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SEPARATION STANDARDS

5.1 VERTICAL SEPARATION 5.1.1 Application: Vertical separation is obtained by requiring aircraft using prescribed altimeter setting procedures to operate at different levels expressed in terms of flight levels or altitudes. 5.1.2 Minima (a) At and below 29,000ft or FL 290 = 1,000ft (b) Above 20,000ft or FL 290 = 2,000ft; or (c) If approved by the appropriate ATS Authority above, 29,000ft, or flight level up to and including FL 410 = 1000ft.
5.1.3

Aircraft climbing or descending through other aircraft on reciprocal tracks. Where lateral separation is not provided, vertical separation shall be provided from at least 10 minutes prior to and after the time the aircraft are estimated to pass or are estimated to have passed. If reports are received that the aircraft have actually passed each other this minimum need not apply.

5.1.3.1

5.1.4

Aircraft Holding: When aircraft are being held in flight, the appropriate vertical separation minima shall continue to be provided between the holding aircraft and en-route aircraft while such en-route aircraft are within 5 minutes flying time of the holding area, unless lateral separation exists.

5.2

HORIZONTAL SEPARATION 5.2.1 Horizontal separation is sub-divided into the following categories: (a) (b)
5.2.2

Lateral separation; Longitudinal separation;

Lateral Separation: Lateral separation of aircraft at the same level is obtained by requiring flight on different routes or in different geographical locations as determined by visual observation or by use of radio navigation aids or by the use of area navigation (RNAV) equipment. Longitudinal Separation: Longitudinal separation shall be established by requiring aircraft to:(a) (b) (c) depart before or after a specified time; lose time to arrive at a specified location at a specified time; hold over a specified location until a specified time.

5.2.3

5.3

Lateral Separation Criteria And Minima


5.3.1

Lateral separation may be applied using the following means.

5.3.2 By reference to the same or different geographic locations. By position reports which positively indicate the aircraft are over different geographic locations as determined visually or by reference to a navigation aid. 5.3.3 By use of the same navigation aid or method. By requiring aircraft to fly on specified tracks which are separated by a minimum amount appropriate to the navigation and or method employed. Lateral separation between two aircraft exists when:

(a) (b)

(c)

(d)

VOR: both aircraft are established on radials diverging by at least 15 degrees and at least 15nm from the facility. NDB: both aircraft are established on tracks to or from the NDB which are diverging by at least 30 degrees and at least one aircraft at a distance of 15 nm or more from the facility. Dead Reckoning (DR): both aircraft are established on tracks diverging by at least 45 degrees and at least one aircraft is at a distance of 15 nm or more from the point of intersection of the tracks; this point being determined either visually or by reference to a navigation aid and both aircraft are established outbound from the intersection. RNAV OPERATIONS: both aircraft are established on tracks which diverge by at least 15 degrees and the protected airspace associated with the track of one aircraft does not over lap with the protected airspace associated with the track of the other aircraft. This is determined by applying the angular difference between two tracks and the appropriate protected airspace value. The derived value is expressed as a distance from the intersection of the two tracks at which lateral separation exists. Longitudinal Separation Minima Based On Time Aircraft Maintaining The Same Level

5.3.3.1 5.3.3.2

5.3.3.2.1 Aircraft on the same Track a) 15 minutes b) 10 minutes, if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed. c) 5 minutes in the following cases, provided that in each case the preceding aircraft is maintaining a true airspeed of 20 kts, or more faster than the succeeding aircraft: 1) between aircraft that have departed from the same aerodrome; 2) between en-route aircraft that have reported over the same exact significant point;
3

3) between departing and en-route aircraft after

the en-route has reported over a fix that is so located in relation to the departure point as to ensure that 5 minutes separation can be established at the point the departing aircraft will join the air route; d) 3 minutes in the cases listed under (c), provided that in each case the preceding aircraft is maintaining a true airspeed of 40 kts or more, faster than the succeeding aircraft. 5.3.3.2.2 Aircraft Flying on Crossing Tracks: (a) 15 minutes at the point of intersection of the tracks. (b) 10 minutes of navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed. 5.3.3.2.3 Aircraft climbing or descending 5.3.3.2.3.1 Aircraft on the same track (a) 15 minutes while vertical separation does not exist; or (b) 10 minutes while vertical separation does not exist, provided that there are adequate navigation aids to permit frequent determination of position and speed. (c) 5 minutes while vertical separation does not exist provided that level change is commenced within 10 minutes of the time the second aircraft has reported over an exact reporting point. 5.3.3.2.3.2 Aircraft on Crossing Tracks
(a) 15 minutes while vertical separation

does not exist. (b) 10 minutes while vertical separation does not exist, if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed.

5.3.3.2.3.3 Aircraft on Reciprocal Tracks Where lateral separation is not provided, vertical separation shall be provided for at least 10 minutes prior to and after the time the aircraft are estimated to pass, or are estimated to have passed. Provided it has been determined that the aircraft have passed each other, this minimum need not apply.

5.3.4 LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION MINIMA BASED ON DISTANCE 5.3.4.1 Separation shall be established by maintaining not less than specified distance(s) between aircraft positions as reported by reference to DME in conjunction with other appropriate navigation aids. Direct controller-pilot communication shall be maintained while such separation is used. Aircraft at the same level on the same Track (a) 20 nm, provided:i) each aircraft utilizes on track DME stations; and ii) separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft at frequent intervals to ensure that the minimum will not be infringed. 10 nm provided: i) the leading aircraft maintains a true air speed of 20 kts or more faster than the succeeding aircraft. ii) each aircraft utilizes the same on-track DME stations; and

5.3.4.2

(b)

iii)

separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft at such intervals as are necessary to ensure that the minimum is established and will not be infringed.

NOTE:The term on track is used to indicate that the aircraft is flying either directly inbound to or directly outbound from the station. 5.3.4.3 Aircraft on Crossing Tracks The longitudinal separation in 5.2.4.2 shall also apply provided each aircraft reports distance from the station located at the crossing point of the tracks and the relative angle between the tracks is less than 90 degrees.
5.3.4.4

Aircraft climbing or Descending on the Same Track 10 nm while vertical separation does not exist provided: a) each aircraft utilizes on-track DME stations. b) one aircraft maintains a level while vertical separation does not exist; and c) separation is established by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft.