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Proportion is a correspondence among the measures of the members of an entire work, and of the whole to a certain part selected as standard. From this result the principles of symmetry. Without symmetry and proportion there can be no principles in the design of any temple; that is, if there is no precise relation between its members as in the case of those of a well shaped man. Vitruvius,[1] The Ten Books of Architecture (III, Ch. 1)

A Fibonacci spiral, created by drawing arcs connecting the opposite corners of squares in the Fibonacci tiling shown above see golden spiral

A tiling with squares whose sides are successive Fibonacci numbers in length

Contents

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1 Architectural proportions 2 Sacred proportions 3 Harmony and proportion as sacred geometry 4 Proportioned vs dimensioned modules 5 Vitruvian proportion 6 Renaissance orders 7 Le modulor 8 The plastic number 9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 References o 11.1 Architectural References o 11.2 Classical References o 11.3 Historical References

o o o o o

11.4 Mathematical References 11.5 Mensurational References 11.6 Near Eastern References 11.7 Egyptological References 11.8 Linguistic References

In architecture the whole is not just a building but the set and setting of the site. The things that make a building and its site "well shaped" include the orientation of the site and the buildings on it to the features of the grounds on which it is situated. Light, shade, wind, elevation, choice of materials, all should relate to a standard and say what is it that makes it what it is, and what is it that makes it not something else. Vitruvius thought of proportion in terms of unit fractions[2] such as those used in the Greek Orders of Architecture.[3]

Orders of Architecture Scribes had been using unit fractions for their calculations at least since the time of the Egyptian Mathematical Leather Roll and Rhind Mathematical Papyrus[4] in Egypt and the Epic of Gilgamesh[5] in Mesopotamia.

One example of symmetry might be found in the inscription grids[6] of the Egyptians which were based on parts of the body and their symmetrical relation to each other, fingers, palms, hands, feet, cubits, etc.; Multiples of body proportions would be found in the arrangements of fields and in the buildings people lived in.[7] A cubit could be divided into fingers, palms, hands and so could a foot, or a multiple of a foot. Special units related to feet as the hypotenuse of a 3/4/5 triangle with one side a foot were named remen and introduced into the proportional system very early on. Curves were also defined in a similar manner and used by architects in their design of arches and other building elements. These proportional elements were used by the Persians, Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans, in laying out cities, stadiums, roads, processional ways, public buildings, ports, various areas for crops and grazing beasts of burden, so as to arrange the city as well as the building to be well proportioned,[8][9] Architectural practice has often used proportional systems to generate or constrain the forms considered suitable for inclusion in a building. In almost every building tradition there is a system of mathematical relations which governs the relationships between aspects of the design. These systems of proportion are often quite simple; whole number ratios or incommensurable ratios (such as the vesica piscis or the golden ratio)which were determined using geometrical methods. Generally the goal of a proportional system is to produce a sense of coherence and harmony among the elements of a building.

Among the Cistercians, Gothic, Renaissance, Egyptian, Semitic, Babylonian, Arab, Greek and Roman traditions; the harmonic proportions, human proportions, cosmological/astronomical proportions and orientations, and various aspects of sacred geometry (the vesica piscis), pentagram, golden ratio, and small whole-number ratios were all applied as part of the practice of architectural design. In the design of European cathedrals the necessary engineering to keep the structures from falling down gradually began to take precedence over or at least to have an influence on aesthetic proportions. Other concerns were symbolic astronomical references such as the towers of the Sun and Moon at Chartres and references to the various astrological and alchemical relationships being discovered by the natural philosophers and sages of the renaissance. The Roman Mille passus became the Myle of medieval western Europe and Roman archs and architecture while the mia chillioi influenced eastern Europe and its Gothic arches and architecture. Today in the Western hemisphere the foot is longer than the foote because of the researches of Galileo, Gabriel Mouton, Newton and others into the period of a seconds pendulum.

One aspect of proportional systems is to make them as universally applicable as possible, not just to one application but as a universal ideal statement of the proper proportions. There is a relationship between length and width and height; between length and area and between area and volume. Doors and windows are fenestrated. Fenestration is important so that the negative area of openings has a relation to the area of walls. Plans are reflected in sections and elevations. Themes are developed which spin off and relate to but expand upon the themes found in other buildings. Often there is a symbolic sacred geometry which goes outside the proportions of the building to relate to the oservations of the beauty of nature and its proportions in time and space and the elements of natural philosophy. Then it occurred to someone that there is more to it than just pleasing proportions. Thomas Jefferson wrote of how the substantive scale of public buildings made a statement of government stability and gave a nation consequence. Going back in time the same logic applied to the Pyramids of Egypt, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepset, the Temple of Solomon, the Treasury of Athens, the Parthenon, and the Cathedrals and Mosques and Corporate Towers. The Casinos of Las Vegas and the underwater hotels of Dubai are all competing to be the tallest, the biggest, the brightest, the most exciting to get international trade to come there and do business. In other words the modern business ethos is to be out of proportion, overscaling all the competition. Part of the practice of feng shui is a proportional system based on the double tatami mat. Feng Shui also includes within it the ideas of cosmic orientation and ordering, as do most systems of "Sacred Proportions".

Going back to the Pythagoreans there is an idea that proportions should be related to standards and that the more general and formulaic the standards the better. This idea that there should be beauty and elegance evidenced by a skillful composition of well understood elements underlies mathematics in general and in a sense all the architectural modulors of design as well. The idea is that buildings should scale down to dimensions humans can relate to and scale up through distances humans can travel as a procession of revelations which may sometimes invoke closure, or glimpses of views that go beyond any encompassing framework and thus suggest to the observer that there is something more besides, invoking wonder and awe. The classical standards are a series of paired opposites designed to expand the dimensional constraints of the harmony and proportion. In the Greek ideal Vitruvius addresses they are similarity, difference, motion, rest, number, sequence and consequence. These are incorporated in good architectural design as philosophical categorization; what similarity is of the essence that makes it what it is, and what difference is it that makes it not something else? Is the size of a column or an arch related just to the structural load it bears or more broadly to the presence and purpose of the space itself?

The standard of motion originally referred to encompassing change but has now been expanded to buildings whose kinetic mechanisms may actually determine change depend upon harmonies of wind, humidity, temperature, sound, light, time of day or night, and previous cycles of change. The stability victim of inflicted madness is questionable architectural standard of the universal set of proportions references the totality of the built environment so that even as it changes it does so in an ongoing and continuous process that can be measured, weighed, and judged as to its orderly harmony. Sacred geometry has the same arrangement of elements found in compositions of music and nature at its finest incorporating light and shadow, sound and silence, texture and smoothness, mass and airy lightness, as in a forest glade where the leaves move gently on the wind or a sparkle of metal catches the eye as a ripple of water on a pond. The frieze and architrave vary from 3/4:1/2 in the Doric style to 5/8:5/8 in the Ionic and Corinthian styles. Capitals are 1/2 in all styles except Corinthian which is 3/4. The shaft width is always 5/6 at the top. Column shaft heights are Tuscan 7, Doric 8, Ionic 9 and Corinthian 10. Column bases are always 1/2. In the Pedestal, caps are always 1/4, dies are 8/6 and bases are 3/4. In the quarter of the column entasis, Tuscan styles are 9/4, Doric are 10/4, Ionic are 11/4 and Corinthian columns are 12/4. Having established the column proportions we move on to its arcade which may be regular with a single element at a spacing of 334 D, coupled with two elements at 113 D spaced 5 D, or alternating at 334 spaced 614 D. Variations include adding a series of arches between column cap and entablature in the Renaissance style Arcade rcade. Exterior door widths W, have trim 1/5 W for exterior doors and 1/6 W for interior doors. Door heights a re 1 D less than column heights. Anciently if a door is two cubits or between 36" and 42" wide, then its trim is between a fist and a span in width.

The Greek classical orders are all proportioned rather than dimensioned or measured modules and this is because the earliest modules were not based on body parts and their spans (fingers, palms, hands, feet, remen, cubits, ells, yards, paces and fathoms, which became standardized for bricks and boards before the time of the Greeks) but rather column diameters and the widths of arcades and fenestrations. Typically one set of column diameter modules used for casework and architectural moldings by the Egyptians, Romans and English is based on the proportions of the palm and the finger, while another less delicate module used for door and window trim, tile work, and roofing in Mesopotamia and Greece is based on the proportions of the hand and the thumb. Board modules tend to round down for planing and finishing while masonry tends to round down for mortar. Fabric, carpet and rugs tend to be manufactured in feet, yards and ells. In Palladian or Greek Revival architecture as in Jeffersonian architecture, modern modular dimensional systems based on the golden ratio and other pleasing proportional and dimensional

relationships begin to influence the design as with the modules of the volute. One interface between proportion and dimension is the Egyptian inscription grid. Grid coordinates can be used for things like unit rise and run. The architectural foot as a reference to the human body was incorporated in architectural standards in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome and Europe. Common multiples of a foot in buildings tend to be decimal or octal and this affects the modulars used in building materials. Elsewhere, it is a multiple of the palm, hand, or finger that is the primary referent. Feet were usually divided into palms or hands, multiples of which were also remen and cubits. The first known foot referenced as a standard was from Sumer, where a rod at the feet of a statue of Gudea of Lagash from around 2575 BC is divided into a foot and other units. Egyptian foot units have the same length as Mesopotamian foot units, but are divided into palms rather than hands converting the proportional divisions from sexagesimal to septenary units. In both cases feet are further subdivided into digits. In Ancient Greece, there are several different foot standards generally referred to in the literature as short, median and long, which give rise to the different architectural styles known as Ionic and Doric in discussions of the classical orders of architecture. The Roman foot or pes is divided into digitus, uncia and palmus, which are incorporated into the Corinthian style. Some of the earliest records of the use of the foot come from the Persian Gulf bordered by India (Meluhha), Pakistan, Balochistan, Oman (Makkan), Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain (Dilmun), the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia where in Persian architecture it is a sub division of the Great circle of the earth into 360 degrees. In Egypt, one degree was 10 Itrw or River journeys. In Greece a degree was 60 Mia chillioi or thousands and comprised 600 stadia, with one stadion divided into 600 pous or feet. In Rome a degree was 75 Mille Passus or 1000 passus. Thus the degree division was 111 km and the stadion 185 m. One nautical mile was 10 stadia or 6000 feet. The incorporation of proportions which relate the building to the earth it stands on are called sacred geometry.

