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121.

Ancient Egyptian Onomastics

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121.Ancient Egyptian Onomastics


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Introduction Research on Egyptian Onomastics Toponyms Anthroponyms Divine Names Other Names Transliterating Names The Names as Source Material for Other Disciplines Selected Bibliography

1.

Introduction

The study of names marked the beginning of scientific Egyptology. The Macedonian royal names P tolemaios and Cleopatra on the Rosetta Stone and further the names of the pharaohs Tuthmosis and Ramesses were the key to the decipherment of hieroglyphs by Champollion (1822). Ever since, scholars examined the multitudinous Egyptian sources: texts on papyri and inscriptions on temples, in graves and on stones. They cover almost 3800 years of history: Early Dynastic P eriod (31002686 BC), Old Kingdom (26862181 BC), 1st Intermediate P eriod, Middle Kingdom and 2nd Intermediate P eriod (21811558 BC), New Kingdom (15581085 BC), 3rd Intermediate and Late P eriod (1085304 BC), the Greek or P tolemaic Era (30430 BC), the Roman and Byzantine Times (30 BC641). In 641 the Arabs conquered Egypt. Various language stages and scripts are to be distinguished. From the dawn of Egyptian history h i e r o g l y p h s were inscribed or painted on walls. H i e r a t i c is a simplified derivation of hieroglyphs, used for book writing and administration. It can be written more quickly, but it still has clearly recognizable signs. The administrative writing, however, became gradually more cursive and developed into d e m o t i c: this very cursive writing came into vogue from about 650 BC onwards. In the P tolemaic, Roman and Byzantine period, the G r e e k l a n g u a g e, used by the Greeks and in the Greek administration, coexisted with hieroglyphs (for inscriptions, till 3th century AD), hieratic (for sacred writings, till 4th century AD) and demotic (mainly for temple administration, till 5th century AD). About 250 AD a new Egyptian writing came into existence: C o p t i c, which is still used nowadays in liturgical works. This stage of the Egyptian language is written with Greek characters, to which are added a few signs rendering typical Egyptian consonants.

has been written down by scholars: Yoyotte (1972) discussed the toponyms, Lddeckens (1972) the anthroponyms. General introductions are, for the toponyms, the study by Zibelius (1982) and the series of papers by Sauneron (1983), for the anthroponyms, the articles by Quaegebeur (1974) and Vernus (1982). Bibliographical information concerning Egyptian onomastics can be found in the periodical Onoma (1950 ), subsection Egyptian (by K. Vandorpe since 1990), and in the onomastic sections of the bibliography in the periodical Aegyptus (1920 ) and in the Annual Egyptological Bibliography (1948 ) and the P reliminary Egyptological Bibliography (1983 ).

3.

Toponyms

(place names, names of temples, pyramids, domains, royal foundations, channels etc.) 3.1.Structure and Sense As to their form, toponyms (TN) can be divided into two groups: sentence- and wordnames. TN composed of a sentence are rather rare. They usually refer to pyramids (Mycerinus is divine), domains (Sokar wishes that Ounas lives) or temple buildings. Most TN are, however, word-names, composed of one word (Iwn, pillar) or of a substantive defined by a genitive (Iw-Snfr, Island of Snofru) or by an adjective (Inb.w-), The white walls, i. e. Memphis). As to their sense, a distinction can be made between (a) city-names, compounded with terms such as niw.t (city), dmi (town), grg (foundation), c.wy (house, hence hamlet). (b) TN adapted from a geographical reality, related to the soil (m3y, newly gained land; t3, wood; 3, field; c, sand), the water (itrwc3, great river; r3, mouth of a water branch) or constructions such as temples (pr), stables (ihy). Within this group a major problem arises: how can one distinguish a real proper name (e. g., name of a city) from a common name, i. e. the name of the geographical reality itself (e. g., name of a field or a temple, which can become the name of its city later on)? Temples, pyramids and cities have their own determinative ( , , respectively). Unfortunately, the determinative is sometimes lacking and the context cannot always give a decisive answer.

2.

Research on Egyptian Onomastics

The history of the study of Egyptian names

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(c) The two preceding items can be defined by, for instance, adjectives (w.t-wr.t, The great palace), names of gods (Niw.t-Imn, The city of Amun), or royal names (Pr-Rc-ms-swmry-Imn, P iramesse, House of Ramesses, beloved by Amun). There are no general studies on the structure and sense of the TN. There exist, however, partial studies: Zibelius (1979) discussed the TN of the Old Kingdom, Jacquet-Gordon (1962) gathered all the domains of the Old Kingdom and Helck (1984) the pyramid names. There are articles about particular composing elements: ihy (Yoyotte 1958, 418 419), m3y (Yoyotte 196162a), t3 (Vernus 1977), itrw-c3 (Quaegebeur 1982), cy (Vandorpe 1991). There are of course also many articles on specific TN (e. g., Yoyotte 1957 60, on Bousiris). 3.2.History A complete study of the changes within toponymy is not available. Sentence-names (cf. 3.1.) rarely outlive the Middle Kingdom. Old word-names are often simplified or disappear in the course of ages. Some of them survive, even though the etymology is not clear any more (Imwr < Iw-m-itrw, island in the river). In their stead new types of TN come into existence. For instance, TN composed of Pr (temple-domain) + main local god, or of Prnb(.t) (temple-domain of the master/mistress) + old name of the city, are current from the New Kingdom onwards (M3dw, Medamud, later Pr-Mnw-nb-M3tn, Temple-domain of Montu, Lord of Medamud; see Zibelius 1977). M3y (newly gained land), attested from the New Kingdom onwards, is often used in TN in the New Kingdom and later (Yoyotte 196162a). The Semitic loanword mktr (fortification) emerges in the New Kingdom as a composing element for TN at the eastern border of the Delta. In the 3rd Intermediate P eriod TN appear which are compounded with sbt, strongholds founded by local kings in those turbulent times (Yoyotte 1963). The Libyan period (3rd Intermediate P eriod) produces a lot of TN consisting of grg (foundation) + name of a god (Yoyotte 1962b). In the Greco-Roman and Byzantine times, every major city has a Greek name next to the Egyptian name. The Greeks transliterate the Egyptian TN (P3-mwy, The storehouse = ), or translate them (Niw.t-Imn, The city of Amon = , The city of Zeus). Sometimes both possibilities are attested (Pr-w.-t-r, Temple-domain of

