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Publication 4u1 - F
Flcctrical stccl shcct anu strip
Fuition 2uu5,
publishcu in Fnglish 2uu8
ISSN u15-2uu6
P.O. Box 1u 48 42
4uu39 Dsscluorf, Gcrmany

Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing.
Carl-Dictcr Wuppcrmann,
4u23 Dsscluorf, Gcrmany
Dr.-Ing. Anurcas Schoppa,
5839 Wickcuc (Ruhr), Gcrmany

Thc grcatcst carc has bccn takcn
in rcscarching anu compiling this
publication. Hovcvcr, no rcsponsi-
bility can bc acccptcu by thc pub-
lishcrs or thc compilcrs for thc accu-
racy of thc information prcscntcu.
This publication may not bc
rcprintcu in full or in part vithout
prior vrittcn pcrmission from thc
publishcr. Thc sourcc must alvays
bc quotcu.

Flcctrical stccl laminations for mag-
nctic corcs in clcctric systcms.
Nerkolatt 401 - E
Thc Stahl-Informations-Zcntrum
is an organisation of stccl prouucing
anu proccssing companics in Gcr-
many. It proviucs company-inucpcn-
ucnt, markct- anu application-oricntcu
information on thc usc anu proccss-
ing of stccl.
- - in Gcrman
languagc offcr a viuc rangc of practi-
cal guiuancc for ucsigncrs, planncrs
anu proccssors. Thcsc guiucs arc also
uscu for cuucational anu training pur-
poscs. Somc publications arc also
availablc in Fnglish-languagc vcrsions.
Thc Stahl-Informations-Zcntrum
also organiscs -
--- in vhich cx-
pcrts rcport on thcir cxpcricnccs in
stccl applications.
At - -
it prcscnts thc latcst ucvclopmcnts
in stccl anu innovativc uscs of thc
As a - - thc ccntrc
also proviucs contacts vith institutcs,
trauc associations anu cxpcrts from
rcscarch anu inuustry.
-- focuscs on supplying
ongoing information to thc trauc anu
busincss mcuia anu uaily prcss about
ncv matcrial ucvclopmcnts anu appli-
cations for stccl.
Thc Stahl-Informations-Zcntrum
organiscs an avaru for innovations
in stccl. Prcscntcu cvcry thrcc ycars,
thc N--M is onc
of thc most important avarus in thc
ficlu (vvv.stahlinnovationsprcis.uc).
Thc Stahl-Informations-Zcntrum
- (vvv.stahl-info.uc) prcscnts
a viuc rangc of information about
stccl, incluuing upcoming cvcnts, as
vcll as uircctory of all its publica-
tions. Information matcrial can bc
orucrcu onlinc.
- AG ucr Dillingcr Httcnvcrkc
- ArcclorVittal Brcmcn GmbH
- ArcclorVittal Commcrcial RPS S..r.l.
- ArcclorVittal Fiscnhttcnstaut GmbH
- Bcntclcr Stahl/Rohr GmbH
- Gcbr. Vciscr GmbH
- Gcorgsmaricnhttc GmbH
- Vittal Stccl Gcrmany GmbH
- Rassclstcin GmbH
- Rcmschciucr Walz- unu Hammcrvcrkc Bllinghaus GmbH & Co. KG
- Saarstahl AG
- Salzgittcr AG Stahl unu Tcchnologic
- ThysscnKrupp Flcctrical Stccl GmbH
- ThysscnKrupp GfT Bautcchnik GmbH
- ThysscnKrupp Stccl AG
- ThysscnKrupp VDV GmbH
- Wickcucr Wcstfalcnstahl GmbH
1 Introuuction ........................... 4
2 Classification anu typcs
of clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip ............................... 5
2.1 Non grain oricntcu ................ 5
2.2 Grain oricntcu ....................... 6
3 Propcrtics of clcctrical stccl
shcct anu strip ....................... 6
4 Prouuction of
clcctrical stccl strip .............. 9
5 Tcsting of
clcctrical stccl strip ............... 11
6 Working anu proccssing
of clcctrical stccl strip .......... 12
6.1 Non grain oricntcu
finally anncalcu ..................... 12
6.2 Non grain oricntcu,
not finally anncalcu
(scmi-proccsscu) ................... 15
6.3 Grain oricntcu ....................... 15
Applications of
clcctrical stccl strip ............... 15
8 Flcctrical stccl anu thc
cnvironmcnt ......................... 1
9 Iunuamcntal
physical rclations .................. 18
9.1 Flcctrouynamics,
magnctic cffccts .................... 18
9.2 Flcctrical stccl as a soft
fcrromagnctic matcrial ......... 19
9.3 Units ...................................... 21
1u Rcfcrcnccs ............................. 21
11 Fsscntial stanuarus for
clcctrical stccl ....................... 22
12 Picturc crcuits ....................... 22
Electrical steel sheet aud strip

Flcctrical stccl shcct anu strip is
a sclcctivc stcclvorksmatcrial in an
cxccptionally cxtcnsivc manufacturc
anu proccssing-chain. Duc to its spc-
cial anu highly optimizcu clcctro-
magnctic propcrtics it csscntially
contributcs to thc cncrgy-cfficicncy
in clcctric systcms.
In thc past clcctrical stccl vas
prouuccu as a hot rollcu strip matcr-
ial morc or lcss in batch prouuction.
Touay uuc to thc incrcascu ucvclop-
mcnt in thc ficlus of colu rolling
clcctrical stccl is prouuccu on mou-
crn rcvcrsing mills, tanucm mills
anu continuous anncaling lincs anu
uclivcrcu to thc customcrs as viuc
strip or as slit strip matcrial, mainly
vith an insulating coating on thc
surfacc. Flcctrical stccl is uscu in thc
form of punchcu parts anu lamina-
tions as a magnctic corc matcrial for
clcctric systcms.
Ior thc application of clcctrical
stccl its physical qualitics cspccially
arc of crucial importancc. Flcctrical
stccl bclongs to thc so-callcu soft
magnctic matcrials (scc also chaptcr
9 bascs) anu thcrcforc can bc casi-
ly magnctizcu anu ucmagnctizcu in
an cxtcrnal magnctficlu lcauing to a
high cncrgy cfficicncy in clcctric
Thc contribution of clcctrical
stccl to thc global cruuc stccl pro-
uuction is arounu 1 . This mcans a
ycarly prouuction of arounu 11 to 14
million tons. With 95 pcrccnt of
quantity-sharc, clcctrical stccl plays a
uominant rolc for thc softmagnctic
Duc to its clcctromagnctic prop-
crtics anu cconomic prouuction clcc-
trical stccl is uscu in a viuc rangc of
clcctrotcchnical applications such as
for thc cncrgy-prouuction in gcncra-
tors, thc cncrgy-transfcr anu uistribu-
tion by transformcrs as vcll as in
thc utilization of clcctric cncrgy in
motors anu othcr clcctric machincs.
Nerkolatt 401 - E
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Thc usc of clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip gocs back to thc invcntion
of thc clcctromagnct anu of thc uy-
namo-clcctric principlc. This vas thc
start of thc prouuction of machincs
for povcr gcncration from mcchan-
ical cncrgy (gcncrators) anu, vicc
vcrsa, for thc prouuction of mcchan-
ical cncrgy from clcctrical cncrgy
(clcctric motors). In this proccss it
vas founu that not just any iron alloy
can bc uscu for thc prouuction of thc
magnctically activc parts but that it is
also vcry important that thcsc mag-
nctic corcs havc to consist of many
laminations vhich arc insulatcu
from cach othcr. Fxactly this finuing
gaincu funuamcntal importancc vhcn
altcrnating currcnt anu thrcc-phasc
currcnt vcrc invcntcu at thc cnu of
thc 19th ccntury.
In thc first uccauc of thc 2uth
ccntury, silicon-alloycu stccl shcct
vith cspccially favourablc propcrtics
for thc construction of magnctic corcs
vas invcntcu.
Along vith thc ccntralization of
cncrgy supply anu thc ncccssity to
transmit clcctrical cncrgy ovcr long
uistanccs to thc final consumcrs,
transformcrs gaincu in importancc.
In 1934, a patcnt by Norman P. Goss,
USA, introuuccu thc ucvclopmcnt of
grain-oricntcu clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip.
Aftcr a multiplc-stagc prouuction
proccss, clcctrical stccl shcct anu
strip is slit lcngthvisc to thc spcci-
ficu viuths anu proccsscu into clcc-
trical stccl parts by punching or
cutting. In thc folloving proccssing
stagcs, thc clcctrical stccl parts arc
stackcu, packcu anu fixcu into clcc-
tromagnctic componcnts. Thcsc clcc-
tromagnctic componcnts arc uscu in
clcctric systcms such as gcncrators,
transformcrs, clcctric motors anu
ballast as magnct corcs in thc form
of stators, rotors, F-I corcs, vounu
corcs anu othcr magnct corc forms,