Vitruvius described as the principal source of proportion among the orders of proportion of the human figure. .

According to Leonardo's notes in the accompanying text, written in mirror writing, it was made as a study of the proportions of the (male) human body as described in a treatise by the Ancient Roman architect Vitruvius, who wrote that in the human body:

a palm is the width of four fingers or three inches a foot is the width of four palms and is 36 fingers or 12 inches a cubit is the width of six palms a man's height is four cubits and 24 palms a pace is four cubits or five feet the length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height the distance from the hairline to the bottom of the chin is one-tenth of a man's height the distance from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin is one-eighth of a man's height the maximum width of the shoulders is a quarter of a man's height the distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is one-fifth of a man's height the distance from the elbow to the armpit is one-eighth of a man's height the length of the hand is one-tenth of a man's height the distance from the bottom of the chin to the nose is one-third of the length of the head the distance from the hairline to the eyebrows is one-third of the length of the face the length of the ear is one-third of the length of the face

Leonardo is clearly illustrating Vitruvius' De architectura 3.1.3 which reads: The navel is naturally placed in the centre of the human body, and, if in a man lying with his face upward, and his hands and feet extended, from his navel as the centre, a circle be described, it will touch his fingers and toes. It is not alone by a circle, that the human body is thus circumscribed, as may be seen by placing it within a square. For measuring from the feet to the crown of the head, and then across the arms fully extended, we find the latter measure equal to the former; so that lines at right angles to each other, enclosing the figure, will form a square. Though he was certainly aware of the work of Pythagoras, it does not appear that he took the harmonic divisions of the octave as being relevant to the disposition of form, preferring simpler whole-number ratios to describe proportions. However, beyond the writings of Vitruvius, it seems likely that the ancient Greeks and Romans would occasionally use proportions derived from the golden ratio (most famously, in the Parthenon of Athens), and the Pythagorean divisions of the octave. These are found in the Rhynd papyrus 16. Care should be taken in reading too much into this, however, while simple geometric transformations can quite readily produce these proportions, the Egyptian were quite good at expressing arithmetic and geometric series as unit fractions. While, it is possible that the originators of the design may not have been aware of the particular proportions they were generating as they worked, it's more likely that the methods of construction using diagonals and curves would have taught them something. The Biblical proportions of Solomons temple caught the attention of both architects and scientists, who from a very early time began incorporating them into the architecture of cathedrals and other sacred geometry. Regarding the Pythagorean divisions of the octave mentioned above, these are a set of whole number ratios (based on core ratios of 1:2 (octave), 2:3 (fifth) and 3:4 (fourth)) which form the Pythagorean tuning. These proportions were thought to have a recognisable harmonic significance, regardless of whether they were perceived visually or auditorially, reflecting the Pythagorean idea that all things were numbers.

The Renaissance tried to extract and codify the system of proportions in the orders as used by the ancients, believing that with analysis a mathematically absolute ideal of beauty would emerge. Brunelleschi in particular studied interactions of perspective with the perception of proportion (as understood by the ancients). This focus on the perception of harmony was somewhat of a break from the Pythagorean ideal of numbers controlling all things. Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man is an example of a Renaissance codification of the Vitruvian view of the proportions of man. Divina proportione took the idea of the golden ratio and introduced it to the Renaissance architects. Both Palladio and Alberti produced proportional systems for classically based architecture.

Alberti's system was based on the Pythagorean divisions of the octave. It grouped the small whole-number proportions into 3 groups, short (1:1, 2:3, 3:4), medium (1:2, 4:9, 9:16) and long (1:3, 3:8, 1:4). Palladio's system was based on similar proportions with the addition of the square root of 2 into the mix. 1:1, 1:1.414..., 3:4, 2:3, 3:5.[10] The work of de Chambray, Desgodetz and Perrault [11] eventually demonstrated that classical buildings had reference to standards of proportion that came directly from the original sense of the word geometry, the measure of the earth and its division into degrees, miles, stadia, cords, rods, paces, yards, feet, hands, palms and fingers

[edit] Le modulor

Based on apparently arbitrary proportions of an "ideal man" (possibly Le Corbusier himself) combined with the golden ratio and Vitruvian Man, Le Modulor was never popularly adopted among architects, but the system's graphic of the stylised man with one upraised arm is widely recognised and powerful. Anti-Modernists (Langhein, 2005) claim the modulor is not well suited to introduce proportion and pattern into architecture, to improve its form qualities (gestalt pragnance) and introduce shape grammar in design in building. However, through its application in the design of some of the last century's most beautifully proportioned and harmonic buildings (Le Corbusier: Architect of the Twentieth Century, Kenneth Frampton, 2002) Le Corbusier's work strongly disputes this.

The plastic number is of interest primarily for its method of genesis. Its creator, Hans van der Laan, performed experiments on human subjects to attempt to discover the limits of human beings ability to perceive relationships between objects. From these discovered limits he extrapolated a system of proportions (the particular set he chose are quite close to the Pythagorean divisions of the octave). The range of scales over which the plastic number is considered functional is limited, so it is possible to construct a set of all proportional forms within it. The plastic number has not been widely adopted by practicing architects

In geometry, a golden spiral is a logarithmic spiral whose growth factor is , the golden ratio.[1] That is, a golden spiral gets wider (or further from its origin) by a factor of for every quarter turn it makes.

Contents

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1 Formula 2 Approximations of the golden spiral 3 Spirals in nature 4 See also 5 References

[edit] Formula

The polar equation for a golden spiral is the same as for other logarithmic spirals, but with a special value of the growth factor b:[2]

or

with e being the base of natural logarithms, a being an arbitrary positive real constant, and b such that when is a right angle (a quarter turn in either direction):

Therefore, b is given by

The numerical value of b depends on whether the right angle is measured as 90 degrees or as radians; and since the angle can be in either direction, it is easiest to write the formula for the absolute value of b (that is, b can also be the negative of this value):

A Fibonacci spiral approximates the golden spiral; unlike the "whirling rectangle diagram" based on the golden ratio, above, this one uses quarter-circle arcs inscribed in squares of integer Fibonacci-number side, shown for square sizes 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, and 34. for in degrees; for in radians. An alternate formula for a logarithmic and golden spiral is:[3]

if is measured in radians.

There are several similar spirals that approximate, but do not exactly equal, a golden spiral.[4] These are often confused with the golden spiral. For example, a golden spiral can be approximated by a "whirling rectangle diagram," in which the opposite corners of squares formed by spiraling golden rectangles are connected by quartercircles. The result is very similar to a true golden spiral (See image on top right). Another approximation is a Fibonacci spiral, which is not a true logarithmic spiral. It is made up of a series of quarter-circular arcs whose radii are consecutively increasing Fibonacci numbers. Every quarter turn a Fibonacci spiral gets wider not by , but by a changing factor that equals the ratio of a term in the Fibonacci sequence to its predecessor. The ratios of consecutive terms in the Fibonacci series approach , so that the two spirals are very similar in appearance. (See image on top right).

Approximate logarithmic spirals can occur in nature (for example, the arms of spiral galaxies). It is sometimes stated that nautilus shells get wider in the pattern of a golden spiral, and hence are related to both and the Fibonacci series. In truth, nautilus shells (and many mollusk shells) exhibit logarithmic spiral growth, but at an angle distinctly different from that of the golden spiral.[5] This pattern allows the organism to grow without changing shape. Spirals are common features in nature; golden spirals are one special case of these.

Approximate and true golden spirals: the green spiral is made from quarter-circles tangent to the interior of each square, while the red spiral is a golden spiral, a special type of logarithmic spiral. Overlapping portions appear yellow. The length of the side of a larger square to the next smaller square is in the golden ratio.

Golden ratio

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For the Ace of Base album, see The Golden Ratio (album). Not to be confused with Golden number.

The golden section is a line segment divided according to the golden ratio: The total length a + b is to the length of the longer segment a as the length of a is to the length of the shorter segment b.

In mathematics and the arts, two quantities are in the golden ratio if the ratio of the sum of the quantities to the larger quantity is equal to the ratio of the larger quantity to the smaller one. The golden ratio is an irrational mathematical constant, approximately 1.61803398874989.[1] Other names frequently used for the golden ratio are the golden section (Latin: sectio aurea) and golden mean.[2][3][4] Other terms encountered include extreme and mean ratio,[5] medial section, divine proportion, divine section (Latin: sectio divina), golden proportion, golden cut,[6] golden number, and mean of Phidias.[7][8][9] In this article the golden ratio is denoted by the Greek lowercase letter phi (), while its reciprocal, 1 / or 1, is denoted by the uppercase variant Phi (). The figure on the right illustrates the geometric relationship that defines this constant. Expressed algebraically:

This equation has one positive solution in the set of algebraic irrational numbers:

. [1]

At least since the Renaissance, many artists and architects have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratioespecially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio

of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratiobelieving this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing (see Applications and observations below). Mathematicians have studied the golden ratio because of its unique and interesting properties. The golden ratio is also used in the analysis of financial markets, in strategies such as Fibonacci retracement.

Construction of a golden rectangle: 1. Construct a unit square (red). 2. Draw a line from the midpoint of one side to an opposite corner. 3. Use that line as the radius to draw an arc that defines the long dimension of the rectangle.

