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Introduction:

Growth management is a set oI techniques used by government to ensure that as the population
grows that there are services available to meet their demands. These are not necessarily only
government services. Other demands such as the protection oI natural spaces, suIIicient and
aIIordable housing, and delivery oI utilities, preservation oI buildings and places oI historical
value, and suIIicient places Ior the conduct oI business are also considered (en.wikipedia.org).
Growth management techniques are very necessary Ior urban planning. The big cities oI the
world, which have become successIul in solving the transportation problem, have, at Iirst,
adopted the strategies to restrain the growth oI population in the cities. At present, the population
oI London is 10.5 million and the population is not increasing Ior the last 35 years. It is not
automatic that the growth has been stopped in these cities, Rather it is through deliberate
planning that the growth has been controlled. When the growths oI the cities are controlled, then
it become easier to solve the problems oI the city.
There are various strategies to control the growth oI cities. ; the strategy oI 'decentralized
settlement was adopted Ior New York; the strategy oI 'corridor plan was adopted to manage
the growth oI Washington, etc. (The daily star, 2008).This report tries to give idea about corridor
planning it`s advantages, disadvantages and example oI practice oI corridor planning in
Bangladesh.
Defination:
Corridor planning is the coordination oI land use activity within a linear area. Historically,
corridor plans may have been limited to the engineering Ieasibility oI constricting or widening a
roadway within transportation corridor. Today, more communities are cognizant oI the broad
impact transportation corridors can have on quality oI liIe. They include land use planning,
access management, and aesthetic appeal in the corridor enhancement plan process. The planning
process includes many diverse community members, such as citizens, governmental oIIicials,
community organizations and other stakeholders, who work together to develop a vision Ior the
corridor. Public participation in this process, as with all planning (Ali, 2011).

Advantages:
O It creates linkage between wider regional and national communities which helps to improve trade
and commerce between them.

O Through urban corridor people can travel to diIIerent cities or communities in short time. This
reduces pressure on a single city and maintains the growth oI the city.
O Normally public transport is the preIerable Iorm oI travel in urban corridors. It reduces the use oI
private transport which in term reduces traIIic congestion in highways.

O In maximum urban corridors there are provisions Ior walking, cycling etc. which helps to reduce
air pollution Irom vehicular emission.
O It helps to reduce haphazard growth oI a city.
O $mall communities and neighborhoods in diIIerent nodes oI urban corridor route can be beneIited
through better communication opportunity encouraging people to live in the Iringe area too rather
only living in the one center are. It results
a) Transportation and other utility supply Iacility supply become easier and less
costly Ior both the centre and surrounding areas.
b) Demand Ior housing in Dhaka will decrease
c) House rent will decrease
d) Land value will decrease.
e) Real Estate developers' business at Dhaka will decline, but will Ilourish at the
Iringe areas too.
O DiIIerent agro based products can be easily transported to the cities Irom nearby villages to the
city which helps to improve economic balance between cities and villages.

Disadvantages:

O Though corridor plan is very useIul but provision oI urban corridor is very expensive as huge
inIrastructural development is needed Ior this.
O In some cases linear development occurs on both sides oI the corridor route. It weakens the main
objective oI corridor plan which is controlled growth oI a city.
O To construct urban corridor route huge amount oI land is needed. For this vast agricultural land
can be occupied by the rout.
O As high speed vehicles moves through this route, road accidents can occur iI proper
measurements are not taken Ior road saIety.




