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About Communication: The word communication has been derived from the Latin word communicare, which means to participate or to impart. Communication has been defined by several scholars as follows: Communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. Keith Davis Communication is a information flow that transfers meaning and understanding from an information source[ sender] to an information receiver. Robert Albanese Communication is an essential part of our life. It is a very necessary activity to transfer the views and ideas among human beings and living creatures also. Communication is a social activity; in a society we transfer our feelings, emotions, facts and figures with individuals as well as groups. Communication is everywhere. It is a very essential element of life. Human beings normally use language to communicate. The most common languages of the world to communicate are English, German, French, and Hindi etc. The animals, birds, reptiles etc use their own actions and voices to communicate. Nature like plants, trees etc and weather communicate through change like rainy season, winter, summer etc. It is related with nature also a change of weather communicates so many things about the time- period. Communication is a process of transfer of ideas and thinking between one or more parties. Similarly, communication is considered to be very important and effective function of management. It is an important foundation to all business and executive activities. The growth and development of the business depends on good communication. Communication releases all facts, information and knowledge about business activities from one party [person or employee or creature] to another. W.R. Spriegal stated that, Most of the conflicts in business are not basic but are caused by misunderstood motives and ignorance of facts. Proper communication between interested parties reduces the point of friction and minimizes these that inevitably arise. Therefore, communication plays a vital role in all activities of human life. A good communication system builds a reliable and strong foundation for organisation. Communication transfers the ideas, information and provides direction to all employees and members and makes them more knowledgeable about all the policies and problems of the organization.

Peter Drucker observes that, A manager does not handle people; he motivates, guides and organizes people to accomplish their goals. His effectiveness depends upon his ability to communicate well with the employee. The Communication Process The act of communicating has been evaluated extensively for many, many years. One of the classic analyses of communication took place in the 1940s and 1950s when researchers, including Claude Shannon, Warren Weaver, Wilbur Schramm and others, offered models describing how communication takes place. In general, communication is how people exchange meaningful information. Models that reflect how communication occurs often include the elements shown below

For communication to occur there must be at least two participants: Message Source/ Sender The source of communication is the party intending to convey information to another party. The message source can be an individual (e.g., salesperson) or an organization (e.g., through advertising). In order to convey a message, the source must engage in message encoding, which involves mental and physical processes necessary to construct a message in order to reach a desired goal (i.e., convey meaningful information). This undertaking consists of using sensory stimuli, such as visuals (e.g., words, symbols, images), sounds (e.g., spoken word), and scents (e.g., fragrance) to convey a message. 2. Message Receiver The receiver of communication is the intended target of a message sources efforts. For a message to be understood the receiver must decode the message by undertaking mental and physical processes necessary to give meaning to the message. Clearly, a message can only be decoded if the receiver is actually exposed to the message.


Communication Delivery Communication takes place in the form of a message that is exchanged between a source and receiver. A message can be shaped using one or a combination of sensory stimuli that work together to convey meaning that meets the objectives of the sender. The sender uses a transmission medium to send the message. In marketing the medium may include the use of different media outlets (e.g., Internet, television, radio, print), promotion-only outlets (e.g., postal mail, billboards), and person-toperson contact (e.g., salespeople). Additionally, communication can be improved if there is a two-way flow of information in the form of a feedback channel. This occurs if the message receiver is able to respond, often quickly, to the message source. In this way, the original message receiver now becomes the message source and the communication process begins again.

Types of Communication Communication can occur via various processes and methods and depending on the channel used and the style of communication there can be various types of communication. A. Types of Communication Based on Communication Channels Based on the channels used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadly classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication includes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes body language, facial expressions and gestures used for communication.

Verbal Communication Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication. Oral communication: refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oral communication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. Written communication: examples of written communication are letter, e mail, circulars etc. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity and precision of language.


Nonverbal Communication Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overall body movements. The facial expressions also play a major role while communication since the expressions on a persons face say a lot about his/her mood. On the other hand gestures like a handshake, a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions. Non verbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches and paintings.

B. Types of Communication Based on Style and Purpose Based on the style of communication, there can be two broad categories of communication, which are formal and informal communication that have their own set of characteristic features.

Formal Communication Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal and official. Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are used for communication. Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time. Hence formal communication is straightforward, official and always precise and has a stringent and rigid tone to it.