A golden rectangle with longer side a and shorter side b, when placed adjacent to a square with sides of length a, will produce a similar golden rectangle with longer side a + b and shorter side a. This illustrates the relationship .

Contents

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1 Calculation 2 History o 2.1 Timeline 3 Applications and observations o 3.1 Aesthetics o 3.2 Architecture o 3.3 Painting o 3.4 Book design o 3.5 Perceptual studies o 3.6 Music o 3.7 Industrial design o 3.8 Nature o 3.9 Optimization o 3.10 Finance 4 Mathematics o 4.1 Golden ratio conjugate o 4.2 Short proofs of irrationality 4.2.1 Contradiction from an expression in lowest terms 4.2.2 Derivation from irrationality of 5 o 4.3 Alternate forms o 4.4 Geometry 4.4.1 Golden triangle, pentagon and pentagram 4.4.1.1 Golden triangle 4.4.1.2 Pentagon 4.4.1.3 Pentagram 4.4.1.4 Ptolemy's theorem 4.4.2 Scalenity of triangles 4.4.3 Triangle whose sides form a geometric progression 4.4.4 Golden triangle, rhombus, and rhombic triacontahedron o 4.5 Relationship to Fibonacci sequence o 4.6 Symmetries o 4.7 Other properties o 4.8 Decimal expansion 5 Pyramids o 5.1 Mathematical pyramids and triangles o 5.2 Egyptian pyramids 6 Disputed observations 7 See also 8 References and footnotes 9 Further reading 10 External links

[edit] Calculation

List of numbers Irrational and suspected irrational numbers (3) 2 3 5 S e Binary Decimal Hexadecimal 1.1001111000110111011 1.6180339887498948482 1.9E3779B97F4A7C15F39

Continued fraction

Algebraic form

Infinite series

One method for finding the value of is to start with the left fraction. Through simplifying the fraction and substituting in b/a = 1/,

it is shown that,

Multiplying by gives

+ 1 = 2

2 1 = 0.

Using the quadratic formula gives the only positive solution as,

[edit] History

Mathematician Mark Barr proposed using the first letter in the name of Greek sculptor Phidias, phi, to symbolize the golden ratio. Usually, the lowercase form () is used. Sometimes, the uppercase form () is used for the reciprocal of the golden ratio, 1/.[10]

The golden ratio has fascinated Western intellectuals of diverse interests for at least 2,400 years. According to Mario Livio:

Some of the greatest mathematical minds of all ages, from Pythagoras and Euclid in ancient Greece, through the medieval Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa and the Renaissance astronomer Johannes Kepler, to present-day scientific figures such as Oxford physicist Roger Penrose, have spent endless hours over this simple ratio and its properties. But the fascination with the Golden Ratio is not confined just to mathematicians. Biologists, artists, musicians, historians, architects, psychologists, and even mystics have pondered and debated the basis of its ubiquity and appeal. In fact, it is probably fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired thinkers of all disciplines like no other number in the history of mathematics.[11]

Ancient Greek mathematicians first studied what we now call the golden ratio because of its frequent appearance in geometry. The division of a line into "extreme and mean ratio" (the golden section) is important in the geometry of regular pentagrams and pentagons. The Greeks usually attributed discovery of this concept to Pythagoras or his followers. The regular pentagram, which has a regular pentagon inscribed within it, was the Pythagoreans' symbol. Euclid's Elements (Greek: ) provides the first known written definition of what is now called the golden ratio: "A straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when, as the whole line is to the greater segment, so is the greater to the less."[5] Euclid explains a construction for cutting (sectioning) a line "in extreme and mean ratio", i.e. the golden ratio.[12] Throughout the Elements, several propositions (theorems in modern terminology) and their proofs employ the golden ratio.[13] Some of these propositions show that the golden ratio is an irrational number. The name "extreme and mean ratio" was the principal term used from the 3rd century BC[5] until about the 18th century. The modern history of the golden ratio starts with Luca Pacioli's De divina proportione of 1509, which captured the imagination[citation needed] of artists, architects, scientists, and mystics with the properties, mathematical and otherwise, of the golden ratio.

Michael Maestlin, first to publish a decimal approximation of the golden ratio, in 1597.

The first known approximation of the (inverse) golden ratio by a decimal fraction, stated as "about 0.6180340," was written in 1597 by Michael Maestlin of the University of Tbingen in a letter to his former student Johannes Kepler.[14] Since the twentieth century, the golden ratio has been represented by the Greek letter or (phi, after Phidias, a sculptor who is said to have employed it) or less commonly by (tau, the first letter of the ancient Greek root meaning cut).[2][15]

[edit] Timeline

Timeline according to Priya Hemenway.[16]

Phidias (490430 BC) made the Parthenon statues that seem to embody the golden ratio. Plato (427347 BC), in his Timaeus, describes five possible regular solids (the Platonic solids: the tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron), some of which are related to the golden ratio.[17] Euclid (c. 325c. 265 BC), in his Elements, gave the first recorded definition of the golden ratio, which he called, as translated into English, "extreme and mean ratio" (Greek: ).[5] Fibonacci (11701250) mentioned the numerical series now named after him in his Liber Abaci; the ratio of sequential elements of the Fibonacci sequence approaches the golden ratio asymptotically. Luca Pacioli (14451517) defines the golden ratio as the "divine proportion" in his Divina Proportione. Johannes Kepler (15711630) proves that the golden ratio is the limit of the ratio of consecutive Fibonacci numbers,[18] and describes the golden ratio as a "precious jewel": "Geometry has two great treasures: one is the Theorem of Pythagoras, and the other the division of a line into extreme and mean ratio; the first we may compare to a measure of gold, the second we may name a precious jewel." These two treasures are combined in the Kepler triangle. Charles Bonnet (17201793) points out that in the spiral phyllotaxis of plants going clockwise and counter-clockwise were frequently two successive Fibonacci series. Martin Ohm (17921872) is believed to be the first to use the term goldener Schnitt (golden section) to describe this ratio, in 1835.[19] douard Lucas (18421891) gives the numerical sequence now known as the Fibonacci sequence its present name. Mark Barr (20th century) suggests the Greek letter phi (), the initial letter of Greek sculptor Phidias's name, as a symbol for the golden ratio.[20] Roger Penrose (b.1931) discovered a symmetrical pattern that uses the golden ratio in the field of aperiodic tilings, which led to new discoveries about quasicrystals.

[edit] Aesthetics

See also: History of aesthetics (pre-20th-century)

De Divina Proportione, a three-volume work by Luca Pacioli, was published in 1509. Pacioli, a Franciscan friar, was known mostly as a mathematician, but he was also trained and keenly interested in art. De Divina Proportione explored the mathematics of the golden ratio. Though it is often said that Pacioli advocated the golden ratio's application to yield pleasing, harmonious proportions, Livio points out that the interpretation has been traced to an error in 1799, and that Pacioli actually advocated the Vitruvian system of rational proportions.[2] Pacioli also saw Catholic religious significance in the ratio, which led to his work's title. Containing illustrations of regular solids by Leonardo Da Vinci, Pacioli's longtime friend and collaborator, De Divina Proportione was a major influence on generations of artists and architects alike.[citation needed]

[edit] Architecture

Many of the proportions of the Parthenon are alleged to exhibit the golden ratio.

The Parthenon's facade as well as elements of its facade and elsewhere are said by some to be circumscribed by golden rectangles.[21] Other scholars deny that the Greeks had any aesthetic association with golden ratio. For example, Midhat J. Gazal says, "It was not until Euclid, however, that the golden ratio's mathematical properties were studied. In the Elements (308 BC) the Greek mathematician merely regarded that number as an interesting irrational number, in connection with the middle and extreme ratios. Its occurrence in regular pentagons and decagons was duly observed, as well as in the dodecahedron (a regular polyhedron whose twelve faces are regular pentagons). It is indeed exemplary that the great Euclid, contrary to generations of mystics who followed, would soberly treat that number for what it is, without attaching to it other than its factual properties."[22] And Keith Devlin says, "Certainly, the oft repeated assertion that the Parthenon in Athens is based on the golden ratio is not supported by actual measurements. In fact, the entire story about the Greeks and golden ratio seems to be without foundation. The one thing we know for sure is that Euclid, in his famous textbook Elements, written around 300 BC, showed how to calculate its value."[23] Near-contemporary sources like Vitruvius exclusively discuss proportions that can be expressed in whole numbers, i.e. commensurate as opposed to irrational proportions. A geometrical analysis of the Great Mosque of Kairouan reveals a consistent application of the golden ratio throughout the design, according to Boussora and Mazouz.[24] It is found in the overall proportion of the plan and in the dimensioning of the prayer space, the court, and the minaret. Boussora and Mazouz also examined earlier archaeological theories about the mosque,

and demonstrate the geometric constructions based on the golden ratio by applying these constructions to the plan of the mosque to test their hypothesis. The Swiss architect Le Corbusier, famous for his contributions to the modern international style, centered his design philosophy on systems of harmony and proportion. Le Corbusier's faith in the mathematical order of the universe was closely bound to the golden ratio and the Fibonacci series, which he described as "rhythms apparent to the eye and clear in their relations with one another. And these rhythms are at the very root of human activities. They resound in man by an organic inevitability, the same fine inevitability which causes the tracing out of the Golden Section by children, old men, savages and the learned."[25] Le Corbusier explicitly used the golden ratio in his Modulor system for the scale of architectural proportion. He saw this system as a continuation of the long tradition of Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vinci's "Vitruvian Man", the work of Leon Battista Alberti, and others who used the proportions of the human body to improve the appearance and function of architecture. In addition to the golden ratio, Le Corbusier based the system on human measurements, Fibonacci numbers, and the double unit. He took Leonardo's suggestion of the golden ratio in human proportions to an extreme: he sectioned his model human body's height at the navel with the two sections in golden ratio, then subdivided those sections in golden ratio at the knees and throat; he used these golden ratio proportions in the Modulor system. Le Corbusier's 1927 Villa Stein in Garches exemplified the Modulor system's application. The villa's rectangular ground plan, elevation, and inner structure closely approximate golden rectangles.[26] Another Swiss architect, Mario Botta, bases many of his designs on geometric figures. Several private houses he designed in Switzerland are composed of squares and circles, cubes and cylinders. In a house he designed in Origlio, the golden ratio is the proportion between the central section and the side sections of the house.[27] In a recent book, author Jason Elliot speculated that the golden ratio was used by the designers of the Naqsh-e Jahan Square and the adjacent Lotfollah mosque.[28]

[edit] Painting

The drawing of a man's body in a pentagram suggests relationships to the golden ratio.