Hathor = or , The city of Aphrodite) or a totally new name is given to the city (Pr-Mnw-nb-M3tn, Templedomain of Montu, Lord of Medamud, Greek ). Another phenomenon worth mentioning, is that of cities having several names, i. e. an administrative (Edfu: b3, Coptic , Arabic Tell Edfu, Greek ) and a religious name (Edfu: Bdt, Greek ). The Coptic TN are usually based on the older Egyptian names, not on the Greek translations or Greek new names (Pr-M3, Greek , Coptic ). Many of the Egyptian TN even survive in Arabic times (Pr-B3st.t, Temple-domain of the goddess Bastet = Arabic Basta, see TAVO B41). For Ancient Egyptian and Coptic elements in the toponymy of modern Egypt, see Czapkiewicz (1971) and Kosack (1971); both studies are to be consulted with caution. 3.3.Onomastica and Topographical Lists The so-called instructions for the training of Egyptian scribes are lists of words or names on several subjects, such as fauna, flora, occupations, TN. The TN are usually classified from south to north, the Delta-TN from west to east. Well-known examples of such onomastica are the Ramesseum-onomasticon from the Middle Kingdom as well as the Amenope-onomasticon and P apyrus Hood from the New Kingdom, all published by Gardiner (1947). A late-hieratic onomasticon from Tebtunis from about 100 AD is examined by Osing (1989), a demotic onomasticon among the Cairo-papyri by Zauzich (1987). Alongside the onomastica, the Egyptians drew up topographical lists for administrative purposes (Schlott-Schwab 1981), the oldest one being the list on the kiosk of Sesostris I in Karnak (Middle Kingdom). Among the later lists, the hieratic geographical P apyrus Tanis no. 1 and the lists of the nome-processions on temples, such as the one in Edfu, are worth mentioning (Beinlich 1980). 3.4.Repertoria Brugsch already collected the hieroglyphic and hieratic TN in his Gographie of 1857, on which a supplement was published in 1880. Somewhat more recent, but also outdated now, is the Dictionnaire des noms gographiques, compiled by Gauthier (192531). In the series of the Tbinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Beihefte, the Egyptian TN are now recollected in chronological order: The TN of

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the Old Kingdom (TAVO B19 by Zibelius), 1st Intermediate P eriod (TAVO B27 by Goma), Middle Kingdom (TAVO B66 by Goma) and the Libyan kingdoms in the Delta during the 2226 dynasties (TAVO B6 by Goma) have already been published. Within the volumes an alphabetical or a topographical order (by nome) is maintained. The name and the location of each TN are discussed. For the nomes, a separate study can be consulted (TAVO B5 by Helck). A dictionary of the demotic TN is being prepared in Wrzburg (Cheshire 1987). Some TN are integrated in the demotic Glossar of Erichsen (1954). The Egyptian TN in Greek texts have been listed in the six volumes of the Dizionario by Calderini, Daris (1935 88). For the Coptic TN, the only available dictionary is still the old Gographie de lgypte lpoque copte, by Amlineau (1893 = 1973). Besides, one can consult the list, made by Roquet (1973), of TN mentioned in the Coptic dictionary of Crum. Finally, the Arabic TN of Egypt with reference to their Greek and Coptic counterparts are published by Timm (TAVO B41); in fact, the latter book replaces the above-mentioned Gographie by Amlineau.

4.

Anthroponyms

4.1.Structure and Sense (Ranke 193752, 20227; Vernus 1982) As to their form, anthroponyms (AN) can be divided into sentence- and word-names (cf. the TN 3.1.). Contrary to the TN, a large group of AN are sentence-names: (a) nominal sentences, with an adverbial predicate (Is.t-m-pr-ms.t, Isis is in the house of birth), or with an adjective as predicate (NfrPt, Ptah is perfect) (b) verbal sentences, consisting of a verb and a subject (Iw-tp, May grace come). The verbal sentences can be extended by an additional constituent (s3-3.t.i.-Imn, My heart commemorates Amun) (c) exclamations, not being a full sentence (rd-n.i, A child for me!). Word-names can be compounded with: (a) nouns (The sister; The priest) or divine names (Horus) (b) nouns or divine names, defined by an adjective (Sbk-mn, Sobek the excellent) or substantive (r-nsw, Horus the king). A few

