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IntroductiontoSocialMarketing forWaterOutreach

NHWaterandWatershedsConference2011 March2526,2011 PlymouthStateUniversity,NH


JuliaPeterson NHSeaGrantandUNHCooperativeExtension Julia.peterson@unh.edu
WithslidesfromDr.JamesLewis,UNHDept ofHealthManagementandPolicy;BarbaraMcMillan,NHDES; andNickStevenson,PlymouthStateUniversity

ObjectivesforTodaysIntroduction

Beabletodescribesocialmarketingandhow itdiffersfrominformationalcampaigns Recognizestepsincarryingoutsocial marketingcampaigns Learnaboutexamplesofwaterrelatedsocial marketingcampaigns

WhatsYourOutreach CampaignAbout?
Understandwatersheds Know moreabout stormwater Care aboutaparticular waterbody Thinkaboutalternative yardcarepracticesthat arebetterforwater quality Pickuppetwasteand disposeofitproperly Washcaratacarwash ratherthaninthestreet Volunteerasawater qualitymonitor Mowlawnshighand leave theclippingsto reduce fertilizer applications

WhatisSocialMarketing?
Socialmarketingsellsabehaviorchange toatargetedgroupofindividuals
Accept anewbehavior Rejectapotentialbehavior Modify acurrentbehavior Abandon anoldbehavior

Itborrowsfromthephilosophy,tools,andpracticesof commercialmarketingforhealth,environmentaland/or socialprograms.

WhereDoesBehaviorComeFrom?

Information Information Behavior

Information

NeedMoreInformation?

OneTheoryofBehavior
Values Attitudes Perceived Behavioral Control

Information

Behavioral Intention

Past Action

Norms

Behavior

AdaptedfromTheoryofPlannedBehavior(Azjen &Fishbein 1975)

BehaviorIsComplex ChangingBehaviorisVeryChallenging

ExamplesofUsesofSocialMarketing
unitedinspectionstexas.com

healthiswealth.org

eHow

westcan.wordpress.com

InOtherWords
Beuncomfortable Hearbadnews Beinconvenienced Changeyourhabits Riskrelationships Resistpeerpressure Spendmoney

KeystoSocialMarketing
FocusontheAudience
Targetandsegmentaudience

Studybarriersandbenefitstodesired behavior
Pinpointbehavior Makesurebenefitsoutweighbarrierstoaction

Testcampaignandmeasureresults
Planandpreparetoevaluate

SocialMarketingProcess
Definetheproblem(behavior) Identifypossiblesolutions Identifyandsegmentyouraudience Conductananalysisofyourabilitytomakeadifference Understandyouraudience
IDbarriers IDwaystoreducebarriers Refineselectionofaction/behaviortopromote

Selectmediumandmessages Pretestcampaignideasandmessages Implement Evaluate MakeAdjustments

FromGettingYourFeetWetwithSocialMarketingbyJackWilbur,UtahDeptofAgricultureandFood

CommunityBasedSocialMarketing
1. Identifybarriersandbenefitstoasustainable behavior 2. Designastrategythatutilizesbehavior changetools 3. Pilotthestrategywithasmallsegmentof community 4. Evaluatetheimpactoftheprogramonceit hasbeenimplemented
McKenzieMohr,Doug.FosteringSustainableBehavior.1999.

ConnecttheEnvironmental/Social SituationwithaBehavior
Conductarootcause analysis AskWhy?

ConsiderPossibleSolutionsandAssess
Restrictdogsfromthearea. Hiresomeonetocleanupafterdogs. Requirepottytrainingfordogs. Havedogwalkerspickuppetwasteand properlydisposeofit.

WhoisyourtargetAUDIENCEsegment?

IdentifyyourTargetAudience
Whodoyouneedtoreach? Whohasthemostinfluenceovertheoutcome?
Residents? Tourists? Voters? Townboardsorlegislators? Businesses? Teachers? Youth?

SegmentYourAudience
Narrowdownby.
Geographiclocation Interest Occupation Age Gender BehaviorPatterns etc.
Examples: Shorelandpropertyowners Snowmobilers Automotiveshopowners Retiredpeople Women Overwaterers

tofityouroutcomes.

GettoKnowYourTargetAudience
ConditionorMotivation

Knowledgelevel Existingskill Existingawareness Existingbehavior Existingattitudes

StudytheBarriersandBenefitstoDesiredBehavior!!!

ProcessofSocialMarketing Getto KnowtheAudienceSegment


Useexistingdatatogettoknowyouraudience
E.g.septicslackers,frequentfertilizers

Conductformativeresearchtoidentifyperceived benefits/barriers
Qualitative
Focusgroups Interviews

Quantitative
Surveys

Workwithasocialscientistormarketresearcher Includeyourtargetaudienceonyourplanningteam

DetermineYourMessage
foryourtargetaudienceforeachoutcome
Promoteadirectbenefit tothetargetaudience Beunderstandable(www.waterwordsthatwork.com) Linktosomethingofvalue tothem Statespecificactions Usesocialmarketingtools forbehaviorchange www.cbsm.com
Commitment,prompts,norms,communication,incentives

ChooseaMethod toGetYourMessageAcross
Activities,Formats,orProducts&Distribution
Print Promotionalgiveaways Media Website/CDs/listserves/ emails Events