The 16th-century philosopher Heinrich Agrippa drew a man over a pentagram inside a circle, implying a relationship to the golden ratio.

Illustration from Luca Pacioli's De Divina Proportione applies geometric proportions to the human face.

Leonardo da Vinci's illustrations of polyhedra in De divina proportione (On the Divine Proportion) and his views that some bodily proportions exhibit the golden ratio have led some scholars to speculate that he incorporated the golden ratio in his paintings.[29] But the suggestion that his Mona Lisa, for example, employs golden ratio proportions, is not supported by anything in Leonardo's own writings.[30] Salvador Dal, influenced by the works of Matila Ghyka,[31] explicitly used the golden ratio in his masterpiece, The Sacrament of the Last Supper. The dimensions of the canvas are a golden rectangle. A huge dodecahedron, in perspective so that edges appear in golden ratio to one another, is suspended above and behind Jesus and dominates the composition.[2][32] Mondrian has been said to have used the golden section extensively in his geometrical paintings,[33] though other experts (including critic Yve-Alain Bois) have disputed this claim.[2] A statistical study on 565 works of art of different great painters, performed in 1999, found that these artists had not used the golden ratio in the size of their canvases. The study concluded that the average ratio of the two sides of the paintings studied is 1.34, with averages for individual artists ranging from 1.04 (Goya) to 1.46 (Bellini).[34] On the other hand, Pablo Tosto listed over

350 works by well-known artists, including more than 100 which have canvasses with golden rectangle and root-5 proportions, and others with proportions like root-2, 3, 4, and 6.[35]

Main article: Canons of page construction

Depiction of the proportions in a medieval manuscript. According to Jan Tschichold: "Page proportion 2:3. Margin proportions 1:1:2:3. Text area proportioned in the Golden Section."[36]

According to Jan Tschichold,[37] There was a time when deviations from the truly beautiful page proportions 2:3, 1:3, and the Golden Section were rare. Many books produced between 1550 and 1770 show these proportions exactly, to within half a millimeter.

Studies by psychologists, starting with Fechner, have been devised to test the idea that the golden ratio plays a role in human perception of beauty. While Fechner found a preference for rectangle ratios centered on the golden ratio, later attempts to carefully test such a hypothesis have been, at best, inconclusive.[2][38]

[edit] Music

James Tenney reconceived his piece For Ann (rising), which consists of up to twelve computergenerated upwardly glissandoing tones (see Shepard tone), as having each tone start so it is the golden ratio (in between an equal tempered minor and major sixth) below the previous tone, so that the combination tones produced by all consecutive tones are a lower or higher pitch already, or soon to be, produced. Ern Lendvai analyzes Bla Bartk's works as being based on two opposing systems, that of the golden ratio and the acoustic scale,[39] though other music scholars reject that analysis.[2] In Bartok's Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta the xylophone progression occurs at the

intervals 1:2:3:5:8:5:3:2:1.[40] French composer Erik Satie used the golden ratio in several of his pieces, including Sonneries de la Rose+Croix. The golden ratio is also apparent in the organization of the sections in the music of Debussy's Reflets dans l'eau (Reflections in Water), from Images (1st series, 1905), in which "the sequence of keys is marked out by the intervals 34, 21, 13 and 8, and the main climax sits at the phi position."[40] The musicologist Roy Howat has observed that the formal boundaries of La Mer correspond exactly to the golden section.[41] Trezise finds the intrinsic evidence "remarkable," but cautions that no written or reported evidence suggests that Debussy consciously sought such proportions.[42] Also, many works of Chopin, mainly Etudes (studies) and Nocturnes, are formally based on the golden ratio. This results in the biggest climax of both musical expression and technical difficulty after about 2/3 of the piece.[citation needed] The mathematician Michael Schneider analysed the waveform of the Amen break and found that the peaks are spaced at intervals in the golden ratio. Pearl Drums positions the air vents on its Masters Premium models based on the golden ratio. The company claims that this arrangement improves bass response and has applied for a patent on this innovation.[43] In the opinion of author Leon Harkleroad, "Some of the most misguided attempts to link music and mathematics have involved Fibonacci numbers and the related golden ratio."[44]

Some sources claim that the golden ratio is commonly used in everyday design, for example in the shapes of postcards, playing cards, posters, wide-screen televisions, photographs, and light switch plates.[45][46][47][48]

[edit] Nature

Adolf Zeising, whose main interests were mathematics and philosophy, found the golden ratio expressed in the arrangement of branches along the stems of plants and of veins in leaves. He extended his research to the skeletons of animals and the branchings of their veins and nerves, to the proportions of chemical compounds and the geometry of crystals, even to the use of proportion in artistic endeavors. In these phenomena he saw the golden ratio operating as a universal law.[49] In connection with his scheme for golden-ratio-based human body proportions, Zeising wrote in 1854 of a universal law "in which is contained the ground-principle of all formative striving for beauty and completeness in the realms of both nature and art, and which permeates, as a paramount spiritual ideal, all structures, forms and proportions, whether cosmic or individual, organic or inorganic, acoustic or optical; which finds its fullest realization, however, in the human form."[50]

In 2003, Volkmar Weiss and Harald Weiss analyzed psychometric data and theoretical considerations and concluded that the golden ratio underlies the clock cycle of brain waves.[51] In 2008 this was empirically confirmed by a group of neurobiologists.[52] In 2010, the journal Science reported that the golden ratio is present at the atomic scale in the magnetic resonance of spins in cobalt niobate crystals.[53] Several researchers have proposed connections between the golden ratio and human genome DNA.[54][55][56] However, some have argued that many of the apparent manifestations of the golden mean in nature, especially in regard to animal dimensions, are in fact fictitious.[57]

[edit] Optimization

The golden ratio is key to the golden section search.

[edit] Finance

The golden ratio and related numbers are used in the financial markets. It is used in trading algorithms, applications and strategies. Some typical forms include: the Fibonacci fan, the Fibonacci arc, Fibonacci retracement and the Fibonacci time extension.[58]

[edit] Mathematics

[edit] Golden ratio conjugate

The negative root of the quadratic equation for (the "conjugate root") is

The absolute value of this quantity ( 0.618) corresponds to the length ratio taken in reverse order (shorter segment length over longer segment length, b/a), and is sometimes referred to as the golden ratio conjugate.[10] It is denoted here by the capital Phi ():

.

This illustrates the unique property of the golden ratio among positive numbers, that

or its inverse:

[edit] Contradiction from an expression in lowest terms Recall that:

the whole is the longer part plus the shorter part; the whole is to the longer part as the longer part is to the shorter part.

If we call the whole n and the longer part m, then the second statement above becomes

n is to m as m is to n m,

or, algebraically

To say that is rational means that is a fraction n/m where n and m are integers. We may take n/m to be in lowest terms and n and m to be positive. But if n/m is in lowest terms, then the identity labeled (*) above says m/(n m) is in still lower terms. That is a contradiction that follows from the assumption that is rational. [edit] Derivation from irrationality of 5 Another short proofperhaps more commonly knownof the irrationality of the golden ratio makes use of the closure of rational numbers under addition and multiplication. If is

rational, then is also rational, which is a contradiction if it is already known that the square root of a non-square natural number is irrational.

The formula = 1 + 1/ can be expanded recursively to obtain a continued fraction for the golden ratio:[59]

The convergents of these continued fractions (1/1, 2/1, 3/2, 5/3, 8/5, 13/8, , or 1/1, 1/2, 2/3, 3/5, 5/8, 8/13, ) are ratios of successive Fibonacci numbers. The equation 2 = 1 + likewise produces the continued square root, or infinite surd, form:

Also:

These correspond to the fact that the length of the diagonal of a regular pentagon is times the length of its side, and similar relations in a pentagram.

[edit] Geometry

Approximate and true golden spirals. The green spiral is made from quarter-circles tangent to the interior of each square, while the red spiral is a Golden Spiral, a special type of logarithmic spiral. Overlapping portions appear yellow. The length of the side of one square divided by that of the next smaller square is the golden ratio.

The number turns up frequently in geometry, particularly in figures with pentagonal symmetry. The length of a regular pentagon's diagonal is times its side. The vertices of a regular icosahedron are those of three mutually orthogonal golden rectangles.

There is no known general algorithm to arrange a given number of nodes evenly on a sphere, for any of several definitions of even distribution (see, for example, Thomson problem). However, a useful approximation results from dividing the sphere into parallel bands of equal area and placing one node in each band at longitudes spaced by a golden section of the circle, i.e. 360/ 222.5. This method was used to arrange the 1500 mirrors of the student-participatory satellite Starshine-3.[61] [edit] Golden triangle, pentagon and pentagram

Golden triangle

[edit] Golden triangle

The golden triangle can be characterized as an isosceles triangle ABC with the property that bisecting the angle C produces a new triangle CXB which is a similar triangle to the original. If angle BCX = , then XCA = because of the bisection, and CAB = because of the similar triangles; ABC = 2 from the original isosceles symmetry, and BXC = 2 by similarity. The angles in a triangle add up to 180, so 5 = 180, giving = 36. So the angles of the golden triangle are thus 36-72-72. The angles of the remaining obtuse isosceles triangle AXC (sometimes called the golden gnomon) are 36-36-108. Suppose XB has length 1, and we call BC length . Because of the isosceles triangles XC=XA and BC=XC, so these are also length . Length AC = AB, therefore equals +1. But triangle ABC is similar to triangle CXB, so AC/BC = BC/BX, and so AC also equals 2. Thus 2 = +1, confirming that is indeed the golden ratio. Similarly, the ratio of the area of the larger triangle AXC to the smaller CXB is equal to , while the inverse ratio is - 1.

