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# Objectives

To investigate the validity of theoretical expressions for the force exerted by a jet on targets of various shapes.

## Background / Supporting Theory

Water turbines are very useful in generating power, in the type of water turbine referred to as a Pelton wheel. This is applying the principle of conservation of linear momentum theorem. When a jet of fluid strike a solid surface of the plate at any angle it will produce a force. The fluid will not rebound from the plate and move s over the surface tangentially. The components of force can be obtained by applying the momentum principle. In order to satisfy this principle, the following conditions needed to be made: 1. The fluid should be incompressible; 2. The surface tension forces are negligibly small; 3. The flow is steady; 4. The velocity distribution across the cross-section is uniform. Therefore, the impact force of the jet can be determine by applying the momentum principle which force is the rate of change of momentum. . The vertical velocity force, Fy applied to the surface of the target is : Fy = -

= v2A (1 - cos) Relate to the volumetric flow rate equation Q=vA , v is the velocity and A is the crosssectional area of water jet, the equation can be simplified as: Fy = vQ (1 - cos); (1)

is the density of the fluid, Q is the volumetric flow rate and is the flow deflection angle. Flat target, 120 target and hemispherical target will be investigate. Flat target, is equal to 90 will be Equation (2): Fy = vQ (1 cos90) = . (2)

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## hemispherical, is equal to 180 will be Equation (4): Fy = vQ (1 cos180) =

FLAT PLATE

.
HEMISPHERE 120 DEG CONE

(4)

90o

## Figure 2.1 Flat target, hemispherical target and 120 target

Procedures
1. The top plate and the transparent casing were removed so that the nozzle diameter can be measured and the flat target (90) was placed on the rod attached to the weight pan. 2. The apparatus was assembled and the inlet pipe was connected to the Hydraulic Bench with the apparatus in the open channel. 3. The base of the apparatus was levelled with the top plate loosely assembled and the top plate was screwed down to datum which is a silver line on the spirit level. 4. The level gauge was adjusted to suit the datum on the weight pan and a load was placed on the weight pan. The water was allowed to flow by operating the control valve on the Hydraulic Bench. 5. The flow rate was then adjusted until the weight pan was re-adjacent to the level gauge. The weight pan should be oscillated when testing for level to minimize the effect of friction. 6. The mass on the weight pan was noted and the readings of volume as well as time were taken to find the flow rate. 7. The experiment was repeated by changing the masses on the weight pan for four times. .

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## Results and analyses

Diameter of nozzle: 0.8 cm; Cross sectional area of the water jet A = Cross sectional area of nozzle = r2 = (0.004)2 = 5.026510-5 m2; Density of water = 1000 kg/m3; Gravitational acceleration g = 9.81 kg/s2 1. Flat target (90) Diameter of target: 3.5 cm; Mass on weight pan m (kg) 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 Volume of Time t (s) Flow rate Q (m3/s) water v (l) 7 48.47 1.44410-4 9 44.19 2.03710-4 9 33.44 2.69110-4 9 29.06 3.09710-4 9 27.08 3.32310-4 Table 2.1 Result of the flat target Q2 2.08610-8 4.14810-8 7.24410-8 9.59210-8 1.10510-7

By the equation of Newtons Second Law of Motion which is Fy = mg where m is the mass and g is the gravitational acceleration, the equation above can be changed as: mg = hence, ; . (5)

A graph of m against Q2 was then plotted as shown in Figure 2.3 so that the experimental value can be found by the slope of the graph. Equation (5) was the equation to determine the theoretical value. The theoretical value for flat plate is 0.02028.

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mag ainstQ2
0.3

m ) g k (

## 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 y =0.0211x +0.0058

P t h g i e W n O s a M

## Figure 2.2 Graph of m against Q2 of flat target

From Figure 2.2 we obtain the actual slope of the graph is 0.0211.

2. 120 target Diameter of target: 4 cm Mass on weight pan m (kg) 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 Volume of Time t (s) Flow rate Q (m3/s) water v (l) 5 41.39 1.20810-4 5 32.18 1.55410-4 5 25.58 1.95510-4 5 20.66 2.42010-4 5 19.24 2.59910-4 Table 2.2 Result of the 120 target Q2 1.45910-8 2.41410-8 3.82110-8 5.85710-8 6.75410-8

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mag ainstQ2
0.3

m ) g k (

## 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 y =0.0351x+0.0076

P t h g i e W n O s a M

## Figure 2.3 Graph of m against Q2 of 120 target

From Figure 2.3 above, the actual slope for 120 target is 0.0351.

3. Hemispherical target (180) Diameter of target: 4 cm Mass on weight pan m (kg) 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 Volume of Time t (s) Flow rate Q (m3/s) water v (l) 5 40.25 1.24210-4 5 31.60 1.58210-4 5 24.44 2.04610-4 5 20.76 2.40910-4 5 19.16 2.61010-4 Table 2.3 Result of the hemispherical target Q2 1.54310-8 2.50410-8 4.18510-8 5.80110-8 6.81010-8

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mag ainstQ2
0.3

m ) g k (

## 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 y =0.0358x+0.0007

P t h g i e W n O s a M

## Figure 2.4 Graph of m against Q2 of hemispherical target

From Figure 2.4 above, the actual slope of hemispherical target is 0.0358.

Hence, the percentage errors between the theoretical values and experimental values were then found and tabulated in Table 2.4: Type of target plates

Experimental value

Theoretical value

## Percentage error (%)

Flat (90) 0.0211 0.02028 4.043 120 0.0351 0.03042 15.38 Hemisphere (180) 0.0358 0.04056 11.74 Table 2.4 Comparison of theoretical values and experimental values

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## Discussion and Recommendation

The percentage errors in this experiment are between 4.043% to 15.38%. One of the possible errors is in where the behaviour of jet after it hits the target. At the beginning, the target are hit with the force of jet and therefore , the increment of the spring . Due to the sudden impact of jet, the spring are increased tremendously in which, impact loading occur and causes inaccurate readings . This error could be avoided if the force of jet is increased slowly.

Conclusion
At the end of this experiment the experiment value can be accepted, this is because of there are slightly difference between the theoretically value. The theoretical expressions are Fy= last Fy = , this is for flat target, Fy = is for 120 target and at the is for hemispherical target.

References
Theory part 1. http://staff.fit.ac.cy/eng.fm/classes/amee202/Fluids%20Lab%20Impact%20of %20a%20Jet.pdf 2. http://www.scribd.com/doc/51634941/Impact-Of-A-Jet-Lab-Report. 3. http://atapaje.blogspot.com/2008/02/impact-of-jet.html

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