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Name: Aung Khine Min AP US History II Summer Assignment Part 1 Chapter 1 1. Lief Erikson- Reached Newfoundland.

Christopher Columbus- found America. Vasco Da Gama- Reached India. 2. Because it drew a line North and South and the land was divided in two divisions. 3. Because the English settlers learned how to grow Tobacco and make a living out of that plant. 4. England remained independent and Protestant, England showed that it could defend itself. England became the greatest naval force. 5. To provide advice for their problems and it was significant because they demonstrated some sort of independence that would be used in the future legislative bodies in the America. 6. Because of the slaughter on both the Indian tribe and the English settlers were so intense and King James I revoked the charter and made it a royal colony. 7. The major difference between Puritans and Separatists is their goal. The main goal of the Puritans is to be officially separated from the Catholic religion. The Separatists, on the other hand, established a goal of becoming one like that of the Roman Catholic Church but without any connection or lineage to the Church of England. And the Anglicans are just simply who rebelled against the Church of England. 8. The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was drafted by the separatist pilgrims who crossed the Atlantic aboard the Mayflower. 9. Because there was no need to consult with or take directions from any group in England. 10. To set up religious freedom and separation of the Church. 11. This document called for an assembly of elected representatives from each town to make laws. It also called for the popular election of a governor and judges. 12. The Toleration Act was a law mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians. 13. Proprietary Colony- is governed by a person appointed by the King. Royal Colony- King directly governs that colony. Charter is an independent colony. 14. New England- for example, engaged in shipbuilding because of the sturdy, straight, tall pines that grew throughout the region. In the Middle colonies- farming and commerce developed in which wheat, corn, and vegetables were grown. The South- Growing tobacco, indigo, rice was famous because of the fertility of the land. 15. Because they enacted local taxes they had the power of the purse, which they used to compel the governor to heed their demands. 16. Mercantilism was a system developed by the parliament that a colony was provide raw materials to the motherland the motherland will provide them with finished goods. Mercantilism = little import and a lot of export. Those counties who applied it had a growing economy; those who didn't apply had a ruined economy. 17. Wealth. 18. It affected all the society classes. 19. Jonathan Edwards was a president of Princeton.

20. This means to not enforce laws, particularly where the enforcement may have counterproductive results. 21. King Philips war. Chapter 2 22. A royal decree was issued that prohibited the North American colonists from establishing or maintaining settlements west of an imaginary line running down the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. It angered the settlers because they couldnt expand anymore. 23. The turning point from salutary neglect to an attempt to force English policies was the 7 Years' War. Great Britain was fighting France for imperial control of the known world & was losing until Secretary of State William Pitt the Elder took charge. 24. Townshend Act. Stamp Act. The Coercive Act. 25. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense to voice his political opinions. Much like modern day newspapers, editorials, etc. He brought the growing unrest into focus by placing blame for the suffering of the colonies directly on the reigning British monarch, George III. 26. The writers of the Articles were cautious about now giving the new government the power that they just denied to the old monarchy. And the weaknesses were: A lack of Authority of Tax. A lack of Authority to exercise authority directly over the states. No Standing Army, Navy. 27. Considered to be one of the most significant achievements of the Congress of the Confederation, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 put the world on notice not only that the land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi would be settled but that it would eventually become part of the United States. Until then this area had been temporarily forbidden to development. 28. The Virginia Plan- established a government consisting of three independent branches. Legislative, Executive, Judicial in which each would check the balance of powers over the other. The New Jersey Plan: It called for a unicameral legislature in which each state would have one vote. The Connecticut Plan: A Congress. Consisting of two houses. 29. Because they completed a number of important actions such as raising revenues, established the executive departments of State, Treasury, and War: created the federal judiciary system; and passed a Bill of Rights. 30. The issue of assumption was a debt repayment system, which the federal government will assume all the states debt. And the compromise of 1790 solved the controversial by putting the national capital in the south and the north will not object the issue of slavery. 31. Loose construction-means that the federal government can take reasonable actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid. Strict construction- people who favor strict constitution think that that federal government should do only what the constitution specifically says it can do. 32. Elite Vs Poor. The arguments between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Chapter 3 33. The Quasi war was between France and the United States which the two nations ships attacked each other on the high seas.

