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X-shaped Radio Sources Formation - Test of a New Interpretation

O. Teileanu1,2 , S. Massaglia2 , M. Rusu1 s March 8, 2004


Universitatea Bucureti, Facultatea de Fizic s a Universit` degli Studi di Torino, Facolt` di a a Scienze M.F.N.
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Abstract
In continuation of the work of Capetti et al. (2002), the present work investigates the X-shaped morphologies and tries to establish the area in parameter space where such morphologies form. The main objective is to verify the new proposed interpretation for the X-shaped structures formation, by 2D and 3D numerical simulations.

the power of the source. According to this interpretation, the radio galaxies are AGNs of high power viewed from a direction close to the perpendicular on the jets - the central emission is obscured by the dust torus, and extended radio-emitting lobes are visible. The radio galaxies are classied in two groups, based on the power of their radio emission (Fanaro & Riley 1974): FR I and FR II. Morphologic dierences appear between these two classes. The jets terminate in large structures - the cocoons - that correspond to the lobes of radio emission. The structure of the cocoon was described by Massaglia et al. (1996). Figure 1: The structure of the cocoon

Introduction
Bow Shock

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Quiet medium

The classication of extragalactic radio sources is still subject of discussions, but a widely accepted classication exists and is based on observational characteristics. Its categories are (growing radio power): Seyfert galaxies (type I and II), Radio galaxies (FR I and FR II), and Quasars (radio and radio-quiet). A fourth category is formed by the variable sources Blazars (BL Lacs and OVV). Unied models were proposed for the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that are the sites of the observed extragalactic radio sources. These models are based on the existence of a supermassive black hole (with mass > 108 M ) at the center of the host galaxy. The black hole is surrounded by an unresolved accretion disk and a dust torus, and two opposite jets are produced. The various morphologies observed are determinated by dierent positions of our line of sight with respect to the direction of the jets axis and by 1

Shocked IGM

4. 3.

Contact discontinuity Backflow

Beam

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2.
Mach disk

The overpressure factors inside the cocoon sustain the collimation of the jet (the observed collimation angles are below 15 ). The cocoon generates along the jet shock waves that compress it. In numerical simulations, structures like the radio emitting lobes observed in radio galaxies form

for densities of the jet matter much below the densi- However, none could explain all the observational asties of the external medium. The hot spots of radio pects. emission correspond to the Mach disk. The new proposed interpretation will be discussed Less powerful sources have more complex struc- in the next section. tures. The distortions observed in FR II jets can be classied in: 2 The Sample mirror-symmetric, or C-shaped, when the two Our test sample is the one used by Capetti et al. jets bend in the same direction; (2002), and consists of 9 FR II radio galaxies, selected centro-symmetric, or X or Z-shaped, when the from the literature on the basis of the high extension of the secondary radio lobes. jets bend in opposite directions. About 7% of the FR II radio sources are X-shaped, having also a pair of secondary radio lobes (Leahy & Parma 1992). Usually, the radio power of these sources is not very high, being at the lower limit for the FR II. The composition of extragalactic jets is not well known, although there are observational clues (polarization measurements) that support the electronpositron hypothesis. Jets seem to be pressure-conned along their length. The ow velocities are supersonic at large scales, and even relativistic at parsec-scales (Kpc for FR II). Velocity measurements are dicult due to the absence of emission/absorption lines. The jet radius increases thousands times leaving the inner core, but after that it recollimates to a conical structure. The parameters that characterize a jet are the Mach number M with respect to the sound speed in the external medium and - the ratio between the jet density and the density of the external gas distribution in the central point. The mechanism of radio emission in radio galaxies is the synchrotron radiation from accelerated charged particles. The bow shock propagating through the ambient medium creates a compressed region where particle acceleration, and thus radio emission, occur (Fermis mechanism). The density proles obtained in numerical simulations correspond to luminosity proles and can be compared with observations. Several interpretations were made for the formation of X-shaped radio sources: backow and buoyancy (Leahy & Williams 1984), conical precession (Parma et al. 1985), reorientation of the jet axis. 2 Table 1: A list of the sample sources, with the relevant parameters of the radio source and of the host galaxy. Taken from Capetti et al., 2002. Name 3C 52 3C 63 3C 136.1 3C 192 3C 223.1 3C 315 3C 403 4C 12.03 4C 32.25 Optical 55 80 -80 -85 40 35 35 -25 90 Wings -65 -45 10 60 -40 -45 -50 70 -5 Oset 60 55 90 55 80 80 85 85 85 Radio 25 30 -70 -55 15 10 85 15 60