[edit] Pentagon

In a regular pentagon the ratio between a side and a diagonal is (i.e. 1/), while intersecting diagonals section each other in the golden ratio.[9]

George Odom has given a remarkably simple construction for involving an equilateral triangle: if an equilateral triangle is inscribed in a circle and the line segment joining the midpoints of two sides is produced to intersect the circle in either of two points, then these three points are in golden proportion. This result is a straightforward consequence of the intersecting chords theorem and can be used to construct a regular pentagon, a construction that attracted the attention of the noted Canadian geometer H. S. M. Coxeter who published it in Odom's name as a diagram in the American Mathematical Monthly accompanied by the single word "Behold!" [62]

[edit] Pentagram

A pentagram colored to distinguish its line segments of different lengths. The four lengths are in golden ratio to one another.

The golden ratio plays an important role in the geometry of pentagrams. Each intersection of edges sections other edges in the golden ratio. Also, the ratio of the length of the shorter segment to the segment bounded by the two intersecting edges (a side of the pentagon in the pentagram's center) is , as the four-color illustration shows. The pentagram includes ten isosceles triangles: five acute and five obtuse isosceles triangles. In all of them, the ratio of the longer side to the shorter side is . The acute triangles are golden triangles. The obtuse isosceles triangles are golden gnomons.

[edit] Ptolemy's theorem

The golden ratio in a regular pentagon can be computed using Ptolemy's theorem.

The golden ratio properties of a regular pentagon can be confirmed by applying Ptolemy's theorem to the quadrilateral formed by removing one of its vertices. If the quadrilateral's long edge and diagonals are b, and short edges are a, then Ptolemy's theorem gives b2 = a2 + ab which yields

[edit] Scalenity of triangles Consider a triangle with sides of lengths a, b, and c in decreasing order. Define the "scalenity" of the triangle to be the smaller of the two ratios a/b and b/c. The scalenity is always less than and can be made as close as desired to .[63] [edit] Triangle whose sides form a geometric progression If the side lengths of a triangle form a geometric progression and are in the ratio 1 : r : r2, where r is the common ratio, then r must lie in the range 1 < r < , which is a consequence of the

triangle inequality (the sum of any two sides of a triangle must be strictly bigger than the length of the third side). If r = then the shorter two sides are 1 and but their sum is 2, thus r < . A similar calculation shows that r> 1. A triangle whose sides are in the ratio 1 : : is a right triangle (because 1 + = 2) known as a Kepler triangle.[64] [edit] Golden triangle, rhombus, and rhombic triacontahedron

A golden rhombus is a rhombus whose diagonals are in the golden ratio.[citation needed] The rhombic triacontahedron is a convex polytope that has a very special property: all of its faces are golden rhombi. In the rhombic triacontahedron the dihedral angle between any two adjacent rhombi is 144, which is twice the isosceles angle of a golden triangle and four times its most acute angle.[citation needed]

The mathematics of the golden ratio and of the Fibonacci sequence are intimately interconnected. The Fibonacci sequence is:

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987,

The closed-form expression (known as Binet's formula, even though it was already known by Abraham de Moivre) for the Fibonacci sequence involves the golden ratio:

A Fibonacci spiral which approximates the golden spiral, using Fibonacci sequence square sizes up to 34.

The golden ratio is the limit of the ratios of successive terms of the Fibonacci sequence (or any Fibonacci-like sequence), as originally shown by Kepler:[18]

Therefore, if a Fibonacci number is divided by its immediate predecessor in the sequence, the quotient approximates ; e.g., 987/610 1.6180327868852. These approximations are alternately lower and higher than , and converge on as the Fibonacci numbers increase, and:

More generally:

where above, the ratios of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, is a case when a = 1.

n + 1 = n + n 1.

This identity allows any polynomial in to be reduced to a linear expression. For example:

However, this is no special property of , because polynomials in any solution x to a quadratic equation can be reduced in an analogous manner, by applying:

x2 = ax + b.

for given coefficients a, b such that x satisfies the equation. Even more generally, any rational function (with rational coefficients) of the root of an irreducible nth-degree polynomial over the rationals can be reduced to a polynomial of degree n 1. Phrased in terms of field theory, if is a root of an irreducible nth-degree polynomial, then . has degree n over , with basis

[edit] Symmetries

The golden ratio and inverse golden ratio have a set of symmetries that preserve and interrelate them. They are both preserved by the fractional linear transformations x,1 / (1 x),(x 1) / x, this fact corresponds to the identity and the definition quadratic equation. Further, they are interchanged by the three maps 1 / x,1 x,x / (x 1) they are reciprocals, symmetric about 1 / 2, and (projectively) symmetric about 2. More deeply, these maps form a subgroup of the modular group isomorphic to the symmetric group on 3 letters, S3, corresponding to the stabilizer of the set of 3 standard points on the projective line, and the symmetries correspond to the quotient map the subgroup C3 < S3 consisting of the 3-cycles and the identity fixes the two numbers, while the 2-cycles interchange these, thus realizing the map.

The golden ratio has the simplest expression (and slowest convergence) as a continued fraction expansion of any irrational number (see Alternate forms above). It is, for that reason, one of the worst cases of Lagrange's approximation theorem. This may be the reason angles close to the golden ratio often show up in phyllotaxis (the growth of plants).

The defining quadratic polynomial and the conjugate relationship lead to decimal values that have their fractional part in common with :

.

The sequence of powers of contains these values 0.618, 1.0, 1.618, 2.618; more generally, any power of is equal to the sum of the two immediately preceding powers:

.

As a result, one can easily decompose any power of into a multiple of and a constant. The multiple and the constant are always adjacent Fibonacci numbers. This leads to another property of the positive powers of : If , then:

When the golden ratio is used as the base of a numeral system (see Golden ratio base, sometimes dubbed phinary or -nary), every integer has a terminating representation, despite being irrational, but every fraction has a non-terminating representation. The golden ratio is a fundamental unit of the algebraic number field Vijayaraghavan number.[65] In the field n-th Lucas number. we have and is a Pisot , where Ln is the

The golden ratio also appears in hyperbolic geometry, as the maximum distance from a point on one side of an ideal triangle to the closer of the other two sides: this distance, the side length of the equilateral triangle formed by the points of tangency of a circle inscribed within the ideal triangle, is 4 ln .[66]

The golden ratio's decimal expansion can be calculated directly from the expression

with 5 2.2360679774997896964. The square root of 5 can be calculated with the Babylonian method, starting with an initial estimate such as x = 2 and iterating

for n = 1, 2, 3, , until the difference between xn and xn1 becomes zero, to the desired number of digits. The Babylonian algorithm for 5 is equivalent to Newton's method for solving the equation x2 5 = 0. In its more general form, Newton's method can be applied directly to any algebraic equation, including the equation x2 x 1 = 0 that defines the golden ratio. This gives an iteration that converges to the golden ratio itself,

for an appropriate initial estimate x such as x = 1. A slightly faster method is to rewrite the equation as x 1 1/x = 0, in which case the Newton iteration becomes

These iterations all converge quadratically; that is, each step roughly doubles the number of correct digits. The golden ratio is therefore relatively easy to compute with arbitrary precision. The time needed to compute n digits of the golden ratio is proportional to the time needed to divide two n-digit numbers. This is considerably faster than known algorithms for the transcendental numbers and e. An easily programmed alternative using only integer arithmetic is to calculate two large consecutive Fibonacci numbers and divide them. The ratio of Fibonacci numbers F25001 and F25000, each over 5000 digits, yields over 10,000 significant digits of the golden ratio. The golden ratio has been calculated to an accuracy of several millions of decimal digits (sequence A001622 in OEIS). Alexis Irlande performed computations and verification of the first 17,000,000,000 digits.[67]

[edit] Pyramids

A regular square pyramid is determined by its medial right triangle, whose edges are the pyramid's apothem (a), semi-base (b), and height (h); the face inclination angle is also marked. Mathematical proportions b:h:a of in relation to Egyptian pyramids. and and are of particular interest

Both Egyptian pyramids and those mathematical regular square pyramids that resemble them can be analyzed with respect to the golden ratio and other ratios.

A pyramid in which the apothem (slant height along the bisector of a face) is equal to times the semi-base (half the base width) is sometimes called a golden pyramid. The isosceles triangle that is the face of such a pyramid can be constructed from the two halves of a diagonally split golden rectangle (of size semi-base by apothem), joining the medium-length edges to make the apothem. The height of this pyramid is times the semi-base (that is, the slope of the face is square of the height is equal to the area of a face, times the square of the semi-base. The medial right triangle of this "golden" pyramid (see diagram), with sides interesting in its own right, demonstrating via the Pythagorean theorem the relationship ); the

is

or . This "Kepler triangle"[68] is the only right triangle proportion with edge lengths in geometric progression,[64] just as the 345 triangle is the only right triangle proportion with edge lengths in arithmetic progression. The angle with tangent corresponds to the angle that the side of the pyramid makes with respect to the ground, 51.827 degrees (51 49' 38").[69] A nearly similar pyramid shape, but with rational proportions, is described in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (the source of a large part of modern knowledge of ancient Egyptian mathematics), based on the 3:4:5 triangle;[70] the face slope corresponding to the angle with tangent 4/3 is 53.13 degrees (53 degrees and 8 minutes).[71] The slant height or apothem is 5/3 or 1.666 times the semi-base. The Rhind papyrus has another pyramid problem as well, again with rational slope (expressed as run over rise). Egyptian mathematics did not include the notion

of irrational numbers,[72] and the rational inverse slope (run/rise, multiplied by a factor of 7 to convert to their conventional units of palms per cubit) was used in the building of pyramids.[70] Another mathematical pyramid with proportions almost identical to the "golden" one is the one with perimeter equal to 2 times the height, or h:b = 4:. This triangle has a face angle of 51.854 (5151'), very close to the 51.827 of the Kepler triangle. This pyramid relationship corresponds to the coincidental relationship .