34. Passed by the U.S. Congress in 1798, these laws purportedly were to protect the country from enemy aliens (residents of countries inimical to the U.S.). These acts later expired or were repealed and held to have been unconstitutional. 35. The first Kentucky Resolution, passed by the state legislature on November 16, 1798, stated that when the federal government exercised power not specifically delegated to it by the Constitution, each state could judge the validity of that action for itself. The Virginia Resolution of December 24, 1798, claimed that the states "have the right and are in duty bound to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil." Several northern states objected that the judiciary, not the states, should be the arbiter of constitutionality. 36. Because they were two of the Americas founders and 37. It was a revolutionary moment in U.S. History. Without bloodshed or turmoil, without accusations of fraud and corruption, without any attempt at a conspiracy, the government had been turned over by one political party to another. 38. Because nowhere in the constitution sates that the president has the right to purchase foreign land. 39. In Marbury v. Madison, (1803), The Court held that William Marbury and his co-plaintiffs had a right to their commissions. It also established a judiciary review where the judicial branch can declare any laws passed by congress to be unconstitutional 40. The War of 1812 ended when the Treaty of Ghent was signed at the end of 1814, guaranteeing that the United States and Britain would end their battle. 41. People were proud to call themselves Americans and they no longer refers to themselves by the state that they are from. 42. The Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government. 43. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Gibbons. The sole argued source of Congress's power to promulgate the law at issue was the Commerce Clause. 44. Missouri's application for statehood in 1819 created the first great heated debate between the anti-slavery North and the pro-slavery South in the United States Congress. The Compromise of 1820, also known as the Missouri Compromise, outlined the conditions for admitting Missouri into the Union. 45. So that the United States can explore land without any dispute from a European power. 46. The Monroe Doctrine states that no European power can explore new colonies in the Western Hemisphere. 47. The Corrupt Bargain was when John Q. Adams appointed Henry Clay to be his Secretary Of State in exchange for his persuasion for the House of Representatives to vote for John Q. Adams. 48. This was a protective tariff passed by Congress on May 19th, 1828. Labeled "Tariff of Abominations" by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the South's economy.

Chapter 4 49. The postelection practice of rewarding loyal supporters of the winning candidates and party with appointive public offices. 50. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was passed by President Andrew Jackson. This was a strong act supported in the South where many states were eager to gain access to property inhabited by five Indian tribes. The tribes include the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole. They all adopted and settled to become civilized, but the white settlers were keen to strip them of their land for their own selfish wants. The white men wanted land to raise cotton so they pressured the federal government to obtain the Indian Territory. It was all about their gold on their land and thats why Andrew Jackson kicked them off their land. 51. Interposition is an asserted right of U.S. states to declare federal actions unconstitutional. Interposition has not been upheld by the courts. 52. The Ordinances of Nullification were passed because the tariffs of 1828 proved to be unsatisfactory for the Nullifiers. And Jackson responds was he is the president and he must enforce the law of the country. 53. Because he wanted to destroy the National Bank and he deposited them in the pet banks. 54. Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. 55. Transcendentalism is a group of ideas in literature and philosophy that developed in the 1830s and 1840s as a protest against the general state of culture and society, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among the transcendentalists' core beliefs was the belief in an ideal spirituality that "transcends" the physical and empirical and is realized only through the individual's intuition. 56. Burned-Over district. Religious revivals. 57. Noah Webster, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Thoreau, Herman Melville, Edgar Allan Poe, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and John Greenleaf Whittier, Walt Whitman, William Gilmore Simms, Augustus B. Longstreet, Joseph Baldwin, John James Audubon. 58. Mechanical Reaper, Vulcanization of Rubber, the telegraph, Sewing Machine. 59. Because the House does not want to bring the matter of slaver to the floor because it raises controversy any time it was brought up. Chapter 5 60. Because it stated that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist in any parts acquired from Mexico. Southerners wanted to take their slaves to the lands where they did so much to acquire.

