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# Please take a look at the highlighted questions...

they are unanswered so far- and I cannot find them online or in my notes...

Define deformation. The change that a rock body undergoes in volume and/or shape(kg) Deformation (Banuelos) Temporary & reversible Elastic - ex. balloon If stress is applied, and released, and object reverses to original state, then it is elastic If it does not reverse, then it has plastic deformation Permanent Plastic - Folding (& Flowing, can happen in portions of mantle) Brittle - Fracturing, breaks Fault - can see clear displacement in the rock Know the difference between elastic ------temporary deformation / reversible, ex: a balloon plastic,-------permanent deformation / folds or flows rock and brittle deformation.-----permanent deformation / fractures rock (breaks) / Fault (EQs) Which type(s) are permanent and non-reversible? Plastic and Brittle deformation . . . are temporary and reversible? Elastic deformation Where is the zone of brittle deformation? approx. 15 km below the earths surface (KG) the zone of plastic deformation? Below the surface of brittle deformation (kg) 15km -30km rocks are more likely to fold as opposed to zone of brittle deformation (JG) Folds are examples of what type of deformation? Plastic Deformation(TA) Faults ? Brittle deformation (KG) A fault is a fracture where you can see a clear displacement, which is Brittle def..-> fracturing (JG) Define stress: The force that produces deformation (TA) Know the relationship between stress and deformation. Stress is the force that produces deformation In order to change a rock you mush add stress Dip-slip faults are characterized by what type of movement (horizontal or vertical)? Vertical (kg) Dip-slip Faults - Vertical motion (Banuelos) Normal - Product of Tensional stress - divergent boundaries Reverse (Thrust) - Product of Compressional stress - convergent boundaries Trenches - subduction zones Strike-slip faults ? Horizontal (KG) Strike-slip Faults - Horizontal motion (Look down from above, forget about hanging-walls and foot-walls) - Products of Shear stress - transform boundaries Where ever theres a bend in a strike-slip fault, you will always have a localized area of either, compression or tension (Banuelos) Response to above highlight: A localized center of compression OR tension is present because the tectonic plates are moving in opposite directions. For example, San Andreas fault. What are the three types of dip-slip faults? Normal (tension), Reverse, and Thrust (compression)(kg)

Dip-slip Faults - Vertical motion Normal - Product of Tensional stress - divergent boundaries Reverse (Thrust) - Product of Compressional stress - convergent boundaries Trenches - subduction zones (Banuelos)

. . . the two types of strike-slip faults? Right-Lateral Left-Lateral Know how to differentiate between the hanging wall -----above the fault / above the foot wall and the footwall.------under the fault / under the hanging wall These are used to determine the relative movement of which group of faults (dip-slip or strike-slip)? ----- Normal Dip-slip faults as a result of tensional stress...(divergent, JG) What type of fault is produced when the hanging wall moves up in relation to the footwall? Reverse Fault (also caused by compression / convergent plates, JG) . . . moves down in relation to the footwall? Normal Fault Know how to differentiate between right-lateral and left-lateral faults. Right-lateral - while looking at the fault, if the land on the other side moved to the right, its a rightlateral fault Left-lateral - if it moves to the left, its a left-lateral fault Know the three types of stress (tension, compression, and shear). Tension: is the pulling apart or stretching of an object <-- - Ex: MOR where two plates are separating (divergent) by tension stress and creating new land, JG) Compression: is the pushing together of an object --><--Ex: A trench, where convergent is taking place one plate is being swallowed underneath another(JG). Shear: is the pushing together at different areas (TA) -Ex: would be the San Andreas Fault where transformation takes place (JG).

Which type will shorten rock bodies? compression (kg) . . . will stretch and lengthen rock bodies? tension (kg) If a rock deforms in a brittle fashion, what feature(s) will be produced under compression?