Ior thc targctcu usc of clcctrical
stccl shcct anu strip in thc rclcvant
ficlus of application, a largc numbcr
of charactcristics likc its gcomctric,
mcchanical, tcchnological anu othcr
matcrial-rclatcu propcrtics, arc of
crucial importancc. Its bchaviour
in thc magnctic ficlu is, hovcvcr,
cspccially important for thc function
of thc componcnt conccrncu. This
vill bc ucscribcu in uctail in chap-
tcr 9.
Thc magnctic propcrtics of clcc-
trical stccl shcct anu strip arc mainly
uctcrmincu by a high ucgrcc of
purity, thc silicon anu aluminium
contcnts (up to about 4 pcrccnt by
mass), small amounts of othcr alloy
clcmcnts likc, for instancc, man-
gancsc, sulphur anu nitrogcn, as vcll
as by hot rolling, colu rolling anu an-
ncaling proccsscs. Thc clcctrical stccl
shcct anu strip is mainly prouuccu
vith a thickncss of unucr 1 mm.
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- -
Vatcrials thc physical propcrtics
of vhich arc uircctionally ucpcnucnt,
arc callcu anisotropic. If thc propcr-
tics arc invariant vith rcspcct to
uircction, thc matcrials arc isotrop-
ic. Thc anisotropy of thc magnctic
propcrtics of clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip is bascu on thc crystal
anisotropy of iron. Iron anu its alloys
crystallizc in a cubic structurc. Thc
cubc cugc uircction is thc uircction
vhich is thc casicst to magnctizc.
Thc uircction of thc bouy uiagonal
in thc cubc is magnctically thc lcast

Flcctrical stccl shcct anu strip
vith propcrtics as isotropic as possi-
blc arc prouuccu for applications in
thc clcctrical cnginccring inuustry
vhcrc thc magnctic flux uocs not
ucpcnu on a spccific uircction anu
thcrcforc cqually goou propcrtics
arc rcquircu in all uircctions.
Electrical steel sheet aud strip


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Basically, thc samc matcrial
propcrtics arc highly important for
clcctrical stccl shcct anu strip just
as for classic stccl strip. Hovcvcr,
clcctrical stccl shcct anu strip uistin-
guishcs itsclf from othcr stccl strip
prouucts by thc grcat importancc of
its magnctic propcrtics, cspccially thc
spccific magnctic loss, thc magnctic
polarization (portion of flux ucnsity
causcu by thc magnctic matcrial) anu
thc pcrmcability (magnctizability of
thc matcrial),
It is callcu non grain oricntcu
(NO) clcctrical stccl shcct anu strip.
It is mainly uscu in gcncrators, clcc-
tric motors, contactors, rclays anu
bcll transformcrs.
Thc iucal structurc (structural
constitution) for non grain oricntcu
clcctrical stccl shcct anu strip is a
polycrystallinc structurc vith grain
sizcs bctvccn 2u m anu 2uu m,
vith thc crystallitcs ranuomly oricnt-
cu at shcct lcvcl vith thc surfacc
(1uu), figurc 2. In practicc, hovcvcr,
thc magnctic propcrtics of rcal non
grain oricntcu clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip at shcct lcvcl arc to a small
cxtcnt ucpcnucnt on thc magncti-
zation uircction. Thc in losscs uif-
fcrcncc bctvccn thc longituuinal
anu thc transvcrsc uircction arc only
1u at most.
Thc cxtcnt of a sufficicnt isotropy
of thc magnctic propcrtics in non
grain oricntcu clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip is significantly influcnccu
by thc configuration of thc prouuc-
tion routc hot rolling, colu rolling
anu final anncaling. To uatc, it has
not bccn possiblc to prouucc clcctri-
cal stccl shcct anu strip vith com-
plctcly isotropic propcrtics.

Flcctrical stccl shcct anu strip
vith a uniform oricntation of crys-
tallitcs in thc rolling uircction (crys-
tallographic tcxturc) vhich is callcu
grain oricntcu clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip, is prouuccu for applica-
tions vhcrc an cspccially small mag-
nctic loss is important anu vhcrc
cspccially grcat ucmanu is placcu
on thc pcrmcability or polarization
as in output transformcrs, public
uistribution transformcrs anu high-
grauc bcll transformcrs. Thc uni-
form oricntation of thc crystallitcs
causcs a strongly anisotropic bchav-
iour of thc clcctrical stccl shcct anu
To this cnu, grain oricntcu clcc-
trical stccl shcct anu strip is prouuccu
in an intricatc prouuction proccss,
involving an cffcctivc grain grovth
sclcction. Its grains (crystallitcs)
shov - vith a slightly flavcu oricn-
tation in thc finally anncalcu matcr-
ial - an almost iucal tcxturc, thc so-
callcu Goss tcxturc namcu aftcr its
invcntor. A cubc cugc points into thc
rolling uircction, a cubc facc uiago-
nal is at right anglcs to thc rolling
uircction. Thc ucviation of thc cubc
cugc from thc rolling uircction is -
vhcrc stanuaru matcrial is con-
ccrncu - normally up to anu up
to 3 vhcrc high pcrmcability matc-
rial is conccrncu. Thc grain sizc is
scvcral millimctrcs to ccntimctrcs,
Nerkolatt 401 - E