types of nouns usually have a genitive (m and b3k, servant of; s3, r, son of; s3.t, r.t, daughter of) (c) substantivized numerals (Sn.nw, The second) and adjectives, which are often physical and related characteristics (The blind; The black one: The strong one) or which are followed by a noun (Ny + god/king, Belonging to) (d) AN composed with the possessive prefix Pa/Ta, He/She of, i. e. The servant of (Pawty, The servant of Thoth) (e) nominal forms of the verb, such as participles and relative forms (Mry.t + god/king, Beloved by; ss.w-it.f, He who praises his father; P3-di-, He who is given by). There are several studies on particular composing elements of the AN. Quaegebeur (1975), for instance, searched for the god Sha in the anthroponymy. Quack (1991) discussed the AN compounded with the verb cn (to live). The structure of the Coptic AN is described by Shisha-Havely (1989). In the New Kingdom, the definite article comes into existence (sing. m. p3/f. t3, pl. n3), and occurs from now on also in the AN (P3wn, The wolf) and TN. Distinction between names of men and women can be made by adding a masculine (.f) or feminine (.s) suffix (N3-n.f, He is strong; N3.n.s, She is strong) or by adding the female ending .t in case of a womans name (c3m, The Asiatic, female c3m.t). The distinction is also clear in case of names composed of Pa, He of, Ta, She of, or in case of names preceded by the definite article p3 or t3. Certain types of AN are, however, identical for men and women. They are usually sentences, abbreviated names or diminutives (Imn-m-b, Amun is in feast). An AN can be modified by adding an epithet, in order to avoid homonymy, usually between father and son or mother and daughter. In those cases epithets as ri/nn (junior), wr/c3 (senior), dr (the red) follow the real name. As to their sense, three types of AN can be distinguished: (a) theophoric and related AN (Lddeckens 1985) Theophoric AN, in which one element is the name of a deity, can reflect general utterances concerning this god (The god can be glorious, strong, merciful, can give health, life ...). Other utterances concern the relation of the god to the bearer or giver of the name (The god is his protection; The servant of the god). A few theophoric names inform us about

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mythological events (Grg-Is.t-Gbty, Isis has founded Coptos). A special category within this group are the AN consisting only of a divine name (Horus) or even of two divine names (Harthothes, Horus-Thoth) (cf. 4.2.). Related to the theophoric AN are AN which mention a divine epithet, a religious festival or protective spirits and demons (Pan3-3ty.w, He of the carving demons = , see Leahy 1985). (b) basilophoric and related AN (Barta 1990) Basilophoric AN are names in which one element is the name of a king (The king is strong, good, protects ...; Amasis is a son of Neith). A special category within this group are the AN consisting of a royal name only (Apries; Psammetichus). Related to the basilophoric AN are the royal epithets used as AN. (c) profane AN An important group of the so-called profane AN is composed with the word k3, vital force (K3.i-m-ib.i, My Ka is in my hart). Other profane AN refer to a characteristic of the person, such as his sex, occupation, origin (ethnica), birthday, kinship, a physical or related characteristic (The girl; The priest; The Asiatic; He who belongs to the 15th day of the month; The brother; The blind). A last group of AN can be explained as utterances in connection with birth (May his father love him). 4.2.History (Ranke 193752, 228248) Theophoric AN are encountered from the first dynasties, basilophoric AN from the Old Kingdom onwards. All the important gods are met in the theophoric AN, but shifts as to their frequency are to be taken into account. In the New Kingdom, for instance, the god Amun is the most popular worshipped deity and is thus most frequently attested in the AN. But from the Late P eriod onwards, Amun has to withdraw in favour of the triad Horus Osiris Isis. The relation between man and god expressed in the AN also changes. Before the Middle Kingdom, human beings could only be servants of the gods. Thanks to the tendency of democratizing royal privileges during the Middle Kingdom, people can from now on be called son/ daughter of a god or of an Old Kingdomking, one can be beloved by a god etc. Even the names of the gods themselves can be used as AN. In the New Kingdom the strange

phenomenon of AN consisting of two names of gods (Ptah-Souchos) is found and the utterances about the gods are even more copious than in the Middle Kingdom. Furthermore, the New Kingdom-language replaces some old words by new ones, noticeable in the AN (b3k instead of m, servant; r instead of s3, son). The Late P eriod also produces divine epithets as part of AN, but is in general characterized by a striking impoverishment as to the AN: next to some remainders of earlier ages and next to some less important new formations (Di-god NN, May god NN give i3w.t, old age etc.) there are three important groups to be distinguished. According to the first group the child is given by the god; two new formations are used to express this idea: P3-di-/T3-di-, Greek -, -, followed by the name of the god (The one who is given by the god), and the god -i.irdi.s, Greek - (The god is he who has given him/her). The second group defines the child as belonging to a god, expressed by Ns-, Greek - or - (Ns-Mn, , Belonging to Min) or the possessive prefix Pa-/Ta-, Greek -/- (Pa-Mnw, , The one of Montu). The last group regards the child as a son or daughter, conveyed by P3r-/T3-r-, Greek /()- or - (P3-rn-Wsir, , The son of Osiris). The Greco-Roman P eriod continues the types of the Late P eriod and has very few new creations of its own. The Greeks transliterate (P3-di-Is.t = ) or translate (P3-di-Is.t = ) the Egyptian AN. Greek names on the other hand are often simply transliterated into demotic ( = 3pwlnys). When Egypt is christianized, Egyptian AN diminish in favour of the Greek and Biblical, in a lesser degree of the Roman and Arabic AN. Profane AN are known from the dawn of Egyptian history and increase during the Old and Middle Kingdom. They remain copious in the New Kingdom and Late P eriod, but diminish in Greco-Roman times. Next to the chronological dispersal described above, the geographical spread has to be taken into account. For instance, theophoric AN compounded with Chnum are mainly attested in and around Elephantine. The AN composed with the name of Amun are especially frequent in the Theban environment, Thebes being the cult place of Amun par excellence; in the same way the names with Bouchis are typical for the Theban region (Clarysse 1984b).

