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Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Transportation Engineering Introduction to Traffic Engineering

Dr. Bhargab Maitra Department of Ci il Engineering D t t f Civil E i i Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur India Email: bhargab@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Introduction
Traffic Engineering is that phase of engineering which deals with the safe and efficient movement p p g g y of people and goods on streets and highways Defined by ITE as that phase of transportation g g p g, g engineering which deals with planning, geometric design and traffic operations on roads, streets and highways, their networks, terminals, abutting lands d l ti l d and relationships with other modes of hi ith th d f transportation

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Person Movement or Vehicle Movement


Real concern: Moving people and goods. gp p g Movement of vehicle is just a way of accomplishing this Useful to appreciate mode of transport and type of roadway used for moving people and goods - Effect of mode type - Effect of roadway type - Effect of mix of traffic

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Goods Movement and Person Movement


Roads primarily to serve motoring public? Trucks are problematic elements? Goods movement is critical to the local economy: Transportation of raw material and finished products Goods movement and person movement: Both are essential

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Mix of Vehicle in Person Movement


In the context of traffic engineering, the focus is g g, on movements on streets and highways (excluding rail, air, water transportation, etc.) Within and between cities and town people normally move in a mix of - P i t vehicle Private hi l - Bus - Paratransit - Bicycle, etc. H Heterogeneous traffic environment prevailing in ffi i ili i developing countries

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Components of Traffic System


Road Users Vehicles Roadways R d Control devices Traffic Engineers have little or no control Traffic Engineers have more control

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Road Users
Human elements separate traffic engineering from p g g most other engineering: drivers, passengers, pedestrians, bicyclists, etc. Several critical characteristics of road users are quantifiable and can be taken into account in traffic engineering decision - Perception and reaction time - Visual acuity (Static and Dynamic) - Other driver characteristics like hearing and psychological factors. Design should account h l i lf t D i h ld t for driver characteristics

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur


- Pedestrian Characteristics: Traffic engineering is not limited to consideration of motorists and their vehicles It must also consider other vehicles. users of highway system like pedestrians. Pedestrian crossing and sideways Pedestrian signals wherever necessary

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Vehicles
Highway systems accommodate a wide variety of sizes and types of vehicle Design vehicles g Selected motor vehicle: weight, dimensions and operating characteristics p g Design vehicles are used to determine a variety of g geometric features of highway such as lane g y width, extra widening on curves, minimum corner radius, clearance height, etc.

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur


Acceleration performance of vehicles Heavier vehicles have lower rates of acceleration than passenger cars Difference in acceleration capability of different types of vehicle is a major cause of inefficiency in mixed traffic streams

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur


Braking performance of vehicles In highway safety and design, the most critical performance characteristic of vehicles is braking or deceleration Time and distance required to stop a vehicle is a primary consideration in almost every aspects of traffic t ffi system d i t design and operation d ti

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Roadways
Functional classification Highway facilities are classified by the relative amounts of through traffic movement and land access service they provide Geometric features - Cross section elements - Horizontal alignment - Vertical alignment

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Traffic Control Devices


Communication of traffic laws and regulations to g drivers by means of control device - Road markings - Traffic signs - Traffic signals As control devices are the only measures of transmitting operational rules to drivers, they must be l b clear, easily interpreted and commanding of il i t t d d di f attention R Regulatory aspects of t ffi control must be l t t f traffic t l tb enforced

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Traffic Stream Characteristics


Traffic streams: Individual drivers and vehicles interact in unique ways with each other and with elements of roadway environment Traffic stream in quantitative term ( ff (key parameters and their measurements): understand the inherent variability and define normal ranges of behavior Analysis, evaluation and improvement: key parameters and measurements based on normal ranges of behavior

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Traffic Facilities a) Uninterrupted-flow Facilities


No external factors to cause periodic interruptions to the traffic stream: Traffic signals, g STOP or YIELD signs, uncontrolled access, etc. Such facilities include freeways and other limited access roads, long sections of rural highways between signalized intersections, etc. St Stream characteristics depend on individual h t i ti d d i di id l vehicles, geometric and general environment of the roadway and NOT on external factors

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

b)Interrupted-flow Facilities
Traffic flow is periodically interrupted by external devices like traffic signals, STOP or YIELD signs Not available for continuous movement and time enters as a significant parameter affecting flow Constant stopping and restarting of traffic streams pp g g Flow occurs in platoons: A group of vehicles moving along a facility together with significant g g y g g gaps between two successive groups Dispersion of platoon: An important consideration

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Traffic Stream Parameters a) Speed b) Traffic Volume/Flow Macroscopic measures p c) Density


Described by a single value of each which applies each, to the traffic stream as a whole

d) Headway- Microscopic measure H d


Applicable to individual pairs of vehicles within a traffic t t ffi stream

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

a) Speed
Distance traveled in unit time: may vary widely over route o er a ro te depending on several factors such as se eral s ch geometric features, traffic condition, time, place, environment and driver

b) Traffic volume / Flow


Number of vehicles passing a particular point of roadway during unit time. Traffic volume is expressed as vehicle/h or vehicle/day

c) Density (K)
Number of vehicle occupying a unit length of py g g roadway at a given instant, usually expressed as vehicles per km

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

d) Headway
Space headway (s):Distance between fronts of p y( ) successive vehicles in meters y (h): Time headway ( ) Time interval between the passage of the fronts of successive vehicles at a specified point. It is measured in seconds. It is related with space headway as follows

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Passenger Car Equivalency (PCE)


Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) defines PCE as The number of passenger cars that are displaced by a single heavy vehicle of a particular type under prevailing roadway traffic and control conditions" roadway, conditions PCE is also defined as the number of passenger cars having the same impedance effect as a vehicle of a given type under a prevailing roadway, traffic and control condition PCE: Static or Dynamic?

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Factors affecting PCE


Vehicle characteristics: dimension speed power dimension, speed, power, braking characteristics etc. Transverse and longitudinal gaps between moving vehicles: function of speed, driver characteristics, etc. Traffic composition, speed distribution, volume to capacity ratio etc. Roadway characteristics: gradient, curves, access control, rural or urban road, presence of intersection, intersection type of intersection, etc intersection etc.

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur


Traffic control and regulation: one way traffic, speed limit, different traffic control devices, etc. Environmental and climatic condition t l d li ti diti E i Typical PCE values for Indian Rural Road
Vehicle Type Passenger car, tempo, auto Bus, truck, agricultural tractor-trailer unit Motor cycle, scooter, cycle Cycle rickshaw Horse drawn vehicles Small bullock cart Large bullock cart PCE 1.0 3.0 0.5 1.5 4.0 6.0 8.0