Egyptian pyramids very close in proportion to these mathematical pyramids are known.[71]

In the mid nineteenth century, Rber studied various Egyptian pyramids including Khafre, Menkaure and some of the Giza, Sakkara and Abusir groups, and was interpreted as saying that half the base of the side of the pyramid is the middle mean of the side, forming what other authors identified as the Kepler triangle; many other mathematical theories of the shape of the pyramids have also been explored.[64] One Egyptian pyramid is remarkably close to a "golden pyramid"the Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Cheops or Khufu). Its slope of 51 52' is extremely close to the "golden" pyramid inclination of 51 50' and the -based pyramid inclination of 51 51'; other pyramids at Giza (Chephren, 52 20', and Mycerinus, 50 47')[70] are also quite close. Whether the relationship to the golden ratio in these pyramids is by design or by accident remains open to speculation.[73] Several other Egyptian pyramids are very close to the rational 3:4:5 shape.[71] Adding fuel to controversy over the architectural authorship of the Great Pyramid, Eric Temple Bell, mathematician and historian, claimed in 1950 that Egyptian mathematics would not have supported the ability to calculate the slant height of the pyramids, or the ratio to the height, except in the case of the 3:4:5 pyramid, since the 3:4:5 triangle was the only right triangle known to the Egyptians and they did not know the Pythagorean theorem nor any way to reason about irrationals such as or .[74] Michael Rice[75] asserts that principal authorities on the history of Egyptian architecture have argued that the Egyptians were well acquainted with the golden ratio and that it is part of mathematics of the Pyramids, citing Giedon (1957).[76] Historians of science have always debated whether the Egyptians had any such knowledge or not, contending rather that its appearance in an Egyptian building is the result of chance.[77] In 1859, the pyramidologist John Taylor claimed that, in the Great Pyramid of Giza, the golden ratio is represented by the ratio of the length of the face (the slope height), inclined at an angle to the ground, to half the length of the side of the square base, equivalent to the secant of the angle .[78] The above two lengths were about 186.4 and 115.2 meters respectively. The ratio of these lengths is the golden ratio, accurate to more digits than either of the original measurements. Similarly, Howard Vyse, according to Matila Ghyka,[79] reported the great pyramid height 148.2 m, and half-base 116.4 m, yielding 1.6189 for the ratio of slant height to half-base, again more accurate than the data variability.

Examples of disputed observations of the golden ratio include the following:

Historian John Man states that the pages of the Gutenberg Bible were "based on the golden section shape". However, according to Man's own measurements, the ratio of height to width was 1.45.[80] Some specific proportions in the bodies of many animals (including humans[81][82]) and parts of the shells of mollusks[4] and cephalopods are often claimed to be in the golden ratio. There is actually a large variation in the real measures of these elements in specific individuals, and the proportion in question is often significantly different from the golden ratio.[81] The ratio of successive phalangeal bones of the digits and the metacarpal bone has been said to approximate the golden ratio.[82] The nautilus shell, the construction of which proceeds in a logarithmic spiral, is often cited, usually with the idea that any logarithmic spiral is related to the golden ratio, but sometimes with the claim that each new chamber is proportioned by the golden ratio relative to the previous one;[83] however, measurements of nautilus shells do not support this claim.[84] The proportions of different plant components (numbers of leaves to branches, diameters of geometrical figures inside flowers) are often claimed to show the golden ratio proportion in several species.[85] In practice, there are significant variations between individuals, seasonal variations, and age variations in these species. While the golden ratio may be found in some proportions in some individuals at particular times in their life cycles, there is no consistent ratio in their proportions.[citation needed] In investing, some practitioners of technical analysis use the golden ratio to indicate support of a price level, or resistance to price increases, of a stock or commodity; after significant price changes up or down, new support and resistance levels are supposedly found at or near prices related to the starting price via the golden ratio.[86] The use of the golden ratio in investing is also related to more complicated patterns described by Fibonacci numbers; see, e.g. Elliott wave principle. See Fibonacci retracement. However, other market analysts have published analyses suggesting that these percentages and patterns are not supported by the data.[87]

Vesica piscis

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The vesica piscis is a shape that is the intersection of two circles with the same radius, intersecting in such a way that the center of each circle lies on the circumference of the other. The name literally means the "bladder of a fish" in Latin. The shape is also called mandorla ("almond" in Italian). The term is also used more generally for any symmetric lens.[1]

Contents

[hide]

1 Mystical and religious significance 2 Uses of the shape 3 Gallery 4 References 5 See also

The cover of the Chalice Well with an artistic rendering of the vesica piscis

The mathematical ratio of the width of the vesica piscis to its height is the square root of 3, or 1.7320508... (since if straight lines are drawn connecting the centers of the two circles with each other and with the two points where the circles intersect, two equilateral triangles join along an edge). The ratios 265:153 = 1.7320261... and 1351:780 = 1.7320513... are two of a series of approximations to this value, each with the property that no better approximation can be obtained with smaller whole numbers. Archimedes of Syracuse, in his On the Measurement of the Circle, uses these ratios as upper and lower bounds:[2]

One of the numbers in these ratios (153) also appears in the Gospel of John (21:11) as the number of fish Jesus caused to be caught in a miraculous catch of fish,[3] and significance has sometimes been attached to this. The vesica piscis has been the subject of mystical speculation at several periods of history, and is viewed as important in Freemasonry[4] and some forms of Kabbalah. More recently, numerous New Age authors have interpreted it as a yonic symbol and claimed that this, a reference to the female genitals, is a traditional interpretation.[5][6][7][8][9]

In Christian art, some aureolas are in the shape of a vertically oriented vesica piscis, and the seals of ecclesiastical organizations can be enclosed within a vertically oriented vesica piscis (instead of the more usual circular enclosure). The cover of the Chalice Well in Glastonbury (Somerset, United Kingdom) depicts a stylized version of the vesica piscis design (see picture). The vesica piscis has been used as a symbol within Freemasonry, most notably in the shapes of the collars worn by officiants of the Masonic rituals.[10] It was also considered the proper shape for the enclosure of the seals of Masonic lodges.[11][12] The Vesica Piscis is also used as proportioning system in architecture, in particular Gothic Architecture. The system was illustrated in Cesar Cesariano's Vitruvius (1521), which he called "the rule of the German architects".

[edit] Gallery

Christ in majesty within a mandorla-shaped aureola, surrounded by emblems of the evangelists (13th century)

Fibonacci number

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A tiling with squares whose sides are successive Fibonacci numbers in length

A Fibonacci spiral created by drawing circular arcs connecting the opposite corners of squares in the Fibonacci tiling; this one uses squares of sizes 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, and 34. See golden spiral.

In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence:

(sequence A000045 in OEIS).

By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are 0 and 1, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two. In mathematical terms, the sequence Fn of Fibonacci numbers is defined by the recurrence relation

The Fibonacci sequence is named after Leonardo of Pisa, who was known as Fibonacci. Fibonacci's 1202 book Liber Abaci introduced the sequence to Western European mathematics,[2] although the sequence had been described earlier in Indian mathematics.[3][4][5] (By modern convention, the sequence begins with F0 = 0. The Liber Abaci began the sequence with F1 = 1, omitting the initial 0, and the sequence is still written this way by some.)

Fibonacci numbers are closely related to Lucas numbers in that they are a complementary pair of Lucas sequences. They are intimately connected with the golden ratio, for example the closest rational approximations to the ratio are 2/1, 3/2, 5/3, 8/5, ... . Applications include computer algorithms such as the Fibonacci search technique and the Fibonacci heap data structure, and graphs called Fibonacci cubes used for interconnecting parallel and distributed systems. They also appear in biological settings,[6] such as branching in trees, arrangement of leaves on a stem, the fruit spouts of a pineapple,[7] the flowering of artichoke, an uncurling fern and the arrangement of a pine cone.[8]

Contents

[hide]

1 Origins 2 List of Fibonacci numbers 3 Occurrences in mathematics 4 Relation to the golden ratio o 4.1 Closed-form expression o 4.2 Computation by rounding o 4.3 Limit of consecutive quotients o 4.4 Decomposition of powers of the golden ratio 5 Matrix form 6 Recognizing Fibonacci numbers 7 Identities o 7.1 First identity o 7.2 Second identity o 7.3 Third identity o 7.4 Fourth identity o 7.5 Fifth identity o 7.6 Identity for doubling n o 7.7 Another identity o 7.8 Other identities 8 Power series 9 Reciprocal sums 10 Primes and divisibility o 10.1 Divisibility properties o 10.2 Fibonacci primes o 10.3 Prime divisors of Fibonacci numbers o 10.4 Periodicity modulo n 11 Right triangles 12 Magnitude 13 Applications 14 In nature o 14.1 The bee ancestry code 15 Popular culture 16 Generalizations

