X-shaped Radio Sources Formation - Test of a New Interpretation

O. Te¸ileanu1,2 , S. Massaglia2 , M. Rusu1 s March 8, 2004
Universitatea Bucure¸ti, Facultatea de Fizic˘ s a Universit` degli Studi di Torino, Facolt` di a a Scienze M.F.N.
2 1

In continuation of the work of Capetti et al. (2002), the present work investigates the X-shaped morphologies and tries to establish the area in parameter space where such morphologies form. The main objective is to verify the new proposed interpretation for the X-shaped structures formation, by 2D and 3D numerical simulations.

the power of the source. According to this interpretation, the radio galaxies are AGNs of high power viewed from a direction close to the perpendicular on the jets - the central emission is obscured by the dust torus, and extended radio-emitting lobes are visible. The radio galaxies are classified in two groups, based on the power of their radio emission (Fanaroff & Riley 1974): FR I and FR II. Morphologic differences appear between these two classes. The jets terminate in large structures - the cocoons - that correspond to the lobes of radio emission. The structure of the cocoon was described by Massaglia et al. (1996). Figure 1: The structure of the cocoon


Bow Shock

Quiet medium

The classification of extragalactic radio sources is still subject of discussions, but a widely accepted classification exists and is based on observational characteristics. Its categories are (growing radio power): Seyfert galaxies (type I and II), Radio galaxies (FR I and FR II), and Quasars (radio and radio-quiet). A fourth category is formed by the variable sources Blazars (BL Lacs and OVV). Unified models were proposed for the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that are the sites of the observed extragalactic radio sources. These models are based on the existence of a supermassive black hole (with mass > 108 M ) at the center of the host galaxy. The black hole is surrounded by an unresolved accretion disk and a dust torus, and two opposite jets are produced. The various morphologies observed are determinated by different positions of our line of sight with respect to the direction of the jets axis and by 1

Shocked IGM

4. 3.

Contact discontinuity Backflow



Mach disk

The overpressure factors inside the cocoon sustain the collimation of the jet (the observed collimation angles are below 15◦ ). The cocoon generates along the jet shock waves that compress it. In numerical simulations, structures like the radio emitting lobes observed in radio galaxies form

the ratio between the jet density and the density of the external gas distribution in the central point. The new proposed interpretation will be discussed Less powerful sources have more complex struc.fits_0_contour 40 40 20 20 20 LL 40 60 20 LL 40 60 The new interpretation of the origin of X-shaped radio sources is based on two remarks: . tures. Name 3C 52 3C 63 3C 136. The parameters that characterize a jet are the Mach number M with respect to the sound speed in the external medium and ν . The distortions observed in FR II jets can be classified in: 2 The Sample • mirror-symmetric. About 7% of the FR II radio sources are X-shaped. occur (Fermi’s mechanism). The jet radius increases thousands times leaving the inner core. or C-shaped. The flow velocities are supersonic at large scales.However. 2 Table 1: A list of the sample sources. and even relativistic at parsec-scales (Kpc for FR II).fits_0 MM 60 MM 60 3c52. The hot spots of radio pects. or X or Z-shaped. Velocity measurements are difficult due to the absence of emission/absorption lines. reorientation of the jet axis. and thus radio emission. being at the lower limit for the FR II.for densities of the jet matter much below the densi.. 2002. (2002). emission correspond to the Mach disk. conical precession (Parma et al. although there are observational clues (polarization measurements) that support the electronpositron hypothesis. The bow shock propagating through the ambient medium creates a compressed region where particle acceleration. when the from the literature on the basis of the high extension of the secondary radio lobes. when the two Our test sample is the one used by Capetti et al. The density profiles obtained in numerical simulations correspond to luminosity profiles and can be compared with observations. Taken from Capetti et al.03 4C 32. Usually. Several interpretations were made for the formation of X-shaped radio sources: backflow and buoyancy (Leahy & Williams 1984). The composition of extragalactic jets is not well known. jets bend in the same direction. Jets seem to be pressure-confined along their length.1 3C 192 3C 223.1 3C 315 3C 403 4C 12. 1985). The mechanism of radio emission in radio galaxies is the synchrotron radiation from accelerated charged particles. but after that it recollimates to a conical structure.in the next section.25 Optical 55 80 -80 -85 40 35 35 -25 90 Wings -65 -45 10 60 -40 -45 -50 70 -5 Offset 60 55 90 55 80 80 85 85 85 Radio 25 30 -70 -55 15 10 85 15 60 Figure 2: 3C52 radio map 3c52. none could explain all the observational asties of the external medium. having also a pair of secondary radio lobes (Leahy & Parma 1992). the radio power of these sources is not very high. selected • centro-symmetric. and consists of 9 FR II radio galaxies. jets bend in opposite directions. with the relevant parameters of the radio source and of the host galaxy.