61. Admission of California as a free state. Abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia. Continued protection of slavery in the District of Columbia. Passage of a more stringent fugitive-slave act. Establishment of territorial governments in New Mexico and Utah, without immediate decision on the status of slavery. 62. Cotton, Tobacco, Hemp, Sugar, Rice. 63. That Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional by the 5th amendment. 64. Because Douglas said Slavery could not exit a day or an hour anywhere, unless it was supported by local police regulations. That remark lost him the election. 65. The purpose was to investigate such matters as illicit trade with the confederates states. 66. The Homestead Act was intended to liberalize the homesteading requirements of the Preemption Act of 1841. 67. President Lincoln issued the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, which outlined a path by which each southern state could rejoin the Union. And the timing, was significant because the south were demoralized and defeated and Lincoln showed mercy of the south. 68. Under Lincoln's plan a minority of voters (equal to at least 10 percent of those who had cast ballots in the election of 1860) would have to take an oath of allegiance to the Union and accept emancipation. Lincoln hoped through his "10 percent plan" to undermine the Confederacy by establishing pro-Union governments within it. 69. Wade-Davis treated Southerners as traitors who deserved to be punished. It also required Southern states to write a new state constitution banning slavery before they get back into union. Lincoln maintained that no state had a right to secede, that claims of secession were null and void that these states were still in the union. Further, Congress did not have the constitutional power to force a state change its state constitution. 70. It stated that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall not exist in any part of the United States. Chapter 6 71. To offer pardon and amnesty to participants in the rebellion who pledged loyalty to the Union (unless that person was worth more than 20,000 dollars then they had to get pardon by the president himself) and support for the end of slavery. Designated William Holden as provisional governor of North Carolina and directed him to call a convention to amend the state's existing constitution so as to create a "republican form of government." 72. Causes: Former Confederates were elected to Congress. Black codes were enacted in Southern states. Race riots broke out in New Orleans and Memphis. There were attempts in the South to undermine the Fourteenth Amendment. Program and Policies: Military Occupation of the South was permitted. Punishment of Confederate leaders became policy. Restrictions were placed on the power of President Johnson. 73. Following the Civil War, attempts were made to protect the civil rights of the newly freed slaves. The first Civil Rights Acts were passed in 1866, 1870, 1871, and 1875. Those acts tried to protect the ex-slaves rights and freedoms, like the right to sue, to be heard in jury trials, and the right to hold property. The Fourteenth Amendment, 1866, guaranteed all citizens of the US and all citizens in the states in which they lived, equal treatment under

the law. It intended to prevent states from taking away the civil rights protected by the Constitution, from ex-slaves. 74. They forced states to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment before being allowed congressional members. 75. Because he wasnt found guilty. 76. To give all men the right to vote. (Women still didnt have the right to vote). 77. The redeemers were conservatives or democrats who wanted to regain control and dictate what goes on in the government and take and keep political power. 78. Tilden had the most popular votes but he did not have enough electoral votes to win. 79. The relationship has become better and Hayes promised to appoint at least one southerner in congress. 80. The Fourth Coinage Act was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and demonetized silver. Western mining interests and others who wanted silver in circulation years later labeled this measure the "Crime of '73". Gold became the only metallic standard in the United States, hence putting the United States de facto on the gold standard. 81. The Court rejected Plessy's arguments based on the Fourteenth Amendment, seeing no way in which the Louisiana statute violated it. In addition, the majority of the Court rejected the view that the Louisiana law implied any inferiority of blacks, in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Instead, it contended that the law separated the two races as a matter of public policy. 82. Australian (or Secret) Ballot. Popular Election of U.S. Senators. Direct Democracy. Banking Reform. Government Ownership of the Railroads. Graduated Income Tax. Free and Unlimited Coinage of Silver. Part II Chapter 7 83. Bland Allison Act. 84. Teddy Roosevelt addressed all of the following Progressive issues: Conversation and natural resources and wild life. Unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry. Monopolization and consolidation in the railroad industry. Unsafe drug products. And he also promoted a Square Deal for labor by using arbitration to settle the Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902. Roosevelt ran as the president or Bull Moose candidate for President in the 1912 presidential election. 85. The Sixteenth Amendment gave Congress the power to lay and collect income taxes, and the Seventeenth Amendment provided that senators shall he elected by popular vote. 86. Wilson was a vigorous reformer who launched an all-out assault on high tariffs, banking problems, and the trusts. Wilson supported the Federal Reserve Act of 1913. The landmark act established a system of district banks coordinated by a central board. The new Federal Reserve System made currency and credit more elastic.