%e present scenario of Daka city and surroundings:
The present scenario oI Dhaka city is very unsuitable Ior living. There are huge pressure oI over
population, traIIic congestion, scarcity oI utilities and crime. To get a general idea about these
condition three major aspects has been chosen Ior analysis. These are growth oI Dhaka city in
the aspects oI population density, migrated people oI Dhaka city or peoples Ilow toward Dhaka
city Irom surrounding areas and lastly population projection. Two surrounding area namely
Gazipur Pourashava and Tongi Pourashava has been selected as a sample places oI surrounding
areas oI Dhaka city.
Growt of Daka city:
To know about the growth oI Dhaka city and the surrounding areas we took population density
as our parameter. Population density oI three study area has been presented below. (Table:01).
BeIore knowing the population condition oI Dhaka city it will be helpIul to also know the
population densities oI some other places oI the world. There is no county in the world except
Bangladesh which has got one province with 14 crore population. The U$A, with a population oI
22.8 crore is divided into 50 provinces; on an average each province has got a population oI 45
lakhs. One oI the nearest palaces oI our country the Assam region oI India is divided into seven
provinces, in which no province has population more than 1.5 crore; as a result, there is no city
in Assam region which has population more than one million (The daily star, 2008)
In the table below we can see that the Dhaka City Corporation has experienced higher growth
rate than that oI the other areas. The density pattern indicates that the Dhaka city corporation has
the highest density oI 15316 persons/ sq. km., whereas the lowest density in the year 2001 was
in Gazipur pourasava (3444 persons/sq. km.) The density oI the municipal areas is low
comparing to Dhaka city corporation, indicating that these areas oIIer high potential Ior growth
and can be use as the receiving residential nodes in Iuture.

Table 01: Growth scenario oI Dhaka city and the surroundings.
$.I.
no.
Area Name year population

Area in
sq. km.
Density (per sq.
km.)
1. DCC 1991 3397187 360 sq.
km.
9436
2001 5513887 15316

2. Gazipur
Pourashava
1991 117129 44.49
sq. km.
2632
2001 153263 3444

3. Tongi
Pourashava
1991 162227 32 sq
km.
5069
2001 270300 8446
$ource: Population Census 2001, DCC website, DAP (1995-2015) Group A report
igration scenario:
igration inIormation is not available in population census about the study areas. That is why
some inIormation published in newspapers is used to give an idea oI peoples Ilow towards
Dhaka city (The daily star, 2008).
O ore than sixty thousand (60,000) people come to Dhaka daily and another sixty
thousand people go out oI Dhaka daily aIter perIorming their jobs.
O ore than 1000 numbers oI bus trips are required daily to bring sixty thousand people to
Dhaka, and another 1000 bus trips are required daily to take them out oI Dhaka.
O In Dhaka, about three lakhs (3, 00,000) oI vehicular trips are generated daily by these
types oI people.
!opulation projection:
$.I. no. Area Name year population Population in the
year 2020
Density
(per sq.
km.)
Year 2020
1. DCC 1991 3397187 13832812.18 38424.47
2001 5513887

2. Gazipur
Pourashava
1991 117129 255673.55 5746.76
2001 153263

3. Tongi
Pourashava
1991 162227 713316.05 22291.13
2001 270300

It is clearly seen Irom the above table that the population density oI DCC in the year 2020 will
be very high compared to the standard.
Corridor planning in Banglades:
Though Corridor planning is very necessary Ior a densely populated country like Bangladesh, it
has not implemented any such plan so Iar. Very recently Government oI Bangladesh and with
some help Irom two international organizations planned to implement two corridor plans in
Dhaka city and surroundings to reduce the traIIic congestion oI Dhaka city. The routes Ior these
two corridor plans are:
1. Airport Gazipur corridor.
2. Airport $aidabad corridor.
$ome brieI description oI these two corridor plan is given below-

Airport -Gazipur corridor:

Name oI the project is 'BAN: Greater Dhaka $ustainable Urban Transport Corridor. The draIt
plan has been completed on June 2011. It is prepared by Roads and Railways Division under the
inistry oI Communications, Government oI Bangladesh. The target date Ior project completion
is the end oI 2014 (GoB, 2011). The project cost has been estimated at U$190 million, oI which
ADB has proposed 125 million with 28 million co-Iinancing Irom the bilateral development
partners and the rest Irom government oI Bangladesh (The Daily $tar, 2011)

There will be three Implementing Agencies namely:
(i) Roads and Highway Department (RHD)
(ii) Bangladesh Bridges Authority (BBA)
(iii) Local Government Engineering Department (LGED)