- -

- -
1 mm 80 mm
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- --

Thc common strip thickncss for
grain-oricntcu clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip is u.35 mm, u.3u mm, u.2
mm anu - cspccially for high-quality
output transformcrs - u.23 mm, vith
this thickncss placing spccial uc-
manus on thc colu rolling tcchniquc
uuc to thc uifficult colu formability
(in spccial cascs, othcr thickncsscs
arc proviucu, too, c. g. u.18 mm for
vounu transformcrs or finishcu thick-
ncss > u.35 mm for spccial purposcs).
In orucr to cffcctivcly supprcss
thc formation of cuuy currcnts, thc
clcctrical stccl shcct anu strip lamcl-
lac must bc covcrcu vith an insulat-
ing coating, cspccially vhcrc largc
shcct corc uiamctcrs anu thc rclatcu
high inuuction voltagcs arc con-
ccrncu. Thus clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip can bc coatcu by thc sup-
plicr aftcr thc last anncaling vith a
normally 1 to 3 m thick insulation.
Varnish coatings on inorganic or
organic basis vhich arc commonly
uscu for non grain oricntcu clcctrical
stccl shcct anu strip, incrcasc thc tool
lifc quitc consiucrably anu arc thcrc-
forc also uscu for small magnct corc
In grain oricntcu clcctrical stccl
shcct anu strip, thc inorganic coating
of complcx composition cxcrts tcn-
silc strcss on thc shcct matcrial. This
tcnsilc strcss lcaus to a magnctically
favourablc structuring of thc magnct-
ic uomains (cf. chaptcr 9.2) anu thus
rcuuccs thc magnctic loss by up to
5 vhcrc highly pcrmcability typcs
arc conccrncu.
An important mcthou of rcuucing
thc magnctic loss consists in auuing
silicon by alloying. As thc silicon
contcnt riscs, thc spccific clcctric rc-
sistancc of thc clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip is incrcascu anu thc mag-
nctic loss is thus rcuuccu. Unfortu-
natcly, thc colu formability of thc
clcctrical stccl shcct anu strip uc-
crcascs as thc silicon contcnt riscs,
anu thus for stanuaru clcctrical stccl
shcct anu strip typcs vhich arc cx-
clusivcly prouuccu in rolling pro-
ccsscs, a silicon contcnt vith a pcr-
ccntagc by vcight of 3.4 is not cx-
Thc cxact information on thc
magnctic propcrtics of thc uiffcrcnt
clcctrical stccl shcct anu strip typcs
is gcncrally inuicatcu in thc prouuct
catalogucs of clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip supplicrs. Somc cxamplcs
arc givcn for non grain oricntcu clcc-
trical stccl shcct anu strip,
anu for grain oricntcu clcctrical stccl
shcct anu strip, Along vith
appliancc-spccific corrcction factors
(construction factors), such curvcs
arc usually uscu by thc ucsigncrs for
thc ucsign of clcctrical systcms.
Electrical steel sheet aud strip
= -
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Edge drop

Yield streugth
Teusile streugth
0hemical compositiou
Heat couductivit]
Electrical couductivit]
8pezific maguetic core loss
Naguetic Polarizatiou
An important mcasurc to rcuucc
thc magnctic loss in magnctic bouics
consists in laminating thc magnctic
matcrial, On account of
thc various customcr spccifications,
clcctrical stccl shcct anu strip is
thcrcforc prouuccu in uiffcrcnt thick-
ncsscs. Non grain oricntcu clcctrical
stccl shcct anu strip is mainly pro-
uuccu in u.5 mm anu u.65 mm but
u.1u mm, u.2u mm, u.35 mm anu
1.uu mm arc also common. Thc
supcrimposition of laycrs into corcs
rcquircs vcry narrov tolcranccs vith
rcgaru to thc strip thickncss, cspc-
cially vhcrc vcry high corcs arc con-
= Frequeuc]
= Thickuess of lamiuatious
= luductiou
= Deusit]
= 8pecific electrical resistivt]
= Naguetic core thickuess
= ------
(full stack} >
(stack of siugle sheet}

0,1 0,001
10000 100
2,0 0,2 0,4 0,O 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,O 1,8
1 0,01
10 0,1
100 1
1000 10


0,1 0,001
10000 100
2,0 0,2 0,4 0,O 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,O 1,8
1 0,01
10 0,1
100 1
1000 10


0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0

Nerkolatt 401 - E
100000 10000 1000
10 100

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- - - --


- -
Thc prouuction routc of clcctri-
cal stccl strip is uiviucu into scvcral
proccssing stcps: stccl making, pro-
uuction of hot rollcu anu colu rollcu
strip, hcat trcatmcnt anu strip coating
as vcll as finishing,

Thc chcmical analysis of thc hcat,
i.c. thc contcnt of silicon, aluminium
anu othcr alloying clcmcnts as vcll
as thc supprcssion of clcmcnts unuc-
sirablc for clcctrical stccl strip (c.g.
chromium, titanium), is fixcu in thc
mclting shop. Thc improvcmcnt of
thc primary anu in particular of thc
scconuary mctallurgy plays a vcry
important rolc in thc ucvclopmcnt of
clcctrical stccl strip. By appropriatc
mcasurcs thc clcanlincss of thc hcats
has bccn cnhanccu anu thc carbon
contcnt coulu bc consiucrably rc-
uuccu to valucs bctvccn 2u ppm
anu 3u ppm. That`s hov thc mag-
nctic propcrtics of touay`s clcctrical
stccl graucs arc rcmarkably improvcu.
Electrical steel sheet aud strip
- - - -
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Nerkolatt 401 - E
- -
- - -
8teel makiug 8teel makiug 8teel makiug 8teel makiug
0outiuuous castiug (215 mm} 0outiuuous castiug (215 mm} Thiu slao castiug (50 mm} 8trip castiug (2-8 mm}
8lao pre-reheatiug* 8lao pre-reheatiug*
Pre-rolliug* Pre-rolliug*
Reheatiug + soakiug Reheatiug + soakiug 8oakiug
Roughiug rolliug Roughiug rolliug
Hot fiuishiug rolliug Hot fiuishiug rolliug Hot fiuishiug rolliug
8ide trimmiug 8ide trimmiug 8ide trimmiug 8ide trimmiug
Hot strip auuealiug* Pre-auuealiug*
8hot olastiug + pickliug 8hot olastiug + pickliug*
Pre-cold rolliug Pre-cold rolliug*
lutermediate auuealiug Precipitatiou auuealiug Precipitatiou auuealiug Precipitatiou auuealiug*
8hot olastiug + pickliug 8hot olastiug + pickliug 8hot olastiug + pickliug
0old rolliug 0old rolliug 0old rolliug 0old rolliug
Decarourizatiou auuealiug Decarourizatiou auuealiug Decarourizatiou auuealiug Decarourizatiou auuealiug
Ng0-coatiug Ng0-coatiug Ng0-coatiug Ng0-coatiug
High temperature oox auuealiug High temperature oox auuealiug High temperature oox auuealiug High temperature oox auuealiug
lusulatiou coatiug lusulatiou coatiug lusulatiou coatiug lusulatiou coatiug
Heat flatteuiug Heat flatteuiug Heat flatteuiug Heat flatteuiug
Domaiu refiuiug* Domaiu refiuiug* Domaiu refiuiug*
8ide trimmiug, slittiug aud cuttiug to leugth of strip
workiug aud processiug at customer's site (puuchiug, cuttiug, iuterlockiug, weldiug, rivetiug, gluiug aud others}
lamiuatiou or core stress relief auueal*
- -
-- --