87. Wilson accused the Germans of violating freedom of the seas, killing innocent Americans, and interfering with Mexico. Wilson galvanized public opinion by calling on America to launch a noble crusade to make the work safe for democracy. 88. The Treaty of Versailles was unable to be ratified by the U.S because President Wilson was unwilling to compromise on the League of Nations. 89. Took society that had a few drinkers to a society that had a lot of drinkers. Once government said you couldn't have alcohol everybody wanted it. 90. After WWI and the Red Scare, many Americans blamed immigrants for the problems in American society. 91. The Immigration Act of 1924, or JohnsonReed Act was a United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890. It superseded the 1921 Emergency Quota Act. The law was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans who were immigrating in large numbers starting in the 1890s, as well as prohibiting the immigration of East Asians and Asian Indians. Chapter 8 92. Herbert Hoover tried to fix the Great Depression, although he was a little too late. Some of the projects he tried were the Boulder Dam, which was designed to jump-start the economy and add jobs. He wanted to reform banking to provide mortgage relief, and funnel more federal money into business investment. 93. Because the amendment reduced the amount of time between Election Day and the beginning of
Presidential, Vice Presidential and Congressional terms. Originally, the terms of the President, the Vice President and the in-coming elected Congress began on March 4, four months after the elections were held. While this lapse was a practical necessity at the end of the 18th century, when any newly-elected official might require several months to put his affairs in order and then undertake an arduous journey from his home to the national capital, it eventually had the effect of impeding the functioning of government in the modern age. 94. The New Deal: Farm Policy, The National Recovery Act, The Civilian Conservation Corps. The Social Security Act. Of 1935, The Wagner Act of 1935,

95. The Republicans were split, either opposing the entire New Deal as an enemy of business and growth, or accepting some of it and promising to make it more efficient. 96. Because Many Americans saw his plan as an unconscionable attempt to destroy the independence of the judicial system. 97. FDR opened the struggle by forcing Japan to suffer economically. Because Japan was largely dependent on the US for petroleum and petroleum products, Roosevelt's order threatened her survival as an industrial nation. Chapter 9

98. By creating Anti-Communist parties and protest against the nuclear war. 99. The Truman Doctrine was request to the US Congress for assistance for Greece and Turkey (weapons, food, and aid) in their on-going struggle against Communism within their nations. The Marshall plan was billions of dollars in US aid for the war revenged nations of Europe, following the Second World War. The intention of the Marshall plan was to provide an incentive for the nations of Europe to reject a move to communism and allow a stable transition to democratic governments. 100. Because Dewey thought that he will be given the presidency without reaching for it, and he didnt put up a good campaign against Truman, it was a bad mistake and Truman took advantage of that and went around the country and gave speeches to the country. 101. McCarthyism is a political practice of accusing people of treason or anti-government activities without having solid truth. It was named after Joseph McCarthy, a senator during the 1940's and 50's who would go on vicious verbal attacks on individuals he believed to be communist. 102. Because he relieved McArthur of his command, and McArthur was seen as a hero to the people of United Sates for wanting to go to war with Communism. 103. Eisenhower created the positions of White House Chief of Staff and National Security Advisor. He expanded the role of the National Security Council and was the first president to conduct televised press conferences. Reporters of that time have said that Eisenhower was the first president to employ the "non-answer" during these events. Journalist Clark Mollenhoff said of Eisenhower's simultaneous decisions to televise press conferences and not answer questions as asked: "No President and White House of my acquaintance ever gave out at once so much and so little. 104. Eisenhower did a better job because he was a liberal realist he focused mainly on civil rights than economic issues. 105. Brown decision in 1954, Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955, Woolworth's Sit-in 1960, Freedom Rides 1961, Birmingham Children's March and Boycott 1963, March on Washington 1963, Selma to Montogomery March 1965. 106. Following North Vietnamese attacks on US Destroyers, the Johnson administration agreed to immediate retaliatory actions. -In an unofficial declaration of war, Congress provided Johnson with a mandate for future military action. -Measure was later repealed by Congress.