The project will improve the quality oI liIe through the delivery oI a more eIIicient and sustainable Urban
Transport $ystem (UT$), including a 20 kilometer (km) Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridor. The proposed
BRT is approximately 20km Irom the southern terminal, near the international airport, to the Gazipur
Depot. The 4km nearest the airport as Iar as to Tongi Bridge is in Dhaka City Corporation limits. The rest
oI the alignment passes through Tongi Pourashava and Gazipur Pourashava. As it has been planned to
create Gazipur City corporation in the month oI July, 2011 (GoB, 2011) merging Tongi and Gazipur
pourasava. $o we can say that the proposed BRT corridor is located Ior 80 oI its length in GCC
territory, and Ior 20 in Dhaka City Corporation territory. Other important physical characteristics oI this
corridor project are there will be two mixed-traIIic lanes and one non-motorized traIIic (NT) lane per
direction, and sidewalks. Improvement oI 155 access Ieeder roads in Iavor oI none motorized Vehicle
(NT). In order to ensure the eIIective and eIIicient operation oI the BRT system there are some
locations where land acquisition could not be avoided. Acquisition oI 0.85 ha oI private land is envisaged
through strip taking along the corridor where widening oI the ROW was required. The project will also
impact 3.59ha oI government owned land. A total oI 2,187 households (9,229 Dispersed person) will be
permanently impacted due to the proposed project.( GoB, 2011)
In the preliminary design process they have tried to avoid and mitigate the resettlement impacts.
The respondents requested Ior the Iollowing compensation/assistance towards the loss oI their
businesses:

O Request Ior an alternative land/shop to carry out businesses (62)
O Cash compensation (32)
O Partly cash and partly assistance in Iorm oI training etc (5), and
O Others, like speciIic skill development (1). (GoB, 2011)


Other than these
O Relocation oI NT in the Ieeder road to avoid presser over main corridor
O Relocation oI vendors or small businessmen in the Ieeder roads to carry their business within less
rent oI
O And even giving opportunities oI the vendors to carry their business in the underpass (deIinition
oI underpass dete hobe) with less shop rent was also proposed. (GoB, 2011)
Design aspects:
Designing oI the corriod plan was done keeping in head the best use oI the land and pessergers comIort
and not hampering others vehicles movement in the road. That is why the has been proposed 31 stations
within the corridor, each within the ROW. The station locations and passergers access are given below in
the table 01. With the help oI diagrams the understanding can be easier.

Figure 1: Example oI a BRT station in the median bus lane

Table 2: Proposed Locations oI BRT $tations


ap 1: Proposed Locations oI BRT $tations
Figure 2: One oI the station types (Darussalam mosque station)
Figure 3: Typical access to station at ground level.
Airport -Saidabad corridor
The corridor runs Irom Uttara to the north to Dhaka to $adarghat near the Buriganga River at the
southern end oI the CBD. BRT route length will be approximately 25 km. to be more detail its
proposed alignment is Irom Uttara to $adarghat via $hahjalal International Airport, ohakhali,
oghbazar, Babubazar, and Gulistan (developmentex.org). It is Iinanced by World bank (WB).(
source: pdI : BAN: Greater Dhaka $ustainable Urban Transport Corridor page: 11) The
implementation oI the project is in a huge vulnerable position because it is Iacing numerous
hurdles and complications at the preliminary stage. The complexities are rising due to the city's
unplanned urbanisation and transport system. According to international consultant $ergio Tio
'$eventeen projects are now being implemented in the city in an unplanned way that will make
the task diIIicult" (source: The daily star, $unday, July 10, 2011, Bus Rapid Transit Line Project
Iaces hurdles at beginning, say experts). Potential conIlicts with the under-construction elevated
expressway and Kuril, oghbazar, ohakhali, and Gulistan Ilyovers as well as the proposed
metro rail are the other hurdles oI the project. Among the hurdles, Arnest J ata, leader oI the
WB team Ior the BRT line blamed the kuril Ilyover as the main diIIiculty Ior this project (The
daily star, 2011). It is also necessary to say that there are seventeen new projects running at this
time and they are taking place in an unplanned way and hampering the proper improvement oI
Dhaka city.(The daily star,2011)