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Cancer 02: A man suspended over a vast level place

The word man descends from the IE root man-1 which means “man” and from which also descend manikin, mannequin, mensch, and Manu. 1 The word suspended is a derivative of the IE root (s)pen- which means “to dra w, stretch, spin.” 2 Other derivatives of this root include spindle, painter (a rope attached to the bow of a boat, used for tying up, as when docking or towing), pansy, penchant,

pendant, pendulum, pension, pensive, peso, poise, append, appendix, avoirdupois, compendium, compensate, depend, dispense, expend, impend, penthouse, perpendicular, stipend, span, spangle, ponder, and spontaneous.

The prefix sus- descends from the root upo- which means “under, up from under, over.” 3 Other derivatives include above, eaves, often, opal, open, supine, up, uproar, valet, and vassal The word over descends from the IE root uper-, which means “over” and from which also descend the words sovereign, super,

and from which also descend the words sovereign, super, super-, sum, from "desolate, unoccupied, empty." 5

super-,

sum,

from

"desolate, unoccupied, empty." 5

supra-,

Latin

superb,

soprano,

vastus

superior,

and

supreme,

sur-,

sirloin,

vast

supernal,

descends

summit,

the

somersault. 4

The

word

extensive,

meaning "immense,

huge,"

also

1 W a t k i n s ,

c .

( 2 0 0 0 ) ,

T h e

A m e r i c a n

H e r i t a g e

D i c t i o n a r y

o f

I n d o - E u r o p e a n

R o o t s ,

p .

5 1

2 W a t k i n s ,

c .

( 2 0 0 0 ) ,

T h e

A m e r i c a n

H e r i t a g e

D i c t i o n a r y

o f

I n d o

- E u r o p e a n

R o o t s ,

p .

8 2

3 W a t k i n s ,

c .

( 2 0 0 0 ) ,

T h e

A m e r i c a n

H e r i t a g e

D i c t i o n a r y

o f

I n d o

- E u r o p e a n

R o o t s ,

p .

9 4

4 W a t k i n s ,

c .

( 2 0 0 0 ) ,

T h e

A m e r i c a n

H e r i t a g e

D i c t i o n a r y

o

f

I n d o - E u r o p e a n

R o o t s ,

p .

9 4

5 h t t p : / / w w w . e t y m o n l i n e . c o m / i n d e x . p h p ? t e r m = v a s t

The word level descends from the IE root lithra and means “a scale.” It is described by Watkins as a “Mediterranean word probably the source of Latin libra, a pound, balance, and Greek litra, unit of weight, pound.” 6 Other derivatives of this root include lira, livre, deliberate, equilibrium, and liter. Finally, the word place descends from the IE root plat- which means “to spread.” 7 Other derivatives include flatter, flan flounder, clan, plan, plant, supplant, transplant, piazza, plane, plate, plateau, platinum, and platitude. THEMES: One of the paronyms of suspended is the word perpendicular which means “being at right angles to the horizontal; vertical.” 8 This is exactly opposite level which can be defined as “being on a horizontal plane.” 9 It is also the opposite of plane, one of the paronyms of place which can be defined as “a flat or level surface.10 Thus there is a VERTICAL/HORIZONTAL theme here. A second set of relationships concerns WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Recall that the paronyms of level include liter (a measure formerly of weight and now of metric volume ) and libra (a unit of weight in ancient Rome, approximately 12 ounces ). 11 Further recall that among the paronyms of suspended is the word avoirdupois a system of weights and measures based on a pound containing 16 ounces.” 12 A third theme concerns BALANCE. Recall that another paronym of suspended is the word poise, one definition of which is “to carry

6 W a t k i n s ,

c .

( 2 0 0 0 ) ,

T h e

A m e r i c a n

H e r i t a g e

D i c t i o n a r y

o f

I n d o

- E u r o p e a n

R o o t s ,

p .

5 0

7 W a t k i n s ,

c .

( 2 0 0 0 ) ,

T h e

A m e r i c a n

H e r i t a g e

D i c t i o n a r y

o f

I n d o - E u r o p e a n

R o o t s ,

p .

6 8

8 h t t p : / / e d u c a t i o n . y a h o o . c o m / r e f e r e n c e / d i c t i o n a r y / e n t r y / p e r p e n d i c u l a r

9 h t t p : / / e d u c a t i o n . y a h o o . c o m / r e f e r e n c e / d i c t i o n a r y / e n t r y / l e v e l

10 h t t p : / / e d u c a t i o n . y a h o o . c o m / r e f e r e n c e / d i c t i o n a r y / e n t r y / p l a n e

11 h t t p : / / e d u c a t i o n . y a h o o . c o m / r e f e r e n c e / d i c t i o n a r y / e n t r y / l i b r a

12 h t t p : / / e d u c a t i o n . y a h o o . c o m / r e f e r e n c e / d i c t i o n a r y / e n t r y / a v o i r d u p o i s + w e i g h t

or hold in equilibrium; balance.” 13 This word is a synonym of equilibrium, one of the paronyms of level. A final theme concerns verticality again or simply the UPWARD direction. This is evidenced by the fact that the prefix sus- in suspend and the keyword over descend from roots with almost identical meanings. Recall that the former descends from the IE root upo- which means “under, up from under, over.” The latter descends from the IE root uper- which means “over.”

13 h t t p : / / e d u c a t i o n . y a h o o . c o m / r e f e r e n c e / d i c t i o n a r y / e n t r y / p o i s e