reverse fault . . . under tension? normal fault . . . under shear? strike-slip fault (sy) If a rock deforms in a plastic fashion, what feature(s) will be produced under compression? Under compression there will be a strike - slip- fault Left Lateral What types of faults would you expect at divergent plate margins? Normal (kg) Why? Because of tensional stress (kg) . . . at convergent plate margins? Reverse fault (kg) . . .Why? because of compressional stress (kg) . . . at transform plate margins? right lateral strike-slip faults (kg) . . . Why? because of sheer stress (kg) What type of plate boundary is located at the San Andreas fault? transform plate boundary (kg) 1st of its a result of strike-slip- right lateral. It forms the tectonic boundary between the pacific plate and the North American Plate (JG) Is the San Andreas a dip-slip or strike-slip fault? Strike slip fault (rommel tan) Is it a right-lateral or a left-lateral fault? right lateral (rommel tan) A bend (or step) in strike-slip faults can result in local areas of compression or tension. Where ever theres a bend in a strike-slip fault, you will always have a localized area of either, compression or tension Why is this important when considering future earthquakes in the Los Angeles basin? LA basin and Northridge are near the bend of left stepping right lateral San Andreas fault (compression). The stress has been built for 150 years. Once the build-up stress releases, EQ will occur. Remember the map he drew when he explained laders/big bear earthquakes(sy). Was it an important consideration in the Northridge earthquake? its in the san fernando valley, because it occurred on a Blind thrust fault = reverse compression and it can occur again. (ls) The majority of the world's earthquakes occur around the rim of what ocean? Pacific Ocean (kg) The world's deepest earthquakes are associated with what type of plate boundary? Convergent Plate Boundary (kg) The zone of earthquake activity associated with this type of boundary is known as the ________ zone The Benioff Zone (kg) Know the concept of elastic rebound. Elastic Rebound Theory (Banuelos) Fence would form S shape, creating tension When the fault point could not support the stress, the fault point would The hypocenter is the point within the earth where an earthquake rupture starts. The epicenter is the point directly above it at the surface of the Earth.

break, creating the earthquake, relieving tension, and the fence is back to its original form Cannot be applied to all faults Very specific to certain faults, The San Andreas Fault is one type

Know the difference between the hypocenter (focus) and the epicenter The Hypocenter is the source of the Earthquake; The Epicenter is the place on the Earths surface directly above the hypocenter.(kg) What is fault creep? Slow constant motion, plates sliding past each other with no stress (kg) Are devastating earthquakes associated with fault creep or with periodic fault movement? periodic movement (JS) What is an asperite? A high friction area, or a stable rough spot (kg) Are asperites associated with fault creep or with periodic movement? Periodic movement (kg) What segment of the San Andreas fault has a recurrence interval of about 22 years? Parkfield (ABN) What is the difference between surface waves and body waves? Body waves: primary waves (p-waves) and secondary waves (s-waves) Surface waves (L-waves): Rayleigh waves and love waves P-waves is a change in volume. S-waves, Rayleigh and love waves are change in shape. (ABN) Which of these are known as L-waves? Surface waves (ABN) What are the two types of surface waves? Rayleigh and love waves (ABN) How do they differ? Rayleigh waves go up and down/ with backwards motions (ABN) Love wave shakes form side to side. (ABN)

What are the two types of body waves? Primary and secondary waves (ABN) How do they differ?

In primary waves, change the only the volume, not the shape of the surface. Secondary waves change the shape, and not the volume. (ABN) Of P-waves, L-waves, and S-waves: which is the fastest (first to arrive at the seismograph station)? P Waves Which is the slowest (last to arrive at seismograph station)? L Waves Which causes the greatest amount of ground shaking (registers the highest amplitudes on seismograms)? This would be the L-waves. (ABN) What is the p-s interval? the time span in between the fastest p-wave and the s-wave earthquakes (in constant change) so you can tell how far it has traveled. (ABN) Does it get larger or smaller with increasing distance from the epicenter? greater p-s interval with great time span. so the interval is larger farther from the epicenter? (ABN) How many seismograph stations are needed to determine the location of an epicenter? 3 locations, Triangulation What is this location process called? Triangulation (ABN) Know the difference between earthquake intensity and magnitude. Intensity: measures effects at any location. Magnitude: measures strength. (ABN) What scale measures intensity? Mercalli Intensity Scale (ABN) . . .magnitude? The Richter Scale (ABN) An increase of one magnitude on the Richter scale will result in a 10-fold increase in the amount of ground shaking, but a 30-fold increase in the amount of energy released. (ABN) What is base shear? lateral force due to seismic ground motion at the base of a structure (kg) Occurs with a tall building and have soft 1st story(such as open parking lot) (sy) . . . resonance? Resonance The period of motion for the building, is in sync with the period of motion for the seismic wave . . . liquefaction? unconsolidated sediments are transformed into a substance that acts like a liquid (ls) (homes can sink into the ground, monopoly hotels, bashere) What type of seismic waves are largely responsible for base shear and resonance (p-waves, s-waves, Rayleigh waves, or Love waves)? Well I found that Love waves are responsible for base shear and Rayleigh waves responsible for resonance.. Let me know if you find otherwise..Found a study guide at: http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/natural-disaster-sg-3/note/889198 Base shear: Love waves