The r − z profile is obtained by symmetry. This way the secondary jets (the “wings”) form. They performed some 2D simu. However. As resulted from the 2D simulations.fits_0_contour Figure 5: M = 200. and was performed during this work. and demonstrated that in a ellipsoidal stratified medium. because for low densities 3 . the “wings” Capetti et al. tures do not form at all. Density(log).open circles represent the main axis of the gas distribution.30) butterfly strucaxis (constraint imposed by the cylindrical symmetry). ν = 0.ν ≤ 0. (2002) suggested that the “butterfly” morphologies appear naturally in some peculiar geo. of 75◦ .20.0001. The jet is aligned to the gas distribution’s major For low Mach numbers (10. having an average vr . vz profiles.• The angle between the main axis of the mass distribution in the external medium and the main Figure 4: M = 100.form for high velocities M ≥ 60 and low densities metrical situations. such structures do not form for any jet parameters. Dense jets never form X-shaped structures. jets axis avoids small values.003. 15h13m45s 15h13m42s 15h13m39s 15h13m36s RA 15h13m45s 15h13m42s 15h13m39s 15h13m36s RA 3 2D Simulations The 2D simulations were performed in cylindrical symmetry on an uniform grid of 512x512 integration cells in one quadrant of the r − z space. ν = 0. • The X-shaped radio sources appear in host galaxies of high ellipticity. Figure 3: 3C315 radio map 3c315.fits_0 DEC 26:09 DEC 26:09 3c315. so a study of the area in the parameter space where they develop was needed.1. The simulated structures could be identified as Xshaped sources for a wide range of view angles. if a supersonic jet is introduced along Figure 6: Parameter space . lations. 26:08 26:08 26:07 26:07 while light jets do form such structures for high velocities. the bow shock the formation X-shaped morphologies expands also sideways at great speeds because of the higher density gradient in that direction. pressure.

Course Notes.the velocity becomes subsonic with respect to the jet medium.. 1998. 1984. 949 5 Conclusions Depending on their speed and density. however not large because the ratio between the scales of the King gas distribution was 3:6:4. 1974. Massaglia S. 8. A&A 402.G. MNRAS 210. 1994. Bodo G. A&A 36. 2002. Ferrari A.L. Rossi P. Annu. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Puckett E... some of the simulated jets form extended secondary structures. Durbala A. This sustains the validity of the conclusions on the parameter space drawn from the 2D simulations.. a zone where X-shaped morphologies form. 39 2.. Capetti A. Modern Numerical Methods for Fluid Flow. A&A 394. Bodo G.. We have found. Rossi P. It is an observational constraint (the existence of knots and filaments in jets) that the jets should be supersonic. are similar to the observed X-shaped sources. MNRAS 167. University of California 3. Massaglia S. 2002. On the x and z directions the density gradient is close enough not to produce large asymmetries. Massaglia S.. Zanni C.. Ferrari A.. 539 5.. 4 3D Simulations The 3D simulations. Zanni C. Further 3D simulations are to be performed in order to understand the dependence of the wings extension with the angle between the jets and the main axis of the gas distribution. A&A 307.Rev. as described above. Fanaroff B. Zamfir S. Ferrari A. 2003.. 997 7. 31P 4. viewed from different angles. Bodo G. Netherlands Asymmetries due to the ellipsoidal gas distribution can be observed.M. performed for M = 100 and ν = 0..001 on a 312x312x96 stretched grid. in the M − ν parameter space. Massaglia S. 4 .. Figure 7: Full rotation of the simulated 3D density profile It may be concluded that the formation of X-shaped structures can be due to a particular geometrical configuration. References 1. Riley J. produced morphologies close to those obtained in the corresponding 2D simulations. Constraining the Parameters of AGN Jets. 1996. Williams A. Leahy J. Colella P. The resulting morphologies.P..G. 929 6.