloading point can be located anywhere on the trough. (fig 3)

point can be located anywhere on the trough. (fig 3) FIG 3. HORIZONTAL SCREW CONVEYOR VERTICAL

FIG 3. HORIZONTAL SCREW CONVEYOR

VERTICAL SCREW CONVEYOR :

Screw conveyors easily negotiate rising gradient and can also operate vertically, lifting material upto 15m at a rate of 50t/h. In this latter case the vertical Conveyor is assisted by

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screw feeder or a Horizontal Screw Conveyor which serve to create thrust at the foot of the lifting screw as shown in figure 4, In general there are three types,

1. HELICOID SPIRALS : Use for Dry Materials ranging in size from powder to medium lumps.

2. RIBBON SPIRALS : Adopted to handle coarsely-broken and sticky loads.

3. PADDLE SPIRAL AND CUT FLIGHTS : Utilize to convey flow-resistant solids tending to

cake. This type is also employed in installations combining transportation with processing (mixing, crushing, wetting, etc.).

with processing (mixing, crushing, wetting, etc.). FIGURE 4. VERTICAL SCREW CONVEYOR WITH A SCREW FEEDER

FIGURE 4. VERTICAL SCREW CONVEYOR WITH A SCREW FEEDER TYPICAL SCREW CONFIGURATION (FIGURE 5) :-

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53 FIGURE 5. TYPICAL SCREW CONFIGURATION (a) HELICOID SPIRAL : (b) RI BBON SPIRAL (c)

53

FIGURE 5. TYPICAL SCREW CONFIGURATION (a) HELICOID SPIRAL : (b) RIBBON SPIRAL (c) CUT FLIGHTS CHARACTERISTICS :

1. Feeding can be from top, end, or bottom.

2. Discharge is from end or bottom.

3. Screw is driven from one end.

4. Screw can be right or left hand.

5. Can be both, to deliver at both ends from the middle, or to bring two material together at the middle.

6. Screw is designed to accommodate specific materials and/or functions.

7. Usually runs on horizontal or incline, but at a reduced capacity.

8. Can be used vertically as an Elevator

9. Relatively low cost.

10. Compact and can operate in close quarters.

USES :

Screw Conveyors, by virtue of their design ensuring gas tightness, are widely used

1. to handle dusty or hot loads (almost any temperature) and those which liberate harmful gases.

2. to move fibrous material.

3. to move pulverized or granular material but may need special screw for some.

4. to control Material flow.

5. as a mixer or blender.

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LIMITATIONS :

1. Screw Conveyors invite difficulties when the load is abrasive, coarsely broken, or sticky.

2. Commonly made in 10-12 feet section.

3. Certain amount of degradation of material.

4. Length limited by torque capacity of shaft and drive.

5. Operate at 10-120 feet per minute.

6. Handle upto 10,000 cu. ft per hour.

7. Not recommended for handling materials which are degraded due to breakage.

APPLICATION :

1.

Oil Refineries.

2. Chemical Industries.

3.

Sugar Mills.

4. Soap Industries etc.

DETERMINATION OF SALIENT DIMENSION AND POWER REQUIREMENT :- The Helical Blade forcing the load along the trough when the shaft is set rotating is made of 4 to 8 mm steel plate and attached to the shaft by welding. The Trough is commonly fabricated from steel sheet between 2 to 8 mm thick. The Screw pitch t = (0.5 to 1.0) D, where D is the screw diameter. Light weight are handled by screws with a wide pitch. The screw diameter is governed by the lump size and at least four times that the maximum lump size in case of unsize bulk materials. The screw speed is governed by the nature of the load and screw diameter, increasing inversely with the bulk weight, screw diameter and the intensity of abrassive action of the material. Conveyors handling heavy materials commonly operate at 50 rpm and those designed to convey light loads, at up to 150 rpm. The Cross-sectional loading of a Screw Conveyor is given by,

S

= ϕ

Π D

2

4

where ϕ is the capacity factor which, to take account of the accumulation of load at inner bearings,

is always by far smaller than unity. The recommended values of ϕ are as follows :

Heavy-weight abrasive load

-------- 0.125

Heavy-weight mildly abrasive

-------- 0.25

Light -weight mildly abrasive

-------- 0.32

Light-weight non abrasive

-------- 0.4

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In designing short screw conveyors which have no inner bearings, the above values

can be increased by factor of 1.5 to 2. On the other hand, they must be reduced by 10 to 15 percent when the Conveyor is intended to handle free-flowing materials. The hourly capacity of a Helicoid Spiral Conveyor by tonnage can be estimated by

the formula.

Q = 3600

S v γk

where k is a factor introduced in designing inclined conveyors, for their capacity is always less than that of horizontal ones. Approximate values on the angle of rise are given below :

β, deg

 

0

5

10

k

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

0.9

0.8

Q

= 3600

ϕ

Π

D 2

4

γ

tn

60

=

4

>ϕγ

t

n

D

2

k

Since the speed of conveying is

ν =

tn

60

We arrive at the Capacity Formula ,

k