[edit] Origins

The Fibonacci sequence appears in Indian mathematics, in connection with Sanskrit prosody.[4][9] In the Sanskrit oral tradition, there was much emphasis on how long (L) syllables mix with the short (S), and counting the different patterns of L and S within a given fixed length results in the Fibonacci numbers; the number of patterns that are m short syllables long is the Fibonacci number Fm + 1.[5] Susantha Goonatilake writes that the development of the Fibonacci sequence "is attributed in part to Pingala (200 BC), later being associated with Virahanka (c. 700 AD), Gopla (c.1135 AD), and Hemachandra (c.1150)".[3] Parmanand Singh cites Pingala's cryptic formula misrau cha ("the two are mixed") and cites scholars who interpret it in context as saying that the cases for m beats (Fm+1) is obtained by adding a [S] to Fm cases and [L] to the Fm1 cases. He dates Pingala before 450 BCE.[10] However, the clearest exposition of the series arises in the work of Virahanka (c. 700AD), whose own work is lost, but is available in a quotation by Gopala (c.1135):

Variations of two earlier meters [is the variation]... For example, for [a meter of length] four, variations of meters of two [and] three being mixed, five happens. [works out examples 8, 13, 21]... In this way, the process should be followed in all mAtrA-vr.ttas (prosodic combinations).[11]

The series is also discussed by Gopala (before 1135AD) and by the Jain scholar Hemachandra (c. 1150AD). In the West, the Fibonacci sequence first appears in the book Liber Abaci (1202) by Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci.[2] Fibonacci considers the growth of an idealized (biologically unrealistic) rabbit population, assuming that: a newly born pair of rabbits, one male, one female, are put in a field; rabbits are able to mate at the age of one month so that at the end of its second month a female can produce another pair of rabbits; rabbits never die and a mating pair always produces one new pair (one male, one female) every month from the second month on. The puzzle that Fibonacci posed was: how many pairs will there be in one year?

At the end of the first month, they mate, but there is still only 1 pair. At the end of the second month the female produces a new pair, so now there are 2 pairs of rabbits in the field. At the end of the third month, the original female produces a second pair, making 3 pairs in all in the field.

At the end of the fourth month, the original female has produced yet another new pair, the female born two months ago produces her first pair also, making 5 pairs.

At the end of the nth month, the number of pairs of rabbits is equal to the number of new pairs (which is the number of pairs in month n 2) plus the number of pairs alive last month (n 1). This is the nth Fibonacci number.[12] The name "Fibonacci sequence" was first used by the 19th-century number theorist douard Lucas.[13]

The first 21 Fibonacci numbers Fn for n = 0, 1, 2, ..., 20 are:[14]

F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16 F17 F18 F19 F20

The sequence can also be extended to negative index n using the re-arranged recurrence relation

F8 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1 F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 21 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21

The Fibonacci numbers are the sums of the "shallow" diagonals (shown in red) of Pascal's triangle.

The Fibonacci numbers occur in the sums of "shallow" diagonals in Pascal's triangle (see Binomial coefficient).[16] The Fibonacci numbers can be found in different ways in the sequence of binary strings.

The number of binary strings of length n without consecutive 1s is the Fibonacci number Fn+2. For example, out of the 16 binary strings of length 4, there are F6 = 8 without consecutive 1s they are 0000, 0100, 0010, 0001, 0101, 1000, 1010 and 1001. By symmetry, the number of strings of length n without consecutive 0s is also Fn+2. The number of binary strings of length n without an odd number of consecutive 1s is the Fibonacci number Fn+1. For example, out of the 16 binary strings of length 4, there are F5 = 5 without an odd number of consecutive 1s they are 0000, 0011, 0110, 1100, 1111. The number of binary strings of length n without an even number of consecutive 0s or 1s is 2Fn. For example, out of the 16 binary strings of length 4, there are 2F4 = 6 without an even number of consecutive 0s or 1s they are 0001, 1000, 1110, 0111, 0101, 1010.

[edit] Closed-form expression

Like every sequence defined by a linear recurrence with constant coefficients, the Fibonacci numbers have a closed-form solution. It has become known as Binet's formula, even though it was already known by Abraham de Moivre:[17]

where

[18]

To see this,[19] note that and are both solutions of the equations

and

Un = an + bn

If a and b are chosen so that U0 = 0 and U1 = 1 then the resulting sequence Un must be the Fibonacci sequence. This is the same as requiring a and b satisfy the system of equations:

Since

Similarly, if we already know that the number F > 1 is a Fibonacci number, we can determine its index within the sequence by

Johannes Kepler observed that the ratio of consecutive Fibonacci numbers converges. He wrote that "as 5 is to 8 so is 8 to 13, practically, and as 8 is to 13, so is 13 to 21 almost", and concluded that the limit approaches the golden ratio .[20]

This convergence does not depend on the starting values chosen, excluding 0, 0. For example, the initial values 19 and 31 generate the sequence 19, 31, 50, 81, 131, 212, 343, 555 ... etc. The ratio of consecutive terms in this sequence shows the same convergence towards the golden ratio. In fact this holds for any sequence which satisfies the Fibonacci recurrence other than a sequence of 0's. This can be derived from Binet's formula.

Since the golden ratio satisfies the equation

this expression can be used to decompose higher powers n as a linear function of lower powers, which in turn can be decomposed all the way down to a linear combination of and 1. The resulting recurrence relationships yield Fibonacci numbers as the linear coefficients:

n = F(n) + F(n 1).

This expression is also true for integers using the Fibonacci rule

is extended to negative

A 2-dimensional system of linear difference equations that describes the Fibonacci sequence is

and

and , are in the ratios and Using these facts, and the properties of eigenvalues, we can derive a direct formula for the nth element in the Fibonacci series:

The matrix has a determinant of 1, and thus it is a 22 unimodular matrix. This property can be understood in terms of the continued fraction representation for the golden ratio:

The Fibonacci numbers occur as the ratio of successive convergents of the continued fraction for , and the matrix formed from successive convergents of any continued fraction has a determinant of +1 or 1. The matrix representation gives the following closed expression for the Fibonacci numbers:

Taking the determinant of both sides of this equation yields Cassini's identity

Additionally, since AnAm = Am + n for any square matrix A, the following identities can be derived:

In particular, with m = n,

The question may arise whether a positive integer z is a Fibonacci number. Since F(n) is the closest integer to , the most straightforward, brute-force test is the identity

which is true if and only if z is a Fibonacci number. In this formula, F(n) can be computed rapidly using any of the previously discussed closed-form expressions. One implication of the above expression is this: if it is known that a number z is a Fibonacci number, we may determine an n such that F(n) = z by the following:

Alternatively, a positive integer z is a Fibonacci number if and only if one of 5z2 + 4 or 5z2 4 is a perfect square.[21] A slightly more sophisticated test uses the fact that the convergents of the continued fraction representation of are ratios of successive Fibonacci numbers. That is, the inequality

(with coprime positive integers p, q) is true if and only if p and q are successive Fibonacci numbers. From this one derives the criterion that z is a Fibonacci number if and only if the closed interval

contains a positive integer.[22] For , it is easy to show that this interval contains at most one integer, and in the event that z is a Fibonacci number, the contained integer is equal to the next successive Fibonacci number after z. Somewhat remarkably, this result still holds for the case z = 1, but it must be stated carefully since 1 appears twice in the Fibonacci sequence, and thus has two distinct successors.

[edit] Identities

Most identities involving Fibonacci numbers draw from combinatorial arguments. F(n) can be interpreted as the number of sequences of 1s and 2s that sum to n 1, with the convention that F(0) = 0, meaning no sum will add up to 1, and that F(1) = 1, meaning the empty sum will "add up" to 0. Here the order of the summands matters. For example, 1 + 2 and 2 + 1 are considered two different sums and are counted twice.

For n > 1. The nth Fibonacci number is the sum of the previous two Fibonacci numbers. [show]Proof

The sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers is equal to the n+2nd Fibonacci number minus 1.[23] In symbols:

The sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers is the (n + 2)nd Fibonacci number minus 1.

[show]Proof

This identity has slightly different forms for Fj, depending on whether j is odd or even. The sum of the first n 1 Fibonacci numbers, Fj, such that j is odd, is the (2n)th Fibonacci number.

The sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers, Fj, such that j is even, is the (2n + 1)th Fibonacci number minus 1.

[24]

[show]Proofs

[show]Alternative proof

[show]Proof

The sum of the squares of the first n Fibonacci numbers is the product of the nth and (n + 1)th Fibonacci numbers. [show]Proof

[25]

Another identity useful for calculating Fn for large values of n is[25]

from which other identities for specific values of k, n, and c can be derived below, including

for all integers n and k. Doubling identities of this type can be used to calculate Fn using O(log n) long multiplication operations of size n bits. The number of bits of precision needed to perform each multiplication doubles at each step, so the performance is limited by the final multiplication; if the fast SchnhageStrassen multiplication algorithm is used, this is O(n log n log log n) bit operations. Notice that, with the definition of Fibonacci numbers with negative n given in the introduction, this formula reduces to the double n formula when k = 0.

Other identities include relationships to the Lucas numbers, which have the same recursive properties but start with L0 = 2 and L1 = 1. These properties include F2n = FnLn. There are also scaling identities, which take you from Fn and Fn+1 to a variety of things of the form Fan+b; for instance

by Cassini's identity.

These can be found experimentally using lattice reduction, and are useful in setting up the special number field sieve to factorize a Fibonacci number. Such relations exist in a very general sense for numbers defined by recurrence relations. See the section on multiplication formulae under Perrin numbers for details.

The generating function of the Fibonacci sequence is the power series

:[26]

This solution can be proven by using the Fibonacci recurrence to expand each coefficient in the infinite sum defining s(x):

Solving the equation s(x) = x + xs(x) + x2s(x) for s(x) results in the closed form solution.

