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Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

Bipolar Junction Transistors

• Physical Structure & Symbols

• NPN n-type p-type n-type Emitter Base Collector region region region Emitter Collector (E) (C)
• NPN
n-type
p-type
n-type
Emitter
Base
Collector
region
region
region
Emitter
Collector
(E)
(C)
C B Base Emitter-base Collector-base E junction (EBJ) (B) junction (CBJ) (a) (b)
C
B
Base
Emitter-base
Collector-base
E
junction (EBJ)
(B) junction
(CBJ)
(a)
(b)

• PNP - similar, but:

• N- and P-type regions interchanged

• Arrow on symbol reversed

• Operating Modes

Operating mode

EBJ

CBJ

Cut-off

Reverse

Reverse

Active

Forward

Reverse

Saturation

Forward

Forward

Reverse-active

Reverse

Forward

• Active Mode - voltage polarities for NPN

IC VCB > 0 C B IB E VBE > 0 IE
IC
VCB > 0
C
B
IB
E
VBE > 0
IE

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

BJT - Operation in Active Mode

n p n IEn electrons E { C IE IEp holes recombination IC B IB
n
p
n
IEn
electrons
E
{
C
IE
IEp
holes
recombination
IC
B
IB

• I En , I Ep both proportional to exp(V BE /V T )

• I C I En

I C I S exp(V BE /V T )

• I B I Ep << I En can write

I C = β I B where β large

(1.1)

(1.2)

• I S = SATURATION CURRENT (typ 10 -15 to 10 -12 A)

• V T = THERMAL VOLTAGE = kT/e 25 mV at 25 °C

β = COMMON-EMITTER CURRENT GAIN (typ 50 to 250)

• Active Mode Circuit Model

B

IB IC β IB IE = IB + IC
IB
IC
β IB
IE = IB + IC

E

C

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

BJT Operating Curves - 1

• INPUT-OUTPUT

I C vs V BE

(for I S = 10 -13 A)

IC (mA)

100 80 ACTIVE CUT-OFF 60 40 20 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
100
80
ACTIVE
CUT-OFF
60
40
20
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8

VBE (V)

VCB > 0 B VBE
VCB > 0
B
VBE

IC

C

E

• ACTIVE REGION:

• I C 0

for V BE < 0.5 V

• I C rises very steeply for V BE > 0.5 V

• V BE 0.7 V over most of useful I C range

• I B vs V BE similar, but current reduced by factor β

• CUT-OFF REGION:

• I C 0

• Also I B , I E 0

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

BJT Operating Curves - 2

• OUTPUT

I C vs V CE

(for β = 50)

IC (mA) 12 SAT ACTIVE I B = 200 µA 10 I B = 160
IC (mA)
12
SAT
ACTIVE
I
B = 200 µA
10
I
B = 160 µA
8
I
B = 120 µA
6
I
B = 80 µA
4
I
B = 40 µA
2
VCE (V)
0
0
1
2
IC C B VCE E IB
IC
C
B
VCE
E
IB

• ACTIVE REGION (V CE > V BE ):

• I C = β I B , regardless of V CE

i.e.

CONTROLLED CURRENT SOURCE

• SATURATION REGION (V CE < V BE ):

• I C falls off as V CE 0

• V CEsat 0.2 V on steep part of each curve

• In both cases:

• V BE 0.7 V if I B non-negligible

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

Summary of BJT Characteristics

VCB > 0

V CB > 0 CUT-OFF ACTIVE • I C ≈ 0 • I C = I

CUT-OFF

ACTIVE

• IC 0

• IC = IS exp(VBE/VT)

• IB 0

• IC = β IB

 

• IC < β IB

• VCE < VBE

  • I C < β I B • V CE < V BE SATURATION V

SATURATION

I C < β I B • V CE < V BE SATURATION V CB <

VCB < 0

• VBE 0.7 V if IC non-negligible

VBE > 0

VBE < 0

i f I C non-negligible V BE > 0 V BE < 0 REVERSE-ACTIVE • V

REVERSE-ACTIVE

• VBE 0.7 V if IB non-negligible

(by definition)

• Also

I E = I B + I C

(always)

• THIS TABLE IS IMPORTANT - GET TO KNOW IT !

• For PNP table:

• Reverse order of suffices on all voltages in table

i.e. V CB V BC etc

• Reverse arrows on currents in circuit

i.e. arrows on I B , I C point out of PNP device, while arrow on I E

points in.

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

Common-Emitter Amplifier Conceptual Circuit RC IC VOUT VIN
Common-Emitter Amplifier
Conceptual Circuit
RC
IC
VOUT
VIN

VCC

• Assume active mode:

I C

=

I S exp(V IN /V T )

• Apply Ohm’s Law and KVL to output side:

V OUT

=

V CC

- R C I C

(1.3)

= V CC - R C I S exp(V IN /V T )

NOTE: Called ‘common-emitter’ because emitter is connected to reference point for both input and output circuits. Common-Base and Common-Collector also important.

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

C-E Amplifier Input-Output Relationship

• e.g. V CC = 20 V, R C = 10 kΩ, I S = 10 -14 A, V T = 25 mV.