Informal Communication Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other. Informal communication requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family. Informal communication does not have any rigid rules and guidelines. Informal conversations need not necessarily have boundaries of time, place or even subjects for that matter since we all know that friendly chats with our loved ones can simply go on and on.

Barriers to communication: Communication is a process by which you convey your message to someone or a group of people. And if the message is conveyed clearly and unambiguously, then it is known as effective communication. In effective communication, the message you had send would reach the receiver with very little distortion. However, a communication becomes successful only if the receiver understands what the sender is trying to convey. When your message is not clearly understood you should understand that you are facing a barrier to communication. Barriers to effective communication could cause roadblocks in your professional and personal life and it could be one of the major hurdles in achieving your professional goals. D.E. McFarland has defined Communication as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. More specifically, it is the process by which meanings are perceived and understandings are reached among human being. But there may be some faults /barriers in the communication system that prevents the message from reaching the receiver, these barriers are as follows:1. Language Barrier; - Different languages, vocabulary, accent, dialect represents a national/ regional barriers. Semantic gaps are words having similar pronunciation but multiple meanings like- round; badly expressed message, wrong interpretation and unqualified assumptions. The use of difficult or inappropriate words/ poorly explained or misunderstood messages can result in confusion.

2. Cultural Barriers: - Age, education, gender, social status, economic position, cultural background, temperament, health, beauty, popularity, religion, political belief, ethics, values, motives, assumptions, aspirations, rules/regulations, standards, priorities can separate one person from another and create a barrier. 3. Individual Barrier: - It may be a result of an individual's perceptual and personal discomfort. Even when two persons have experienced the same event their mental perception may/may not be identical which acts as a barrier. Style, selective perception, halo effect, poor attention and retention, defensiveness, close mindedness, insufficient filtration are the Individual or Psychological barrier. 4. Organizational Barrier: - It includes Poor Organization's culture, climate, stringent rules, regulations, status, relationship, complexity, inadequate facilities/ opportunities of growth and improvement; whereas; the nature of the internal and external environment like large working areas physically separated from others, poor lightening, staff shortage, outdated equipments and background noise are Physical Organizational Barrier. 5. Interpersonal Barrier: - Barriers from Employers are :- Lack of Trust in employees; Lack of Knowledge of non-verbal clues like facial expression, body language, gestures, postures, eye contact; different experiences; shortage of time for employees; no consideration for employee needs; wish to capture authority; fear of losing power of control; bypassing and informational overloading, while Barriers from Employees includes Lack of Motivation, lack of co-operation, trust, fear of penalty and poor relationship with the employer. 6. Attitudinal Barrier: - It comes about as a result of problems with staff in the organisation. Limitation in physical and mental ability, intelligence, understanding, pre-conceived notions, and distrusted source divides the attention and create a mechanical barrier which affects the attitude and opinion. 7. Channel Barrier: - If the length of the communication is long, or the medium selected is inappropriate, the communication might break up; it can also be a result of the inter-personal conflicts between the sender and receiver; lack of interest to communicate; information sharing or access problems which can hamper the channel and affect the clarity, accuracy and effectiveness.

Methods to overcome Barriers to communication: To communicate effectively one need to overcome these barriers. Working on breaking the barrier is a broad-brush activity and here are certain measures. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Allow employees access to resources, self expression and idea generation. Express your expectations to others. Use less of absolute words such as "never", "always", "forever", etc. Be a good, attentive and active listener. Filter the information correctly before passing on to someone else. Try to establish one communication channel and eliminate the intermediaries. Use specific and accurate words which audiences can easily understand. Try and view the situations through the eyes of the speaker. The "you" attitude must be used on all occasions. Maintain eye contact with the speaker and make him comfortable. Write the instructions if the information is very detailed or complicated. Oral communication must be clear and not heavily accented. Avoid miscommunication of words and semantic noise. Ask for clarifications, repetition where necessary. Make the organisational structure more flexible, dynamic and transparent. Foster congenial relationship which strengths coordination between superior and subordinate. 17. Focus on purposeful and well focused communication. 18. The message of communication should be clear and practical. 19. Get Proper Feedback. 20. Avoid Using too many technical jargons. 21. Interrupt the speakers and distract him by asking too many irrelevant questions.