- --
8teel makiug 8teel makiug 8teel makiug 8teel makiug 8teel makiug
Thiu slao castiug 0outiuuous castiug Thiu slao castiug 0outiuuous castiug 8trip castiug
(50 mm} (215 mm} (50 mm} (215 mm} (2-8 mm}
8oakiug Reheatiug + soakiug 8oakiug furuace Reheatiug + soakiug
Roughiug rolliug Roughiug rolliug
Hot fiuishiug rolliug Hot fiuishiug rolliug Hot fiuishiug rolliug Hot fiuishiug rolliug
Pickliug + side trimmiug Pickliug + side trimmiug Pickliug + side trimmiug Pickliug + side trimmiug Pickliug + side trimmiug
Hot strip auuealiug* Hot strip auuealiug* Hot strip auuealiug* Hot strip auuealiug* Hot strip auuealiug*
0old rolliug 0old rolliug 0old rolliug 0old rolliug 0old rolliug
Fiual auuealiug Fiual auuealiug Recr]stallizatiou auueal Recr]stallizatiou auueal
Fiual auuealiug or
Recr]stallizatiou auueal
lusulatiou coatiug* lusulatiou coatiug*
8kiu pass rolliug 8kiu pass rolliug 8kiu pass rolliug
aud/or iusulatiou coatiug* aud/or iusulatiou coatiug* aud/or iusulatiou coatiug*
8ide trimmiug, slittiug aud/or cuttiug to leugth of strip aud sheet
workiug aud processiug at customer's site (puuchiug, cuttiug, iuterlockiug, weldiug, rivetiug, gluiug aud others}
lamiuatiou or core stress relief auueal or lamiuatiou or core fiual auuealiug*
- - -- -- - -
- - -- -- - -
Whilst in stanuaru hot strip pro-
uuction all rcquircu proccssing stcps
arc pcrformcu scparatcly, moucrn
prouuction mcthous likc thin slab
casting or strip casting combinc scv-
cral proccssing stcps. Thus, thcy savc
proccssing costs anu offcr ncv op-
portunitics for influcncing matcrial
propcrtics. F.g. thc utilization of thc
thin slab tcchnology lcaus to a sig-
nificant improvcmcnt of thc quality
of non grain oricntcu stccl strip vith
rcspcct to gcomctrical charactcristics
anu magnctic propcrtics. Auuitional
improvcmcnts can bc cxpcctcu by
continuous proccss optimization.
Iirst cxpcricncc in utilizing thin
strip casting offcr ncv pcrspcctivcs
for thc ucvclopmcnt of graucs opti-
mizcu vith rcspcct to costs anu prop-
- - - in thc fully
proccsscu conuition, aftcr pickling,
thc hot rollcu strip is colu rollcu in
scvcral passcs to thc ucsircu final
thickncss, normally u.35 to 1.uu mm.
Bccausc of thc high rolling forccs
rcquircu for high silicon graucs rc-
vcrsing mills arc particularly cffcc-
tivc. Subscqucntly thc ucformcu mi-
crostructurc of thc strip is rccrystal-
lizcu in a continuous anncaling fur-
nacc unucr protcctivc atmosphcrc,
vhich rcuuccs thc carbon contcnt to
a vcry lov lcvcl anu a grain coarscn-
ing takcs placc. Aftcr this anncaling
trcatmcnt thc clcctrical stccl strip
is insulation coatcu on onc or both
siucs or rcmains uncoatcu accoruing
to thc rcquircmcnts of thc customcr.
Thcn, in thc finishing shop thc strip
is slit into viuc or narrov strip or
auuitionally cut to lcngth into shcct.
Thcrc arc also non grain oricntcu
clcctrical stccl graucs vhich ucvclop
thcir rcquircu magnctic propcrtics
uuring a particular anncaling of lami-
nations or corcs at thc prouuction
sitc of thc lamination or corc manu-
facturcr. Thcsc graucs arc callcu
- -- -
- Thcsc graucs arc rccrystalliz-
ing anncalcu aftcr colu rolling (bcll
typc or continuous anncaling fur-
naccs) anu subscqucntly skin pass
rollcu vith a small ucgrcc of ucfor-
mation (critical ucformation for pro-
moting grain grovth). Usually scmi
proccsscu graucs arc uclivcrcu vith-
out coating.
Ior both typcs of clcctrical stccl,
thc fully proccsscu as vcll as thc
scmi proccsscu typc, thcrc arc graucs
vhich offcr particularly goou mag-
nctic pcrmcability at thc samc lcvcl
of spccific total loss comparcu vith
stanuaru graucs. Thcsc high pcrmc-
ability graucs arc manufacturcu using
spccial proccsscs.
Up to thc hot rolling proccss thc
prouuction of
- is similar to that of non
oricntcu graucs. A spccial prouuction
schcmc of thc hot rolling proccss is
intcnucu to influcncc thc ucsircu mi-
crostructurc of thc finishcu strip.
Thc hot rollcu strip of 2.u to 2.5
mm thickncss is cithcr anncalcu anu
ucscalcu or simply ucscalcu. Thc
subscqucnt colu rolling is pcrformcu
cithcr in 2 stcps vith an intcrmcui-
atc anncaling or in onc stcp. Colu
rollcu to final thickncss, thc strip is
uccarburizing anncalcu anu thc sur-
facc is coatcu vith an anncaling scp-
arator. This avoius thc sticking of
ncighbouring coil vinuings in thc
folloving high tcmpcraturc box an-
ncal, Aftcr this box anncal, thc
strips arc insulation coatcu, thcrmally
flattcncu anu strcss rclicf anncalcu
in a continuous coating anu hcat flat-
tcning linc.
Thcrc arc also high pcrmcability
graucs having vcry lov spccific total
loss anu outstanuing pcrmcability.
Ior furthcr rcuuction of thc spc-
cific total loss, ccrtain grain oricntcu
graucs unucrgo a uomain rcfincmcnt
(scc chaptcr 9.2) by a spccial lascr
bcam or, morc rarcly, by a mcchani-
cal trcatmcnt. Iinally, likc thc othcr
typcs of clcctrical stccl, thc strip is
slit into viuc or narrov strip anu cut
to lcngth.
- -
Ior quality tcsting of clcctrical
stccl ccrtain propcrtics arc spccificu
in intcrnational stanuarus (scc chap-
tcr 11):
- Vaximum spccific total loss at ccr-
tain valucs of magnctic polarization,
- magnctic polarization at ccrtain
valucs of magnctic ficlu strcngth,
- othcr magnctic, tcchnological anu
gcomctrical propcrtics.
Ior mcasuring thc magnctic
propcrtics principally tvo stanuaru
mcasuring mcthous arc utilizcu: thc
Fpstcin mcthou anu thc singlc shcct
tcst mcthou,
As an auuitional tool for onlinc
control of thc anncaling proccss a
continuous loss mcasurcmcnt ucvicc,
not yct spccificu in an intcrnational
stanuaru, is cmploycu vithin thc
final anncaling lincs.
Electrical steel sheet aud strip
- -
Flcctrical stccl shcct anu strip is
a high valuc auucu prouuct. This
has to bc takcn into account uuring
storing anu proccssing. Thc matcrial
must bc storcu in such a vay that
it is protcctcu against humiuity anu
uamagc. During proccssing, any trcat-
mcnt causing a pcrmancnt ucform-
ing anu thcrcby a uctcrioration of thc
magnctic propcrtics must bc avoiucu,
Flcctrical stccl is uclivcrcu in
form of viuc strip or narrov strip in
thc finally uscu viuth (slit strip), in
somc instanccs also in thc form of
shcct. Thc knivcs for slitting thc viuc
strip into thc finally uscu viuth havc
to bc aujustcu cxactly. Iurthcrmorc
thc coiling tcnsion must bc con-
trollcu so that plastic ucformation of
thc matcrial uocs not occur. Icvcl-
ling of thc strip at thc cntrancc of
thc stamping prcss or of thc cut-to-
lcngth linc shall bc avoiucu for fully
proccsscu non grain oricntcu or grain
oricntcu matcrial. Icvclling of scmi
proccsscu matcrial is not harmful,
bccausc usually thc laminations arc
finally anncalcu aftcr punchishing.

Thc prouuction of thc lamina-
tions for thc manufacturc of magnct-
ic corcs is pcrformcu by punching
or cutting. Dcpcnuing on thc circum-
stanccs onc of thc fivc possiblc cut-
ting mcthous is cmploycu:
- Progrcssivc uic stamping
- Singlc stagc stamping
- Singlc slot notching
- Iascr cutting
- Watcr-jct cutting
Thc progrcssivc uic stamping is
particularly suitcu for thc proccssing
of matcrial in form of strip. Thc strip
is fixcu on thc uncoilcr in front of
thc stamping prcss anu is transfcrrcu
into thc stamping tool by a fccucr
synchronizcu vith thc prcss. At cach
strokc onc part of thc ucsircu lamina-
tion shapc is cut, i.c., stator anu rotor
lamination or basc part anu yokc arc
cut in a ccrtain scqucncc. Thc lami-
nations fall through thc uic anu arc
lincu up in a stacking ucvicc. Thcsc
uics utilizing progrcssivc stamping
arc applicu in moucrn high spccu
prcsscs vorking at high cutting frc-
A spccial auvantagc of thc pro-
grcssivc uic stamping is thc possi-
bility to vork vithout rcmaining griu.
Thc cugc of thc finishcu lamination
is iucntical vith thc formcr cugc of
thc strip. Thcrcforc this mcthou has
a high matcrial yiclu.
Singlc stagc stamping is prcfcr-
ablc for largc laminations anu com-
plcx cutting shapcs. Tools for singlc
stagc stamping arc uscu in slovly op-
crating prcsscs bccausc of thc long
fccuing lcngth. Somctimcs also prc-
cut shccts arc stampcu. Bccausc of
thcir sizc thc cut laminations arc usu-
ally stackcu manually.
If singlc slot notching is applicu,
cach notch intcnucu for thc vinuing
is punchcu into a rotating circular
shcct. Using this mcthou also shccts
having largcr uiamctcrs can bc trcat-
cu as vcll as laminations for motors
having conical shifting rotors, for
vhich thc outcr uiamctcrs of thc
rotor laminations bccomc grauually
biggcr vhcrcas thc inncr uiamctcrs
of thc stator laminations bccomc cor-
rcsponuingly smallcr.
Whcn cutting by lascr is applicu,
thc cncrgy of thc lascr bcam scpa-
ratcs thc stccl parts by mclting. This
mcthou is cspccially suitcu for manu-
facturing prototypcs anu for small
scrial prouuction. As thc zonc influ-
cnccu by thc hcat of thc lascr bcam
may ncgativcly affcct thc magnctic
propcrtics of thc matcrial, lascr cut-
ting rcquircs highcst quality of thc
proccss anu thc tcchnical cquipmcnt.
Nerkolatt 401 - E
- - - -- - -
- - -
Electrical steel sheet aud strip
-- - - -

--- - -
Watcr jct cutting uscs thc cncrgy
of thc high prcssurc vatcr jct. This
mcthou influcnccs thc magnctic
propcrtics of thc clcctrical stccl thc
lcast. Duc to thc rclativcly lov pro-
ccss spccu anu limitations in thc
scgmcnt shapc, hovcvcr, it is only
suitablc for prototypc manufacturing
at this timc.
Thc uimcnsional accuracy of thc
punchcu parts is basically uctcrmincu
by 5 factors:
- prccision of thc tool
- construction of thc cutting ma-
- gcomctry of thc scgmcnt
- conuition of thc clcctrical stccl
- prouuction tcchnology
During thc punching proccss a
burr ucvclops incvitably, vhich in-
crcascs vith thc vcar of thc tool.
Thc burr must bc kcpt as small as
possiblc bccausc it uctcrioratcs thc
stacking propcrtics of thc shcct stack
anu can causc short circuits bctvccn
thc laminations.
Insulation usually gcncratcs sig-
nificantly improvcu punching prop-
crtics. Particularly non pigmcntcu
insulation varnish has a positivc im-
pact. Improvcu punching propcrtics
for non insulatcu shccts can bc
achicvcu by lubricants that arc ap-
plicu to thc shcct surfacc immcui-
atcly prior to thc punching proccss.
Aftcr punching thc shcct scgmcnts
arc stackcu anu arc thcn formcu into
a stablc packct by mcans of rivcting,
clamping, vcluing, casting or gluing.
Shcct packcts fixcu by rivcting
or clamping havc holcs or cuts at thc
rclcvant positions. Joining by mcans
of vcluing is carricu out vith or
vithout fillcr mctal unucr incrt gas
at thc outcr contour.
Casting is carricu out in injcction
mouluing cquipmcnt that prouuccs
thc ucsircu shapc at thc samc timc.
Spccial insulation matcrials ap-
plicu by thc clcctrical stccl shcct
manufacturcr arc particularly suit-
ablc for gluing shcct stacks. Aftcr thc
impact of hcat anu prcssurc, ucpcnu-
ing on thc rcspcctivc stack sizc, thc
inuiviuual shcct scgmcnts arc glucu.
Thc - shov thc influ-
cncc of inuiviuual proccssing stcps
on thc magnctic propcrtics of thc
Nerkolatt 401 - E
---- - -- -- -
- -
---- - -- -- ---
- -
- -


-- - - -
- - - -




Thc prouuction of thc scgmcnts
is carricu out as ucscribcu bcforc. To
improvc punching propcrtics lubri-
cants arc usually applicu.
Aftcr punching, anncaling is pcr-
formcu in continuous anncaling fur-
naccs, usually in a uccarburizing at-
mosphcrc. Thc scgmcnts arc rccrys-
tallizcu bctvccn 5u C to 85u C;
thcy arc uccarburizcu as much as pos-
siblc thus achicving a coarsc grain.
Non coatcu scgmcnts can bc insulat-
cu by injccting stcam to crcatc an
oxiuc insulation laycr. Apart from
thc proccuurcs ucscribcu abovc oth-
cr anncaling proccuurcs may bc cm-
ploycu ucpcnuing on cquipmcnt anu

Grain oricntcu clcctrical stccl is
alvays uscu auvantagcously vhcrc
thc magnctic flux runs in onc uircc-
tion only. This is mostly thc casc in
transformcrs, inuuctors anu convcrt-
crs. Thc corcs for uistribution anu
povcr transformcrs arc stackcu from
blanks. Ior small transformcrs anu
isolating transformcrs vounu corcs
anu ring corcs or punchcu scgmcnts
arc uscu.
Whcn prouucing blanks for thc
corc of a transformcr it is important
to consiucr thc uircctionality of thc
magnctic propcrtics. Oncc cut to
application viuth, thc strip is usually
cut to thc rcquircu lcngth vith thc
rcspcctivc anglc by mcans of auto-
matic trimming cquipmcnt. Prcfcr-
ably, thc blauc anu yokc shccts rc-
quircu for onc corc arc cut anu uc-
positcu so that thc subscqucnt corc
builu-up is facilitatcu. Thc magnctic
propcrtics of grain oricntcu clcctri-
cal stccl strip vill uctcrioratc uuc
to mcchanical tcnsions, vhich oftcn
cannot bc avoiucu uuring proccss-
ing. Thc ucgrcc of uctcrioration uc-
pcnus on thc tool conuition as vcll
as on tool scttings anu blank uimcn-
sions. Strcss-rclicvcu anncaling (ac-
coruing to spccifications stipulatcu
by thc manufacturcr) of thc strip cut
to application viuth or of thc blanks
vill rcsult in a rcstoration of thc mag-
nctic propcrtics to largcly thc origi-
nal valucs of thc matcrial. If strcss-
rclicvcu anncaling is not carricu out,
it is rccommcnucu to chcck thc mag-
nctic propcrtics of thc grain oricntcu
clcctrical stccl strip aftcr cach pro-
ccss stcp.
Wounu anu ring corcs arc pro-
uuccu on automatic coiling machincs.
Hcrc thc coiling uircction is alvays
thc prcfcrrcu uircction of thc grain
oricntcu clcctrical strip. Duc to thc
tcnsions arising uuring thc coiling
proccss anu thc plastic ucformation,
strcss-rclicvcu anncaling of thc corcs
is csscntial. As corc shccts for small
transformcrs punchcu parts mauc of
grain oricntcu or non grain oricntcu
stccl strip arc uscu. Punching is usu-
ally carricu out by mcans of thc pro-
grcssivc uic mcthou. It ucpcnus on
thc rcspcctivc application, if sub-
scqucnt strcss-rclicf anncaling is ncc-
- -
Onc of thc most important char-
actcristics of clcctrical systcms is thc
cfficicncy. Ffficicncy is consiucrably
influcnccu in intcraction vith thc
folloving critcria, among othcr fac-
tors thc application-optimizcu cm-
ploymcnt of clcctrical stccl strip

{ -
In his/hcr ucsign, thc construction
cnginccr spccifics thc valucs for
magnctic mouulation, thc shapc
anu thickncss of shcct scgmcnts,
thc vorking mcuium as vcll as
thc joining proccuurc for thc
shcct corc.
Vatcrial sclcction influcnccs thc
possiblc mouulation, thc rcquircu
shcct thickncss as vcll as thc pos-
siblc proccssing proccuurcs. Thc
lost hcat arising in thc corc or in
thc coil uctcrmincs thc ucsign of
thc cooling systcm to bc installcu
so that thc maximum pcrmissiblc
coil anu corc tcmpcraturcs vill
not bc cxcccucu.
Electrical steel sheet aud strip
- ---

8egmeut shape/size

Electrical steel strip

(staudard/high permeaole}
0oiliug material (Al, 0u}
laser cuttiug
weldiug, rivetiug
8hriukiug iuto casiug
workiug medium
(air, water, oil,
cast resiu, coolaut}
{ --
Thc manufacturing proccsscs of
stccl shcct scgmcnts anu thcir fur-
thcr proccssing rcsult in auuitional
corc losscs causcu by arising tcn-
sions; thcy havc to bc consiucrcu
by thc construction cnginccr as a
crucial ucsign factor. Apart from
that, it shoulu bc bornc in minu
that not all graucs can bc
proccsscu using any onc of thc
proccuurcs availablc. Ior cxamplc,
vcluing is complctcly unsuitablc
for magnctic corc joining tcchnol-
ogy vith thick organic insulation
{ -
Surrounuing factors influcncc cffi-
cicncy uircctly or inuircctly. Dircct
influcncc mcans that c.g. corc
tcmpcraturc might havc an immc-
uiatc cffcct on cuuy currcnt loss-
cs anu magnctic polarization. In-
uircct influcncing mcans thc pos-
sibility of hcat uissipation from thc
magnctic corc. Whcn planning, in-
tcractions bctvccn thc vorking
mcuium anu thc matcrial (clcctri-
cal stccl strip anu insulation var-
nish) also havc to bc consiucrcu in
thc ucsign, c.g. corrosion or oil anu
ammonia compatibility.
Thc cfficicncy of clcctric ma-
chincs as vcll as of othcr clcctro-
magnctic componcnts vill bccomc
an cvcn morc important issuc in thc
futurc, particularly bccausc of ncv
lcgislation. This applics to:
- lighting cnginccring (ballasts)
- cooling tcchnology
(hcrmctic motors)
- inuustrial urivcs
Vagnctic corcs mauc of clcctri-
cal stccl strip havc thc function to
intcnsify magnctic ficlus anu to con-
uuct thcm vithin clcctric systcms.
Hovcvcr, thc crystallographic tcx-
turc (chaptcr 2) limits thc application
of clcctrical stccl strip to rotating
machincs (non grain oricntcu clcc-
trical stccl) or to transformcrs (grain
oricntcu clcctrical stccl),
Thc manifolu application rangc
of clcctrical stccl strip com-
priscs thc folloving scctors:
- vatcr povcr gcncrators
- turbo gcncrators
- vinu povcr gcncrators
- uicscl gcncrators
- altcrnators
- ---
- povcr transformcrs
- uistribution transformcrs
- stanuaru motors anu othcr in
uustrial small anu largc urivcs
- pumps, comprcssors anu vcn-
- traction motors
- lincar motors
- ballasts in lighting cnginccring
- motors for houscholu applianccs
- rclays anu contactors
- small transformcrs for control,
svitching anu protcction tcch-
- clcctric urivcs in automatic sys-
Nerkolatt 401 - E
- - - - -
- - - -

Sustainablc usagc of cncrgy rc-
sourccs is fostcrcu by thc improvc-
mcnt of clcctrical stccl graucs. Thc
ucvclopmcnt of clcctrical stccls is
aimcu at thc prouuction of graucs
comprising an optimal combination
of tcchnological propcrtics anu
acccptablc costs of purchasing anu
proccssing. In thc last uccaucs many
achicvcmcnts havc bccn mauc for
various matcrial propcrtics (magnctic,
mcchanical, ctc.) by optimising thc
chcmical compositions anu thc mctal-
lurgical, rolling anu anncaling tcch-
niqucs rcspcctivcly. Thc cfficicncy
of clcctric systcms can bc incrcascu
substantially by improvcu cncrgy
convcrsion taking into account thc
systcm sizc anu thc cxpcctcu povcr
rating. This holus truc cspccially for
continuously running machincs likc
gcncrators anu traction motors, ncv
transformcr typcs of cncrgy trans-
portation anu uistribution as vcll as
for pumps, fans, hcrmctic motors for
comprcssors ctc. Flcvatcu cfficicncy
proviucs a rcuuction of cncrgy con-
sumption. By taking into account all
thcsc mcasurcs, our natural rcsourccs
anu thc cnvironmcnt arc prcscrvcu
Electrical steel sheet aud strip
- --- P - - - -
- - -
Nerkolatt 401 - E

- -
In thc ycar 182u Chr. Ocrstcu uis-
covcrcu thc cffcct of magnctic forccs
in thc proximity of moving clcctric
chargcs. Thc spacc containing thcsc
forccs is callcu magnctic ficlu.
Iikc mcchanical forccs thc magnct-
ic forcc is a vcctor propcrty (shov-
ing magnituuc anu uircction).
If moving chargcs arc crcatcu by
an clcctric currcnt in a conuucting
mcuium (c.g. a virc) vith thc cur-
rcnt ucnsity , Ocrstcu`s obscrvation
can bc formulatcu by thc intcgral
o u = u (1)
Fquation (1) rclatcs thc (linc) in-
tcgral ovcr thc prouuct of thc mag-
nctic ficlu strcngth anu thc linc cl-
cmcnt ul along thc pcriphcry of thc
surfacc to thc currcnt that flovs
through this surfacc. Wc talk about
a stationary currcnt if it is not timc
ucpcnuant. Thc corrcsponuing mag-
nctic ficlu is a static ficlu. If thc cur-
rcnt is variablc in magnituuc anu
uircction an altcrnating currcnt is
rcccivcu anu thc magnctic ficlu is
callcu altcrnating magnctic ficlu. Fq.
(1) is thc basic rclation of clcctro-
= u (2)
is oftcn callcu thc Gaussian lav of
flux. is thc clcctric flov. Thc
calculation of thc magnctic ficlu of
any conuucting circuit using cq. (1)
is uifficult. Accoruing to Biot anu
Savart thc rcsult is obtaincu morc
casily if thc magnctic cffcct of thc
circuit is consiucrcu as thc sum of
thc magnctic cffccts of its parts.
If thc circuit is uiviucu into infinitc
small clcmcnts thc total magnctic
cffcct is thc sum of thc singlc cffccts
of thcsc clcmcnts. Fvcn though not
fcasiblc cxpcrimcntally thc lav of
Biot-Savart has bccn provcn cxtra-
oruinarily hclpful in rcality. Accoru-
ing to thc physical principlc of ac-
tion = rcaction it is assumcu that
thc invcrsc cffcct of Ocrstcu`s ob-
scrvation can bc founu in naturc too.
Thus thc qucstion is: Docs an clcc-
tric conuuctor pcnctratcu by a cur-
rcnt movc itsclf in a magnctic ficlu?
This is inuccu thc casc bccausc thc
= ( x ) (3)
cxplains that in a magnctic ficlu thc
forcc acts on a conuuctor of thc
lcngth flovn through by thc cur-
rcnt . is thc magnctic flux ucnsity
anu a function of location only thus
bcing a ficlu propcrty.
Thc intcgral ovcr thc surfacc
of thc magnctic flux ucnsity givcs
thc flux of thc magnctic inuuction:
= u (4)
In vacuum thc magnctic ficlu
strcngth anu thc flux ucnsity arc rc-
latcu by thc cquation:
Thc funuamcntal physical con-
is knovn as thc pcrmcabil-
ity of thc vacuum. Its valuc is:
= 4 1u
[Vs/Am] (6)
Thc most important phcnomcna
of clcctrouynamics arc thc cffccts
of clcctromagnctic inuuction uiscov-
crcu by Iarauay. Thc gcncral formu-
lation of thc lav of magnctic inuuc-
tion is:
o u = ---- u ()
Thc inuuction lav mcans that
in a closcu clcctric loop pcnctratcu
by A variablc magnctic flux cach cl-
cmcnt u of thc loop shovs an in-
uuccu clcctric voltagc of u. Thc
total voltagc o u is inuuccu in thc
vholc loop lcauing to an clcctric cur-
rcnt. It uocsn`t mattcr if thc flux vari-
ation is crcatcu by moving thc loop
in a constant magnctic ficlu or by
changing thc primary magnctic ficlu.
If spacc is fillcu vith mattcr vc
= k (8)
Thc factor k is callcu thc ab-
solutc pcrmcability. In vacuum vc
havc k = k
. Thus thc pcrmcability
of any mattcr can bc rclatcu to thc
vacuum pcrmcability as a non-uimcn-
sional figurc:
PPPP (9)

This figurc is knovn as thc rcla-

tivc pcrmcability or thc pcrmcability
numbcr. As a matcrial constant it
charactcriscs thc magnctic bchav-
iour/rcsponsc of matcrials.
Basically vc uistinguish thrcc uif-
fcrcnt typcs of matcrials:
- uiamagnctic matcrials shoving
< 1
- paramagnctic matcrials shoving
> 1
- fcrromagnctic matcrials shoving
>> 1
Irom cq.`s (3) anu () vc ucuucc
that fcrromagnctic matcrials arc usc-
ful only for thc construction of clcc-
tric machincs uuc to thcir intrinsic
ficlu amplifying cffccts. Flcctrical
stccl is in this catcgory.
Until nov only magnctic ficlus
crcatcu by moving clcctric chargcs
havc bccn consiucrcu. But from cx-
pcricncc vc knov that somc typcs
of stccl cxhibit a pcrmancnt magnct-
ic ficlu in thcir proximity. If vc con-
siucr a simplc rou mauc from a pcr-
mancnt magnctic matcrial thc mag-
nctic ficlu lincs sccm to sprcau from
tvo ccntrcs ncar thc cnus of thc
rou knovn as north- anu south polc.
Electrical steel sheet aud strip
Bccausc of thc atomic naturc of mag-
nctism, thcsc polcs cannot bc scpa-
ratcu by consccutivc uivision of thc
Thus this magnct is a uipolc
having a magnctic uipolc momcnt.
In a homogcnous magnctic ficlu this
magnctic uipolc cxpcricnccs an an-
gular mo-mcntum. This momcntum
is inuuccu by thc magnctic polarisa-
tion . is rclatcu to thc magnctic
flux ucnsity by thc cquation:
= - k
- -
Thc magnctising capability of a
fcrromagnctic matcrial thus thc uc-
pcnucncc vs. can bc mcasurcu
casily in an artificial magnctic ficlu
(scc ).
Thc primary vinuings of thc coil
crcatc thc magnctic ficlu. Thc mag-
nctic ficlu strcngth is proportional
to thc magnctising currcnt . In thc
scconuary coil thc clcctric voltagc is
inuuccu that ucpcnus from thc ficlu
amplifying cffcct of thc fcrromagnctic
matcrial inscrtcu in thc solcnoiu.
Thc voltagc is proportional to thc
magnctic inuuction . Taking into
account thc cmpty flov thc magnctic
polarisation of thc corc matcrial can
bc calculatcu.
Bcing magnctiscu various com-
plcx proccsscs arc running on a mi-
croscopic scalc vithin thc fcrromag-
nctic corc: movcmcnts anu grovth
of magnctic uomains (arcas in vhich
thc atomic or molccular magnctic
particlcs shov thc samc spatial ori-
cntation). As a conscqucncc of thcsc
proccsscs a hystcrcsis cffcct is ob-
taincu i.c. thc ucpcnucncc vs. is
uiffcrcnt if thc magnctic ficlu strcngth
is incrcascu or uccrcascu.
Bcsiucs this hystcrcsis fcrromag-
nctic matcrials shov a non-lincar
ucpcnucncc vs. .
Thc total flux ucnsity in thc ma-
tcrial is thc supcrposition of tvo
parts - thc vacuum flux ucnsity

anu thc magnctic polarisation of
thc matcrial - givcn by thc cquation:
+ =
r u
Flcctrical stccl graucs arc uc-
scribcu practically by thcir vs.
charactcristic. Thc ucpcnucncc of
thc flux ucnsity of thc magnctic
ficlu strcngth givcs inuication for
thc usagc of thc various graucs for
uiffcrcnt applications.
Thc asccnuing branch of thc
charactcristic joins thc ucsccnuing
branch in thc rcvcrsal point of thc
hystcrcsis loop. Thc form of thc
hystcrcsis loop ucpcnus on:
- thc magnituuc anu thc uircction of
thc magnctic anisotropics,
- thc magnituuc of thc magnc-
- thc kinu anu numbcr of structural
- thc tcmpcraturc,
- cxtcrnal mcchanical strcsscs,
- thc frcqucncy of thc cxtcrnal mag-
nctic ficlu.
Whcn thc magnctic ficlu or thc
currcnt rcspcctivcly is svitchcu off a
ccrtain magnituuc of thc magnctic po-
larisation is rcmaining in thc matcrial.
Thc valuc is callcu thc magnctic rcma-
. Thc viuth of thc hystcrcsis
loop is ucfincu by thc cocrcivc forcc

. This is thc magnctic ficlu strcngth
ncccssary to obtain zcro flux ucnsity.
Icrromagnctic matcrials shoving

< 1uuu A/m arc callcu soft magnctic

matcrials (likc clcctrical stccl) anu
thosc vith
> 1uuu A/m arc callcu
haru magnctic matcrials, scc .

Nerkolatt 401 - E
Thc magnctic polarisation is thus
ucscribcu as a closcu hystcrcsis loop
cithcr applying a constant ficlu or an
altcrnating ficlu. Thc arca of this
closcu loop givcs thc amount of cn-
crgy (in tcrms of hcat) pcr volumc
unit anu cyclc that is irrcvcrsibly uis-
sipatcu in thc matcrial. Vultiplying
this cncrgy amount by thc cyclc frc-
qucncy anu uiviuing by thc ucnsity
of thc matcrial thc spccific magnctic
povcr loss of thc corc, oftcn callcu
thc spccific corc loss
is obtaincu.
Thc arca of thc hystcrcsis is a
mcasurc of thc cncrgy consumption
spcnt for thc turning/rotation of thc
magnctisation in thc matcrial. In soft
magnctic matcrials (c.g. clcctrical
stccls) thc shapc of thc hystcrcsis
loop as vcll as thc magnituucs of thc
cocrcivc forcc anu thc rcmancncc
can bc varicu by controllcu changcs
in thc prouuction proccsscs. Gcncr-
ally thc soft magnctic matcrials arc
charactcriscu by thc cocrcivc forcc

anu thc saturation polarisation
Thc corc loss of clcctrical stccl
graucs as vcll as of othcr soft mag-
nctic matcrials in a pcriouically altcr-
nating ficlu may bc uccomposcu us-
ing a simplc approximation in thc
tvo componcnts
callcu thc hys-
tcrcsis loss anu thc cuuy-currcnt
Thc most important factors lcau-
ing to loss rcuuction arc thc control
- Chcmical composition
- Grain sizc
- Prccipitation conuitions
- Crystallographic tcxturc
- Surfacc conuition
Thcsc points arc of coursc prin-
cipal subjccts for ucvclopmcnt.
To achicvc lov corc losscs anu
high magnctic polarisation a coarsc
grain structurc - substantially frcc of
impuritics anu ucfccts - is rcquircu.
P k

- -








1 10 100 1000 10000
8oft maguetic ferrites
Powder composites aud
powder core materials
0aroou steels
Electrical steels