Next
Pretestmessageandmethod Implement Evaluate Adjust

ExamplesofWaterRelatedSocial MarketingResearchand/orCampaigns
RainGardenOpinionStudy Universityof WisconsinandLakeRipleyManagementUnit ChangingDoitYourselfersLawnCare Practices:BangorProject PlymouthState, UMaine CooperativeExtensionandBangor AreaStormwater Group

WhoWantsaRainGarden?
Areviewoffindingsfromastudyby UniversityofWisconsinofproperty ownersaroundLakeRipleyin2007

FocusofQuestionnaireDesign
Whatdopeoplebelievewouldthe consequencestothempersonallyof buildingaraingarden?Howdothey evaluatethoseconsequences? Whatdotheybelievesignificantothers thinktheyshoulddo? Towhatextentdotheybelievethey havethenecessaryresourcestobe abletobuild?

Results BasicConcepts
Mostrespondentsfelttheyhad anunderstandingofrain gardensORthattheycould easilyacquiretheinformation. LackofknowledgeisNOTa majorbarrierandadditional informationisnotrequired. Understandlinkbetween raingardensandwater quality.

Results Barriers
Preferenceforyard thatismostlylawn. Aesthetics? Culturalnorm?

Results Obstacles
6totalrated 4real
Costandexpense Insufficienttime Beliefthatitwouldbetoomuchwork Nothavingrequisiteknowledge

Nonescoredveryhigh
WelldesignedCBSMmightovercomeobstacles

Results StrongPredictorofIntent
Availabilityofcost sharing i.e.discountsfrom nurserieswith nativeplants

Results StrongPredictorsofIntent

Respondents with the highest intent to install a rain garden within the next 2 years.

Beliefsaboutoutcomes
Improvewaterquality Enhancewildlifehabitat Increasepropertyvalue

Theirvalues
Waterquality Wildlifehabitat Propertyvalue

Results SignificantPredictor
Degreetowhich respondentsbelieved significantothers would lookfavorablytoward theminstallingarain garden. Mostcaredwhatothers thought.

TakeHomeonMarketingResidential RainGardens
Helpaudiencevisualize gardens Helpaudiencefeeltheyfit in Offercostsharingincentives
discountnativeplants,use grants,partner

Emphasizeoutcomes
healthywaterquality, habitat,propertyvalue

Engagefriends,neighbors, family
communitydays, neighborhoodpromotions

ChangingHomeownersLawnCare BehaviortoReduceNutrientLosses
USDA/NIFA20065113003656

BangorMEStormwater Education
Developcampaignwithpartners. ConductcampaigninMS4communities. Evaluate.
Bangor Area Storm Water Group
Reduce your Use of Lawn Chemicals!

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Business partners

Thestencil andduck

Kidsand Pets message Local partners and affiliations Boyaboutto eatlawn

2010LandGrantandSeaGrantNational WaterConference

Logoandtag line 36

Logo/tag line Business partners Normative based message

Local partners and affiliations

Upscale homewith lushlawn

Childanddog onsafelawn
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EvaluatingtheBASWGCampaign
6Neighborhoodsreceivedoneofthreetreatments: standardmessaging,normativemessaging,and control(experimentaldesign). Questionnairesweredelivereddoortodoorusingthedrop off/pickupmethodduringasnowstorm(n=230).

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EvaluatingtheBASWGCampaign
Testedfor:
Increasesin intentionto reduceor eliminateuse. Exposureto products. Changesin attitudes.
February22,2010 Multiple Comparisons LSD (I) (J) Treatme Treatment nt type type Standard Norm Control Norm Standard Control Control Standard Norm Intention to pesticide Standard Norm Control Norm Standard Control Control Standard Mean Difference (I-J) .14382 -.09472 -.14382 -.23854* .09472 .23854* .18889 -.11111 -.18889 -.30000* .11111 .30000* Dependent Variable Intention to fertilize Std. Error .11746 .11240 .11746 .10356 .11240 .10356 .12178 .11687 .12178 .11348 .11687 .11348

Sig. .223 .401 .223 .023 .401 .023 .124 .344 .124 .010 .344 .010 39

Norm 2010LandGrantandSeaGrantNational WaterConference

NotableResults
Normativemessages(Neighbors)worked. Standardmessaging(KidsandPets)alsoworked. Attitudesdidnotvary(significantly)acrossgroups. Thestencilsandthedoorhanger werevisibleand effective. Websiteandsocialnetworkswerenotcommonly used.

February22,2010

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Resources
Kotler,Philip,etal.,SocialMarketing:Improvingthe QualityofLife,SecondEd. ThousandOaks:Sage Publications,2002. Andreasen,Alan,MarketingSocialChange. San Francisco:JosseyBass,1995. McKenzieMohr,Doug,FosteringSustainableBehavior: AnIntroductiontoCommunityBasedSocialMarketing. BritishColombia,Canada:NewSocietyPublishers,1999. Wilbur,Jack,GettingYourFeetWetwithSocial Marketing.UtahDepartmentofAgricultureandFood. www.ag.utah.gov,2006 WaterWordsThatWork.www.waterwordsthatwork.com

Resources
http://www.buckleupamerica.org/ http://www.thetruth.com/ http://www.turningpointprogram.org/Pages/s ocialmkt.html www.epa.gov/owow/nps/toolbox.html

ThankYou!