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http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5245117_hoover-dam-built_.html (hoover dam) http://faculty.delhi.edu/hultendc/AECT480-Lecture%201.pdf (stress/strain) http://www.matbase.com/material/other/concrete/steel-reinforced-concrete/properties (Database) http://www.scribd.

com/doc/51206378/62/Mechanical-Properties-of-ReinforcedConcrete (Books)

STEAL For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following properties:

High strength High tensile strain Good bond to the concrete Thermal compatibility Durability in the concrete environment

three physical characteristics give reinforced concrete its special properties. First, the coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is similar to that of steel, eliminating large internal stresses due to differences in thermal expansion or contraction. Second, when the cement paste within the concrete hardens this conforms to the surface details of the steel, permitting any stress to be transmitted efficiently between the different materials. Usually steel bars are roughened or corrugated to further improve the bond or cohesion between the concrete and steel. Third, the alkaline chemical environment provided by the alkali reserve (KOH, NaOH) and the portlandite (calcium hydroxide) contained in the hardened cement paste causes a passivating film to form on the surface of the steel, making it much more resistant to corrosion than it would be in neutral or acidic conditions. When the cement paste exposed to the air and meteoric water reacts with the atmospheric CO2,

Cement, as it is commonly known, is a mixture of compounds made by burning limestone and clay together at very high temperatures ranging from 1400 to 1600 [[ring]] C. # Water is the key ingredient, which when mixed with cement, forms a paste that binds the aggregate together. The water causes the hardening of concrete through a process called hydration. Hydration is a chemical reaction in which the major compounds in cement form chemical bonds with water molecules and become hydrates or hydration products. The role of water is important because the water to cement ratio is the most critical factor in the production of "perfect" concrete. Aggregates are chemically inert, solid bodies held together by the cement. (Cement + water) + Aggregate = concrete

Material principles http://matse1.matse.illinois.edu/concrete/prin.html http://www.technologystudent.com/joints/reinforc1.html

arch-gravity dam Code type: standard ODSC number: #9773485366 http://opendatastandards.org/?t=definition&code=9773485366

A composite dam with the bowed shape of an arch dam and the heavy infill of a gravity dam.

An arch-gravity dam is a composite between an arch dam and a gravity dam. Like an arch dam it is bowed towards the upstream side to resist pressure from the water behind it, and like a gravity dam it uses a significant amount of infill to give it mass for stability and support.

reinforced concrete, Concrete in which steel is embedded in such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces. The reinforcing steelrods, bars, or meshabsorbs the tensile, shear, and sometimes the compressive stresses in a concrete structure. Plain concrete does not easily withstand tensile and shear stresses caused by wind, earthquakes, vibrations, and other forces and is therefore unsuitable in most structural applications. In reinforced concrete, the tensile strength of steel and the compressive strength of concrete work together to allow the member to sustain these stresses over considerable spans.

http://www.usbr.gov/lc/hooverdam/faqs/damfaqs.html Hoover dam FAQ Due to the fact that its ach gravity water load is carried by both gravity action and horizontal arch action. http://www.technologystudent.com/joints/reinforc1.html = flashes (compre and tensile as well)

(SFRC) is its superior resistance to cracking and crack propagation. http://www.refwin.com/Final_ed/UploadFile/2011820153554520.pdf extract from a book

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/539286/shear-stress http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/587505/tensile-strength http://www.engineersedge.com/material_science/strength.htm http://www.infoplease.com/search?q=reinforced+concrete&in=all&fr=iptn http://www.usbr.gov/lc/hooverdam/faqs/damfaqs.html