Resonance: any wave can be responsible for it. Wave doesnt matter but period matters. When the period of the wave is the same as a cycle of the motion for the building (when they are in sync), it gives more force to the building then the building will collapse. (sy) What type of surface material will amplify these waves? - I know that soft/loose ground material lead to greater vibrations and intensity. (this would be the same as amplifying waves right?) (ABN) Notice that the amplitude(height) of the waves also increases in the loosest materials, thus generating greater degrees of ground shaking(sy). What type of surface material will enhance liquefaction? loose, and sandy(ls) What is dilation and how can dilation be monitored? - 1. tilt of the ground - 2. foreshocks: produced by dilation, when water filtrates rocks it can loosen and lubricate rock. - 3. measures the electrical conductivity of the rock(water makes it ) - 4. measures radon level: if under dilation=more exposure to radon - gas that stays under ground - ground water can dissolve radon and when released causes the BUBBLING WATER (ls)& (ABN) How are tsunami generated? Seismic sea wave - tsunami that is created by an underwater EQs The only way to produce, is by vertical movement of the sea floor (Banuelos) What relation, if any, do they have with tidal forces? NONE Are they more common in the Atlantic Ocean or in the Pacific Ocean? Why? Pacific Ocean, Vertical movements of tectonic plates Have a fundamental understanding of the following earthquakes: Lisbon (1755), -intraplate EQ - its within the plate - occurred of the coaste line(offshore) - it went all over europe - whole series of earthquakes - was a great religious center - lisbon didnt survive this EQ - produced a large TSUNAMI - 60,000 people died in a single event - about 50 ft tall TSUNAMI (ls) New Madrid (1811-1812) 3 great earthquakes within a 53 day period. reversed the Mississippi river knocked over chimneys all the way in Cincinnati Rang church bells as far away as Boston San Francisco (April 18, 1906), (ABN) & (kg) -8.3 mg -520 city blocks -on San Andres fault, everything destroyed.

-Right lateral slip (6 m. slip=18 ft slip) -Fires caused 80% of destruction due to main gas lines rupturing and water lines rupturing keeping firefighters from effectively putting out fires. -direct deaths from earthquake=700. indirect deaths (illness and disease)=5,000 Alaska (1964), Greatest amount of crustal deformation than any other Earthquake in history. relatively small number of deaths because it was a non-tourist season, it happened on Good Friday, and the period of low-tide tsunami was low. Overall pure-luck! it had a 9.2 MAG epicenter very close to anchorage compression stress 131 people died most of the people died because of the TSUNAMI reverse fault (ls) Haicheng, CHINA(1975), - They predicted an earth quake, they got water from a well and it was bubbling - snakes came up to the ground to die instead of hibernating (that was another thing they noticed) - the crust had stress - 1-2 M tremors - event of 4.8 MAG and then --- > 7.5 MAG - the prediction saves 10,000s of lives because they had evacuated to fields/parks (ls) Tangshen (1976), 1 year after the event of Haicheng, China the event happened with a large EQ with a 8.0 MAG, 250,000 people died they couldnt predict the earthquake LLoma Prieta (1989) (kg) 7.1 magnitude, 67 deaths and 1000s of injuries \$7 billion in damages Major earthquake not great becuase of the damage and death. Got lucky becuase it could have been much morse due to it being rush hour and right before the biggest superbowl game. Because of the game no one was on the freeways that collapsed. (ABN) Greatest damage from this quake: Nemitz Freeway (ABN) 41 ppl died in the collapse older structure with poor design however main cause to collapse of bridge was due to the soft/looser material it was built on the mud enhanced the vibrations San Fransisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (ABN) double decker bridge that collapsed on itself. built so it can vibrate independently however vibrations so great it fell apart and higher level collapsed on lower level there is an active fault underneath it double decker bridge vibrated so much that the deckers seperated safest thing to do is to stay put Marine District (ABN)

many structures did not withstand EQ due to soft story parking garages not withstanding Love waves. Not just building material that played an important part in destruction but also ground material.