Figure 2: 3C52 radio map


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The new interpretation of the origin of X-shaped radio sources is based on two remarks:

The angle between the main axis of the mass distribution in the external medium and the main Figure 4: M = 100, = 0.1. Density(log), pressure, jets axis avoids small values, having an average vr , vz proles. of 75 . The X-shaped radio sources appear in host galaxies of high ellipticity. Figure 3: 3C315 radio map
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Figure 5: M = 200, = 0.0001.

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while light jets do form such structures for high velocities. As resulted from the 2D simulations, the wings Capetti et al. (2002) suggested that the buttery morphologies appear naturally in some peculiar geo- form for high velocities M 60 and low densities metrical situations. They performed some 2D simu- 0.003. lations, and demonstrated that in a ellipsoidal stratied medium, if a supersonic jet is introduced along Figure 6: Parameter space - open circles represent the main axis of the gas distribution, the bow shock the formation X-shaped morphologies expands also sideways at great speeds because of the higher density gradient in that direction. This way the secondary jets (the wings) form. The simulated structures could be identied as Xshaped sources for a wide range of view angles. However, such structures do not form for any jet parameters, so a study of the area in the parameter space where they develop was needed, and was performed during this work.

15h13m45s 15h13m42s 15h13m39s 15h13m36s RA

15h13m45s 15h13m42s 15h13m39s 15h13m36s RA

2D Simulations

The 2D simulations were performed in cylindrical symmetry on an uniform grid of 512x512 integration cells in one quadrant of the r z space. The r z prole is obtained by symmetry. The jet is aligned to the gas distributions major For low Mach numbers (10,20,30) buttery strucaxis (constraint imposed by the cylindrical symmetry). Dense jets never form X-shaped structures, tures do not form at all, because for low densities 3

the velocity becomes subsonic with respect to the jet medium. It is an observational constraint (the existence of knots and laments in jets) that the jets should be supersonic.

3D Simulations

The 3D simulations, performed for M = 100 and = 0.001 on a 312x312x96 stretched grid, produced morphologies close to those obtained in the corresponding 2D simulations. This sustains the validity of the conclusions on the parameter space drawn from the 2D simulations. Figure 7: Full rotation of the simulated 3D density prole

It may be concluded that the formation of X-shaped structures can be due to a particular geometrical conguration, as described above. We have found, in the M parameter space, a zone where X-shaped morphologies form. Further 3D simulations are to be performed in order to understand the dependence of the wings extension with the angle between the jets and the main axis of the gas distribution.

References
1. Capetti A., Zamr S., Rossi P., Bodo G., Zanni C., Massaglia S. 2002, A&A 394, 39 2. Colella P., Puckett E.G. 1994, Modern Numerical Methods for Fluid Flow, Course Notes, University of California 3. Fanaro B.L., Riley J.M. 1974, MNRAS 167, 31P 4. Ferrari A. 1998, Annu.Rev. A&A 36, 539 5. Leahy J.P, Williams A.G. 1984, MNRAS 210, 929 6. Massaglia S., Bodo G., Ferrari A. 1996, A&A 307, 997 7. Massaglia S. 2002, Constraining the Parameters of AGN Jets, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands

Asymmetries due to the ellipsoidal gas distribution can be observed, however not large because the ratio between the scales of the King gas distribution was 3:6:4. On the x and z directions the density gradient is close enough not to produce large asymmetries.

8. Zanni C., Bodo G., Rossi P., Massaglia S., Durbala A., Ferrari A. 2003, A&A 402, 949

Conclusions

Depending on their speed and density, some of the simulated jets form extended secondary structures. The resulting morphologies, viewed from dierent angles, are similar to the observed X-shaped sources. 4