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Elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus

(revised edition)

William Anthony Granville 1

1-15-2008

1 With the editorial cooperation of Percey F. Smith.

Contents

vi

Contents

0 Preface

xiii

1 Collection of formulas

 

1

1.1 Formulas for reference

 

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1

1.2 Greek alphabet

 

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4

1.3 Rules for signs of the trigonometric functions

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1.4 Natural values of the trigonometric functions

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1.5 Logarithms of numbers and trigonometric functions

 

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2 Variables and functions

 

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2.1 Variables and constants

 

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7

2.2 Interval of a

 

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8

2.3 Continuous variation. 2.4 .

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2.5 Independent and dependent variables.

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2.6 Notation of functions .

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9

2.7 Values of the independent variable for which a function is defined

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2.8 Exercises

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3 Theory of limits

 

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3.1 Limit of a variable

 

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3.2 Division by zero excluded

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15

3.3 Infinitesimals

 

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15

3.4 The concept of infinity ()

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3.5 Limiting value of a function

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3.6 Continuous and discontinuous functions

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3.7 Continuity and discontinuity of functions illustrated by their graphs 18

3.8 Fundamental theorems on limits

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3.12 Expressions assuming the form

3.13 Exercises

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25

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32

Special limiting values

The number e

vii

CONTENTS

4 Differentiation

35

4.1 Introduction .

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4.2 Increments

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4.3 Comparison of increments

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36

4.4 Derivative of a function of one variable

 

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4.5 Symbols for derivatives .

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38

4.6 Differentiable functions

 

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4.7 General rule for differentiation

 

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39

4.8 Exercises

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41

4.9 Applications of the derivative to Geometry

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43

4.10 Exercises

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45

5 Rules for differentiating standard elementary forms

 

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5.1 Importance of General Rule

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49

5.2 Differentiation of a constant

 

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51

5.3 Differentiation of a variable with respect to itself

 

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5.4 Differentiation of a sum

 

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52

5.5 Differentiation of the product of a constant and a function

 

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5.6 Differentiation of the product of two functions

 

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5.7 Differentiation of the product of any finite number of functions .

 

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5.8 Differentiation of a function with a constant exponent

 

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5.9 Differentiation of a quotient

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5.10 Examples

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55

5.11 Differentiation of a function of a function

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59

5.12 Differentiation of inverse functions

 

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60

5.13 Differentiation of a logarithm

 

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62

5.14 Differentiation of the simple exponential function

 

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5.15 Differentiation of the general exponential function

 

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5.16 Logarithmic differentiation

 

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5.17 Examples

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66

5.18 Differentiation of sin v

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69

5.19 Differentiation of cos v

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70

5.20 Differentiation of tan v

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5.21 Differentiation of cot v

 

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71

5.22 Differentiation of sec v

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71

5.23 Differentiation of csc v

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5.24 Differentiation of vers v

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5.25 Exercises

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5.26 Differentiation of arcsin v

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5.27 Differentiation of arccos v

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5.28 Differentiation of arctan v

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5.29 Differentiation of arccotu

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5.30 Differentiation of arcsecu

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5.31 Differentiation of arccsc v

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5.32 Differentiation of arcvers v

 

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5.33 Example .

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82

viii

CONTENTS

5.34 Implicit functions .

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5.35 Differentiation of implicit functions

 

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5.36 Exercises

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5.37 Miscellaneous Exercises

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6 Simple applications of the derivative

 

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6.1 Direction of a curve

 

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6.2 Exercises

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6.3 Equations of tangent and normal lines

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6.4 Exercises

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6.5 Parametric equations of a curve

 

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6.6 Exercises

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6.7 Angle between the radius vector and tangent

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6.8 Lengths of polar subtangent and polar subnormal

 

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6.9 Examples

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113

6.10 Solution of equations having multiple roots

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115

6.11 Examples

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116

6.12 Applications of the derivative in mechanics

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117

6.13 Component velocities. Curvilinear

 

119

6.14 Acceleration. Rectilinear motion.

 

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6.15 Component accelerations. Curvilinear

 

120

6.16 Examples

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121

6.17 Application: Newton’s method

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6.17.1 Description of the method

 

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6.17.2 Analysis .

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