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4.3.Surnames and Double Names (Ranke 193752, 68; de Meulenaere 1966 and 1981; Vernus 1986) From the third dynasty down to the Roman domination, a person can bear two or even three names. A surname has to be distinguished from an epithet or from the filiation, sometimes joined to the principal name. Several procedures can be applied to indicate a surname. The different names of one person can alternate on a same monument, two names can be put in juxtaposition, or the names can be preceded by a specification, pointing to a principal or a surname. The latter group is studied here in detail. Until the end of the Old Kingdom the main name is preceded by rn c3 (great name), but then this specification disappears. The designation of the surname rn ns (small/little name) is replaced by rn nfr (beautiful name) in the course of the Old Kingdom. The main name is usually a theophoric or a basilophoric name, whereas the surname is an abbrevation or a hypocoristic of the principal name, or even a profane AN without any reference to the principal name. This system disappears in the sixth dynasty. From the Middle Kingdom onwards, two names of the same person are joined by dw n.f (who is also called). With the renaissance of the 26th dynasty the old designation rn nfr (beautiful name) turns up again. But from the Greek domination onwards the system with dw n.f pushes aside rn nfr definitively in the demotic documents. In Greek texts different formulas are used to introduce the second name: (), , etc. (Calderini 1941 42; Horsley 1992). When the double name is joined by the double name of the father, the following sequence is used in Greek and demotic texts: name 1, son of name 1 of the father, alias name 2, son of name 2 of the father (Ritner 1984). In the P tolemaic period two new types of double names came into existence: the GrecoEgyptian double names, composed with a Greek and an Egyptian name, and the Greek doubles names, consisting of two Greek names. Related are the double names composed with a Semitic and a Greek or Egyptian name ( , The one of Apollo, alias The Lord has given him). The Greco-Egyptian double names are often translations of each other ( , both meaning Three brothers, see Quaegebeur 1992;

, The one of Apollo, alias The Daughter of Montu, Apollo being equated with Montu). A lot of them, however, have no relation at all ( , P amenos meaning He of the young man). Next to those groups, the double names compounded with two Egyptian names still exist (Petosiris alias Onnophris). A person who bears a Greco-Egyptian double name can be a Greek whose family lives in Egypt for several generations and has known mixed marriages, or an Egyptian who takes a Greek name according to his position in a Greek government office or in the P tolemaic army. For the problem of the (double-)name as a criterion for the nationality, see Clarysse (1985). 4.4.Abbreviated and Hypocoristic Names (Ranke 193752, 95117; Quaegebeur 1987) There are two means to abbreviate AN. One can simply omit a part of the name, e. g., the divine name in a theophoric AN (d-r instead of d-r-NN, The face of the god NN has said) or one or more lexical elements (rp3-p instead of 3i-r-p3-p, Horus has taken the sword). Another way of abbreviating AN is to eliminate some sounds, consonants as well as vowels. The result of the shortening is a hypocoristic name without a proper etymology, written in purely phonetic way (3ny and wy instead of Imn-tp). Some pet names are constructed by adding special endings (w in K3.w) or by repeating words or parts of words within the AN (Mry-mry). 4.5.The Royal Names The royal titulature consists of five great names (cf. 4.3.), which the king assumes when ascending the throne: the Horus-name (the king as embodiment of the god Horus), the nb.ty-name (the king in relation to the two ladies, protectresses of Upper and Lower Egypt), the golden-Horus name (what is meant with Horus of gold, is an unsolved problem), the prenomen (the principal name, following the title King of Upper and Lower Egypt) and the nomen (birth name of the king, following the title Son of Re). The last two names are written in a cartouche. The standard work, although out of date, remains Le Livre des Rois dgypte by Gauthier (190717). A handbook for the royal names is compiled by von Beckerath (1984). Later on, Bonhme (1987) examined the royal names of the 3rd Intermediate P eriod and

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Grenier (1989) discussed the titulatures of the Roman emperors. Finally, Barta (198789) wrote a treatise on the construction of the royal names themselves. 4.6.Repertoria The hieroglyphic and hieratic names are collected and thoroughly studied by Ranke in Die gyptischen P ersonennamen (193752): he informs us about the hieroglyphic writing of an AN, its transcription, its Greek version if available, its translation. He also discusses the structure, the sense and the history of all the AN. An index was compiled later on by Biedenkopf-Ziehner et al. (1977). Clre (1938), de Meulenaere (195781) and Thirion (197991) provided addenda to Rankes masterwork. The demotic AN can be found in the Namenbuch of Lddeckens (1980 ), alphabetically arranged, but not yet finished. Spiegelberg (1901) examined the Egyptian AN and their Greek transliterations occurring in the mummy-labels. P reisigke (1922) gathered all the AN and their variants recorded in the Greek papyri, among them the Greek transliterations of Egyptian names. P reisigkes Namenbuch has been supplemented by Foraboschi (1971). The two latter publications are somewhat out of date and contain many ghost-names, corrected in several recent articles (Bingen 1967; Quaegebeur 1974, 411 412). Heuser (1929) provided a Vorarbeit for a Coptic dictionary of AN, on which Brunsch (1984) made an index. Next to the dictionaries, the prosopographies have to be taken into account. Franke (1984) made a prosopography for the Middle Kingdom. Ghalioungui (1983) provided an up-to-date repertory of the Ancient Egyptian physicians and examined their names. For the P tolemaic P eriod one can consult the P rosopographia P tolemaica (by W. P eremans, E. Van t Dack et al., Leuven, 1950 ), up to now a collection of persons of whom the occupation or activities are known; the AN in Greek and demotic writing are listed. In the future, volumes with all the persons of certain regions or archives will appear. For the Zenon-archive, the greatest archive of the P tolemaic period (about 1700 texts), one can also consult P apyrologica Lugduno-Batava 21. A prosopography of the Roman P eriod on data-base is being prepared by D. Rathbone at University College London. There are regional studies for the Byzantine period, such as the P ros. Arsinoitica by Die-

thart (1980), and for the Coptic period, such as Tills (1962) prosopography of Thebes.

5.