Landers/Big Bear (1992), Landers: small town in desert, Landers occured first with a 7.5 MAG. only one person died (a child). one earthquake triggered another and they were separated by 3 hours. NOT on San Andres fault. Big Bear: have second, with a 6.5 MAG bigbear was triggered by Landers (ls) and Northridge (1994). 6.7 MAG (same magnitude as Haiti) 61 deaths (could have been more disastrous but due to building codes not many deaths) 25 billion \$ to fix its in san fernando valley it occurred on a blind thrust fault-reverse compression (ls) and fault plain is at a low angle not a high angle. Know the various types of mass wasting and their characteristic features. Mass wasting- The down slope movement of material under the influence of gravity . Controls on mass wastings: 1 Gradient and stability of the slope 2 water- loss of cohesion, lubrication, add weight little amount of water increases cohesion, a lot of water decreases cohesion 3 angle of repose - steepest angle of stability (SC) In what way are slumps and glides similar; in what way are they different? slumps : type of slide when a mass breaks free from a slope along a curved They are both types of slides. -slumps: intact body moves down a well defined curved surface. -glides: intact body moves down a well defined planor surface. (ABN) In what way does a slide differ from a flow? Slide: the object body remains intact and moves down a well defined surface Flow: moves internally like a fluid (mostly mud and earth flows) (ABN) In what way are mudflows and earthflows similar? They are both flows and have internal movements. (SC) In what way are they different? Earthflows occur in wet environments, move down hillside, not valleys, much slower than mudflows, only about a few meters a day Mudflows occur in semi-arid environments, move down valleys, a lot faster than Earthflows. Correct me if I am wrong but in the above statement, I do not remember him saying speed of the flow was specific to either mud or earth flow. I know avalanches are faster and hillside creep is very slow and a few cm/year. Was this what was meant instead? He did say that earth flows since they were in areas that were typically wet areas that they moved slower and mudflows were in areas that are typically saturated all at once causing them to move faster he said like 30-40mph i believe. (TA) Where does talus occur and how is it produced? its occurs at the rock fall area. the diagram with the rock falling off the side of the mountain it occurs at the bottom. Broken rock at the base of a high place.(TA) (found some of the answer on Wikipedia) In what way does water enhance mass wasting? Add Weight: Increase the weight, increasing the force of gravity

Lubricate: Slippery surfaces, clay tennis court Loss of cohesion: Saturation of sand and water, causes sand not to stick, [Beach, sand castle example]

What is the angle of repose and in what way is it a controlling factor in landslides? angle of repose- The steepest angle @ which a slope remains stable (kg) If the gradient of the material, increases over the angle of repose, a landslide will occur

What is mass wasting. The Downslope movement of material, under the influence of gravity (Banuelos) Know the various types of mass wasting and their characteristic features. What is the difference between a slump, a glide, a slide and a flow? Glide - moves down a well defined planor surface Slump - moves down a well defined curved surface Slide - intact body that does not breakup, moving down a well-defined surface Flows - moves internally like a fluid. ( mostly in the form of mudflow or earthflow) (ABN) How does water enhance mass wasting? because it moves the material (ls) due to adding weight, causing lubrication and a loss of cohesion (ABN) Choosing between earthflows and mudflows, which is more common in semi-arid environments? Most mudlows occur in semi-arid environments If it rains throughout the year, the hillsides are covered in vegetation, the roots keep the soil intact. (Banuelos) Which is more common in moist environments? Earthflows (wet/dry) are more common in wet environments. What is talus? a sloping mass of rocky fragments at the base of a cliff. angular rock fragments at the base of a slope(ls) What is the angle of repose? the steepest angle at which the material remains stable (ls) Have a fundamental understanding of the following mass-wasting events: Gros Ventre (1925- 1927), Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming, United States The Gros Ventre landslide is 7 miles (11 km) east of Jackson Hole valley and Grand Teton National Park. following the melt from a heavy snowpack and several weeks of heavy rain (added weight, lubricated underneath clay) primarily sandstone rock slid down the north face of Sheep Mountain, crossed over the Gros Ventre River and raced up the opposing mountainside a distance of 300 feet (ls) Kelly, Wyo., 7 deaths returned for their belongings, and lost their lives because of water overflow Death only occured in 1927 becuase water started to reach the breach of earth and the dam and overflowed into local valleys and villages. Viaont Dam (1963),

is a disused dam, completed in 1959 in the valley of the Vajont river under Monte Toc, 100 km north of Venice, Italy. A 1963 landslide caused the overtopping of the dam and around 2,000 deaths (3,000 deaths) Warning signs and negative appraisals during the early stages of filling were disregarded, and the attempt to complete the filling led to a landslide, which created a wave that brought massive flooding and destruction to the Piave valley below, wiping out several villages completely. its a SLIDE (ls)

and Yungay, Peru (1970), Classified as an avalanche. Andes mtns, stratovolcanos, potential for big landslides... Nevado Huascarin Peak. Yungay, population - 20,000 In 1962 a chunk of the mountain broke off leaving an overhang in the mountain. in 1970: 7.7 M EQ, major EQ which triggered the avalanche of the overhang of rock and ice So great that it hit the hill before the villages which provided as a ramp for the avalanche In total, 25,000 deaths -- avalanche occurred 15km away, 4 minutes to survive, 92/25,000 people survived