Infinite sums over reciprocal Fibonacci numbers can sometimes be evaluated in terms of theta functions. For example, we can write the sum of every odd-indexed reciprocal Fibonacci number as

If we add 1 to each Fibonacci number in the first sum, there is also the closed form

and there is a nice nested sum of squared Fibonacci numbers giving the reciprocal of the golden ratio,

Results such as these make it plausible that a closed formula for the plain sum of reciprocal Fibonacci numbers could be found, but none is yet known. Despite that, the reciprocal Fibonacci constant

has been proved irrational by Richard Andr-Jeannin. Millin series gives a remarkable identity:[28]

which follows from the closed form for its partial sums as N tends to infinity:

[edit] Divisibility properties

Every 3rd number of the sequence is even and more generally, every kth number of the sequence is a multiple of Fk. Thus the Fibonacci sequence is an example of a divisibility sequence. In fact, the Fibonacci sequence satisfies the stronger divisibility property

Main article: Fibonacci prime

A Fibonacci prime is a Fibonacci number that is prime. The first few are:

2, 3, 5, 13, 89, 233, 1597, 28657, 514229, (sequence A005478 in OEIS).

Fibonacci primes with thousands of digits have been found, but it is not known whether there are infinitely many.[29] Fkn is divisible by Fn, so, apart from F4 = 3, any Fibonacci prime must have a prime index. As there are arbitrarily long runs of composite numbers, there are therefore also arbitrarily long runs of composite Fibonacci numbers. With the exceptions of 1, 8 and 144 (F1 = F2, F6 and F12) every Fibonacci number has a prime factor that is not a factor of any smaller Fibonacci number (Carmichael's theorem).[30]

144 is the only nontrivial square Fibonacci number.[31] Attila Peth proved[32] in 2001 that there are only finitely many perfect power Fibonacci numbers. In 2006, Y. Bugeaud, M. Mignotte, and S. Siksek proved that only 8 and 144 are non-trivial perfect powers.[33] No Fibonacci number greater than F6 = 8 is one greater or one less than a prime number.[34] Any three consecutive Fibonacci numbers, taken two at a time, are relatively prime: that is,

gcd(Fn, Fn+1) = gcd(Fn, Fn+2) = 1.

More generally,

gcd(Fn, Fm) = Fgcd(n, m).[35][36]

The divisibility of Fibonacci numbers by a prime p is related to the Legendre symbol is evaluated as follows: which

[37][38]

For example,

It is not known whether there exists a prime p such that primes (if there are any) would be called WallSunSun primes. Also, if p 5 is an odd prime number then:[39]

. Such

For odd n, all odd prime divisors of Fn are 1 (mod 4), implying that all odd divisors of Fn (as the products of odd prime divisors) are 1 (mod 4).[40][41] For example, F1 = 1, F3 = 2, F5 = 5, F7 = 13, F9 = 34 = 217, F11 = 89, F13 = 233, F15 = 610 = 2561

It may be seen that if the members of the Fibonacci sequence are taken mod n, the resulting sequence must be periodic with period at most n2-1. The lengths of the periods for various n form the so-called Pisano periods (sequence A001175 in OEIS). Determining the Pisano periods in general is an open problem,[citation needed] although for any particular n it can be solved as an instance of cycle detection.

Starting with 5, every second Fibonacci number is the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with integer sides, or in other words, the largest number in a Pythagorean triple. The length of the longer leg of this triangle is equal to the sum of the three sides of the preceding triangle in this series of triangles, and the shorter leg is equal to the difference between the preceding bypassed Fibonacci number and the shorter leg of the preceding triangle. The first triangle in this series has sides of length 5, 4, and 3. Skipping 8, the next triangle has sides of length 13, 12 (5 + 4 + 3), and 5 (8 3). Skipping 21, the next triangle has sides of length 34, 30 (13 + 12 + 5), and 16 (21 5). This series continues indefinitely. The triangle sides a, b, c can be calculated directly:

Any four consecutive Fibonacci numbers Fn, Fn+1, Fn+2 and Fn+3 can also be used to generate a Pythagorean triple in a different way[42]:

[edit] Magnitude

Since Fn is asymptotic to , the number of digits in is asymptotic to . As a consequence, for every integer d > 1 there are either 4 or 5 Fibonacci numbers with d decimal digits. More generally, in the base b representation, the number of digits in Fn is asymptotic to .

[edit] Applications

The Fibonacci numbers are important in the computational run-time analysis of Euclid's algorithm to determine the greatest common divisor of two integers: the worst case input for this algorithm is a pair of consecutive Fibonacci numbers.[43] Yuri Matiyasevich was able to show that the Fibonacci numbers can be defined by a Diophantine equation, which led to his original solution of Hilbert's tenth problem. The Fibonacci numbers are also an example of a complete sequence. This means that every positive integer can be written as a sum of Fibonacci numbers, where any one number is used once at most. Specifically, every positive integer can be written in a unique way as the sum of one or more distinct Fibonacci numbers in such a way that the sum does not include any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers. This is known as Zeckendorf's theorem, and a sum of Fibonacci numbers that satisfies these conditions is called a Zeckendorf representation. The Zeckendorf representation of a number can be used to derive its Fibonacci coding. Fibonacci numbers are used by some pseudorandom number generators. Fibonacci numbers are used in a polyphase version of the merge sort algorithm in which an unsorted list is divided into two lists whose lengths correspond to sequential Fibonacci numbers by dividing the list so that the two parts have lengths in the approximate proportion . A tapedrive implementation of the polyphase merge sort was described in The Art of Computer Programming. Fibonacci numbers arise in the analysis of the Fibonacci heap data structure. The Fibonacci cube is an undirected graph with a Fibonacci number of nodes that has been proposed as a network topology for parallel computing. A one-dimensional optimization method, called the Fibonacci search technique, uses Fibonacci numbers.[44]

The Fibonacci number series is used for optional lossy compression in the IFF 8SVX audio file format used on Amiga computers. The number series compands the original audio wave similar to logarithmic methods such as -law.[45][46] In music, Fibonacci numbers are sometimes used to determine tunings, and, as in visual art, to determine the length or size of content or formal elements. It is commonly thought that the third movement of Bla Bartk's Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta was structured using Fibonacci numbers. Since the conversion factor 1.609344 for miles to kilometers is close to the golden ratio (denoted ), the decomposition of distance in miles into a sum of Fibonacci numbers becomes nearly the kilometer sum when the Fibonacci numbers are replaced by their successors. This method amounts to a radix 2 number register in golden ratio base being shifted. To convert from kilometers to miles, shift the register down the Fibonacci sequence instead.[47]

[edit] In nature

Yellow Chamomile head showing the arrangement in 21 (blue) and 13 (aqua) spirals. Such arrangements involving consecutive Fibonacci numbers appear in a wide variety of plants.

Fibonacci sequences appear in biological settings,[6] in two consecutive Fibonacci numbers, such as branching in trees, arrangement of leaves on a stem, the fruitlets of a pineapple,[7] the flowering of artichoke, an uncurling fern and the arrangement of a pine cone.[8] In addition, numerous poorly substantiated claims of Fibonacci numbers or golden sections in nature are found in popular sources, e.g., relating to the breeding of rabbits, the spirals of shells, and the curve of waves.[48] The Fibonacci numbers are also found in the family tree of honeybees.[49]

Przemysaw Prusinkiewicz advanced the idea that real instances can in part be understood as the expression of certain algebraic constraints on free groups, specifically as certain Lindenmayer grammars.[50]

A model for the pattern of florets in the head of a sunflower was proposed by H. Vogel in 1979.[51] This has the form

where n is the index number of the floret and c is a constant scaling factor; the florets thus lie on Fermat's spiral. The divergence angle, approximately 137.51, is the golden angle, dividing the circle in the golden ratio. Because this ratio is irrational, no floret has a neighbor at exactly the same angle from the center, so the florets pack efficiently. Because the rational approximations to the golden ratio are of the form F(j):F(j + 1), the nearest neighbors of floret number n are those at n F(j) for some index j which depends on r, the distance from the center. It is often said that sunflowers and similar arrangements have 55 spirals in one direction and 89 in the other (or some other pair of adjacent Fibonacci numbers), but this is true only of one range of radii, typically the outermost and thus most conspicuous.[52]

Fibonacci numbers also appear in the description of the reproduction of a population of idealized honeybees, according to the following rules:

If an egg is laid by an unmated female, it hatches a male or drone bee. If, however, an egg was fertilized by a male, it hatches a female.

Thus, a male bee will always have one parent, and a female bee will have two.

If one traces the ancestry of any male bee (1 bee), he has 1 parent (1 bee), 2 grandparents, 3 great-grandparents, 5 great-great-grandparents, and so on. This sequence of numbers of parents is the Fibonacci sequence. The number of ancestors at each level, Fn, is the number of female ancestors, which is Fn1, plus the number of male ancestors, which is Fn2.[53] (This is under the unrealistic assumption that the ancestors at each level are otherwise unrelated.)

Main article: Fibonacci numbers in popular culture

[edit] Generalizations

Main article: Generalizations of Fibonacci numbers

The Fibonacci sequence has been generalized in many ways. These include:

Generalizing the index to negative integers to produce the Negafibonacci numbers. Generalizing the index to real numbers using a modification of Binet's formula.[25] Starting with other integers. Lucas numbers have L1 = 1, L2 = 3, and Ln = Ln1 + Ln2. Primefree sequences use the Fibonacci recursion with other starting points in order to generate sequences in which all numbers are composite. Letting a number be a linear function (other than the sum) of the 2 preceding numbers. The Pell numbers have Pn = 2Pn 1 + Pn 2. Not adding the immediately preceding numbers. The Padovan sequence and Perrin numbers have P(n) = P(n 2) + P(n 3). Generating the next number by adding 3 numbers (tribonacci numbers), 4 numbers (tetranacci numbers), or more. The resulting sequences are known as n-Step Fibonacci numbers.[54] Adding other objects than integers, for example functions or stringsone essential example is Fibonacci polynomials.