Chapter 10 107. The Tet Offensive was the series of surprise attacks on major cities, towns, and military bases all throughout South Vietnam. These were launched by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops. 108. In addition to the general cultural revolution, civil rights, women's rights, and anti-war movements: - Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia - Battle of Khe Sahn - Tet Offensive - Seizure of the USS Pueblo - Assassination of MLK Jr. - LBJ signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 - Sinking of the USS Scorpion - LBJ withdrew from the presidential race - Assassination of RFK - NPT (Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty) opened for Signature - France tested its first hydrogen bomb - Riots at the Democratic National Convention (Chicago Seven) - Richard Nixon became president - Apollo 8 circled the moon 109. He ordered the bombing of Cambodia and Laos. 110. Since the Pentagon Papers case, the media has never been enjoined from publishing a story on the grounds that doing so would jeopardize national security. 111. For South Vietnam, after they have reached an agreement to end the war their government collapsed and Vietcong took control. And for Cambodia after the US has ceased its bombing of Cambodia, Khmer Rouge seized control. 112. Because those things will prove that he is a crook and he will be removed from office. 113. Because he will be found guilty of his impeachment and will be removed from office, thus in order to cover up his shame he resigned. 114. Ford's role shifted under President Nixon to being an advocate for the White House agenda. Congress passed several of Nixon's proposals, including the National Environmental Policy Act and the Tax Reform Act of 1969. Another high-profile victory for the Republican minority was the State and Local Fiscal Assistance act. Passed in 1972, the act established a Revenue Sharing program for state and local governments. Ford's leadership was instrumental in shepherding revenue sharing through Congress, and resulted in a bipartisan coalition that supported the bill with 223 votes in favor (compared with 185 against). During the eight years (19651973) he served as Minority Leader, Ford won many friends in the House because of his fair leadership and inoffensive personality. An office building in the U.S. Capitol Complex, House Annex 2 was renamed for Ford as the Ford House Office Building.

115. As President, Carter created two new cabinet-level departments: the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He established a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, and new technology. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties, the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II), and returned the Panama Canal Zone to Panama. Throughout his career, Carter strongly emphasized human rights. He took office during a period of international stagflation, which persisted throughout his term. The end of his presidential tenure was marked by the 19791981 Iran hostage crisis, the 1979 energy crisis, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (at the end of 1979), and the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. 116. Boll weevils were an American political term used in the mid- and late-20th century to describe conservative Southern Democrats. 117. To limit the time that a member has to talk whatever subject they will like for an hour after the congress has finished its business on the floor. 118. Because of Economic crisis in Russia, the new leader decreased the size of its military and he offered to cease the deployment of both nations to Reagan and he accepted. And the INF treaty marked the end of the Cold War. 119. Yes, Ronald Reagan; referring to his ability to get into politically 'dirty' areas but emerge with his reputation and popularity unscathed and with no 'mud' sticking. Chapter 11 120. Because prior to George H.W Bushs administration there was a revolution in the conservative side. 121. Because Bush was a wartime hero, a family man defeated by a womanizer, and draft dodger. 122. In his inaugural address he announced his opposition to the ban of gay and lesbian personnel in the armed forces. And he was forced to accept a policy of Dont ask, dont tell. He appointed his wife, Hillary Clinton, to head a task force to plan a comprehensive health-care system for the country. 123. 300 Republican congressional incumbents and challengers to Democratic incumbents gathered on the steps of the Capitol and unveiled Gingrichs Contract with America, which they promised to cleanse the House of its corruption in the first 100 days of next congress if the public elected at least forty new Republicans. 124. The 1995 government shutdown led by a cohort of idealistic freshmen congressmen. 125. Clinton sent dispatched troops to Somalia as part of peacekeeping operation. Clinton committed U.S troops to a NATO peacekeeping for in Bosnia in 1995. 126. The Moral Majority was a political organization of the United States which had an agenda of evangelical Christian-oriented political lobbying. It was founded in 1979 and dissolved in the late 1980s. 127. Because it showed that people live longer and where people moved. It was the first time in history to show that it has increased. 128. Because Starr submitted thirty-six boxes of evidence that shows that the president was indeed impeachable. 129. Clinton was acquitted of his impeachment.

130. Because he said to the people that he was a uniter not a divider and Al Gore made a mistake about no taking credibility of involving in Clintons administration. 131. That stands for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001. The act, a response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, dramatically reduced restrictions on law enforcement agencies' ability to search telephone, e-mail communications, medical, financial, and other records; eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States; expanded the Secretary of the Treasurys authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those involving foreign individuals and entities; and broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts. The act also expanded the definition of terrorism to include domestic terrorism, thus enlarging the number of activities to which the USA PATRIOT Acts expanded law enforcement powers can be applied. 132. He thinks that Bush administration failed to comply with the interests of the people of the United States.