--- - -

-- - -
Electrical steel sheet aud strip
- -
Area m
Naguetic flux deusit] T (Tesla}
Naguetic flux deusit] (peak value} T
Naguetic remaueuce T
8tack height thickuess mm
Electric field streugth V/m
Force h
Frequeuc] Hz
Naguetic field streugth A/m
0oercive force A/m
Naguetisiug curreut A
Naguetic polarisatiou T
8aturatiou polarisatiou T
leugth m
Total core loss w/kg
Edd]-curreut loss w/kg
H]steresis loss w/kg
8pecific core loss w/kg
0urreut deusit] A/m
8heet thickuess mm
Time s
Flux of maguetic iuductiou wo
Electric peuetratiou A
Permeaoilit] Vs/Am
Naguetic field coustaut Vs/Am
Relative permeaoilit] -
Deusit] kg/m
8pecific electrical resistivit] cm

Vcrkblatt 4u1 ,Flcktroblcch,
Dsscluorf, 3ru Fuition, 1983
R. V. Bozorth: ,Icrromagnctism,
D. van Nostranu Company, Inc.,
Ncv York, 1955
G. Wasscrmann, J. Grcvcn:
,Tcxturcn mctallischcr Wcrkstoffc,
Springcr Vcrlag, Bcrlin, 1962
R. Boll: ,Wcichmagnctischc Wcrk-
stoffc, Vacuumschmclzc GmbH,
Hanau, 4th Fuition, 199u
A. Schoppa: ,Finfluss ucr Bc- unu
Vcrarbcitung auf uic magnctischcn
Figcnschaftcn von schlussgcglhtcm
nichtkornoricnticrtcm Flcktrobanu,
Disscrtation, RWTH Aachcn, 2uu1
A. Schoppa, C.-D. Wuppcrmann:
,Flcktrobanu - Fin anspruchsvollcr
Stahlvcrkstoff fr cncrgiccffizicntcn
Finsatz in clcktromagnctischcn Sys-
tcmcn, Vortrag Wirtschaftsvcr-
cinigung Stahl/Stahlinstitut VDFh,
J. Schnciucr, A. Schoppa,
C.-D. Wuppcrmann:
,Flcktrobanu fr cffizicntc clcktro-
tcchnischc Frzcugnissc, VFIORV
2uu3, 26.-28.u3.2uu3, Institut fr
Vctallumformung, TU Bcrgakaucmic
Ircibcrg, Konfcrcnzbanu
K. Gnthcr: ,Rcccnt Tcchnology
Dcvclopmcnts in Prouuction of
Grain Oricntcu Flcctrical Stccl,
16. Soft Vagnctic Vatcrials Confcr-
cncc, Dsscluorf, 2uu3
Tagungsbanu ,Vctallurgy anu Vag-
nctism, TU Bcrgakaucmic Ircibcrg,
Workshop, 16.-18.u6.2uu4
K. Gnthcr, K. Pctcrs, J. Schnciucr,
A. Schoppa unu C.-D. Wuppcrmann:
,Flcctrical Stccl in thin gaugcs -
rcccnt possibility for clcctrotcchnical
systcms, Stccl Grips, Journal of Stccl
anu Rclatcu Vatcrials 2 (2uu4),
No. 4
DIN FN 6u4u4-2: 1998-12
Vagnctic matcrials - Part 2: Vcthous
of mcasurcmcnt of thc magnctic
propcrtics of clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip by mcans of an Fpstcin
framc (IFC 6u4u4-2:1996)
ASTV 664: 1999
Dcsignation of clcctrical stccl graucs
in ASTV stanuarus
ASTV 6: 1999
Non Grain Oricntcu clcctrical stccl -
finally anncalcu
ASTV 683: 1999
Non Grain Oricntcu clcctrical stccl -
not finally anncalcu
IFC 6u4u4-1-1 (2uu4-u4) Fu. 1.u
Vagnctic matcrials - Part 1-1:
Classification - Surfacc insulations
of clcctrical stccl shcct, strip anu
IFC 6u4u4-8-5 (1989-u5) Fu. 1.u
Vagnctic matcrials - Part 8:
Spccifications for inuiviuual matcri-
als. Scction Iivc: Spccification for
stccl shcct anu strip vith spccificu
mcchanical propcrtics anu magnctic
IFC 6u4u4-13 (1995-u9) Fu. 1.u
Vagnctic matcrials - Part 13:
Vcthous of mcasurcmcnt of ucnsity,
rcsistivity anu stacking factor of clcc-
trical stccl shcct anu strip
IFC 6u4u4-8-2 (1998-u5) Fu. 2.u
Vagnctic matcrials - Part 8-2:
Spccifications for inuiviuual matcri-
als - Colu-rollcu clcctrical alloycu
stccl shcct anu strip uclivcrcu in thc
scmi-proccsscu statc
IFC 6u4u4-8-3 (1998-u5) Fu. 2.u
Vagnctic matcrials - Part 8-3:
Spccifications for inuiviuual matcri-
als - Colu-rollcu clcctrical non-alloycu
stccl shcct anu strip uclivcrcu in thc
scmi-proccsscu statc
IFC 6u4u4-8-4 (1998-u5) Fu. 2.u
Vagnctic matcrials - Part 8-4:
Spccifications for inuiviuual matcri-
als - Colu-rollcu non-oricntcu clcctri-
cal stccl shcct anu strip uclivcrcu in
thc fully-proccsscu statc
IFC 6u4u4-8- (1998-u5) Fu. 2.u
Vagnctic matcrials - Part 8-:
Spccifications for inuiviuual matcri-
als - Colu-rollcu grain-oricntcu clcc-
trical stccl shcct anu strip uclivcrcu
in thc fully-proccsscu statc
IFC 6u4u4-2 (1996-u3) Fu. 3.u
Vagnctic matcrials - Part 2:
Vcthous of mcasurcmcnt of thc
magnctic propcrtics of clcctrical stccl
shcct anu strip by mcans of an Fpstcin
Picturcs anu grafics vcrc publishcs
vith pcrmission by thc folloving
- Alstom Povcr Gcncration AG
- Arcva Fncrgictcchnik GmbH
- Dr. Karl Bausch GmbH & Co. KG
- Dr. Brockhaus Vcsstcchnik
GmbH & Co. KG
- Fncrcon GmbH
- Hcinrich Gcorg GmbH
- Sicmcns AG
- ThysscnKrupp AG
Nerkolatt 401 - E
-- --
DIN FN 1u1u6: 2uu-11
Colu rollcu non-oricntcu clcctrical
stccl shcct anu strip uclivcrcu in thc
fully proccsscu statc
DIN FN 1u1u: 2uu5-1u
Grain-oricntcu clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip uclivcrcu in thc fully
proccsscu statc
DIN FN 1u251: 199-u2
Vagnctic matcrials - Vcthous of uc-
tcrmination of thc gcomctrical char-
actcristics of clcctrical stccl shcct
anu strip
DIN FN 1u252: 199-u5
Vagnctic matcrials - Vcthous of mca-
surcmcnt of magnctic propcrtics of
clcctrical stccl shcct anu strip at
mcuium frcqucncics
DIN FN 1u28u: 2uu1-u6
Vagnctic matcrials - Vcthous of mca-
surcmcnt of thc magnctic propcrtics
of clcctrical shcct anu strip by mcans
of a singlc shcct tcstcr
DIN FN 1u282: 2uu1-u6
Vagnctic matcrials - Vcthou of tcst
for thc uctcrmination of surfacc insu-
lation rcsistancc of clcctrical shcct
anu strip
DIN FN 1u3u3: 2uu1-u
Thin magnctic stccl shcct anu strip
for usc at mcuium frcqucncics
DIN FN 1u341: 2uu6-u8
Colu rollcu clcctrical non-alloy anu
alloy stccl shcct anu strip uclivcrcu
in thc scmi-proccsscu statc