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Heat Transport k, k
m
and
with trial & error
Lola Domnina B. Pestao
Instructor
Heat Transport
One end of an aluminum rod is heated to 400
o
C
while the other end is maintained at 0
o
C in an
ice-water bath. The rod is 20mm in diameter
and 1m long. Calculate
a)the heat flux through the rod.
b) the rate of heat loss in the rod
c) the temperature 20 cm from the hotter end.
For aluminum
9.6 Foust

m C m
s J
703 k
o 2
) / (
=
D = 20 mm
0
o
C
400
o
C
1 2
Solution:
L = 1m
A
q
,
Required:
Aluminum

m C m
s J
703 k
o 2
) / (
=
X
1
= 0 m X
2
= 1 m
T
1
=
T
2
=
a) Heat flux through the rod
b) Rate of heat loss in the rod
c) Temperature (20cm from the hotter end)
, q
Ax=20cm

dx
dT
k
A
q
=
Solution:

1 2
2 1
x x
T T
k
A
q

=
Heat Transport Equation:
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
0 400
703
A
q

m
W
or
s m
J
281200
A
q
2 2
=
T
3
=?
3
, T
3
q
02 0
4
A
2
) . (
t
=
b) q = ?
( ) A 281200 q=
c) T
3
1
400 0

2 0
400 T
x
T
3

=

=
A
A
.

m
W
281200
A
q
2
=
2 2
2
m 02 0
4 m
W
281200 q |
.
|

\
|

t
= .
W 3416 88 q . =
C 320 T
o
3
=
A = area normal to q
A
q
D = 20 mm
0
o
C
400
o
C
1 2
Solution:
L = 1m
Aluminum
q
X
1
= 0 m X
2
= 1 m
T
1
=
T
2
=
Case 2: What if k is not given?
k = f(x, T)
k
Al
= k
400
o
C
= k
0
o
C
Get k
m
instead
Where: k
m
= Mean thermal conductivity of Al
From App. D-10c (Foust): for Al
T
(
o
C)
k
[BTU/hr-ft(oF/ft)]
k
(W/mK)
0 117 202.3632
400
o
C 144 249.0624
X 1.7296

1 2
2 1
x x
T T
k
A
q
m

= Note: km must be between T


1
and T
2
( ) k k
2
1
k
2 1 m
+ = Let:
( ) 0624 249 3632 202
2
1
. . + =

mK
W
7128 225 k
m
. =
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
0 400
7128 225.
A
q

m
W
12 90285
A
q
2
. =
2
From HB Table 2-327: for Al and interpolating:
T
(
o
C)
k
(W/mK)
0 or 273K 263.28
400
o
C or 673K 227.62
Note: k
m
must be between T
1
and T
2
( ) k k
2
1
k
2 1 m
+ = Let:
( ) . . 62 227 28 263
2
1
+ =

mK
W
. k
m
45 245 =
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
0 400
45 245.
A
q

m
W
A
q
2
98180 =

1 2
2 1
x x
T T
k
A
q
m

=
D = 20 mm
0
o
C
400
o
C
1 2
Solution:
L = 1m
Aluminum q
k
1
= 249.0624 k
2
= 202.3632
T
1
=
T
2
=
Case 3: What is the temperature at 20cm from the hotter end? k not given
T
3
= ?
Ax=20cm
T
3
=?
k
3
=?
c
x
T
k
m
=
A
A
( ) ( )
1
400 0 7128 225
02 0
400
3

=
.
.
T k
m

( ) k k
2
1
k
3 1 m
+ = Where:
3
eqn. 1
k
7024 1805
400 T
m
3
.
=
( ) k k
2
1
k
3 1 m
+ = eqn. 2
Steps: (by Trial and Error)
1. Assume a value of k
m
2. Solve T
3
(use eqn.1)
Get corresponding value of
k
3
(at T
3
) from Table 2-327
3. Compute k
m
(use eqn. 2)
4. Check if computed k
m
= assumed k
m
5. If not equal, make this computed k
m
as
your next assumption.
Trial 1:
1. Assume k
m
= k
1
= 249.0624
2. T
3
= 392.75
o
C =665.75K
k
3
(at T
3
) = 228.06
3. k
m
= 238.56
= 249.0624
5. Make this your 2
nd
assumption
Step. 4
eqn. 1
k
7024 1805
400 T
m
3
.
=
( ) k k
2
1
k
3 1 m
+ = eqn. 2
Steps: (2
nd
iteration)
1. Assume k
m
(use answer from 1
st
iteration)
2. Solve T
3
(use eqn.1)
Get corresponding value of
k
3
(at T
3
) from Table 2-327
3. Compute k
m
(use eqn. 2)
4. Check if computed k
m
= assumed k
m
5. If not equal, make this computed k
m
as
your next assumption.
Trial 2:
1. k
m
= 238.56 (2
nd
assumption)
2. T
3
= 392.43
o
C or 665.43K
k
3
(at T
3
) = 228.07
3. k
m
= 238.22
= 238.56
Step. 4
5. Make this your 3
rd
assumption
eqn. 1
k
7024 1805
400 T
m
3
.
=
( ) k k
2
1
k
3 1 m
+ = eqn. 2
Steps: (3
rd
iteration)
1. Assume k
m
(use answer from 1
st
iteration)
2. Solve T
3
(use eqn.1)
Get corresponding value of
k
3
(at T
3
) from Table 2-327
3. Compute k
m
(use eqn. 2)
4. Check if computed k
m
= assumed k
m
5. If not equal, make this computed k
m
as
your next assumption.
Trial 2:
1. k
m
= 238.22 (3
rd
assumption)
2. T
3
= 392.42
o
C or 665.42K
k
3
(at T
3
) = 228.07
3. k
m
= 238.22
~ 238.22
5. STOP!
Step. 4
Therefore, T
3
= 392.42
o
C