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TYPES (GENRES) OF READING 1. Academic reading Reference material Textbooks, theses Essays, papers Test directions Editorials and opinion writing 2. Job-related reading Messages Letters/ emails Memos 3. Personal reading Newspapers and magezines Letters, emails, greeting cards, invitations Schedules (trains, bus, plane, etc)

MICROSKILLS, MACROSKILLS, AND STRATEGIES FOR READING Microskills 1. Dicriminate among the distinctive graphemes and orthographic patterns of english 2. Process writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose 3. Recognize grammatical word classes

Macroskills 1. Recognize the rhetorical forms of written discourse and their signiticance for interpretation 2. Infer context that is not explicit by using background knowledge 3. Develop and use a battery of reading strategies

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TYPES OF READING 1. Perceptive Involve attending to the components of larger stretches of discourse : letters, words, punctuation, and other graphemic symbols. 2. Selective Is largely an artifact of assessment ofrmats. Used picture-cued tasks, matching, true/ false, multiple-choice, etc. 3. Interactive Interactive task is to identify relevant features (lexical, symbolic, grammatical, and discourse) within texts of moderately short length with the objective of retaining the information that is processed. 4. Extensive The purposes of assessment usually are to tap into a learners global undestanding of a text, as opposed to asked test-takers to zoom in on small details. Top down processing is assumed for most extensive tasks.

PERCEPTIVE READING Reading Aloud Reads them aloud, one by one, in the presence of-an administrator.

Written response Reproduce the probein writing. Evaluation of the test takers response must be carefully treated.

Multiple-choise Choosing one of four or five possible answers.

Picture-Cued Items Shown a picture, written text and are given one of a number of possible tasks to perform.

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SELECTIVE READING The test designer focuses on formal aspects of language (lexical, grammatical, and a few discourse features). Category includes what many incorrectly think of as testing vocabulary and grammar

Multiple-Choise (for Form-Focused Criteria) Multiple-choise items may have little context, but might serve as a vocabulary or grammar check.

Matching Tasks The most frequently appearing criterion in matching procedures is vocabulary.

Editing Tasks For grammatical or thetorical errors is a widely used test method for assessing linguistic competence in reading.

Picture Cued Tasks Saveral types of picture-cued methods. 1. Test-takers read a sentence or passage and choose one of four pictures that is being described. 2. Test-takers read a series of sentences or definitions, each describing a labeled part of a picture or diagram.

Gap-Filling Tasks Is to create completion items where test-takers read part of a sentence and then complete it by writing a phrase.

INTERACTIVE READING Cloze Tasks The ability to fill in gaps in an incomplete image (visual, auditory, or cognitive) and supply (from background schemata) omitted details.

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Impromptu Reading Plus Comprehension Questions Assessing reading without some component of the assessment involving impromptu reading and responding to questions.

Short-Answer Tasks A popular alternative to multiple-choise questions following reading passages is the ageold short-answer format.

Editing (Longer Texts) The same technique has been applied successfully to longer passages of 200 to 300 words. Saveral advantages are gained in the longer format. First, authenticity, second, the tasks simulates proofreading ones own essay. Thrid, connected to a specific curriculum.

Scanning Strategy used by all readers to find relevant information in a text.

Ordering Tasks Variations on this can serve as an assessment of overall global understanding of a story and of the cohesive devices that signal the order of events or ideas.

Information Transfers Rading Charts, Maps, Graphs, Diagrams All of these media presuppose the readers appropriate schemata for interpretng them and often are accompanied by oral or written discourse in order to convey, clraify, question, argue, and debate, among other linguistic functions.

EXTENSIVE READING Involves somewhat longer texts than we have been dealing with up to this point.

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Skimming Tasks Is the process of rapid coverage of reading matter to determine its gist or main idea.

Summarizing and Responding Is make summary of the text and give it a respond about the text

Note Taking and Outlining A teacher, perhaps in one-on-one conferences with studetns, can use student notes/ outlines as indicators of the presence or absense of effective reading strategies, and thereby point the learners in positive directions.

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