Divine Names

5.1.Names of Gods (Kuhlmann 1977) The structure of the names of gods is similar to that of the AN. As to their sense, the following distinctions can be made. There are divine names, composed of a characteristic of the deity (Amun, The invisible, according to the medium air, in which he ought to reveal himself). Another group consists of names which are personifications of abstract concepts (Maat, Justice). Some names of goddesses are the female counterpart of the name of a god (Amaunet, female counterpart of Amun). There are, however, several names of gods of which no etymology is available. In addition, divine names can be compounded of two, sometimes even three or more names of gods (see also Barta 1991). A separate category of divine names are the names of protecting spirits or demons, representatives of chaos. A lot of them are attested in funerary and magical texts (Meeks 1971). 5.2.Divine Epithets and Magical Names Divine names can be accompanied by divine epithets (Rsy-inb.f, South of his wall, an epithet of Ptah, see Quaegebeur 1980), which are sometimes transliterated by the Greeks as if they were part of the divine name itself (, w.t-r nb.t-Tp-i, Hathor, mistress of Aphroditopolis). Magical texts are an important source for Egyptian mythology and hold many voces magicae, among them names of Egyptian gods and demons, later on also of Greek and Semitic gods. In the Greek magical papyri from Egypt, the names of gods and demons are transliterated into Greek, the etymology of which has to be established by Egyptologists (Thissen 1991).

6.

Other Names

Next to human beings and gods, personal names can be attributed to animals, usually deified animals, and to objects. Janssen (1958) and Fischer (1961; 1977) gathered, for instance, personal names given to dogs, the favorite household pets throughout Egyptian history. El-Sayed (1980) examined the names of the seven heavenly cows. Schmitz (1984)

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discussed the personal names ascribed to statues of gods or kings, mainly attested in the New Kingdom. The representations of gods in relief, which can bear an independent personal name, also belong to this category.

7.

Transliterating Names

7.1.Reconstructing the Pronunciation (Vergote, 1960; Quaegebeur 1974) The Egyptian language doesnt record vowels until the rise of Coptic ca. 250 AD. The vocalization of Egyptian names before that period can be deduced from transliterations into foreign languages, which note vowels, such as cuneiform writing used in the Amarna tablets, and especially the Greek language (e. g., P3-r3-mty, The northern gate = , see Quaegebeur 1993). The study of Greek transliterations of Egyptian names has been paid attention to by many scholars like Clarysse, Lddeckens, P estman, Quaegebeur, Yoyotte (see Onoma, subsection Egyptian); Brunsch (1978) discussed in a more general study the Egyptian AN rendered in Greek. All those scholars examine both demotic and Greek sources, a necessity to obtain scientifically founded results (Clarysse 1984a). Mistakes such as reading instead of are common, if the editor doesnt know the Egyptian original name T3-r.t-nMnw (The daughter of Montu). Also the reading of names in Egyptian texts can be corrected, if one knows the Greek counterpart, e. g., 3 and m being very similar, the demotic name of a banker 3ndrs has to be read Mndrs according to Greek texts which call this man (Clarysse 1989/ 90). One has, however, to take into account the inadequacy of the Greek phonological system to render Egyptian phonemes (e. g., both Egyptian s and are rendered in Greek by ), as well as typical Greek phenomena, such as assimilation ( from ), itacism etc. Furthermore, dialectal differences ought to be taken into account. Our knowledge of the different Egyptian dialects is based on Coptic: the Sahidic dialect has become a kind of koin and is attested all over Egypt; dialects such as Bohairic and Subakhmimic to Akhmimic are local. Dialectal forms are sometimes noticeable in Greek transliterations (in Thebes one can encounter both Sahidic, e. g., the TN , as well as local Akhmimic forms, e. g., , both for Egyptian P3-ihy, The stable).

Next to Greek transliterations and Coptic, the Egyptian language itself can make suggestions as to the pronunciation of certain phonemes. It concerns phonetic, non-etymological writings (N3-nfr-p3-Rc for Nfr-ib-Rc, p3, the article, and ib, hart, being homophone; see Quaegebeur 1987; cf. 4.4.). As a consequence, such names can receive a secondary etymology, e. g., the name of the Saite king Psmk, Psammetichus, is reinterpretated by the people as P3-s-n-mk, The mixed-wine seller (Quaegebeur 1990). 7.2.Transliterations into Foreign Languages Egyptian names are encountered in foreign languages (Ranke 193752, 409414; Onoma, subsection Egyptian: orthography) such as Aramaic (Vittmann 1989a), P hoenician (Vittmann 1989b), Carian (Zauzich 1972), cuneiform (Vittmann 1984), Greek (cf. 7.1.) and Latin. 7.3.Foreign Names Transliterated into Egyptian The Egyptian had a subsystem in their script to record syllables. With this system they could write down foreign, especially Asiatic words or names. There are divergent opinions as to the interpretation of this so-called syllabic orthography, depending whether the signs or groups of signs also refer to vowels or not (Lippi 1984; Schenkel 1986; Helck 1989). This orthography was mainly used during the New Kingdom, when a lot of foreign nations were submitted to the Egyptians. As a consequence, lists of defeated foreign places and nations were drawn up since the 18th dynasty, usually on the pylon of temples. Well-known are the topographical lists of Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep III (not Amenophis, see Quaegebeur 1986) and Ramesses II (Helck 1971; Giveon 1982). In general, Canaanite, P alestinian, Syrian, Mesopotamian, P ersian, Meroitic, Libyan, Greek, Latin ... names are found in all kinds of Egyptian sources (Ranke 193752, 409 414). A lot of articles on those foreign names many of them by Grg are listed in the periodical Onoma (subsection Egyptian: orthography). The following books have appeared on the subject. Zibelius (TAVO B1) collected the African names of places and nations in hieroglyphic and hieratic texts, Huyse (1990) gathered the Iranian AN surviving in the Greek papyri of Egypt. Demotic

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transcriptions of Greek AN and the system for transliterating them, is studied by Clarysse (1983).