V OUT (V)

20 ΔV IN ΔV OUT 15 10 Operating Point 5 0 V IN (V) 0.50
20
ΔV IN
ΔV OUT
15
10
Operating Point
5
0
V IN (V)
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70

• Plenty of voltage gain i.e. ΔV OUT >> ΔV IN

BUT:

• Highly non-linear

Output distorted unless input signal very small

Need to BIAS transistor to operate in correct region of graph to get high gain without distortion

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

C-E Amplifier Small-Signal Response - 1

Aim:

to get quantitative information about the small-signal voltage gain

and the linearity of a C-E amplifier

• Start with the large signal equations:

V OUT

= V CC

= V CC - R C I S exp(V IN /V T )

R C I C

-

• Suppose we add to V IN a small input signal voltage v in , resulting in a

corresponding signal v out at the output. We can relate v out to v in by

expanding the above as a Taylor series:

V OUT + v out

=

V CC - R C I C [1 + v in /V T + (v in /V T ) 2 /2 +

]

(1.5)

• Assuming v in << V T , we can neglect quadratic and higher terms, giving:

V OUT + v out

V CC - R C I C - R C (I C /V T )v in

v in << V T

This is a LINEAR APPROXIMATION, valid only when v in is small

Cont’d

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

C-E Amplifier Small-Signal Response - 2

• Using (1.3), we can separate the output voltage into BIAS and SIGNAL components:

V OUT

v out

=

V CC

- R C I C

- R C (I C /V T )v in

Quiescent O/P Voltage

Output Signal

• SMALL-SIGNAL VOLTAGE GAIN:

A v

=

v out /v in = - R C I C /V T = - R C g m

(1.10)

e.g. If quiescent O/P voltage lies roughly mid-way between the supply rails then R C I C V CC /2. In this case A v = -V CC /(2V T ), so for V CC = 20 V we get A V = -400.

The quantity g m = I C /V T is known as the TRANSCONDUCTANCE of the transistor.

• LINEARITY Include higher order terms from Equation 1.5:

v out

- R c g m [ v in

+ v in 2 /2 V T +

.

.

.

. ]

Ratio of unwanted quadratic term to linear term is v in /2V T , so expect 10 % distortion when v in /2V T 0.1, or v in 5 mV.

Amplifier is linear only for very small signals

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

Bias Stabilisation - 1

• Biasing at constant V BE is a bad idea, because I S and V T both vary with temperature, and we require constant I C (or I E ) for stable operation. Also, I S is not a well-defined transistor parameter.

• We can obtain approximately constant I E as follows:

VBIAS

vin

VCC RC VOUT + vout L RE
VCC
RC
VOUT + vout
L
RE

(a)

• KVL in loop L (with no signal) gives:

I E

=

(V BIAS - V BE ) /R E

(V BIAS - 0.7 V) /R E

(1.11)

if V BIAS >> V BE

I E relatively insensitive to exact value of V BE

• Get I C from

I C

= α I E

where α = β/(1 + β) 1

α is the COMMON-BASE CURRENT GAIN

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

Bias Stabilisation - 2

• R E provides NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

i.e. if the emitter current starts to rise as a result of some change in the transistor’s characteristics, then the voltage across R E rises accordingly. This in turn lowers the base-emitter voltage of the transistor, tending to bring the emitter current back down towards its original value.

STABILISATION

BUT R E also:

• Reduces small-signal voltage gain:

A v

• Reduces output swing

=

- R C g m /(1 + I E R E /V T )

- α R C /R E

(1.12)

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

Bias Stabilisation - 3 Recovery of Small-Signal Voltage Gain

We can recover the original value of A v for AC signals by using a

BYPASS CAPACITOR:

• Now we have:

VBIAS

A v

vin

=

VCC RC VOUT + vout RE CE
VCC
RC
VOUT + vout
RE
CE

(b)

- R C g m /(1 + I E Z E /V T )

(1.12b)

where Z E is the combined impedance of R E and C E :

Z E

=

R E /(1 + jωR E C E )

By making C E large enough, we can make the parallel combination appear like a short circuit (i.e. | Z E | 0) at all AC frequencies of interest, so that Equation 1.12b reduces to A v - R C g m as for our original common-emitter amplifier. On the other hand, the capacitor has no effect on biasing, because it passes no DC current.

NB

Technique only really relevant to discrete circuits (no big capacitors inside IC’s!)

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

Example 1 Analyze the circuit below to determine the voltages at all nodes and the currents in all branches. Assume β = 100.

nodes and the currents in all branches. Assume β = 100. 1. V B E is
nodes and the currents in all branches. Assume β = 100. 1. V B E is

1.

V BE is around 0.7V

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

Example 2 Analyze the circuit below to determine the voltages at all nodes and the currents in all branches. Assume β = 100.

at all nodes and the currents in all branches. Assume β = 100. (Based on Dr
at all nodes and the currents in all branches. Assume β = 100. (Based on Dr
at all nodes and the currents in all branches. Assume β = 100. (Based on Dr
at all nodes and the currents in all branches. Assume β = 100. (Based on Dr

Aero2 Signals & Systems (Part 2) Notes on BJT and transistor circuits

Step 1: Simplify base circuit using Thévenin’s theorem.

Step 1: Simplify base circuit using Thévenin’s theorem. Step 2: Evaluate the base or emitter current

Step 2: Evaluate the base or emitter current by writing a loop equation around the loop marked L.

by writing a loop equation around the loop marked L. • Step 3: Now evaluate all
by writing a loop equation around the loop marked L. • Step 3: Now evaluate all

Step 3: Now evaluate all the voltages.

V

B

I

C

V

C

=

V

BE

+

= (

β

1 +

β

= +15

I R

E

)

I

E

I R

C

E

=

C

= 0.7 +1.29× 3 = 4.57

0.99

×

1.29

=

1.28

mA

= 15 1.28× 5 = 8.6

V

V