8.

The Names as Source Material for Other Disciplines

The Egyptian names provide important Egyptological information. As to the religion, all the main gods are found in the AN (cf. 4.2.) and the frequency of their names in the AN gives an idea of their popularity in certain periods. P opular religion (oracular gods, sacred animals ...) is especially well reflected in the names. The existence of a deity as the quadripartite god The four gods Min is even only known thanks to the anthroponymy (Quaegebeur 1991). Christianization causes important onomastic changes: from the 3rd century onwards the pagan AN gradually disappear in favour of the Christian names (see the debate between Bagnall 1982; 1987 and Wypszycka 1986; 1988). The only surviving pagan AN are names of martyrs (Clarysse 1993). According to Hobson (1989), who examined the naming practises in the early Roman period, too little attention has been paid to the social evidence provided by the AN. On the other hand, the question of whether an AN is a reliable criterion for the bearers nationality in the Greco-Roman period has been studied throughout as regard the Egyptian and Greek names (Clarysse 1985) and as regard the Jewish AN (Tcherikover 1957, XVIIXIX). P henomena such as the damnatio of AN also deserve our attention (Brunner-Traut 1982). The importance of the names for the vocalization and grammar of the Egyptian language has been shown (cf. 7.1.).

Barta, W. (1990): Zur Konstruktion gyptischer P ersonennamen mit einem Knigsnamen als Komponente. In: Zeitschrift fr gyptische Sprache 117, 211. Barta, W. (1991): Zur grammatischen Bedeutung synkretistisch verbundener Gtternamen am Beispiel der Namen von Re und Atum. In: Gttinger Miszellen 123, 710. Beckerath, J. von (1980): Knigsnamen und -titel. In: L III, 540556. Beckerath, J. von (1984): Handbuch der gyptischen Knigsnamen (Mnchner gyptologische Studien 20). Mnchen. Beinlich, H. (1980): Listen, topographische. In: L III, 10611062. Biedenkopf-Ziehner, A. et al. (1977): Die gyptischen P ersonennamen von H. Ranke, Bd. 3, Verzeichnis der Bestandteile. Glckstadt. Bingen, J. (1967): Remarques donomastique oxyrhynchite. In: Zeitschrift fr P apyrologie und Epigraphik 1, 189195. Bonhme, M. (1987): Les noms royaux dans lgypte de la troisime priode intermdiaire (Bibliothque dtude 98). Le Caire. Brugsch, H. (18571880): Dictionnaire gographique de lancienne gypte. Leipzig. Brunner-Traut, E. (1982): Namenstilgung und -verfolgung. In: L IV, 338341. Brunsch, W. (1978): Untersuchungen zu den griechischen Wiedergaben gyptischer P ersonennamen. In: Enchoria 8, 1142. Brunsch, W. (1984): Index zu Heusers P ersonennamen der Kopten. In: Enchoria 12, 119153. Calderini, A., Daris, S. (19351988): Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici dellEgitto grecoromano, 5 vols., 1 suppl. Cairo. Calderini, R. (19411942): Ricerche sul doppio nome personale nellEgitto greco-romano. In: Aegyptus 21 (1941), 221260; 22 (1942), 345. Champollion, J. Fr. (1822): Lettre M. Dacier relative lalphabet des hiroglyphes phontiques employs par les gyptiens pour inscrire sur leurs monuments les titres grecs et romains. Paris. Cheshire, W. (1987): A Dictionary of Demotic Toponyms. In: Aspects of Demotic Lexicography, ed. by S. P. Vleeming. Leuven, 131134. Clarysse, W., Van Der Veken, G. (1983): The Eponymous P riests of P tolemaic Egypt (P apyrologica Lugduno-Batava 24). Leiden. Clarysse, W. (1984a): Bilingual Texts and Collaboration between Demoticists and P apyrologists. In: Atti del XVII congresso internazionale di papirologia, Napoli, III, 13451353. Clarysse, W. (1984b): Theban P ersonal Names and the Cult of Bouchis. In: Grammata Demotika.

9.

Selected Bibliography

Amlineau, E. (1973): La gographie de lgypte lpoque copte. 2. Aufl. Osnabrck. Bagnall, R. S. (1982): Religious Conversion and Onomastic Change in Early Byzantine Egypt. In: Bulletin of the American Society of P apyrology 19, 105123. Bagnall, R. S. (1987): Conversion and Onomastics: a Reply. In: Zeitschrift fr P apyrologie und Epigraphik 69, 243250. Barta, W. (19871989): Zur Konstruktion der gyptischen Knigsnamen. In: Zeitschrift fr gyptische Sprache 114 (1987); 115 (1988); 116 (1989).

121. Ancient Egyptian Onomastics

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Festschrift E. Lddeckens, hrsg. v. H.-J. Thissen, K.-Th. Zauzich. Wrzburg, 2539. Clarysse, W. (1985): Greeks and Egyptians in the P tolemaic Army and Administration. In: Aegyptus 65, 5766. Clarysse, W. (1989/90): A Bankers Name in Early Roman Thebes. In: Sacris Erudiri. Jaarboek voor Godsdienstwetenschappen 31, 7784. Clarysse, W. (1993): The Coptic Martyr Cult. To appear in: Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium. Clre, J. J. (1938): Notes donomastique propos du dictionnaire des noms de personnes de H. Ranke. In: Revue dgyptologie 3, 103113; 136137. Czapkiewicz, A. (1971): Ancient Egyptian and Coptic Elements in the toponymy of contemporary Egypt (Zeszyty Naukowe Jagielloskiego Uniwersytetu 225). Krakw. de Meulenaere, H. (19571962/1981): Notes donomastique tardive. In: Revue dgyptologie 11 (1957); 12 (1960); 14 (1962); Bibliotheca Orientalis 38 (1981). de Meulenaere, H. (1966): Le surnom gyptien la basse poque. Istanbul. de Meulenaere, H. (1981): Le surnom gyptien la basse poque (Add. et Corr.). In: Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 12, 127134. Diethart, J. M. (1980): P rosopographia Arsinoitica I, secc. VIVIII (Mitteilungen aus der P apyrussammlung der sterreichischen Nationalbibliothek, NS 12). Wien. El-Sayed, R. (1980): Les sept vaches clestes, leur taureau et les quatre gouvernails daprs les donnes de documents divers. In: Mitteilungen des deutschen archologischen Instituts, Abt. Kairo 36, 357390. Erichsen, W. (1954): Demotisches Glossar. Kopenhagen. Fischer, H. G. (1961): A Supplement to Janssens List of Dogs Names. In: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 47, 152153. Fischer, H. G. (1977): More Ancient Egyptian Names of Dogs and Other Animals. In: Metropolitan Museum Journal 12, 173178. Foraboschi, D. (1971): Onomasticon alterum papyrologicum. Supplemento al Namenbuch di F. P reisigke (Testi e documenti per lo studio dellantichit. Ser. Pap. 2). Milano. Franke, D. (1984): P ersonendaten aus dem Mittleren Reich (20.16. Jahrh. v. Chr.). Dossiers 1 796 (gyptologische Abhandlungen 41). Wiesbaden. Gauthier, H. (19071917): Le livre des Rois dgypte. 5 vols. Cairo. Gauthier, H. (19251931): Dictionnaire des noms gographiques contenus dans les textes hirogly-

phiques. 7 vols. Le Caire. Gardiner, A. H. (1968): Ancient Egyptian Onomastica. 2 vols. 2nd ed. Oxford. Ghaliounqui, P . (1983): The P hysicians of P haraonic Egypt (Deutsches Archologisches Institut, Abt. Kairo, Sonderschrift 10). Mainz. Giveon, R. (1982): Ortsnamenlisten. In: L IV, 621622. Grenier, J.-Cl. (1989): Les titulatures des empereurs romains dans les documents en langue gyptienne. (Pap. Bruxellensia 22). Bruxelles. Helck, W. (1971): Die Beziehungen gyptens zu Vorderasien im 3. und 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. (gyptologische Abhandlungen 5). 2. Aufl. Wiesbaden. Helck, W. (1984): P yramidennamen. In: L V, 49. Helck, W. (1989): Grundstzliches zur sogenannten syllabischen Schreibung. In: Studien zur Altgyptischen Kultur 16, 121143. Heuser, G. (1929): Die P ersonennamen der Kopten I, Untersuchungen (Studien zur Epigraphik und Papyruskunde I/2). Leipzig. Hobson, D. (1989): Naming practices in Roman Egypt. In: Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrology 26, 157174. Horsley, G. H. R. (1992): Names, Double. In: The Anchor Bible Dictionary 4, ed. by D. N. Freedman. New York, 10111017. Huyse, P h. (1990): Iranische Namen in den griechischen Dokumenten gyptens (Iranisches P ersonennamenbuch V, Fasz. 6a), hrsg. v. M. Mayrhofer, R. Schmitt. Wien. Jacquet-Gordon, H. K. (1962): Les noms des domaines funraires dans lAncien Empire. (Bibliothque dtude 34). Le Caire. Janssen, J. M. A. (1958): ber Hundenamen im pharaonischen gypten. In: Mitteilungen des deutschen archologischen Instituts, Abt. Kairo 16, 176182. Kosack, W. (1971): Historisches Kartenwerk gyptens, 2 Bde. Bonn. Kuhlmann, K. (1977): Gtternamen, -bildung, -zusammensetzung. In: L II, 696705. L = Lexikon der gyptologie (19751990). Hrsg. v. W. Helck, E. Otto, W. Westendorf. 7 Bde. Wiesbaden. Leahy, A. (1985): tiw-Demons in Late P eriod Onomastica. In: Gttinger Miszellen 87, 4951. Lippi, D. (1984): New Considerations about Egyptian syllabic orthography. In: Oriens Antiquus 23, 9395. Lddeckens, E. (1972): Namenkunde. In: Textes et langages de lgypte pharaonique. Cent cinquante annes de recherches 18221972. Hommage J.Fr. Champollion (Bibliothque dtude 64/1). Le Caire, 241248.

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Lddeckens, E. (1980 ff.): Demotisches Namenbuch, vol. I/1I/11. Wiesbaden. (3 till tp-B3st.t). Lddeckens, E. (1985): Die theophoren P ersonennamen im pharaonischen, hellenistisch-rmischen und christlichen gypten. In: gypten. Dauer und Wandel (Deutsches Archologisches Institut, Abt. Kairo, Sonderschrift 18), 105113. Meeks, D. (1971): Genies, anges, dmons en gypte. In: Sources Orientales 8, 1884. Onoma. Bibliographical and Information Bulletin. Leuven, 1 (1950) . Osing, J: (1989): Ein spthieratisches Onomastikon aus Tebtunis. In: Akten des vierten internationalen gyptologen-Kongresses Mnchen 1985 (Studien zur altgyptischen Kultur, Beihefte 3). Hamburg, 183187. P reisigke, F. (1922): Namenbuch enthaltend alle griechischen, lateinischen, gyptischen, hebrischen, arabischen und sonstigen Menschennamen, soweit sie in griechischen Urkunden gyptens sich vorfinden. Heidelberg. P rosopographia P tolemaica IIX (1950 ). (Studia Hellenistica). Leuven. Quack, J. F. (1991): ber die mit cn gebildeten Namenstypen und die Vokalisation einiger Verbalformen. In: Gttinger Miszellen 123, 91100. Quaegebeur, J. (1974): The Study of Egyptian P roper Names in Greek Transcription. In: Onoma 18, 403420. Quaegebeur, J. (1975): Le dieu gyptien Sha dans la religion et lonomastique (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 2). Leuven. Quaegebeur, J. (1980): Une pithte mconnaissable de P tah. In: Livre du Centenaire (Mmoires de lInstitut Franais dArchologie Orientale du Caire 104), 6171. Quaegebeur, J. (1982): Documents grecs et gographie historique. Le Mendsien. In: Lgyptologie en 1979 (Colloques internationaux du centre nationale de la recherche scientifique 595). P aris, I, 267272. Quaegebeur, J. (1986): Amnophis, nom royal et nom divin: questions mthodologiques. In: Revue dgyptologie 37, 97106. Quaegebeur, J. (1987): Aspects de lonomastique dmotique: formes abrges et graphies phontiques. In: Aspects of Demotic Lexicography, ed. by S. P. Vleeming. Leuven, 7584. Quaegebeur, J. (1990): Les rois sates amateurs de vin. In: Ancient Society 21, 241271. Quaegebeur, J. (1991): Les quatres dieux Min. In: Religion und P hilosophie im alten gypten. Festgabe P h. Derchain (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 39), ed. by U. Verhoeven, E. Graefe. Leuven, 253268. Quaegebeur, J. (1992): Greco-Egyptian double names as a feature of a Bi-Cultural Society: Egypt from Cambyses to Constantine and beyond. In:

Life in a Multi-Cultural Society (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 51), ed. by J. H. Johnson. Chicago, 265272. Quaegebeur, J. (1993): La justice la porte des temples et le toponyme P remit. In: Individu, socit et spiritualit dans lgypte pharaonique et copte. Mlanges A. Thodorids. Ath/Bruxelles/Mons, 201220. Ranke, H. (19371952): Die gyptischen P ersonennamen. 2 Bde. Glckstadt. Ritner, R. K. (1984): A P roperty Transfer from the Erbstreit Archives. In: Grammata Demotika. Festschrift E. Lddeckens, hrsg. v. H.-J. Thissen, K.Th. Zauzich. Wrzburg, 171187. Roquet, G. (1973): Toponymes et lieux-dits gyptiens enregistrs dans le dictionnaire de W. E. Crum (Bibliothque dtudes coptes 10). Le Caire. Sauneron, S. (1983): Villes et lgendes dgypte (Bibliothque dtude 90). 2 vols. Le Caire. Schenkel, W. (1986): Syllabische Schreibung. In: L VI, 114122. Schlott-Schwab, A. (1981): Die Ausmae gyptens nach altgyptischen Texten (gypten und Altes Testament 3). Wiesbaden. Schmitz, B. (1984): Statuennamen. In: L V, 12671270. Shisha-Havely, A. (1989): The P roper Name: Structural P rolegomena to its Syntax A Case Study in Coptic (Beihefte zur Wiener Zeitschrift fr die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Bd. 15). Wien. Spiegelberg, W. (1901): gyptische und griechische Eigennamen aus Mumienetiketten der rmischen Kaiserzeit: auf Grund von grossenteils unverffentlichtem Material gesammelt und erl. von W. Spiegelberg. Leipzig. TAVO = Tbinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Wiesbaden. Beihefte 1 (1972) . Tcherikover, V. A., Fuks, A. (1957): Corpus P apyrorum Judaicarum, vol. 1. Cambridge. Thirion, M. (19791991): Notes donomastique. Contribution une rvision de Ranke P N. In: Revue dgyptologie 31 (1979); 33 (1981); 34 (198283); 36 (1985); 37 (1986); 39 (1988); 42 (1991). Thissen, H.-J. (1991): gyptologische Beitrge zu den griechischen magischen P apyri. In: Religion und P hilosophie im alten gypten. Festgabe P h. Derchain (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 39), hrsg. v. U. Verhoeven, E. Graefe. Leuven, 293302. Till, W. C. (1962): Datierung und P rosopographie der Koptischen Urkunden aus Theben (Sitzungsberichte der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische Klasse, 240/ 1). Wien. Vandorpe, K. (1991): Les villages des ibis dans la toponymie tardive. In: Enchoria 18, 115122. Vergote, J. (1960): La solution dun problme important: la vocalisation des formes verbales gyp-

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Jan Quaegebeur and Katelijn Vandorpe, Leuven (Belgium)

122.Onomastique sumrienne
1. 2. 3. Anthroponymie Toponymie Bibliographie slective

1.

Anthroponymie

Les anthroponymes sumriens sont constitus de termes ou de groupes de termes qui appartiennent la langue sumrienne. Celle-ci fut crite et parle durant le IIIe millnaire; concurrence par lakkadien ds avant 2000 av. J.C., elle devint une langue rserve aux crits: cette situation se reflte dans lonomastique. Trs nombreux au IIIe millnaire et encore sous la 3e dyn. dUr, en Msopo-

tamie mridionale, les noms propres sumriens se font de plus en plus rares dans la suite. En principe, les noms propres ont un sens complet, mais beaucoup sont des noncs abrgs. Il existe aussi des hypocoristiques, dont certains rsistent toute analyse. P ar leur contenu, les anthroponymes sont souvent religieux (llment de base tant un nom de divinit), mais d autres sont profanes, invoquant le roi ou le pre de famille, par exemple. 1.1.Sources Lonomastique sumrienne nous est connue par des inscriptions et textes divers, mais sur-